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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6304
Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.4-8.6


כִּי־אֶרְאֶה שָׁמֶיךָ מַעֲשֵׂי אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנָנְתָּה׃When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, The moon and the stars, which Thou hast established;


מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?


וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.8, 17.3, 33.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.8. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 17.3. וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּעֲבֹד אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לָהֶם וְלַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹ לַיָּרֵחַ אוֹ לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צִוִּיתִי׃ 33.14. וּמִמֶּגֶד תְּבוּאֹת שָׁמֶשׁ וּמִמֶּגֶד גֶּרֶשׁ יְרָחִים׃ 5.8. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth." 17.3. and hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, or the sun, or the moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have commanded not;" 33.14. And for the precious things of the fruits of the sun, And for the precious things of the yield of the moons,"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.2, 20.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.2. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֵּרֶא אֹתוֹ כִּי־טוֹב הוּא וַתִּצְפְּנֵהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יְרָחִים׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָיו וְאַיּוֹ לָמָּה זֶּה עֲזַבְתֶּן אֶת־הָאִישׁ קִרְאֶן לוֹ וְיֹאכַל לָחֶם׃ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 2.2. And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months." 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.6-1.8, 1.14, 1.28, 2.1, 2.7, 2.22, 9.1-9.27, 18.27, 37.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.7. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.8. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָרָקִיעַ שָׁמָיִם וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם שֵׁנִי׃ 1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.1. וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃ 2.1. וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.22. וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃ 9.1. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.1. וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם בָּעוֹף בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אִתְּכֶם מִכֹּל יֹצְאֵי הַתֵּבָה לְכֹל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.2. וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם׃ 9.2. וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה עַל כָּל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְעַל כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ׃ 9.3. כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃ 9.4. אַךְ־בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃ 9.5. וְאַךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶם לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם אֶדְרֹשׁ מִיַּד כָּל־חַיָּה אֶדְרְשֶׁנּוּ וּמִיַּד הָאָדָם מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו אֶדְרֹשׁ אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם׃ 9.6. שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃ 9.7. וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָהּ׃ 9.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ וְאֶל־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ לֵאמֹר׃ 9.9. וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם וְאֶת־זַרְעֲכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם׃ 9.11. וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם וְלֹא־יִכָּרֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר עוֹד מִמֵּי הַמַּבּוּל וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד מַבּוּל לְשַׁחֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים זֹאת אוֹת־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי נֹתֵן בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם לְדֹרֹת עוֹלָם׃ 9.13. אֶת־קַשְׁתִּי נָתַתִּי בֶּעָנָן וְהָיְתָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵין הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.14. וְהָיָה בְּעַנְנִי עָנָן עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְנִרְאֲתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן׃ 9.15. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד הַמַּיִם לְמַבּוּל לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר׃ 9.16. וְהָיְתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן וּרְאִיתִיהָ לִזְכֹּר בְּרִית עוֹלָם בֵּין אֱלֹהִים וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.17. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ זֹאת אוֹת־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר הֲקִמֹתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵין כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.18. וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי־נֹחַ הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַתֵּבָה שֵׁם וְחָם וָיָפֶת וְחָם הוּא אֲבִי כְנָעַן׃ 9.19. שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי־נֹחַ וּמֵאֵלֶּה נָפְצָה כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.21. וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּיִן וַיִּשְׁכָּר וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה׃ 9.22. וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן אֵת עֶרְוַת אָבִיו וַיַּגֵּד לִשְׁנֵי־אֶחָיו בַּחוּץ׃ 9.23. וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת־הַשִּׂמְלָה וַיָּשִׂימוּ עַל־שְׁכֶם שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּלְכוּ אֲחֹרַנִּית וַיְכַסּוּ אֵת עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם אֲחֹרַנִּית וְעֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם לֹא רָאוּ׃ 9.24. וַיִּיקֶץ נֹחַ מִיֵּינוֹ וַיֵּדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה־לוֹ בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן׃ 9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 9.26. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 9.27. יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּאָהֳלֵי־שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 18.27. וַיַּעַן אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמַר הִנֵּה־נָא הוֹאַלְתִּי לְדַבֵּר אֶל־אֲדֹנָי וְאָנֹכִי עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 37.9. וַיַּחֲלֹם עוֹד חֲלוֹם אַחֵר וַיְסַפֵּר אֹתוֹ לְאֶחָיו וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה חָלַמְתִּי חֲלוֹם עוֹד וְהִנֵּה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהַיָּרֵחַ וְאַחַד עָשָׂר כּוֹכָבִים מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים לִי׃ 1.6. And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’" 1.7. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so." 1.8. And God called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day." 1.14. And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;" 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 2.1. And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 2.22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man." 9.1. And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth." 9.2. And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered." 9.3. Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all." 9.4. Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat." 9.5. And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it; and at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s brother, will I require the life of man." 9.6. Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man." 9.7. And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; swarm in the earth, and multiply therein.’ ." 9.8. And God spoke unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying:" 9.9. ’As for Me, behold, I establish My covet with you, and with your seed after you;" 9.10. and with every living creature that is with you, the fowl, the cattle, and every beast of the earth with you; of all that go out of the ark, even every beast of the earth." 9.11. And I will establish My covet with you; neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of the flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.’" 9.12. And God said: ‘This is the token of the covet which I make between Me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:" 9.13. I have set My bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covet between Me and the earth." 9.14. And it shall come to pass, when I bring clouds over the earth, and the bow is seen in the cloud," 9.15. that I will remember My covet, which is between Me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh." 9.16. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covet between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth.’" 9.17. And God said unto Noah: ‘This is the token of the covet which I have established between Me and all flesh that is upon the earth.’" 9.18. And the sons of Noah, that went forth from the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth; and Ham is the father of Canaan." 9.19. These three were the sons of Noah, and of these was the whole earth overspread." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 9.21. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent." 9.22. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without." 9.23. And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father’s nakedness." 9.24. And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his youngest son had done unto him." 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 9.26. And he said: Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 9.27. God enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 18.27. And Abraham answered and said: ‘Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, who am but dust and ashes." 37.9. And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it to his brethren, and said: ‘Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream: and, behold, the sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed down to me.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 9.7, 15.14-15.16, 25.5, 30.19, 31.27, 42.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.7. הָאֹמֵר לַחֶרֶס וְלֹא יִזְרָח וּבְעַד כּוֹכָבִים יַחְתֹּם׃ 15.15. הֵן בקדשו [בִּקְדֹשָׁיו] לֹא יַאֲמִין וְשָׁמַיִם לֹא־זַכּוּ בְעֵינָיו׃ 25.5. הֵן עַד־יָרֵחַ וְלֹא יַאֲהִיל וְכוֹכָבִים לֹא־זַכּוּ בְעֵינָיו׃ 30.19. הֹרָנִי לַחֹמֶר וָאֶתְמַשֵּׁל כֶּעָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 42.6. עַל־כֵּן אֶמְאַס וְנִחַמְתִּי עַל־עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 9.7. Who commandeth the sun, and it riseth not; And sealeth up the stars." 15.15. Behold, He putteth no trust in His holy ones; Yea, the heavens are not clean in His sight." 25.5. Behold, even the moon hath no brightness, And the stars are not pure in His sight;" 30.19. He hath cast me into the mire, And I am become like dust and ashes." 42.6. Wherefore I abhor my words, and repent, Seeing I am dust and ashes."
5. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.10, 3.4, 4.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.4. הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יֵהָפֵךְ לְחֹשֶׁךְ וְהַיָּרֵחַ לְדָם לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃ 4.15. שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ קָדָרוּ וְכוֹכָבִים אָסְפוּ נָגְהָם׃ 2.10. Before them the earth quaketh, The heavens tremble; The sun and the moon are become black, And the stars withdraw their shining." 3.4. The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and terrible day of the LORD come. 4.15. The sun and the moon are become black, And the stars withdraw their shining."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.5-2.6, 8.2-8.3, 8.5-8.8, 8.13, 19.2, 102.26, 104.19, 110.1, 137.7-137.9, 144.3-144.4, 147.4, 148.3, 148.5-148.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.5. אָז יְדַבֵּר אֵלֵימוֹ בְאַפּוֹ וּבַחֲרוֹנוֹ יְבַהֲלֵמוֹ׃ 2.6. וַאֲנִי נָסַכְתִּי מַלְכִּי עַל־צִיּוֹן הַר־קָדְשִׁי׃ 8.2. יְהוָה אֲדֹנֵינוּ מָה־אַדִּיר שִׁמְךָ בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר תְּנָה הוֹדְךָ עַל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 8.3. מִפִּי עוֹלְלִים וְיֹנְקִים יִסַּדְתָּ עֹז לְמַעַן צוֹרְרֶיךָ לְהַשְׁבִּית אוֹיֵב וּמִתְנַקֵּם׃ 8.5. מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8. צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃ 19.2. הַשָּׁמַיִם מְסַפְּרִים כְּבוֹד־אֵל וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו מַגִּיד הָרָקִיעַ׃ 102.26. לְפָנִים הָאָרֶץ יָסַדְתָּ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ שָׁמָיִם׃ 104.19. עָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים שֶׁמֶשׁ יָדַע מְבוֹאוֹ׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 137.8. בַּת־בָּבֶל הַשְּׁדוּדָה אַשְׁרֵי שֶׁיְשַׁלֶּם־לָךְ אֶת־גְּמוּלֵךְ שֶׁגָּמַלְתְּ לָנוּ׃ 137.9. אַשְׁרֵי שֶׁיֹּאחֵז וְנִפֵּץ אֶת־עֹלָלַיִךְ אֶל־הַסָּלַע׃ 144.3. יְהוָה מָה־אָדָם וַתֵּדָעֵהוּ בֶּן־אֱנוֹשׁ וַתְּחַשְּׁבֵהוּ׃ 144.4. אָדָם לַהֶבֶל דָּמָה יָמָיו כְּצֵל עוֹבֵר׃ 147.4. מוֹנֶה מִסְפָּר לַכּוֹכָבִים לְכֻלָּם שֵׁמוֹת יִקְרָא׃ 148.3. הַלְלוּהוּ שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל־כּוֹכְבֵי אוֹר׃ 148.5. יְהַלְלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם יְהוָה כִּי הוּא צִוָּה וְנִבְרָאוּ׃ 148.6. וַיַּעֲמִידֵם לָעַד לְעוֹלָם חָק־נָתַן וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר׃ 2.5. Then will He speak unto them in His wrath, and affright them in His sore displeasure:" 2.6. 'Truly it is I that have established My king upon Zion, My holy mountain.'" 8.2. O LORD, our Lord, How glorious is Thy name in all the earth! Whose majesty is rehearsed above the heavens." 8.3. Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast Thou founded strength, Because of Thine adversaries; That Thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger." 8.5. What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?" 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 8.8. Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;" 19.2. The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth His handiwork;" 102.26. of old Thou didst lay the foundation of the earth; And the heavens are the work of Thy hands." 104.19. Who appointedst the moon for seasons; The sun knoweth his going down." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 137.8. O daughter of Babylon, that art to be destroyed; Happy shall he be, that repayeth thee As thou hast served us." 137.9. Happy shall he be, that taketh and dasheth thy little ones Against the rock." 144.3. LORD, what is man, that Thou takest knowledge of him? Or the son of man, that Thou makest account of him?" 144.4. Man is like unto a breath; His days are as a shadow that passeth away." 147.4. He counteth the number of the stars; He giveth them all their names." 148.3. Praise ye Him, sun and moon; Praise Him, all ye stars of light." 148.5. Let them praise the name of the LORD; For He commanded, and they were created." 148.6. He hath also established them for ever and ever; He hath made a decree which shall not be transgressed."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 21.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.5. וַיִּבֶן מִזְבְּחוֹת לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם בִּשְׁתֵּי חַצְרוֹת בֵּית־יְהוָה׃ 21.5. And he built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the LORD."
9. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.26 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.26. וּנְשָׂאתֶם אֵת סִכּוּת מַלְכְּכֶם וְאֵת כִּיּוּן צַלְמֵיכֶם כּוֹכַב אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם׃ 5.26. So shall ye take up Siccuth your king and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves."
10. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 3.11 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.11. שֶׁמֶשׁ יָרֵחַ עָמַד זְבֻלָה לְאוֹר חִצֶּיךָ יְהַלֵּכוּ לְנֹגַהּ בְּרַק חֲנִיתֶךָ׃ 3.11. The sun and moon stand still in their habitation; at the light of Thine arrows as they go, At the shining of Thy glittering spear."
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.4, 13.9-13.11, 38.8, 40.26, 47.13, 60.19-60.20, 66.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 13.11. וּפָקַדְתִּי עַל־תֵּבֵל רָעָה וְעַל־רְשָׁעִים עֲוֺנָם וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי גְּאוֹן זֵדִים וְגַאֲוַת עָרִיצִים אַשְׁפִּיל׃ 38.8. הִנְנִי מֵשִׁיב אֶת־צֵל הַמַּעֲלוֹת אֲשֶׁר יָרְדָה בְמַעֲלוֹת אָחָז בַּשֶּׁמֶשׁ אֲחֹרַנִּית עֶשֶׂר מַעֲלוֹת וַתָּשָׁב הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ עֶשֶׂר מַעֲלוֹת בַּמַּעֲלוֹת אֲשֶׁר יָרָדָה׃ 40.26. שְׂאוּ־מָרוֹם עֵינֵיכֶם וּרְאוּ מִי־בָרָא אֵלֶּה הַמּוֹצִיא בְמִסְפָּר צְבָאָם לְכֻלָּם בְּשֵׁם יִקְרָא מֵרֹב אוֹנִים וְאַמִּיץ כֹּחַ אִישׁ לֹא נֶעְדָּר׃ 47.13. נִלְאֵית בְּרֹב עֲצָתָיִךְ יַעַמְדוּ־נָא וְיוֹשִׁיעֻךְ הברו [הֹבְרֵי] שָׁמַיִם הַחֹזִים בַּכּוֹכָבִים מוֹדִיעִם לֶחֳדָשִׁים מֵאֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ עָלָיִךְ׃ 60.19. לֹא־יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ עוֹד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם וּלְנֹגַהּ הַיָּרֵחַ לֹא־יָאִיר לָךְ וְהָיָה־לָךְ יְהוָה לְאוֹר עוֹלָם וֵאלֹהַיִךְ לְתִפְאַרְתֵּךְ׃ 66.1. שִׂמְחוּ אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְגִילוּ בָהּ כָּל־אֹהֲבֶיהָ שִׂישׂוּ אִתָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ כָּל־הַמִּתְאַבְּלִים עָלֶיהָ׃ 66.1. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הַשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאִי וְהָאָרֶץ הֲדֹם רַגְלָי אֵי־זֶה בַיִת אֲשֶׁר תִּבְנוּ־לִי וְאֵי־זֶה מָקוֹם מְנוּחָתִי׃ 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 13.10. For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof Shall not give their light; The sun shall be darkened in his going forth, And the moon shall not cause her light to shine." 13.11. And I will visit upon the world their evil, And upon the wicked their iniquity; And I will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, And will lay low the haughtiness of the tyrants." 38.8. behold, I will cause the shadow of the dial, which is gone down on the sun-dial of Ahaz, to return backward ten degrees.’ So the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down." 40.26. Lift up your eyes on high, And see: who hath created these? He that bringeth out their host by number, He calleth them all by name; By the greatness of His might, and for that He is strong in power, Not one faileth." 47.13. Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsels; Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, The monthly prognosticators, Stand up, and save thee From the things that shall come upon thee." 60.19. The sun shall be no more thy light by day, Neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee; But the LORD shall be unto thee an everlasting light, And thy God thy glory." 60.20. Thy sun shall no more go down, Neither shall thy moon withdraw itself; For the LORD shall be thine everlasting light, And the days of thy mourning shall be ended." 66.1. Thus saith the LORD: The heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool; where is the house that ye may build unto Me? And where is the place that may be My resting-place?"
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.18, 8.2-8.3, 10.4, 19.13, 31.35, 44.17-44.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.18. הַבָּנִים מְלַקְּטִים עֵצִים וְהָאָבוֹת מְבַעֲרִים אֶת־הָאֵשׁ וְהַנָּשִׁים לָשׁוֹת בָּצֵק לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּוָּנִים לִמְלֶכֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהַסֵּךְ נְסָכִים לֵאלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים לְמַעַן הַכְעִסֵנִי׃ 8.2. עָבַר קָצִיר כָּלָה קָיִץ וַאֲנַחְנוּ לוֹא נוֹשָׁעְנוּ׃ 8.2. וּשְׁטָחוּם לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְלַיָּרֵחַ וּלְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר אֲהֵבוּם וַאֲשֶׁר עֲבָדוּם וַאֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ אַחֲרֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר דְּרָשׁוּם וַאֲשֶׁר הִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לָהֶם לֹא יֵאָסְפוּ וְלֹא יִקָּבֵרוּ לְדֹמֶן עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה יִהְיוּ׃ 8.3. וְנִבְחַר מָוֶת מֵחַיִּים לְכֹל הַשְּׁאֵרִית הַנִּשְׁאָרִים מִן־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָה הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת בְּכָל־הַמְּקֹמוֹת הַנִּשְׁאָרִים אֲשֶׁר הִדַּחְתִּים שָׁם נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 10.4. בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב יְיַפֵּהוּ בְּמַסְמְרוֹת וּבְמַקָּבוֹת יְחַזְּקוּם וְלוֹא יָפִיק׃ 19.13. וְהָיוּ בָּתֵּי יְרוּשָׁלִַם וּבָתֵּי מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה כִּמְקוֹם הַתֹּפֶת הַטְּמֵאִים לְכֹל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר קִטְּרוּ עַל־גַּגֹּתֵיהֶם לְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהַסֵּךְ נְסָכִים לֵאלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃ 31.35. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה נֹתֵן שֶׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם חֻקֹּת יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְאוֹר לָיְלָה רֹגַע הַיָּם וַיֶּהֱמוּ גַלָּיו יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 44.17. כִּי עָשֹׂה נַעֲשֶׂה אֶת־כָּל־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־יָצָא מִפִּינוּ לְקַטֵּר לִמְלֶכֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהַסֵּיךְ־לָהּ נְסָכִים כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂינוּ אֲנַחְנוּ וַאֲבֹתֵינוּ מְלָכֵינוּ וְשָׂרֵינוּ בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה וּבְחֻצוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם וַנִּשְׂבַּע־לֶחֶם וַנִּהְיֶה טוֹבִים וְרָעָה לֹא רָאִינוּ׃ 44.18. וּמִן־אָז חָדַלְנוּ לְקַטֵּר לִמְלֶכֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהַסֵּךְ־לָהּ נְסָכִים חָסַרְנוּ כֹל וּבַחֶרֶב וּבָרָעָב תָּמְנוּ׃ 7.18. The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead the dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink-offerings unto other gods, that they may provoke Me." 8.2. and they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, and all the host of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have walked, and whom they have sought, and whom they have worshipped; they shall not be gathered, nor be buried, they shall be for dung upon the face of the earth." 8.3. And death shall be chosen rather than life by all the residue that remain of this evil family, that remain in all the places whither I have driven them, saith the LORD of hosts." 10.4. They deck it with silver and with gold, They fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not." 19.13. and the houses of Jerusalem, and the houses of the kings of Judah, which are defiled, shall be as the place of Topheth, even all the houses upon whose roofs they have offered unto all the host of heaven, and have poured out drink-offerings unto other gods." 31.35. Thus saith the LORD, Who giveth the sun for a light by day, And the ordices of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, Who stirreth up the sea, that the waves thereof roar, The LORD of hosts is His name:" 44.17. But we will certainly perform every word that is gone forth out of our mouth, to offer unto the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink-offerings unto her, as we have done, we and our fathers, our kings and our princes, in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem; for then had we plenty of food, and were well, and saw no evil." 44.18. But since we let off to offer to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink-offerings unto her, we have wanted all things, and have been consumed by the sword and by the famine."
13. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 10.12-10.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.12. אָז יְדַבֵּר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לַיהוָה בְּיוֹם תֵּת יְהוָה אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֵינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמֶשׁ בְּגִבְעוֹן דּוֹם וְיָרֵחַ בְּעֵמֶק אַיָּלוֹן׃ 10.13. וַיִּדֹּם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ עָמָד עַד־יִקֹּם גּוֹי אֹיְבָיו הֲלֹא־הִיא כְתוּבָה עַל־סֵפֶר הַיָּשָׁר וַיַּעֲמֹד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בַּחֲצִי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־אָץ לָבוֹא כְּיוֹם תָּמִים׃ 10.12. Then spoke Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel; and he said in the sight of Israel: ‘Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; And thou, Moon, in the valley of Aijalon.’" 10.13. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, Until the nation had avenged themselves of their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jashar? And the sun stayed in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day."
14. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15. Homer, Iliad, 5.896 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

5.896. /Howbeit I will no longer endure that thou shouldest be in pain, for thou art mine offspring, and it was to me that thy mother bare thee; but wert thou born of any other god, thus pestilent as thou art, then long ere this hadst thou been lower than the sons of heaven.
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 8.16, 27.30, 32.7-32.8 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.16. וַיָּבֵא אֹתִי אֶל־חֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַפְּנִימִית וְהִנֵּה־פֶתַח הֵיכַל יְהוָה בֵּין הָאוּלָם וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ אֲחֹרֵיהֶם אֶל־הֵיכַל יְהוָה וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 32.7. וְכִסֵּיתִי בְכַבּוֹתְךָ שָׁמַיִם וְהִקְדַּרְתִּי אֶת־כֹּכְבֵיהֶם שֶׁמֶשׁ בֶּעָנָן אֲכַסֶּנּוּ וְיָרֵחַ לֹא־יָאִיר אוֹרוֹ׃ 32.8. כָּל־מְאוֹרֵי אוֹר בַּשָּׁמַיִם אַקְדִּירֵם עָלֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי חֹשֶׁךְ עַל־אַרְצְךָ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 8.16. And He brought me into the inner court of the LORD’S house, and, behold, at the door of the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the LORD, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east." 27.30. And shall cause their voice to be heard over thee, And shall cry bitterly, And shall cast up dust upon their heads, They shall roll themselves in the ashes;" 32.7. And when I shall extinguish thee, I will cover the heaven, And make the stars thereof black; I will cover the sun with a cloud, And the moon shall not give her light." 32.8. All the bright lights of heaven Will I make black over thee, And set darkness upon thy land, Saith the Lord GOD."
17. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 3-4, 2 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. ἄρρητον· μεσταὶ δέ Διὸς πᾶσαι μὲν ἀγυιαί
18. Anon., 1 Enoch, 73-82, 72 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

72. The book of the courses of the luminaries of the heaven, the relations of each, according to their classes, their dominion and their seasons, according to their names and places of origin, and according to their months, which Uriel, the holy angel, who was with me, who is their guide, showed me; and he showed me all their laws exactly as they are, and how it is with regard to all the years of the world,and unto eternity, till the new creation is accomplished which dureth till eternity. And this is the first law of the luminaries: the luminary the Sun has its rising in the eastern portals of the heaven,,and its setting in the western portals of the heaven. And I saw six portals in which the sun rises, and six portals in which the sun sets and the moon rises and sets in these portals, and the leaders of the stars and those whom they lead: six in the east and six in the west, and all following each other,in accurately corresponding order: also many windows to the right and left of these portals. And first there goes forth the great luminary, named the Sun, and his circumference is like the,circumference of the heaven, and he is quite filled with illuminating and heating fire. The chariot on which he ascends, the wind drives, and the sun goes down from the heaven and returns through the north in order to reach the east, and is so guided that he comes to the appropriate (lit. ' that ') portal and,shines in the face of the heaven. In this way he rises in the first month in the great portal, which,is the fourth [those six portals in the cast]. And in that fourth portal from which the sun rises in the first month are twelve window-openings, from which proceed a flame when they are opened in,their season. When the sun rises in the heaven, he comes forth through that fourth portal thirty,,mornings in succession, and sets accurately in the fourth portal in the west of the heaven. And during this period the day becomes daily longer and the night nightly shorter to the thirtieth,morning. On that day the day is longer than the night by a ninth part, and the day amounts exactly to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun rises from that fourth portal, and sets in the fourth and returns to the fifth portal of the east thirty mornings, and rises from it and sets in the fifth,portal. And then the day becomes longer by two parts and amounts to eleven parts, and the night,becomes shorter and amounts to seven parts. And it returns to the east and enters into the sixth",portal, and rises and sets in the sixth portal one-and-thirty mornings on account of its sign. On that day the day becomes longer than the night, and the day becomes double the night, and the day,becomes twelve parts, and the night is shortened and becomes six parts. And the sun mounts up to make the day shorter and the night longer, and the sun returns to the east and enters into the,sixth portal, and rises from it and sets thirty mornings. And when thirty mornings are accomplished,,the day decreases by exactly one part, and becomes eleven parts, and the night seven. And the sun goes forth from that sixth portal in the west, and goes to the east and rises in the fifth portal for,thirty mornings, and sets in the west again in the fifth western portal. On that day the day decreases by two parts, and amounts to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun goes forth from that fifth portal and sets in the fifth portal of the west, and rises in the fourth portal for one-,and-thirty mornings on account of its sign, and sets in the west. On that day the day is equalized with the night, [and becomes of equal length], and the night amounts to nine parts and the day to,nine parts. And the sun rises from that portal and sets in the west, and returns to the east and rises,thirty mornings in the third portal and sets in the west in the third portal. And on that day the night becomes longer than the day, and night becomes longer than night, and day shorter than day till the thirtieth morning, and the night amounts exactly to ten parts and the day to eight,parts. And the sun rises from that third portal and sets in the third portal in the west and returns to the east, and for thirty mornings rises,in the second portal in the east, and in like manner sets in the second portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night amounts to eleven,parts and the day to seven parts. And the sun rises on that day from that second portal and sets in the west in the second portal, and returns to the east into the first portal for one-and-thirty,mornings, and sets in the first portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night becomes longer and amounts to the double of the day: and the night amounts exactly to twelve parts and,the day to six. And the sun has (therewith) traversed the divisions of his orbit and turns again on those divisions of his orbit, and enters that portal thirty mornings and sets also in the west,opposite to it. And on that night has the night decreased in length by a ninth part, and the night,has become eleven parts and the day seven parts. And the sun has returned and entered into the second portal in the east, and returns on those his divisions of his orbit for thirty mornings, rising,and setting. And on that day the night decreases in length, and the night amounts to ten parts,and the day to eight. And on that day the sun rises from that portal, and sets in the west, and returns to the east, and rises in the third portal for one-and-thirty mornings, and sets in the west of the heaven.,On that day the night decreases and amounts to nine parts, and the day to nine parts, and the night,is equal to the day and the year is exactly as to its days three hundred and sixty-four. And the length of the day and of the night, and the shortness of the day and of the night arise-through the course,of the sun these distinctions are made (lit. ' they are separated '). So it comes that its course becomes",daily longer, and its course nightly shorter. And this is the law and the course of the sun, and his return as often as he returns sixty times and rises, i.e. the great luminary which is named the sun, for ever and ever. And that which (thus) rises is the great luminary, and is so named according to,its appearance, according as the Lord commanded. As he rises, so he sets and decreases not, and rests not, but runs day and night, and his light is sevenfold brighter than that of the moon; but as regards size they are both equal.
19. Anon., Jubilees, 2.3, 2.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.3. For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before Him 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day.
20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.21, 18.3-18.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.21, 18.3-18.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Mysta, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 5.11, 7.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.11. אִיתַי גְּבַר בְּמַלְכוּתָךְ דִּי רוּחַ אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין בֵּהּ וּבְיוֹמֵי אֲבוּךְ נַהִירוּ וְשָׂכְלְתָנוּ וְחָכְמָה כְּחָכְמַת־אֱלָהִין הִשְׁתְּכַחַת בֵּהּ וּמַלְכָּא נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר אֲבוּךְ רַב חַרְטֻמִּין אָשְׁפִין כַּשְׂדָּאִין גָּזְרִין הֲקִימֵהּ אֲבוּךְ מַלְכָּא׃ 7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 5.11. there is a man in thy kingdom, in whom is the spirit of the holy gods; and in the days of thy father light and understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was found in him; and the king Nebuchadnezzar thy father, the king, I say, thy father, made him master of the magicians, enchanters, Chaldeans, and astrologers;" 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him."
24. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 16.26-16.28, 17.1-17.6, 17.12, 43.6-43.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.26. The works of the Lord have existed from the beginning by his creation, and when he made them, he determined their divisions. 16.27. He arranged his works in an eternal order,and their dominion for all generations;they neither hunger nor grow weary,and they do not cease from their labors. 16.28. They do not crowd one another aside,and they will never disobey his word. 17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds. 17.6. He made for them tongue and eyes;he gave them ears and a mind for thinking. 17.12. He established with them an eternal covet,and showed them his judgments.
25. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 13.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13.2. but they supposed that either fire or wind or swift air,or the circle of the stars, or turbulent water,or the luminaries of heaven were the gods that rule the world.
26. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.29 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.29. Imperishable fire, and days and nights. 3.29. O For these are all deceptive, in so far
27. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. When therefore is it proper for the servant of God to use freedom of speech to the ruler and master of himself, and of the whole word? Is it not when he is free from all sins, and is aware in his conscience that he loves his master, feeling more joy at the fact of being a servant of God, than he would if he were sovereign over the whole race of mankind, and were invested without any effort on his part with the supreme authority over land and sea.
28. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 12.27, 12.61, 12.74-12.76, 30.26 (1st cent. CE

12.27.  Now concerning the nature of the gods in general, and especially that of the ruler of the universe, first and foremost an idea regarding him and a conception of him common to the whole human race, to the Greeks and to the barbarians alike, a conception that is inevitable and innate in every creature endowed with reason, arising in the course of nature without the aid of human teacher and free from the deceit of any expounding priest, has made its way, and it rendered manifest God's kinship with man and furnished many evidences of the truth, which did not suffer the earliest and most ancient men to doze and grow indifferent to them;
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.495 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.495. These soldiers rushed violently into that part of the city which was called Delta, where the Jewish people lived together, and did as they were bidden, though not without bloodshed on their own side also; for the Jews got together, and set those that were the best armed among them in the forefront, and made a resistance for a great while; but when once they gave back, they were destroyed unmercifully;
30. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.24, 15.26-15.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him.
31. New Testament, Acts, 7.43, 17.28-17.29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.43. You took up the tent of Moloch, The star of your god Rephan, The figures which you made to worship. I will carry you away beyond Babylon.' 17.28. 'For in him we live, and move, and have our being.' As some of your own poets have said, 'For we are also his offspring.' 17.29. Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold, or silver, or stone, engraved by art and device of man.
32. New Testament, Colossians, 1.9-1.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For this cause, we also, since the day we heard this, don't cease praying and making requests for you, that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding 1.10. that you may walk worthily of the Lord, to please him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; 1.11. strengthened with all power, according to the might of his glory, for all endurance and perseverance with joy; 1.12. giving thanks to the Father, who made us fit to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light; 1.13. who delivered us out of the power of darkness, and translated us into the Kingdom of the Son of his love;
33. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.15-1.23, 2.1-2.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. For this cause I also, having heard of the faith in the Lord Jesus which is among you, and the love which you have toward all the saints 1.16. don't cease to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers 1.17. that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him; 1.18. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 1.19. and what is the exceeding greatness of his power toward us who believe, according to that working of the strength of his might 1.20. which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and made him to sit at his right hand in the heavenly places 1.21. far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come. 1.22. He put all things in subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things for the assembly 1.23. which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. 2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest.
34. New Testament, Galatians, 4.21-4.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband.
35. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.6-2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. But one has somewhere testified, saying, "What is man, that you think of him? Or the son of man, that you care for him? 2.7. You made him a little lower than the angels; You crowned him with glory and honor. 2.8. You have put all things in subjection under his feet."For in that he subjected all things to him, he left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we don't see all things subjected to him, yet. 2.9. But we see him who has been made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that by the grace of God he should taste of death for everyone.
36. New Testament, Mark, 2.10, 8.38, 13.26, 14.62, 15.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" -- he said to the paralytic -- 8.38. For whoever will be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man also will be ashamed of him, when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels. 13.26. Then they will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory. 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. 15.39. When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God!
37. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 41.1-41.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

38. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 4.46.3, 4.48.2, 4.59.1-4.59.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

39. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.1.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1.4. The Athenians have also another harbor, at Munychia, with a temple of Artemis of Munychia, and yet another at Phalerum, as I have already stated, and near it is a sanctuary of Demeter. Here there is also a temple of Athena Sciras, and one of Zeus some distance away, and altars of the gods named Unknown, and of heroes, and of the children of Theseus and Phalerus; for this Phalerus is said by the Athenians to have sailed with Jason to Colchis . There is also an altar of Androgeos, son of Minos, though it is called that of Heros; those, however, who pay special attention to the study of their country's antiquities know that it belongs to Androgeos.
40. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.109-1.111 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.109. 10. EPIMEDESEpimenides, according to Theopompus and many other writers, was the son of Phaestius; some, however, make him the son of Dosiadas, others of Agesarchus. He was a native of Cnossos in Crete, though from wearing his hair long he did not look like a Cretan. One day he was sent into the country by his father to look for a stray sheep, and at noon he turned aside out of the way, and went to sleep in a cave, where he slept for fifty-seven years. After this he got up and went in search of the sheep, thinking he had been asleep only a short time. And when he could not find it, he came to the farm, and found everything changed and another owner in possession. Then he went back to the town in utter perplexity; and there, on entering his own house, he fell in with people who wanted to know who he was. At length he found his younger brother, now an old man, and learnt the truth from him. 1.110. So he became famous throughout Greece, and was believed to be a special favourite of heaven.Hence, when the Athenians were attacked by pestilence, and the Pythian priestess bade them purify the city, they sent a ship commanded by Nicias, son of Niceratus, to Crete to ask the help of Epimenides. And he came in the 46th Olympiad, purified their city, and stopped the pestilence in the following way. He took sheep, some black and others white, and brought them to the Areopagus; and there he let them go whither they pleased, instructing those who followed them to mark the spot where each sheep lay down and offer a sacrifice to the local divinity. And thus, it is said, the plague was stayed. Hence even to this day altars may be found in different parts of Attica with no name inscribed upon them, which are memorials of this atonement. According to some writers he declared the plague to have been caused by the pollution which Cylon brought on the city and showed them how to remove it. In consequence two young men, Cratinus and Ctesibius, were put to death and the city was delivered from the scourge. 1.111. The Athenians voted him a talent in money and a ship to convey him back to Crete. The money he declined, but he concluded a treaty of friendship and alliance between Cnossos and Athens.So he returned home and soon afterwards died. According to Phlegon in his work On Longevity he lived one hundred and fifty-seven years; according to the Cretans two hundred and ninety-nine years. Xenophanes of Colophon gives his age as 154, according to hearsay.He wrote a poem On the Birth of the Curetes and Corybantes and a Theogony, 5000 lines in all; another on the building of the Argo and Jason's voyage to Colchis in 6500 lines.
41. Origen, Against Celsus, 4.48-4.50 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.48. In the next place, as if he had devoted himself solely to the manifestation of his hatred and dislike of the Jewish and Christian doctrine, he says: The more modest of Jewish and Christian writers give all these things an allegorical meaning; and, Because they are ashamed of these things, they take refuge in allegory. Now one might say to him, that if we must admit fables and fictions, whether written with a concealed meaning or with any other object, to be shameful narratives when taken in their literal acceptation, of what histories can this be said more truly than of the Grecian? In these histories, gods who are sons castrate the gods who are their fathers, and gods who are parents devour their own children, and a goddess-mother gives to the father of gods and men a stone to swallow instead of his own son, and a father has intercourse with his daughter, and a wife binds her own husband, having as her allies in the work the brother of the fettered god and his own daughter! But why should I enumerate these absurd stories of the Greeks regarding their gods, which are most shameful in themselves, even though invested with an allegorical meaning? (Take the instance) where Chrysippus of Soli, who is considered to be an ornament of the Stoic sect, on account of his numerous and learned treatises, explains a picture at Samos, in which Juno was represented as committing unspeakable abominations with Jupiter. This reverend philosopher says in his treatises, that matter receives the spermatic words of the god, and retains them within herself, in order to ornament the universe. For in the picture at Samos Juno represents matter, and Jupiter god. Now it is on account of these, and of countless other similar fables, that we would not even in word call the God of all things Jupiter, or the sun Apollo, or the moon Diana. But we offer to the Creator a worship which is pure, and speak with religious respect of His noble works of creation, not contaminating even in word the things of God; approving of the language of Plato in the Philebus, who would not admit that pleasure was a goddess, so great is my reverence, Protarchus, he says, for the very names of the gods. We verily entertain such reverence for the name of God, and for His noble works of creation, that we would not, even under pretext of an allegorical meaning, admit any fable which might do injury to the young. 4.49. If Celsus had read the Scriptures in an impartial spirit, he would not have said that our writings are incapable of admitting an allegorical meaning. For from the prophetic Scriptures, in which historical events are recorded (not from the historical), it is possible to be convinced that the historical portions also were written with an allegorical purpose, and were most skilfully adapted not only to the multitude of the simpler believers, but also to the few who are able or willing to investigate matters in an intelligent spirit. If, indeed, those writers at the present day who are deemed by Celsus the more modest of the Jews and Christians were the (first) allegorical interpreters of our Scriptures, he would have the appearance, perhaps, of making a plausible allegation. But since the very fathers and authors of the doctrines themselves give them an allegorical signification, what other inference can be drawn than that they were composed so as to be allegorically understood in their chief signification? And we shall adduce a few instances out of very many to show that Celsus brings an empty charge against the Scriptures, when he says that they are incapable of admitting an allegorical meaning. Paul, the apostle of Jesus, says: It is written in the law, You shall not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treads out the grain. Does God take care for oxen? Or says He it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written, that he that ploughs should plough in hope, and he that threshes in hope of partaking. And in another passage the same Paul says: For it is written, For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother and shall be joined to his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. This is a great mystery; but I speak concerning Christ and the Church. And again, in another place: We know that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud, and in the sea. Then, explaining the history relating to the manna, and that referring to the miraculous issue of the water from the rock, he continues as follows: And they did all eat the same spiritual meat, and did all drink the same spiritual drink. For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ. Asaph, moreover, who, in showing the histories in Exodus and Numbers to be full of difficulties and parables, begins in the following manner, as recorded in the book of Psalms, where he is about to make mention of these things: Give ear, O my people, to my law: incline your ears to the words of my mouth. I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter dark sayings of old, which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us. 4.50. Moreover, if the law of Moses had contained nothing which was to be understood as having a secret meaning, the prophet would not have said in his prayer to God, Open my eyes, and I will behold wondrous things out of Your law; whereas he knew that there was a veil of ignorance lying upon the heart of those who read but do not understand the figurative meaning, which veil is taken away by the gift of God, when He hears him who has done all that he can, and who by reason of habit has his senses exercised to distinguish between good and evil, and who continually utters the prayer, Open my eyes, and I will behold wondrous things out of Your law. And who is there that, on reading of the dragon that lives in the Egyptian river, and of the fishes which lurk in his scales, or of the excrement of Pharaoh which fills the mountains of Egypt, is not led at once to inquire who he is that fills the Egyptian mountains with his stinking excrement, and what the Egyptian mountains are; and what the rivers in Egypt are, of which the aforesaid Pharaoh boastfully says, The rivers are mine, and I have made them; and who the dragon is, and the fishes in its scales - and this so as to harmonize with the interpretation to be given of the rivers? But why establish at greater length what needs no demonstration? For to these things applies the saying: Who is wise, and he shall understand these things? Or who is prudent, and he shall know them? Now I have gone at some length into the subject, because I wished to show the unsoundness of the assertion of Celsus, that the more modest among the Jews and Christians endeavour somehow to give these stories an allegorical signification, although some of them do not admit of this, but on the contrary are exceedingly silly inventions. Much rather are the stories of the Greeks not only very silly, but very impious inventions. For our narratives keep expressly in view the multitude of simpler believers, which was not done by those who invented the Grecian fables. And therefore not without propriety does Plato expel from his state all fables and poems of such a nature as those of which we have been speaking.
42. Gregory of Nazianzus, Orations, 29.19, 40.45 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

43. Anon., 4 Ezra, 8.5-8.10, 8.14, 8.34, 8.36, 8.44-8.45

8.5. For not of your own will did you come into the world, and against your will you depart, for you have been given only a short time to live. 8.6. O Lord who are over us, grant to thy servant that we may pray before thee, and give us seed for our heart and cultivation of our understanding so that fruit may be produced, by which every mortal who bears the likeness of a human being may be able to live. 8.7. For thou alone dost exist, and we are a work of thy hands, as thou hast declared. 8.8. And because thou dost give life to the body which is now fashioned in the womb, and dost furnish it with members, what thou hast created is preserved in fire and water, and for nine months the womb which thou has formed endures thy creation which has been created in it. 8.9. But that which keeps and that which is kept shall both be kept by thy keeping. And when the womb gives up again what has been created in it 8.10. thou hast commanded that from the members themselves (that is, from the breasts) milk should be supplied which is the fruit of the breasts 8.14. If then thou wilt suddenly and quickly destroy him who with so great labor was fashioned by thy command, to what purpose was he made? 8.34. But what is man, that thou art angry with him; or what is a corruptible race, that thou art so bitter against it? 8.36. For in this, O Lord, thy righteousness and goodness will be declared, when thou art merciful to those who have no store of good works. 8.44. But man, who has been formed by thy hands and is called thy own image because he is made like thee, and for whose sake thou hast formed all things -- hast thou also made him like the farmer's seed? 8.45. No, O Lord who art over us! But spare thy people and have mercy on thy inheritance, for thou hast mercy on thy own creation.
44. Cleanthes, Hymn To Zeus, 3



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts of the apostles Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
adam, compared to noah Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 95
allegory Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 365
angels Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
anger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
anthropological Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
anthropology Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
aratus, phaenomena Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
aratus, zenos pupil Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
areopagus speech, epimenides echoes Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
areopagus speech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
arrogance/arrogant Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 594
ash(es) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
athens, epimenidess rescue of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
athens, plague Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
basil of caesarea, contra eunomium Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 316
blessing Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 339
body-soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
calendar Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 173
city of alexandria, theater Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 47
clement of alexandria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 463
cloud Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
collective humanity Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 86
corruptible Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 86
creation, story of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
creation Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 178
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 86
daniel, book of Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 173
darkness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
day, god (lord), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
death Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 86
deity sculpture, sophisticated pagan view Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
divine Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 339
dominion/rule of Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 339
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
dualism Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 86; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
earth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
enoch (also, book of) Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 27
ephesians, letter to the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 594
epimenides Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
eschatological expectation deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 99
eternity Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 178
eunomius and eunomians Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 316
evening Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 339
ezekiel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
flesh Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 39
general humanity Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 86
gentile Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 39
glossing Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 100
god, gift of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
god, goodness of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
god, offspring of, humans as Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
god, plan of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
god, proximity, pagan view Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
gregory of nazianzus, second theological oration Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 316
gregory of nazianzus Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 316
head, christ as deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 99
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
heaven, antiochenes on firmament Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 233
hexapla, eusebius of caesarea Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 233
holy war Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 65
homily, diatribe Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 100
human, condition Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
human, nature Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
idolatry, critique Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
idolatry Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 339
image of god Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15, 39
immortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
inclination Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
jesus, exaltation of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 99
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
jews in alexandria, anti-jewish polemic Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 47
jews in alexandria, jewish district/delta quarter Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 47
jews in alexandria, synagogues Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 47
josiah Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 173
judgment Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 178; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 86
kinship, god and humanity Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
kinship with god, pagan notions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
knowledge, depravity/lack of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
knowledge, god's own" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
knowledge, of god's wisdom/secrets/glory" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
knowledge, revealed' "151.0_204.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
knowledge Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 39
life, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
luminaries Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 339
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 594
moon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
morning Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 339
mortal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 39
mortality/immortality Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
mosaic revelation at sinai Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 594
moses Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 594
mythology Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
nature, human Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
noah, sons Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 95, 97, 100
obedience Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
origen, on human physical existence Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 316
particularization' Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 65
paul, areopagus speech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
paul, prayers of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 99
paul Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 594
pheidias of athens Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 463
philo, on the pogrom/riots of Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 47
physical Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15, 39
pleroma Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 594
pogrom/riots of Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 47
qumran Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 27
qumran literature Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 339
repent/repentance Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
responsibility Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 86
revelation Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
righteous, the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 86
rule of Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 339
sabbath Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 178
seasons Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 173
shiur koma Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 594
sin Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
sinner Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 86; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
sons, of heaven Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 365
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
spirit, characterizations as, depravity Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
spirit, holy spirit Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 594
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
spirit, modes of presence, put/placed within Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 204
spirit Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 15
spiritual powers deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 99
sun Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 173; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
syria Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 173
teachers Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 365
temple, first (see also solomonic) Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 173
thought, epimenides redivivus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 594
time Goldhill, The Christian Invention of Time: Temporality and the Literature of Late Antiquity (2022) 316
topoi, creation Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 86
torah Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 173
vision, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
wrath Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
youth, description of angel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 594
zeus, aratus, phaenomena Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
zeus, cleanthes, hymn Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
zion, traditions Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 65
zodiac Leibner and Hezser, Jewish Art in Its Late Antique Context (2016) 173