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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6304
Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 82.7


אָכֵן כְּאָדָם תְּמוּתוּן וּכְאַחַד הַשָּׂרִים תִּפֹּלוּ׃Nevertheless ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes.'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

19 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.17, 14.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.17. לֹא־תַכִּירוּ פָנִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט כַּקָּטֹן כַּגָּדֹל תִּשְׁמָעוּן לֹא תָגוּרוּ מִפְּנֵי־אִישׁ כִּי הַמִּשְׁפָּט לֵאלֹהִים הוּא וְהַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יִקְשֶׁה מִכֶּם תַּקְרִבוּן אֵלַי וּשְׁמַעְתִּיו׃ 14.1. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 14.1. בָּנִים אַתֶּם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לֹא תִתְגֹּדְדוּ וְלֹא־תָשִׂימוּ קָרְחָה בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם לָמֵת׃ 1.17. Ye shall not respect persons in judgment; ye shall hear the small and the great alike; ye shall not be afraid of the face of any man; for the judgment is God’s; and the cause that is too hard for you ye shall bring unto me, and I will hear it.’" 14.1. Ye are the children of the LORD your God: ye shall not cut yourselves, nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.22, 12.2, 20.6, 22.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.22. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 12.2. כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 12.2. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃ 20.6. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָי׃ 22.8. עַל־כָּל־דְּבַר־פֶּשַׁע עַל־שׁוֹר עַל־חֲמוֹר עַל־שֶׂה עַל־שַׂלְמָה עַל־כָּל־אֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר כִּי־הוּא זֶה עַד הָאֱלֹהִים יָבֹא דְּבַר־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר יַרְשִׁיעֻן אֱלֹהִים יְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם לְרֵעֵהוּ׃ 4.22. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born." 12.2. ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you." 20.6. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 22.8. For every matter of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, whereof one saith: 'This is it,' the cause of both parties shall come before God; he whom God shall condemn shall pay double unto his neighbour."
3. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 11.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.1. אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה יֵלְכוּ כְּאַרְיֵה יִשְׁאָג כִּי־הוּא יִשְׁאַג וְיֶחֶרְדוּ בָנִים מִיָּם׃ 11.1. כִּי נַעַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וָאֹהֲבֵהוּ וּמִמִּצְרַיִם קָרָאתִי לִבְנִי׃ 11.1. When Israel was a child, then I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together."
5. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.6, 2.10-2.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. בֵּן יְכַבֵּד אָב וְעֶבֶד אֲדֹנָיו וְאִם־אָב אָנִי אַיֵּה כְבוֹדִי וְאִם־אֲדוֹנִים אָנִי אַיֵּה מוֹרָאִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת לָכֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים בּוֹזֵי שְׁמִי וַאֲמַרְתֶּם בַּמֶּה בָזִינוּ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ׃ 2.11. בָּגְדָה יְהוּדָה וְתוֹעֵבָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה בְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבִירוּשָׁלִָם כִּי חִלֵּל יְהוּדָה קֹדֶשׁ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אָהֵב וּבָעַל בַּת־אֵל נֵכָר׃ 1.6. A son honoureth his father, And a servant his master; If then I be a father, Where is My honour? And if I be a master, Where is My fear? Saith the LORD of hosts Unto you, O priests, that despise My name. And ye say: ‘Wherein have we despised Thy name?’" 2.10. Have we not all one father? Hath not one God created us? Why do we deal treacherously every man against his brother, Profaning the covet of our fathers?" 2.11. Judah hath dealt treacherously, And an abomination is committed in Israel and in Jerusalem; For Judah hath profaned the holiness of the LORD which He loveth, And hath married the daughter of a strange god."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.1-2.9, 24.2-24.3, 24.5-24.7, 24.9, 48.5-48.9, 48.11-48.12, 81.3-81.6, 82.1, 82.6, 82.8, 92.2-92.3, 92.6, 92.12, 93.3, 94.7, 94.10-94.11, 94.19, 103.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וְעַתָּה מְלָכִים הַשְׂכִּילוּ הִוָּסְרוּ שֹׁפְטֵי אָרֶץ׃ 2.1. לָמָּה רָגְשׁוּ גוֹיִם וּלְאֻמִּים יֶהְגּוּ־רִיק׃ 2.2. יִתְיַצְּבוּ מַלְכֵי־אֶרֶץ וְרוֹזְנִים נוֹסְדוּ־יָחַד עַל־יְהוָה וְעַל־מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 2.3. נְנַתְּקָה אֶת־מוֹסְרוֹתֵימוֹ וְנַשְׁלִיכָה מִמֶּנּוּ עֲבֹתֵימוֹ׃ 2.4. יוֹשֵׁב בַּשָּׁמַיִם יִשְׂחָק אֲדֹנָי יִלְעַג־לָמוֹ׃ 2.5. אָז יְדַבֵּר אֵלֵימוֹ בְאַפּוֹ וּבַחֲרוֹנוֹ יְבַהֲלֵמוֹ׃ 2.6. וַאֲנִי נָסַכְתִּי מַלְכִּי עַל־צִיּוֹן הַר־קָדְשִׁי׃ 2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 2.8. שְׁאַל מִמֶּנִּי וְאֶתְּנָה גוֹיִם נַחֲלָתֶךָ וַאֲחֻזָּתְךָ אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 2.9. תְּרֹעֵם בְּשֵׁבֶט בַּרְזֶל כִּכְלִי יוֹצֵר תְּנַפְּצֵם׃ 24.2. כִּי־הוּא עַל־יַמִּים יְסָדָהּ וְעַל־נְהָרוֹת יְכוֹנְנֶהָ׃ 24.3. מִי־יַעֲלֶה בְהַר־יְהוָה וּמִי־יָקוּם בִּמְקוֹם קָדְשׁוֹ׃ 24.5. יִשָּׂא בְרָכָה מֵאֵת יְהוָה וּצְדָקָה מֵאֱלֹהֵי יִשְׁעוֹ׃ 24.6. זֶה דּוֹר דרשו [דֹּרְשָׁיו] מְבַקְשֵׁי פָנֶיךָ יַעֲקֹב סֶלָה׃ 24.7. שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וְהִנָּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבוֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃ 24.9. שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃ 48.5. כִּי־הִנֵּה הַמְּלָכִים נוֹעֲדוּ עָבְרוּ יַחְדָּו׃ 48.6. הֵמָּה רָאוּ כֵּן תָּמָהוּ נִבְהֲלוּ נֶחְפָּזוּ׃ 48.7. רְעָדָה אֲחָזָתַם שָׁם חִיל כַּיּוֹלֵדָה׃ 48.8. בְּרוּחַ קָדִים תְּשַׁבֵּר אֳנִיּוֹת תַּרְשִׁישׁ׃ 48.9. כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְנוּ כֵּן רָאִינוּ בְּעִיר־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּעִיר אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֱלֹהִים יְכוֹנְנֶהָ עַד־עוֹלָם סֶלָה׃ 48.11. כְּשִׁמְךָ אֱלֹהִים כֵּן תְּהִלָּתְךָ עַל־קַצְוֵי־אֶרֶץ צֶדֶק מָלְאָה יְמִינֶךָ׃ 48.12. יִשְׂמַח הַר־צִיּוֹן תָּגֵלְנָה בְּנוֹת יְהוּדָה לְמַעַן מִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ׃ 81.3. שְׂאוּ־זִמְרָה וּתְנוּ־תֹף כִּנּוֹר נָעִים עִם־נָבֶל׃ 81.4. תִּקְעוּ בַחֹדֶשׁ שׁוֹפָר בַּכֵּסֶה לְיוֹם חַגֵּנוּ׃ 81.5. כִּי חֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא מִשְׁפָּט לֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב׃ 81.6. עֵדוּת בִּיהוֹסֵף שָׂמוֹ בְּצֵאתוֹ עַל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם שְׂפַת לֹא־יָדַעְתִּי אֶשְׁמָע׃ 82.1. מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אֱ‍לֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת־אֵל בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט׃ 82.6. אֲ‍נִי־אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם וּבְנֵי עֶלְיוֹן כֻּלְּכֶם׃ 82.8. קוּמָה אֱלֹהִים שָׁפְטָה הָאָרֶץ כִּי־אַתָּה תִנְחַל בְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם׃ 92.2. טוֹב לְהֹדוֹת לַיהוָה וּלְזַמֵּר לְשִׁמְךָ עֶלְיוֹן׃ 92.3. לְהַגִּיד בַּבֹּקֶר חַסְדֶּךָ וֶאֱמוּנָתְךָ בַּלֵּילוֹת׃ 92.6. מַה־גָּדְלוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה מְאֹד עָמְקוּ מַחְשְׁבֹתֶיךָ׃ 92.12. וַתַּבֵּט עֵינִי בְּשׁוּרָי בַּקָּמִים עָלַי מְרֵעִים תִּשְׁמַעְנָה אָזְנָי׃ 93.3. נָשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת יְהוָה נָשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת קוֹלָם יִשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת דָּכְיָם׃ 94.7. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא יִרְאֶה־יָּהּ וְלֹא־יָבִין אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב׃ 94.11. יְהוָה יֹדֵעַ מַחְשְׁבוֹת אָדָם כִּי־הֵמָּה הָבֶל׃ 94.19. בְּרֹב שַׂרְעַפַּי בְּקִרְבִּי תַּנְחוּמֶיךָ יְשַׁעַשְׁעוּ נַפְשִׁי׃ 103.13. כְּרַחֵם אָב עַל־בָּנִים רִחַם יְהוָה עַל־יְרֵאָיו׃ 2.1. Why are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain?" 2.2. The kings of the earth stand up, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD, and against His anointed:" 2.3. 'Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us.'" 2.4. He that sitteth in heaven laugheth, the Lord hath them in derision." 2.5. Then will He speak unto them in His wrath, and affright them in His sore displeasure:" 2.6. 'Truly it is I that have established My king upon Zion, My holy mountain.'" 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 2.8. Ask of Me, and I will give the nations for thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for thy possession." 2.9. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; Thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.'" 24.2. For He hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods." 24.3. Who shall ascend into the mountain of the LORD? And who shall stand in His holy place?" 24.5. He shall receive a blessing from the LORD, and righteousness from the God of his salvation." 24.6. Such is the generation of them that seek after Him, that seek Thy face, even Jacob. Selah" 24.7. Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in." 24.9. Lift up your heads, O ye gates, Yea, lift them up, ye everlasting doors; That the King of glory may come in." 48.5. For, lo, the kings assembled themselves, They came onward together." 48.6. They saw, straightway they were amazed; They were affrighted, they hasted away." 48.7. Trembling took hold of them there, Pangs, as of a woman in travail." 48.8. With the east wind Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish." 48.9. As we have heard, so have we seen In the city of the LORD of hosts, in the city of our God— God establish it for ever. Selah" 48.11. As is Thy name, O God, So is Thy praise unto the ends of the earth; Thy right hand is full of righteousness." 48.12. Let mount Zion be glad, Let the daughters of Judah rejoice, Because of Thy judgments." 81.3. Take up the melody, and sound the timbrel, the sweet harp with the psaltery." 81.4. Blow the horn at the new moon, at the full moon for our feast-day." 81.5. For it is a statute for Israel, an ordice of the God of Jacob." 81.6. He appointed it in Joseph for a testimony, when He went forth against the land of Egypt. The speech of one that I knew not did I hear:" 82.1. A Psalm of Asaph. God standeth in the congregation of God; in the midst of the judges He judgeth:" 82.6. I said: Ye are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High." 82.8. Arise, O God, judge the earth; for Thou shalt possess all the nations." 92.2. It is a good thing to give thanks unto the LORD, And to sing praises unto Thy name, O Most High;" 92.3. To declare Thy lovingkindness in the morning, And Thy faithfulness in the night seasons," 92.6. How great are Thy works, O LORD! Thy thoughts are very deep." 92.12. Mine eye also hath gazed on them that lie in wait for me, Mine ears have heard my desire of the evil-doers that rise up against me." 93.3. The floods have lifted up, O LORD, The floods have lifted up their voice; The floods lift up their roaring." 94.7. And they say: 'The LORD will not see, Neither will the God of Jacob give heed.'" 94.10. He that instructeth nations, shall not He correct? Even He that teacheth man knowledge?" 94.11. The LORD knoweth the thoughts of man, That they are vanity." 94.19. When my cares are many within me, Thy comforts delight my soul." 103.13. Like as a father hath compassion upon his children, So hath the LORD compassion upon them that fear Him. ."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.12-7.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.12. כִּי יִמְלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ וְשָׁכַבְתָּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִי אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ׃ 7.13. הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 7.15. וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־יָסוּר מִמֶּנּוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מֵעִם שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מִלְּפָנֶיךָ׃ 7.16. וְנֶאְמַן בֵּיתְךָ וּמַמְלַכְתְּךָ עַד־עוֹלָם לְפָנֶיךָ כִּסְאֲךָ יִהְיֶה נָכוֹן עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.12. And when the days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall issue from thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom." 7.13. He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever." 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:" 7.15. but my covet love shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Sha᾽ul, whom I put away before thee." 7.16. And thy house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be firm for ever."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.2. וְאִם־תְּמָאֲנוּ וּמְרִיתֶם חֶרֶב תְּאֻכְּלוּ כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 1.2. שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמַיִם וְהַאֲזִינִי אֶרֶץ כִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר בָּנִים גִּדַּלְתִּי וְרוֹמַמְתִּי וְהֵם פָּשְׁעוּ בִי׃ 1.2. Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth, For the LORD hath spoken: Children I have reared, and brought up, And they have rebelled against Me."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.7 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.7. בַּהֲבִיאֲכֶם בְּנֵי־נֵכָר עַרְלֵי־לֵב וְעַרְלֵי בָשָׂר לִהְיוֹת בְּמִקְדָּשִׁי לְחַלְּלוֹ אֶת־בֵּיתִי בְּהַקְרִיבְכֶם אֶת־לַחְמִי חֵלֶב וָדָם וַיָּפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֶל כָּל־תּוֹעֲבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 44.7. in that ye have brought in aliens, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in My sanctuary, to profane it, even My house, when ye offer My bread, the fat and the blood, and they have broken My covet, to add unto all your abominations."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 1.8 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים יְגֵעִים לֹא־יוּכַל אִישׁ לְדַבֵּר לֹא־תִשְׂבַּע עַיִן לִרְאוֹת וְלֹא־תִמָּלֵא אֹזֶן מִשְּׁמֹעַ׃ 1.8. All things toil to weariness; Man cannot utter it, The eye is not satisfied with seeing, Nor the ear filled with hearing."
11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.25. עָנֵה וְאָמַר הָא־אֲנָה חָזֵה גֻּבְרִין אַרְבְּעָה שְׁרַיִן מַהְלְכִין בְּגוֹא־נוּרָא וַחֲבָל לָא־אִיתַי בְּהוֹן וְרֵוֵהּ דִּי רביעיא [רְבִיעָאָה] דָּמֵה לְבַר־אֱלָהִין׃ 3.25. He answered and said: ‘Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the appearance of the fourth is like a son of the gods.’"
12. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.1-3.4, 18.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them. 3.2. In the eyes of the foolish they seemed to have died,and their departure was thought to be an affliction 3.3. and their going from us to be their destruction;but they are at peace. 3.4. For though in the sight of men they were punished,their hope is full of immortality. 18.13. For though they had disbelieved everything because of their magic arts,yet, when their first-born were destroyed,they acknowledged thy people to be Gods son.
13. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. One should not stand up to say Tefillah except in a reverent state of mind. The pious men of old used to wait an hour before praying in order that they might direct their thoughts to God. Even if a king greets him [while praying] he should not answer him: even if a snake is wound round his heel he should not stop."
14. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.14. Any [holiday] on which there is no Mussaf [prayer] for example, Chanukah and Purim, on Shacharit and Mincha he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh with] eighteen [Berachot (blessings)] and he says [the paragraph] about the occasion in [the Beracha of] Hodaah (Thanks). And if he did not say [the paragraph] about the occasion, he does not have to go back [to the beginning of Shmoneh Esreh]. And any [holiday] which has on it [the] Mussaf [prayer], for example Rosh Chodesh (New Month), and Chol Hamoed (the intermediate days of Sukkot and Pesach), on Shacharit and Mincha10 he would pray [the prayer of Shmoneh Esreh with] eighteen [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph] about the holiness of the day11 in [the Beracha of] Avodah (Temple Service).12 Rebbi Eliezer says, “[he says the paragraph about the holiness of the day] in [the Beracha of] Hodaah, and if he did not say it then he has to go back [to the beginning of Shmoneh Esreh].” In [the] Mussaf [prayer] he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh consisting of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha]. [On] Shabbat that fell out on Rosh Chodesh or on Chol Hamoed, during Shacharit and during Mincha he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh prayer that consists of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] occasion in [the Beracha of] Avodah. Rebbi Eliezer says, “[He says the paragraph about the holiness of the day] in [the Beracha of] Hodaah, and if he did not say it then he has to go back [to the beginning of Shmoneh Esreh].” In [the] Mussaf [prayer] he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh consisting of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha]. On Shabbat, on Yom Tov (Pesach, Shavuot and Sukkot), and on Yom Kippur] he prays [the Shmoneh Esreh consisting of] seven [Berachot] and he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha]. Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel and Rebbi Yishmael the son of Rebbi Yocha Ben Beroka say, “Any time that he is supposed to say seven [Berachot in Shmoneh Esreh] he says [the paragraph about the] holiness of the day in the middle [Beracha].”"
15. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Tosefta, Hulin, 2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 4.1, 18.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4.1. נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא בִּשְׁגָגָה מִכֹּל מִצְוֹת ה', זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (קהלת ג, טז): וְעוֹד רָאִיתִי תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט וגו', רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁסַּנְהֶדְּרֵי גְדוֹלָה יוֹשֶׁבֶת וְחוֹתֶכֶת דִּינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁמָּה (ירמיה לט, ג): וַיָּבֹאוּ כֹּל שָׂרֵי מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בְּשַׁעַר הַתָּוֶךְ, שֶׁשָּׁם חוֹתְכִין אֶת הַהֲלָכָה, בְּמַתְלָא אֲמַר הָן דִּי תָלְיָא מָרֵי זַיְינֵיהּ, כּוֹלְבָא רַעֲיָא תְּלָא קוּלְתֵיהּ. וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת: מְקוֹם הַצֶּדֶק שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ (ישעיה א, כא): צֶדֶק יָלִין בָּהּ, עַתָּה עֲבִידִין קָטוֹלִין, שָׁם הָרְגוּ אֶת זְכַרְיָה וְאֶת אוּרִיָה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר: מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִדַּת הַדִּין בְּמַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל, דִּכְתִיב (שמות לב, כז): עִבְרוּ וָשׁוּבוּ מִשַּׁעַר לָשַׁעַר, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁם (שמות לב, לה): וַיִּגֹּף ה' אֶת הָעָם, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת: מְקוֹם הַצֶּדֶק שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁהִצְדַּקְתִּים וּקְרָאתִים אֱלָהוּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פב, ו): אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁמָּה הִרְשִׁיעוּ וְעָשׂוּ אֶת הָעֵגֶל וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מְדַבֵּר בְּדוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית בָּהֶם מִדַּת הַדִּין בְּדוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, כְּדִתְנַן (גמרא סנהדרין קז, ב): דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא וְאֵינָן עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁם (בראשית ז, כג): וַיִּמַּח אֶת כָּל הַיְקוּם, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת: מְקוֹם הַצֶּדֶק שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁהִצְדַּקְתִּים, דִּכְתִיב (איוב כא, ט): בָּתֵּיהֶם שָׁלוֹם מִפָּחַד. שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע (איוב כא, יד): וַיֹּאמְרוּ לָאֵל סוּר מִמֶּנּוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מְדַבֵּר בִּסְדוֹמִיִּים, מָקוֹם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִדַּת הַדִּין בִּסְדוֹמִיִּים, כְּדִתְנַן אַנְשֵׁי סְדוֹם אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא אֲבָל עוֹמְדִים בְּדִין, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁם (בראשית יט, כד): וַה' הִמְטִיר עַל סְדוֹם, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת: מְקוֹם הַצֶּדֶק שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁהִצְדַקְתִּים וְכָתַבְתִּי בְּאַרְצָם (איוב כח, ה ו): אֶרֶץ מִמֶּנָּה יֵצֵא לָחֶם, מְקוֹם סַפִּיר אֲבָנֶיהָ וְעַפְרֹת זָהָב לוֹ, אָמְרוּ כְּשֶׁהָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן הוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל הַגַּנָּן וְאָמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִי בְּאִיסָר יָרָק, כְּשֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן מְשַׁכְשְׁכוֹ וּמוֹצֵא בְּעַפְרוֹ זָהָב, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְעַפְרֹת זָהָב לוֹ. שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, שָׁם אָמְרוּ נַעֲמֹד וּנְשַׁכַּח תּוֹרַת הָרֶגֶל מִבֵּינוֹתֵינוּ, (יחזקאל טז, מט): וְיַד עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן לֹא הֶחֱזִיקָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן פָּתַר קְרָיָא בַּשִּׁטִּים, מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִדַּת הַדִּין בַּשִּׁטִּים, דִּכְתִיב (במדבר כה, ד): קַח אֶת כָּל רָאשֵׁי הָעָם, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁם (במדבר כה, ט): וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת: מְקוֹם הַצֶּדֶק שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁהָפַכְתִּי קִלְּלַת בִּלְעָם לִבְרָכָה, דִּכְתִיב (דברים כג, ו): וַיַּהֲפֹךְ ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ אֶת הַקְּלָלָה לִבְרָכָה, שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע (במדבר כה, א): וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים. רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ שְׁנֵי דְּבָרִים בַּיְּמִין וּשְׁנֵי דְבָרִים בַּיָּד, שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים בַּיְּמִין, תּוֹרָה וּצְדָקָה, תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן (דברים לג, ב): מִימִינוֹ אֵשׁ דָּת לָמוֹ. צְדָקָה מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים מח, יא): צֶדֶק מָלְאָה יְמִינֶךָ. שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים בַּיָּד, נֶפֶשׁ וּמִשְׁפָּט, נֶפֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב יב, י): אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדוֹ נֶפֶשׁ כָּל חָי. מִשְׁפָּט, דִּכְתִיב (דברים לב, מא): וְתֹאחֵז בְּמִשְׁפָּט יָדִי, הַנֶּפֶשׁ נְתוּנָה בִּמְקוֹם מִשְׁפָּט, וְנֶפֶשׁ יוֹצְאָה מִמְּקוֹם מִשְׁפָּט וְחוֹטֵאת, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲנִי כָּתַבְתִּי עָלַיִךְ (דברים יב, כג): רַק חֲזַק לְבִלְתִּי אֲכֹל הַדָּם וגו', וְאַתְּ יוֹצֵאת וְחוֹטֵאת, נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא בִּשְׁגָּגָה. 18.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ, זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (חבקוק א, ז): אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא. אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ, מִמִּזְרַח לְמַעֲרָב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, מִן הַצָּפוֹן לְדָרוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, וּמִנַּיִן אַף כַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זוֹ חַוָּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ג, יב): וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה עִמָּדִי הִוא נָתְנָה לִּי וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה עֵשָׂו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים כז, טו): וַתִּקַּח רִבְקָה אֶת בִּגְדֵי עֵשָׂו בְּנָהּ הַגָּדֹל. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה עֹבַדְיָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק עֹבַדְיָה גֵּר אֲדוֹמִי הָיָה, וְהָיָה מִתְנַבֵּא עַל אֱדוֹם (עובדיה א, יח): וְלֹא יִהְיֶה שָׂרִיד לְבֵית עֵשָׂו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה סַנְחֵרִיב, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה לו, כ): מִי בְּכָל אֱלֹהֵי הָאֲרָצוֹת הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר הִצִילוּ אֶת אַרְצָם מִיָּדִי. מִמֶּנוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, אֵלּוּ בָּנָיו (מלכים ב יט, לז): וַיְהִי הוּא מִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה בֵּית נִסְרֹךְ אֱלֹהָיו וְאַדְרַמֶּלֶךְ וְשַׁרְאֶצֶר בָּנָיו הִכֻּהוּ בַחֶרֶב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה חִירָם מֶלֶךְ צוֹר, דִּכְתִיב (יחזקאל כח, ב): בֶּן אָדָם אֱמֹר לִנְגִיד צֹר כֹּה אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהִים יַעַן גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן מָסֹרֶת אַגָּדָה הִיא חִירָם בַּעַל אִמּוֹ שֶׁל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הָיָה, עָמַד עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל כח, יח): וָאוֹצִיא אֵשׁ מִתּוֹכְךָ הִיא אֲכָלַתְךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר (ישעיה יד, יג): וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה וגו'. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ, אָמְרוּ כָּל אוֹתָן שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁעָבְרוּ עַל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, נָטְלוּ אֶת אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ וְהִמְלִיכוּהוּ תַּחְתָּיו, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁחָזַר נְטָלוֹ וַחֲבָשׁוֹ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְכָל מִי שֶׁהָיָה נִכְנַס בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים בְּיָמָיו לֹא הָיָה יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יד, יז): אֲסִירָיו לֹא פָתַח בָּיְתָה. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁמֵּת חָזְרוּ עַל אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ לְהַמְלִיכוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶם אֵינִי שׁוֹמֵעַ לָכֶם, בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה שָׁמַעְתִּי לָכֶם נְטָלַנִּי וַחֲבָשַׁנִי בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְעַכְשָׁיו הֲרֵי הוּא הוֹרְגֵנִי, וְלֹא הֶאֱמִין לָהֶם עַד שֶׁגְּרָרוּהוּ וְהִשְׁלִיכוּהוּ לְפָנָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה יד, יט): וְאַתָּה הָשְׁלַכְתָּ מִקִּבְרְךָ וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִינָא וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא כָּל שׂוֹנֵא וְשׂוֹנֵא שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ הָיָה בָּא וְדוֹקְרוֹ בַּחֶרֶב, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יד, יט): לְבֻשׁ הֲרֻגִים מְטֹעֲנֵי חָרֶב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים פב, ו): אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, שֶׁלָּקוּ בְּזִיבוּת וּבְצָרַעַת, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶן: אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ. 4.1. \"When a person incurs guilt accidentally by [transgressing one among] all of the commandments of YHVH\": This is that of which the Bible says: \"And indeed I have witnessed under the sun the place of judgment...\" (Ecclesiastes 3:16). Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Joshua [in conversation]... "
18. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 306, 48, 232 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

19. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. לומר לך שאם חטא יחיד אומרים לו כלך אצל יחיד ואם חטאו צבור אומרים לו כלך אצל צבור,וצריכא דאי אשמועינן יחיד משום דלא מפרסם חטאיה אבל צבור דמפרסם חטאיהו אימא לא ואי אשמועינן צבור משום דנפישי רחמייהו אבל יחיד דלא אלימא זכותיה אימא לא צריכא,והיינו דרבי שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב כג, א) נאם דוד בן ישי ונאם הגבר הוקם על נאם דוד בן ישי שהקים עולה של תשובה,וא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל העושה מצוה אחת בעולם הזה מקדמתו והולכת לפניו לעולם הבא שנאמר (ישעיהו נח, ח) והלך לפניך צדקך וכבוד ה' יאספך וכל העובר עבירה אחת מלפפתו ומוליכתו ליום הדין שנאמר (איוב ו, יח) ילפתו ארחות דרכם וגו',ר"א אומר קשורה בו ככלב שנאמר (בראשית לט, י) ולא שמע אליה לשכב אצלה להיות עמה לשכב אצלה בעוה"ז להיות עמה בעוה"ב,אמר ר"ל בואו ונחזיק טובה לאבותינו שאלמלא הן לא חטאו אנו לא באנו לעולם שנאמר (תהלים פב, ו) אני אמרתי אלהים אתם ובני עליון כלכם חבלתם מעשיכם אכן כאדם תמותון וגו',למימרא דאי לא חטאו לא הוו מולדו והכתיב (בראשית ט, ז) ואתם פרו ורבו עד סיני בסיני נמי כתיב (דברים ה, כז) לך אמור להם שובו לכם לאהליכם לשמחת עונה,והכתיב (דברים ה, כו) למען ייטב להם ולבניהם וגו' לאותן העומדים על הר סיני,והאמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם וגו' וכי ספר היה לו לאדם הראשון מלמד שהראה לו הקב"ה לאדם הראשון דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו דור דור ופרנסיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של ר"ע שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל [וגו'],וא"ר יוסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו נשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) [כי לא לעולם אריב ולא לנצח אקצוף] כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי,לא תימא אנו לא באנו לעולם אלא כמי שלא באנו לעולם למימרא דאי לא חטאו לא הוו מייתי והכתיב פרשת יבמות ופרשת נחלות,על תנאי ומי כתיבי קראי על תנאי אין דהכי אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית א, לא) ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום הששי מלמד שהתנה הקב"ה עם מעשה בראשית ואמר אם מקבלין ישראל את התורה מוטב ואם לאו אחזיר אתכם לתוהו ובוהו,מיתיבי (דברים ה, כו) מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם לבטל מהם מלאך המות א"א שכבר נגזרה גזרה,הא לא קיבלו ישראל את התורה אלא כדי שלא תהא אומה ולשון שולטת בהן שנאמר (דברים ה, כו) למען ייטב להם ולבניהם עד עולם,הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא רבי יוסי אומר לא קיבלו ישראל את התורה אלא כדי שלא יהא מלאך המות שולט בהן שנאמר (תהלים פב, ו) אני אמרתי אלהים אתם ובני עליון כלכם חבלתם מעשיכם אכן כאדם תמותון,ורבי יוסי נמי הכתיב למען ייטב להם ולבניהם עד עולם טובה הוא דהויא הא מיתה איכא (רבי יוסי) אמר לך כיון דליכא מיתה אין לך טובה גדולה מזו,ות"ק נמי הכתיב אכן כאדם תמותון מאי מיתה עניות דאמר מר ארבעה חשובים כמתים אלו הן עני סומא ומצורע ומי שאין לו בנים,עני דכתיב (שמות ד, יט) כי מתו כל האנשים ומאן נינהו דתן ואבירם ומי מתו מיהוי הוו אלא שירדו מנכסיהם,סומא דכתיב (איכה ג, ו) במחשכים הושיבני כמתי עולם מצורע דכתיב (במדבר יב, יב) אל נא תהי כמת ומי שאין לו בנים דכתיב (בראשית ל, א) הבה לי בנים ואם אין מתה אנכי,תנו רבנן (ויקרא כו, ג) אם בחקתי תלכו אין אם אלא לשון תחנונים וכן הוא אומר (תהלים פא, יד) לו עמי שומע לי [וגו'] כמעט אויביהם אכניע ואומר (ישעיהו מח, יח) לו הקשבת למצותי ויהי כנהר שלומך וגו' ויהי כחול זרעך וצאצאי מעיך וגו',תנו רבנן (דברים ה, כז) מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם אמר להן משה לישראל כפויי טובה בני כפויי טובה בשעה שאמר הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם היה להם לומר תן אתה,כפויי טובה דכתיב (במדבר כא, ה) ונפשנו קצה 5a. This serves bto say to you that if an individualhas bsinned, one says to him: Go tothat famous bindividualwho sinned, King David, and learn from him that one can repent. bAnd if the community sinned, one says tothem: bGo tothe bcommunitythat sinned, i.e., the Jewish people at the time of the Golden Calf.,The Gemara notes: bAndit is bnecessaryto learn about repentance both in the case of an individual and in the case of a community. The reason is bthat if we had learnedthis idea only with regard to ban individual,one might have thought that he has the option to repent only bbecause his sin is not publicized. Butin the case of ba community, whose sin is publicized,one might bsaythat the community bcannotrepent. bAndlikewise, bif we had learnedthis idea only with regard to ba community,one might have said that their repentance is accepted bbecause their prayers are more numerousthan those of an individual, and they are heard before God. bButin the case of ban individual, whose merit is notas bstrong,one might bsaythat he is bnotable to repent. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto teach both cases., bAnd this issimilar to that bwhich Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmanisays that bRabbi Yonatan says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The saying of David, son of Yishai, and the saying of the man raised on high [ ial /i]”(II Samuel 23:1)? This is the meaning of the verse: bThe saying of David, son of Yishai, who raisedand lightened bthe yoke [ iullah /i] of repentance,as he taught the power of repentance through his own example., bAnd Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmanifurther bsaysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:With regard to banyone who performs one mitzva in this world,the mitzva will bprecede him and walk before him in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And your righteousness shall go before you, the glory of the Lord shall be your reward”(Isaiah 58:8). bAndwith regard to banyone who commits one transgression,that transgression will bshroud him and lead him on the Day of Judgment, as it is stated: “The paths of their way do wind,they go up into the waste, and are lost” (Job 6:18)., bRabbi Elazar says:The transgression bis tied to him like a dogand does not leave him, bas it is statedwith regard to Joseph and Potiphar’s wife: b“And he did not listen to her, to lie by her, or to be with her”(Genesis 39:10). This teaches that Joseph refused b“to lie by her” in this world,which would have meant that he would have had b“to be with her” in the World-to-Come. /b,§ The Gemara further discusses the sin of the Golden Calf. bReish Lakish says: Come and let us be grateful to our ancestorswho sinned with the Golden Calf, bas had they not sinned wewould bnot have come into the world.Reish Lakish explains: bAs it is statedabout the Jewish people after the revelation at Sinai: b“I said: You are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High”(Psalms 82:6), which indicates that they had become like angels and would not have propagated offspring. Then, God states: After byou ruined your deeds: “Yet you shall die like a man,and fall like one of the princes” (Psalms 82:7).,The Gemara asks: Is this bto say that if they had not sinnedwith the Golden Calf bthey would not have siredchildren? bBut isn’t it writtenthat Noah and his children were instructed: b“And you, be fruitful, and multiply”(Genesis 9:7)? The Gemara answers: This instruction was issued only buntilthe revelation at bSinai,but the Jewish people would have become like angels there, had they not sinned. The Gemara asks: Isn’t it balso writtenabout the Jewish people who were at the revelation bat Sinai: “Go say to them: Return to your tents”(Deuteronomy 5:27), which means that they were instructed to resume marital relations? The Gemara answers: That verse is referring bto the enjoyment of conjugal rights,not to procreation.,The Gemara further asks: bBut isn’t it written: “That it might be good for them, and with their childrenforever” (Deuteronomy 5:26), which indicates that they would continue to bear children? The Gemara answers: This verse is referring bto thosechildren bwho stoodwith them bat Mount Sinai,not to future generations.,The Gemara raises a further difficulty: bBut doesn’t Reish Lakish say: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam,in the day that God created man” (Genesis 5:1)? bDid Adam the firstman bhave a book?Rather, the verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed Adam, the firstman, bevery generation and its expositors, every generation and its Sages,and bevery generation and its leaders. WhenAdam barrived at the generation of Rabbi Akiva, he rejoiced in his Torah and was saddened by his death,as Rabbi Akiva was tortured and murdered. Adam bsaid: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God!How great is the sum of them” (Psalms 139:17). It is evident from here that the Jews were destined to bear future generations from the beginning of time., bAndsimilarly, bRabbi Yosei says:The Messiah, bson of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished,i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so. bAs it is stated: “For I will not contend for ever, neither will I be always wroth; for the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16). According to Rabbi Yosei, in order for the Messiah to come in the end of days, it is necessary for the future generations to be born.,The Gemara answers: bDo not saythat if our ancestors had not sinned bwe would not have come into the world,as we still would have been born; brather,it would have been bas though we had not come into the world.We would have been of no importance, due to the previous generations that would have still been alive. The Gemara asks: Is this bto say that ifthe Jewish people bhad not sinnedwith the Golden Calf then bthey would not have died? But isn’t the chapterthat addresses bwidows whose husbands die childless(Deuteronomy 25:5–10) bwrittenin the Torah, band the chapterthat addresses bthe inheritancea deceased father bequeaths to his sons (Numbers 27:8–11) is also written?,The Gemara answers: These passages were written bconditionally,i.e., if the Jewish people were to sin and not become like angels, those ihalakhotwould take effect. The Gemara asks: bAnd are verses written conditionallyin this manner? The Gemara answers: bYes, as thisis what bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day”(Genesis 1:31)? This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, established a condition with the acts of Creation, and He said: If the Jewish people accept the Torahat the revelation at Sinai, all is bwelland the world will continue to exist. bBut ifthey do bnotaccept it, bI will return you tothe primordial state of bchaos and disorder. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraitato the new formulation of Reish Lakish’s statement, according to which the Jewish people would have become immortal had they not sinned with the Golden Calf. The verse states about the Jewish people after the revelation at Sinai: b“Who would give that they had such a heart as this always,to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children forever” (Deuteronomy 5:26). The ibaraitastates that although they had reached such an elevated state, it bwas not possible to nullifythe power of bthe Angel of Death over them, as the decreeof death bwas already issuedfrom the time of creation.,Rather, the ibaraitaexplains that bthe Jewish people accepted the Torah only in order that no nation or tongue would rule over them, as it is statedin the same verse: b“That it might be good for them, and with their children forever.”This indicates that had the Jewish people not sinned they would not have achieved immortality, which contradicts Reish Lakish’s statement.,The Gemara answers: Reish Lakish bsaidhis statement bin accordance withthe opinion of bthat itanna /i. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: The Jewish people accepted the Torah only in order that the Angel of Death would not rule over them, as it is stated: “I said: You are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High”(Psalms 82:6), i.e., they had become immortal like angels. Then, God states: After byou ruined your deeds, “yet you shall die like a man,and fall like one of the princes” (Psalms 82:7).,The Gemara asks: bAnd also,according to bRabbi Yosei, isn’t it written: “That it might be good for them, and with their children forever,”from which it may be inferred that although bitwill be bgoodfor them if they remain in this elevated state, btherewill still be bdeath?The Gemara answers: bRabbi Yoseicould have bsaid to you: Since there is no death, there is no greater good than this,i.e., the promise of the verse is immortality.,The Gemara inquires: bAndaccording to bthe first itannaas well, isn’t it written: “Yet you shall die like a man,”which indicates that their mortality was decreed only due to the sin of the Golden Calf? The Gemara answers: bWhatis meant by bdeath?It means bpoverty. As the Master said: Four are considered asthough they were bdead: These are a pauper, a blind person, a leper, and one who has no children. /b, bA pauperis considered as though dead, bas it is writtenthat God said to Moses: “Go, return to Egypt; bfor all the menthat sought your life bare dead”(Exodus 4:19). bAnd who were thesemen? They were bDathan and Abiram. But did theyreally bdie? They werestill alive, as they participated in the rebellion of Korah, which took place years later. bRather,the verse does not mean that they had died, but bthat they had lost their propertyand become impoverished. This demonstrates that a pauper is considered as though he were dead., bA blind personis considered as though he were dead, bas it is written: “He has made me to dwell in dark places, as those that have been long dead”(Lamentations 3:6). bA leperis considered as though he were dead, bas it is writtenthat Aaron said to Moses when Miriam was struck with leprosy: b“Let her not, I pray, be as one dead”(Numbers 12:12). bAnd one who has no childrenis considered as though he were dead, bas it is writtenthat Rachel said to Jacob: b“Give me children, or else I am dead”(Genesis 30:1)., bThe Sages taughtwith regard to the verse: b“If you walk in My statutes”(Leviticus 26:3): In this context, b“if”is ba termthat means bnothing other than supplication,i.e., God is hoping that the Jewish people will observe the Torah. bAnd similarly, it is stated: “Oh that My people would hearken to Me,that Israel would walk in My ways, bI would soon subdue their enemies”(Psalms 81:14–15). bAnd it states: “Oh that you would hearken to My commandments! Then your peace would be as a river,and your righteousness as the waves of the sea. bYour seed also would be as the sand, and the offspring of your bodylike its grains” (Isaiah 48:18–19).,§ The Gemara returns to a verse cited above. bThe Sages taughtwith regard to the verse: b“Who would give that they had such a heart as thisalways, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children forever” (Deuteronomy 5:26). At a later stage, bMoses said to the Jewish people: Ingrates, children of ingrates! When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: “Who would give that they had such a heart as this always,” they should have said: You should giveus a heart to fear You.,The Gemara explains that Moses calls the Jewish people bingrates, as it is writtenthat the Jewish people spoke disparagingly of the manna: b“And our soul loathes /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 57
abyss McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 161
adoptionism,divine sponsorship/adoption Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83
agent,omissions Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 202
babylonia,babylonian Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83
biblical Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 82
canaan,canaanite Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83
david,the king,davidic kingdom Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83
demons McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 161
divine/heavenly (beings,status) Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 82, 83
divine beings Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 197
divine kingly sonship Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83
divinization,deification Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 82
egypt,egyptian Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83
encounter motif Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 197
father,in the heavens Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 57
father Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 57
heaven Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 57
heavenly host,angels,angelic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 82
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83
holy war,division of humanity Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 171
holy war,in pairs of tamid psalms Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 171, 172
holy war,in tamid psalms as a group Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 194
holy war,inanimate agents Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 197
idols,as demons McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 161
israel,the people of,redemption/restoration of,the kingdom of,israelite Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 82
jacob Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 194, 202
jerusalem,judgment,motif of Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 171, 172, 197
jerusalem,see also zion joseph Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 202
jesus,divine status Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 82, 83
kingship,davidic Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 202
love Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83
marriage Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 82
mediation McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 161
motifs,in pairs of tamid psalms Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 171, 172
motifs,in tamid psalms as a group Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 197, 202
motifs,missing from tamid psalms Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 202
mythic,mythology (near eastern,semitic),demythologizing Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 82
orientation cycle,ownership,motif of Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 172
permanence,motif of Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 171
prayer,rabbinic Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 57
retribution,motif of Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 172
saul (biblical) Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83
sinai,covenant,revelation Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 82
son Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 57
son of god,gods chosen Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83
song of moses' McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 161
sons of god,sons of heaven Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 82
speaking voice,in individual tamid psalms Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 197
sumerian Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83
temple,role in tamid psalms Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 194
waters,rivers,sea Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 197
worship,motif of,in pairs of tamid psalms Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 171
worship,motif of,in tamid psalms as a group Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 194, 197
yahweh,in pairs of tamid psalms Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 171, 172
yahweh,inactivity Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 202
yahweh,ruler motif Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 171, 172
zion,in pairs of tamid psalms Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 171
zion Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 83