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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6304
Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 139.16


גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וְעַל־סִפְרְךָ כֻּלָּם יִכָּתֵבוּ יָמִים יֻצָּרוּ ולא [וְלוֹ] אֶחָד בָּהֶם׃Thine eyes did see mine unformed substance, And in Thy book they were all written— Even the days that were fashioned, When as yet there was none of them.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

33 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 14.21-14.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.21. וַיֵּט מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל־הַיָּם וַיּוֹלֶךְ יְהוָה אֶת־הַיָּם בְּרוּחַ קָדִים עַזָּה כָּל־הַלַּיְלָה וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־הַיָּם לֶחָרָבָה וַיִּבָּקְעוּ הַמָּיִם׃ 14.22. וַיָּבֹאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּתוֹךְ הַיָּם בַּיַּבָּשָׁה וְהַמַּיִם לָהֶם חֹמָה מִימִינָם וּמִשְּׂמֹאלָם׃ 14.21. And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all the night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided." 14.22. And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.27, 2.5, 3.23-3.24, 6.1-6.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.5. וְכֹל שִׂיחַ הַשָּׂדֶה טֶרֶם יִהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה טֶרֶם יִצְמָח כִּי לֹא הִמְטִיר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְאָדָם אַיִן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 3.23. וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִגַּן־עֵדֶן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם׃ 3.24. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.5. No shrub of the field was yet in the earth, and no herb of the field had yet sprung up; for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground;" 3.23. Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken." 3.24. So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown."
3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 41.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

41.4. לא־[לוֹ־] אַחֲרִישׁ בַּדָּיו וּדְבַר־גְּבוּרוֹת וְחִין עֶרְכּוֹ׃ 41.4. Would I keep silence concerning his boastings, or his proud talk, or his fair array of words?"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.21, 25.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.21. אַךְ אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] כְרָעַיִם מִמַּעַל לְרַגְלָיו לְנַתֵּר בָּהֵן עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.21. Yet these may ye eat of all winged swarming things that go upon all fours, which have jointed legs above their feet, wherewith to leap upon the earth;" 25.30. And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that is in the walled city shall be made sure in perpetuity to him that bought it, throughout his generations; it shall not go out in the jubilee."
5. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.16. אָז נִדְבְּרוּ יִרְאֵי יְהוָה אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וַיַּקְשֵׁב יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁמָע וַיִּכָּתֵב סֵפֶר זִכָּרוֹן לְפָנָיו לְיִרְאֵי יְהוָה וּלְחֹשְׁבֵי שְׁמוֹ׃ 3.16. Then they that feared the LORD Spoke one with another; and the LORD hearkened, and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that feared the LORD, and that thought upon His name."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 56.8, 100.3, 139.5, 139.12-139.13, 139.15, 139.17-139.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

56.8. עַל־אָוֶן פַּלֶּט־לָמוֹ בְּאַף עַמִּים הוֹרֵד אֱלֹהִים׃ 100.3. דְּעוּ כִּי־יְהוָה הוּא אֱלֹהִים הוּא־עָשָׂנוּ ולא [וְלוֹ] אֲנַחְנוּ עַמּוֹ וְצֹאן מַרְעִיתוֹ׃ 139.5. אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה׃ 139.12. גַּם־חֹשֶׁךְ לֹא־יַחְשִׁיךְ מִמֶּךָ וְלַיְלָה כַּיּוֹם יָאִיר כַּחֲשֵׁיכָה כָּאוֹרָה׃ 139.13. כִּי־אַתָּה קָנִיתָ כִלְיֹתָי תְּסֻכֵּנִי בְּבֶטֶן אִמִּי׃ 139.15. לֹא־נִכְחַד עָצְמִי מִמֶּךָּ אֲשֶׁר־עֻשֵּׂיתִי בַסֵּתֶר רֻקַּמְתִּי בְּתַחְתִּיּוֹת אָרֶץ׃ 139.17. וְלִי מַה־יָּקְרוּ רֵעֶיךָ אֵל מֶה עָצְמוּ רָאשֵׁיהֶם׃ 139.18. אֶסְפְּרֵם מֵחוֹל יִרְבּוּן הֱקִיצֹתִי וְעוֹדִי עִמָּךְ׃ 56.8. Because of iniquity cast them out; In anger bring down the peoples, O God." 100.3. Know ye that the LORD He is God; it is He that hath made us, and we are His, His people, and the flock of His pasture." 139.5. Thou hast hemmed me in behind and before, And laid Thy hand upon me." 139.12. Even the darkness is not too dark for Thee, But the night shineth as the day; The darkness is even as the light." 139.13. For Thou hast made my reins; Thou hast knit me together in my mother's womb." 139.15. My frame was not hidden from Thee, When I was made in secret, And curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth." 139.17. How weighty also are Thy thoughts unto me, O God! How great is the sum of them!" 139.18. If I would count them, they are more in number than the sand; Were I to come to the end of them, I would still be with Thee."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. לָכֵן נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָמוֹר אָמַרְתִּי בֵּיתְךָ וּבֵית אָבִיךָ יִתְהַלְּכוּ לְפָנַי עַד־עוֹלָם וְעַתָּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה חָלִילָה לִּי כִּי־מְכַבְּדַי אֲכַבֵּד וּבֹזַי יֵקָלּוּ׃ 2.3. אַל־תַּרְבּוּ תְדַבְּרוּ גְּבֹהָה גְבֹהָה יֵצֵא עָתָק מִפִּיכֶם כִּי אֵל דֵּעוֹת יְהוָה ולא [וְלוֹ] נִתְכְּנוּ עֲלִלוֹת׃ 2.3. Talk no more so very proudly; let not arrogancy come out of your mouth: for the Lord is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב־אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַל אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 2.11. And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both assunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 26.2, 40.12, 43.1, 43.7, 43.21, 58.6, 63.9, 65.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

26.2. לֵךְ עַמִּי בֹּא בַחֲדָרֶיךָ וּסְגֹר דלתיך [דְּלָתְךָ] בַּעֲדֶךָ חֲבִי כִמְעַט־רֶגַע עַד־יעבור־[יַעֲבָר־] זָעַם׃ 26.2. פִּתְחוּ שְׁעָרִים וְיָבֹא גוֹי־צַדִּיק שֹׁמֵר אֱמֻנִים׃ 40.12. מִי־מָדַד בְּשָׁעֳלוֹ מַיִם וְשָׁמַיִם בַּזֶּרֶת תִּכֵּן וְכָל בַּשָּׁלִשׁ עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁקַל בַּפֶּלֶס הָרִים וּגְבָעוֹת בְּמֹאזְנָיִם׃ 43.1. וְעַתָּה כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה בֹּרַאֲךָ יַעֲקֹב וְיֹצֶרְךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַל־תִּירָא כִּי גְאַלְתִּיךָ קָרָאתִי בְשִׁמְךָ לִי־אָתָּה׃ 43.1. אַתֶּם עֵדַי נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְעַבְדִּי אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרְתִּי לְמַעַן תֵּדְעוּ וְתַאֲמִינוּ לִי וְתָבִינוּ כִּי־אֲנִי הוּא לְפָנַי לֹא־נוֹצַר אֵל וְאַחֲרַי לֹא יִהְיֶה׃ 43.7. כֹּל הַנִּקְרָא בִשְׁמִי וְלִכְבוֹדִי בְּרָאתִיו יְצַרְתִּיו אַף־עֲשִׂיתִיו׃ 43.21. עַם־זוּ יָצַרְתִּי לִי תְּהִלָּתִי יְסַפֵּרוּ׃ 58.6. הֲלוֹא זֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ פַּתֵּחַ חַרְצֻבּוֹת רֶשַׁע הַתֵּר אֲגֻדּוֹת מוֹטָה וְשַׁלַּח רְצוּצִים חָפְשִׁים וְכָל־מוֹטָה תְּנַתֵּקוּ׃ 63.9. בְּכָל־צָרָתָם לא [לוֹ] צָר וּמַלְאַךְ פָּנָיו הוֹשִׁיעָם בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ וּבְחֶמְלָתוֹ הוּא גְאָלָם וַיְנַטְּלֵם וַיְנַשְּׂאֵם כָּל־יְמֵי עוֹלָם׃ 65.6. הִנֵּה כְתוּבָה לְפָנָי לֹא אֶחֱשֶׂה כִּי אִם־שִׁלַּמְתִּי וְשִׁלַּמְתִּי עַל־חֵיקָם׃ 26.2. Open ye the gates, That the righteous nation that keepeth faithfulness may enter in." 40.12. Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, And meted out heaven with the span, And comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, And weighed the mountains in scales, And the hills in a balance?" 43.1. But now thus saith the LORD that created thee, O Jacob, And He that formed thee, O Israel: Fear not, for I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name, thou art Mine." 43.7. Every one that is called by My name, and whom I have created for My glory, I have formed him, yea, I have made him.’" 43.21. The people which I formed for Myself, That they might tell of My praise." 58.6. Is not this the fast that I have chosen? To loose the fetters of wickedness, To undo the bands of the yoke, And to let the oppressed go free, And that ye break every yoke?" 63.9. In all their affliction He was afflicted, and the angel of His presence saved them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; And He bore them, and carried them all the days of old. ." 65.6. Behold, it is written before Me; I will not keep silence, except I have requited, Yea, I will requite into their bosom,"
10. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 3.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.16. וַיַּעַמְדוּ הַמַּיִם הַיֹּרְדִים מִלְמַעְלָה קָמוּ נֵד־אֶחָד הַרְחֵק מְאֹד באדם [מֵאָדָם] הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר מִצַּד צָרְתָן וְהַיֹּרְדִים עַל יָם הָעֲרָבָה יָם־הַמֶּלַח תַּמּוּ נִכְרָתוּ וְהָעָם עָבְרוּ נֶגֶד יְרִיחוֹ׃ 3.16. that the waters which came down from above stood, and rose up in one heap, a great way off from Adam, the city that is beside Zarethan; and those that went down toward the sea of the Arabah, even the Salt Sea, were wholly cut off; and the people passed over right against Jericho."
11. Aeschylus, Eumenides, 274-275, 273 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

273. μέγας γὰρ Ἅιδης ἐστὶν εὔθυνος βροτῶν
12. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 4.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.2. וַיִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־זְרֻבָּבֶל וְאֶל־רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת וַיֹּאמְרוּ לָהֶם נִבְנֶה עִמָּכֶם כִּי כָכֶם נִדְרוֹשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם ולא [וְלוֹ ] אֲנַחְנוּ זֹבְחִים מִימֵי אֵסַר חַדֹּן מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר הַמַּעֲלֶה אֹתָנוּ פֹּה׃ 4.2. וּמַלְכִין תַּקִּיפִין הֲווֹ עַל־יְרוּשְׁלֶם וְשַׁלִּיטִין בְּכֹל עֲבַר נַהֲרָה וּמִדָּה בְלוֹ וַהֲלָךְ מִתְיְהֵב לְהוֹן׃ 4.2. then they drew near to Zerubbabel, and to the heads of fathers’houses, and said unto them: ‘Let us build with you; for we seek your God, as ye do; and we do sacrifice unto Him since the days of Esarhaddon king of Assyria, who brought us up hither.’"
13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 81.1-81.2, 89.61-89.64, 90.14, 90.20, 94.8, 97.2, 97.8, 98.7-98.8, 99.3, 99.16, 102.6-102.8, 103.2-103.3, 103.5-103.6, 103.9, 103.15, 104.1, 104.7, 104.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

81.1. And he said unto me: ' Observe, Enoch, these heavenly tablets, And read what is written thereon, And mark every individual fact.' 81.1. And in those days they ceased to speak to me, and I came to my people, blessing the Lord of the world. 81.2. And I observed the heavenly tablets, and read everything which was written (thereon) and understood everything, and read the book of all the deeds of mankind, and of all the children of flesh 89.61. He gave over unto them those sheep. And He called another and spake unto him: ' Observe and mark everything that the shepherds will do to those sheep; for they will destroy more of them than 89.62. I have commanded them. And every excess and the destruction which will be wrought through the shepherds, record (namely) how many they destroy according to my command, and how many according to their own caprice: record against every individual shepherd all the destruction he 89.63. effects. And read out before me by number how many they destroy, and how many they deliver over for destruction, that I may have this as a testimony against them, and know every deed of the shepherds, that I may comprehend and see what they do, whether or not they abide by my 89.64. command which I have commanded them. But they shall not know it, and thou shalt not declare it to them, nor admonish them, but only record against each individual all the destruction which 94.8. Woe to you, ye rich, for ye have trusted in your riches, And from your riches shall ye depart, Because ye have not remembered the Most High in the days of your riches. 97.2. Be it known unto you (ye sinners) that the Most High is mindful of your destruction, And the angels of heaven rejoice over your destruction. 97.8. Woe to you who acquire silver and gold in unrighteousness and say: ' We have become rich with riches and have possessions; And have acquired everything we have desired. 98.7. And do not think in your spirit nor say in your heart that ye do not know and that ye do not see 98.8. that every sin is every day recorded in heaven in the presence of the Most High. From henceforth ye know that all your oppression wherewith ye oppress is written down every day till the day of your judgement. 99.3. In those days make ready, ye righteous, to raise your prayers as a memorial, And place them as a testimony before the angels, That they may place the sin of the sinners for a memorial before the Most High. 99.16. For He shall cast down your glory, And bring affliction on your hearts, And shall arouse His fierce indignation And destroy you all with the sword; And all the holy and righteous shall remember your sins. 102.6. And yet when ye die the sinners speak over you: ' As we die, so die the righteous, And what benefit do they reap for their deed 102.7. Behold, even as we, so do they die in grief and darkness, And what have they more than we From henceforth we are equal. 102.8. And what will they receive and what will they see for ever Behold, they too have died, And henceforth for ever shall they see no light. 103.2. Mighty One in dominion, and by His greatness I swear to you. I know a mystery And have read the heavenly tablets, And have seen the holy books, And have found written therein and inscribed regarding them: 103.3. That all goodness and joy and glory are prepared for them, And written down for the spirits of those who have died in righteousness, And that manifold good shall be given to you in recompense for your labours, And that your lot is abundantly beyond the lot of the living. 103.5. Woe to you, ye sinners, when ye have died, If ye die in the wealth of your sins, And those who are like you say regarding you: ' Blessed are the sinners: they have seen all their days. 103.6. And how they have died in prosperity and in wealth, And have not seen tribulation or murder in their life; And they have died in honour, And judgement has not been executed on them during their life. 103.9. Say not in regard to the righteous and good who are in life: ' In our troubled days we have toiled laboriously and experienced every trouble, And met with much evil and been consumed, And have become few and our spirit small. 103.15. And they helped those who robbed us and devoured us and those who made us few; and they concealed their oppression, and they did not remove from us the yoke of those that devoured us and dispersed us and murdered us, and they concealed their murder, and remembered not that they had lifted up their hands against us. 104.1. I swear unto you, that in heaven the angels remember you for good before the glory of the Great 104.1. idols; for all your lying and all your godlessness issue not in righteousness but in great sin. And now I know this mystery, that sinners will alter and pervert the words of righteousness in many ways, and will speak wicked words, and lie, and practice great deceits, and write books concerning 104.7. but keep afar from their violence; for ye shall become companions of the hosts of heaven. And, although ye sinners say: ' All our sins shall not be searched out and be written down, nevertheless 104.9. day and night, see all your sins. Be not godless in your hearts, and lie not and alter not the words of uprightness, nor charge with lying the words of the Holy Great One, nor take account of your
14. Anon., Jubilees, 5.13-5.16, 32.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.13. And He sent His sword into their midst that each should slay his neighbour, and they began to slay each other till they all fell by the sword and were destroyed from the earth. 5.14. And their fathers were witnesses (of their destruction), and after this they were bound in the depths of the earth for ever, until the day of the great condemnation when judgment is executed on all those who have corrupted their ways and their works before the Lord. 5.15. And He destroyed all from their places, and there was not left one of them whom He judged not according to all their wickedness. 5.16. And He made for all His works a new and righteous nature, so that they should not sin in their whole nature for ever, but should be all righteous each in his kind alway. 32.21. And on the following night, on the twenty-second day of this month, Jacob resolved to build that place, and to surround the court with a wall, and to sanctify it and make it holy for ever, for himself and his children after him.
15. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Qpsa, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Compositions 11Q5, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.10, 12.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 7.10. A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened." 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book."
18. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.9-7.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.9. And when he was at his last breath, he said, 'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.' 7.10. After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands,' 7.11. and said nobly, 'I got these from Heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again.'
19. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 16.17, 24.25-24.34, 36.10, 42.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.17. Do not say, "I shall be hidden from the Lord,and who from on high will remember me?Among so many people I shall not be known,for what is my soul in the boundless creation? 24.25. It fills men with wisdom, like the Pishon,and like the Tigris at the time of the first fruits. 24.26. It makes them full of understanding, like the Euphrates,and like the Jordan at harvest time. 24.27. It makes instruction shine forth like light,like the Gihon at the time of vintage. 24.28. Just as the first man did not know her perfectly,the last one has not fathomed her; 24.29. for her thought is more abundant than the sea,and her counsel deeper than the great abyss. 24.31. I said, "I will water my orchard and drench my garden plot";and lo, my canal became a river,and my river became a sea. 24.32. I will again make instruction shine forth like the dawn,and I will make it shine afar; 24.33. I will again pour out teaching like prophecy,and leave it to all future generations. 24.34. Observe that I have not labored for myself alone,but for all who seek instruction. 42.15. I will now call to mind the works of the Lord,and will declare what I have seen. By the words of the Lord his works are done. 42.15. In his majesty he amasses the clouds,and the hailstones are broken in pieces.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 22 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. For the substance was of itself destitute of arrangement, of quality, of animation, of distinctive character, and full of all disorder and confusion; and it received a change and transformation to what is opposite to this condition, and most excellent, being invested with order, quality, animation, resemblance, identity, arrangement, harmony, and everything which belongs to the more excellent idea. VI.
21. Anon., Testament of Abraham A, 11-12, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.137-12.144 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.137. This it is which Polybius relates. But we will return to the series of the history, when we have first produced the epistles of king Antiochus: 12.138. “King Antiochus To Ptolemy, Sendeth Greeting. /p“Since the Jews, upon our first entrance on their country, demonstrated their friendship towards us, and when we came to their city [Jerusalem], received us in a splendid manner, and came to meet us with their senate, and gave abundance of provisions to our soldiers, and to the elephants, and joined with us in ejecting the garrison of the Egyptians that were in the citadel 12.139. we have thought fit to reward them, and to retrieve the condition of their city, which hath been greatly depopulated by such accidents as have befallen its inhabitants, and to bring those that have been scattered abroad back to the city. 12.141. And these payments I would have fully paid them, as I have sent orders to you. I would also have the work about the temple finished, and the cloisters, and if there be any thing else that ought to be rebuilt. And for the materials of wood, let it be brought them out of Judea itself and out of the other countries, and out of Libanus tax free; and the same I would have observed as to those other materials which will be necessary, in order to render the temple more glorious; 12.142. and let all of that nation live according to the laws of their own country; and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also. 12.143. And that the city may the sooner recover its inhabitants, I grant a discharge from taxes for three years to its present inhabitants, and to such as shall come to it, until the month Hyperberetus. 12.144. We also discharge them for the future from a third part of their taxes, that the losses they have sustained may be repaired. And all those citizens that have been carried away, and are become slaves, we grant them and their children their freedom, and give order that their substance be restored to them.”
23. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.5, 13.8, 20.12, 20.15, 21.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.5. He who overcomes will be arrayed in white garments, and I will in no way blot his name out of the book of life, and I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels. 13.8. All who dwell on the earth will worship him, everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who has been killed. 20.12. I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne, and they opened books. Another book was opened, which is the book of life. The dead were judged out of the things which were written in the books, according to their works. 20.15. If anyone was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire. 21.27. There will in no way enter into it anything profane, or one who causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb's book of life.
24. New Testament, Hebrews, 11.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.29. By faith, they passed through the Red sea as on dry land. When the Egyptians tried to do so, they were swallowed up.
25. New Testament, Luke, 10.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.20. Nevertheless, don't rejoice in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice that your names are written in heaven.
26. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 8.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ (בראשית א, כו), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַח (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם, אוֹכֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו הוּא בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ה, ב): זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, דְּיוּ פַּרְצוּפִים בְּרָאוֹ, וְנִסְּרוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גַּבִּים, גַּב לְכָאן וְגַב לְכָאן. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מִתְּרֵין סִטְרוֹהִי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן, דִּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן וְלִסְטַר מַשְׁכְּנָא וגו'. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ, וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם בְּרָאוֹ, מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו'. מִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַּיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, טז): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, דְּאָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹקִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמֵר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ זְבוּב קְדָמְךָ, יַתּוּשׁ קְדָמְךָ, שִׁלְשׁוּל זֶה קְדָמְךָ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל עֳנָשִׁין. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַף בְּקִלּוּס אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קמח, א): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו', וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים קמח, ז): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הָאָרֶץ וגו' וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קמח, יא): מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים (תהלים קמח, יב): בַּחוּרִים וְגַם בְּתוּלוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקִּלּוּסוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף, כָּךְ בְּרִיָּתוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, מַה טַּעְמֵיהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו', וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וגו'. 8.1. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן טָעוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ וְאִפַּרְכוֹס שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקָרוּכִין, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה מְבַקְּשִׁין לוֹמַר לַמֶּלֶךְ דּוֹמִינוֹ, וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין אֵיזֶהוּ, מֶה עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּחָפוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לַקָּרוּכִין, וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אִפַּרְכוֹס. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, טָעוּ בּוֹ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הִפִּיל עָלָיו תַּרְדֵּמָה וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אָדָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה ב, כב): חִדְלוּ לָכֶם מִן הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נְשָׁמָה בְּאַפּוֹ כִּי בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא. 8.1. ... Said R’ Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne/androginos, as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created [for] him a double-face/di-prosopon/ du-par’tsufin, and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back [t]here, as it is said, “Back/achor and before/qedem You formed me” [Ps 139:5]. They objected to him: But it says, “He took one of his ribs/ts’la`ot . . . ” [Gn 2:21]! He said to them: [It means] “[one] of his sides/sit’rohi”, just as you would say, “And for the side/tsela` of the Tabernacle/ mishkan” [Ex 26:20], which they translate [in Aramaic] “for the side/seter”. R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” [Ps 139:16]. R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]..."
27. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 14.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14.1. אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ (ויקרא יב, ב), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם נוֹחֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, הַזֶּה וְהַבָּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּדִכְתִיב (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּבְרָא דוּ פַּרְצוּפִין נִבְרָא וּנְסָרוֹ וְנַעֲשָׂה שְׁנַיִם גַּבִּים, גַּב לְזָכָר גַּב לִנְקֵבָה. אֵיתִיבוּן לֵיהּ (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אָמַר לָהֶן מִסִּטְרוֹהִי, כְּדִכְתִיב (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ מְלוֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ. מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, מִן הַצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, וּמִנַּיִן כַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָחוֹר זֶה יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם זֶה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דִּכְתִיב (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה, זוֹ רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָחוֹר זֶה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם זֶה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ דִּכְתִיב (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְכָל מַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ יַתּוּשׁ קַדְמָךְ, שִׁלְשׁוּל קַדְמָךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּרַבִּי תַּנְחוּם, אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל הָעֳנָשִׁין, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אוֹמֵר אַף קִלּוּסוֹ לֹא בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קמח, י): הַחַיָּה וְכָל בְּהֵמָה רֶמֶשׂ וְצִפּוֹר כָּנָף, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיְצִירָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, כָּךְ תּוֹרָתוֹ אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ויקרא יא, מו): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ. 14.1. \"A woman when she gives seed (conceives)\" [Leviticus 12:2]: That's what is written, \"You have created me behind and before.\" [Psalms 139:5] Said Rabbi Yocha: If man merits, he inherits two worlds, this one and the coming one, that's what is written: \"You have created me behind and before (front).\" And if not, he comes to give reckoning, as it says, \"And You laid your hand (kapcha) on me.\" [ibid], as it is written, [Job 13:21] \"Withdraw your hand (kapcha) far from me.\" Said Rav Shmuel bar Nachman: When the Holy One, blessed be He, created the first man, he created him as an androgynous being. Reish Lakish: When it was created, dual faces [together] were created, and it was cut, and two were made. [One] back was male, [one] back was female. They challenged him: [Genesis 2:21] \"And He took one of his ribs (tzela)\"!? He said to them, it is of his sides, as it is written, \"and to the side (tzela) of the Tabernacle\" [Exodus 26:20]. Said Rabbi Berachiya and Rabbi Chelbo and Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachman: When God created the first man, from one end of the world to the other end, He created him to fill the entire world. How do we know from east to west? As it says, \"You created me back to east (kedem).\" How do we know from north to south? As it says, [Deuteronomy 4:32] \"From the ends of the heavens to the ends of the heavens.\" How do we know that it was the expanse of the world? As it says, \"And You laid your hand on me.\" Said Rabbi Elazar: \"Behind\" - that's the first day [of creation]. \"Before\" - that's the last day. For the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, there is the verse, [Genesis 1:24]: \"Let the earth bring forth the living soul (nefesh chaya) to its kind.\" \"Living soul\" - that's the spirit of the first man. Said Reish Lakish: \"Behind\" - that's the last day. \"Before\" - that's the first day. For the opinion of Reish Lakish, there is the verse: [Genesis 1:2] \"And the spirit of God wavered upon the water\" - that is the spirit of the king messiah. If man merits, we say to him: \"You were created before all of creation.\" If not, we say to him, \"The mosquito preceded you.\" Said Rabbi Yishmale b'Rabbi Tanchum: \"Behind\" on all creation, \"before\" (first) in all punishments. Said Rabbi Yocha: Even man's praise only comes last, as it says [Psalms 148:110]: \"Beasts and all cattle creeping things and flying fowl\". And afterwards, [Psalms 148:11]: \"Kings of the earth and all peoples.\" Said Rabbi Simlai: \"Just like man's formation was after beast, cattle, and bird, so too his laws are after beast, cattle, and bird, and that's what is written, \"This is the law of cattle\" [Leviticus 11:46], and afterwards, \"A woman when she gives seed...\""
28. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 2.30.9, 4.20.2, 4.20.4, 5.1.3, 5.5.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61a. הכל לטובה:,ואמר רב הונא אמר רב משום ר' מאיר לעולם יהיו דבריו של אדם מועטין לפני הקב"ה שנאמר (קהלת ה, א) אל תבהל על פיך ולבך אל ימהר להוציא דבר לפני האלהים כי האלהים בשמים ואתה על הארץ על כן יהיו דבריך מעטים:,דרש רב נחמן בר רב חסדא מאי דכתיב (בראשית ב, ז) וייצר ה' אלהים את האדם בשני יודי"ן שני יצרים ברא הקב"ה אחד יצר טוב ואחד יצר רע,מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק אלא מעתה בהמה דלא כתיב בה וייצר לית לה יצרא והא קא חזינן דמזקא ונשכא ובעטא אלא כדר"ש בן פזי דאמר ר' שמעון בן פזי אוי לי מיוצרי ואוי לי מיצרי,אי נמי כדר' ירמיה בן אלעזר דאמר ר' ירמיה בן אלעזר דו פרצופין ברא הקב"ה באדם הראשון שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני:,(בראשית ב, כב) ויבן ה' אלהים את הצלע,רב ושמואל חד אמר פרצוף וחד אמר זנב,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב אחור וקדם צרתני אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי אחור וקדם צרתני כדרבי אמי דאמר ר' אמי אחור למעשה בראשית וקדם לפורענות,בשלמא אחור למעשה בראשית דלא אברי עד מעלי שבתא אלא וקדם לפורענות פורענות דמאי אילימא פורענות דנחש והתניא רבי אומר בגדולה מתחילין מן הגדול ובקללה מתחילין מן הקטן,בגדולה מתחילין מן הגדול דכתיב (ויקרא י, יב) וידבר משה אל אהרן ואל אלעזר ואל איתמר בניו הנותרים קחו וגו' בקללה מתחילין מן הקטן בתחלה נתקלל נחש ולבסוף נתקללה חוה ולבסוף נתקלל אדם,אלא פורענות דמבול דכתיב (בראשית ז, כג) וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה מאדם ועד בהמה ברישא אדם והדר בהמה,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב וייצר בשני יודי"ן אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי וייצר,כדר"ש בן פזי דאמר ר' שמעון בן פזי אוי לי מיוצרי אוי לי מיצרי,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ה, ב) זכר ונקבה בראם אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי זכר ונקבה בראם כדר' אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב זכר ונקבה בראם וכתיב (בראשית ט, ו) כי בצלם אלהים עשה את האדם הא כיצד בתחלה עלה במחשבה לבראת ב' ולבסוף לא נברא אלא אחד,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ב, כא) ויסגור בשר תחתנה אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי ויסגור בשר תחתנה א"ר ירמיה ואיתימא רב זביד ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק לא נצרכה אלא למקום חתך,בשלמא למ"ד זנב היינו דכתיב ויבן אלא למ"ד פרצוף מאי ויבן,לכדר"ש בן מנסיא דדרש ר"ש בן מנסיא מאי דכתיב ויבן ה' את הצלע מלמד שקלעה הקב"ה לחוה והביאה לאדם הראשון שכן בכרכי הים קורין לקליעתא בנייתא,דבר אחר ויבן אמר רב חסדא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מלמד שבנאה הקב"ה לחוה כבנין אוצר מה אוצר זה קצר מלמעלה ורחב מלמטה כדי לקבל את הפירות אף אשה קצרה מלמעלה ורחבה מלמטה כדי לקבל את הולד,ויביאה אל האדם א"ר ירמיה בן אלעזר מלמד שנעשה הקב"ה שושבין לאדם הראשון מכאן למדה תורה דרך ארץ שיחזור גדול עם קטן בשושבינות ואל ירע לו,ולמאן דאמר פרצוף הי מינייהו סגי ברישא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא דגברא סגי ברישא דתניא לא יהלך אדם אחורי אשה בדרך ואפי' אשתו נזדמנה לו על הגשר יסלקנה לצדדין וכל העובר אחורי אשה בנהר אין לו חלק לעולם הבא,תנו רבנן המרצה מעות לאשה מידו לידה כדי להסתכל בה אפילו יש בידו תורה ומעשים טובים כמשה רבינו לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם שנאמר (משלי יא, כא) יד ליד לא ינקה רע לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם,א"ר נחמן מנוח עם הארץ היה דכתיב (שופטים יג, יא) וילך מנוח אחרי אשתו,מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק אלא מעתה גבי אלקנה דכתיב וילך אלקנה אחרי אשתו וגבי אלישע דכתיב (מלכים ב ד, ל) ויקם וילך אחריה הכי נמי אחריה ממש אלא אחרי דבריה ואחרי עצתה הכא נמי אחרי דבריה ואחרי עצתה,א"ר אשי ולמאי דקאמר רב נחמן מנוח עם הארץ היה אפי' בי רב נמי לא קרא שנאמר (בראשית כד, סא) ותקם רבקה ונערותיה ותרכבנה על הגמלים ותלכנה אחרי האיש ולא לפני האיש,א"ר יוחנן אחורי ארי ולא אחורי אשה אחורי אשה ולא אחורי עכו"ם אחורי עכו"ם ולא אחורי בהכ"נ בשעה שהצבור מתפללין,ולא אמרן אלא דלא דרי מידי ואי דרי מידי לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דליכא פתחא אחרינא ואי איכא פתחא אחרינא לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דלא רכיב חמרא אבל רכיב חמרא לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דלא מנח תפילין אבל מנח תפילין לית לן בה:,אמר רב יצר הרע דומה לזבוב ויושב בין שני מפתחי הלב שנא' (קהלת י, א) זבובי מות יבאיש יביע שמן רוקח ושמואל אמר כמין חטה הוא דומה שנאמר (בראשית ד, ז) לפתח חטאת רובץ,ת"ר שתי כליות יש בו באדם אחת יועצתו לטובה ואחת יועצתו לרעה ומסתברא דטובה לימינו ורעה לשמאלו דכתיב (קהלת י, ב) לב חכם לימינו ולב כסיל לשמאלו:,תנו רבנן כליות יועצות לב מבין לשון מחתך פה גומר ושט מכניס ומוציא כל מיני מאכל קנה מוציא קול 61a. bHe does for the best. /b, bAnd Rav Huna saidthat bRav said in the name of Rabbi Meir: One’s words should always be few before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Be not rash with your mouth and let not your heart be hasty to utter a word before God; for God is in heaven, and you upon earth. Therefore, let your words be few”(Ecclesiastes 5:1)., bRav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda interpreted homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Then the Lord God formed [ ivayyitzer /i] man”(Genesis 2:7), bwith a double iyod /i?This double iyodalludes to that fact that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, created two inclinations; one a good inclination and one an evil inclination. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects to this: If that is so,does ban animal, with regard to whom ivayyitzeris not writtenwith a double iyod /i, bnot have an inclination? Don’t we see that it causes damage and bites and kicks? Rather,interpret the double iyodhomiletically, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said:This alludes to the difficulty of human life; bwoe unto me from my Creator [ iyotzri /i] and woe unto me from my inclination [ iyitzri /i].If one opts to follow either his Creator or his inclination, woe unto him from the other., bAlternatively,this duplication in the language of creation can be explained bin accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar, as Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, created two faces [ idu partzufin /i] on Adam the firstman; he was created both male and female in a single body, bas it is stated: “You have formed me [ itzartani /i] behind and before”(Psalms 139:5); itzartaniis derived from the word itzura[face]. God formed two faces on a single creation, back and front.,It is stated: b“And the itzelawhich the Lord, God,had taken from the man, bHe madea woman, and brought her unto the man” (Genesis 2:22)., bRav and Shmueldisagree over the meaning of the word itzela /i: bOne said:It means bface.Eve was originally one face or side of Adam. bAnd one said:It means btail,which he explains to mean that the itzelawas an appendage, i.e., one of the ribs in Adam’s chest.,The Gemara analyzes this dispute: bGranted,according bto the one who saidthat itzelameans bface; that iswhy bit is written: “You have formed me [ itzartani /i] behind and before.” However,according bto the one who saidthat itzelameans btail, what ismeant by the verse: b“You have formed me [ itzartani /i] behind and before”?The Gemara answers: It can be explained bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ami, as Rabbi Ami said: Behindmeans Adam was created at the end of bthe act of creation; and beforemeans that he was first bfor punishment. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,Adam was bbehind,or last, bin the act of creation,meaning that bhe was not created untilthe sixth day, bShabbat eve; however, before,or first, bfor punishment,to bwhat punishmentdoes this refer? bIf you saythat he was first bfor punishmentin the wake of the episode with bthe snake, wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat, with regard to punishment, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Inconferring bhonor, one begins with the greatest; in cursing, one begins with the least significant. /b,The Gemara explains: bInconferring bhonor, one begins with the greatest, as it is written: “And Moses said unto Aaron, and Elazar and Itamar, his remaining sons: Takethe meal-offering that remains” (Leviticus 10:12). Aaron, who was the greatest among those involved, is mentioned first. And bin cursing, one begins with the least significant,as bfirstthe bsnake was cursed, then Eve was cursed, and ultimately Adamhimself bwas cursed.The punishment did not begin with Adam., bRather,this refers to bthe punishment of the flood, as it is written: “And He blotted out every living substance which was upon the face of the ground, both man and cattle,creeping things and fowl of the heaven” (Genesis 7:23); the punishment bbegan with man, then the animals,and ultimately all the other creatures.,Returning to interpretation of ivayyitzer /i, the Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat Eve was originally a bfaceor side of Adam; bthat iswhy bit is written ivayyitzer /i,with a double iyod /i, which allude to the two formations. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat she was a btail,or appendage, of Adam, bwhat isconveyed by spelling ivayyitzer /iwith a double iyod /i?,The Gemara responds: This is interpreted homiletically bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said:This comes to emphasize that which a person says to himself in every circumstance: bWoe unto me from my Creator and woe unto me from my inclination. /b, bGranted, according to the one who saidthat Eve was a bface, that iswhy bit is written: “Male and female, He created them”(Genesis 5:2). bHowever, according to the one who saidthat Eve was a btail, what isthe meaning of the verse: b“Male and female, He created them”?The Gemara answers: It can be explained in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Abbahu.As bRabbi Abbahu raised a contradictionbetween the verses: On the one hand bit is written: “Male and female, He created them,” andon the other hand bit is written: “For in the image of God He made man”(Genesis 9:6), indicating that man was created alone. bHow, then,does he resolve the contradiction? bAt first, the thought enteredGod’s mind bto create two, and ultimately, only one wasactually bcreated. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat Eve was a bface, that iswhy bit is written:“And He took one of his sides band closed up the place with flesh in its place”(Genesis 2:21), as it was necessary to close the side that was open. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat Eve was originally a btail, what ismeant by the verse: b“And closed up the place with flesh in its place”? Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say Rav Zevidsaid, band some say Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥaksaid: bIt was necessaryto say that bonly with regard to the place of the incision. /b,The Gemara challenges the other opinion: bGranted, according to the onewho said that Eve was a btail, that iswhy bit is written: “Andthe Lord God bbuiltthe itzela /i” (Genesis 2:22); it was a completely new building. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat Eve was a complete bfaceor side, bwhat isthe meaning of: b“And He built”?What needed to be built?,The Gemara responds: This must be interpreted homiletically, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Menasya, as Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya interpreted homiletically: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “And the Lord God built the itzela /i”?This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, braided Eve’shair, bandthen bbrought her to Adam, as in the coastal towns, they call braidinghair, bbuilding. /b, bAlternatively,the verse: bAnd He built,could be understood as a description of her basic shape, as bRav Ḥisda said, and some say that it is taught in a ibaraita /i:This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, built Eve like the structure of a storehouse. Just as a storehouse isbuilt bnarrow on top and wide on the bottom, in order to hold producewithout collapsing; bso too a womanis created bnarrow on top and wide on the bottom, in order to hold the fetus. /b,With regard to the verse: b“And brought her unto the man”(Genesis 2:22), bRabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said:This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, was Adam the firstman’s bbest man. From here, the Torah taught that it is a desired mode of behavior for a greater individual to seek out a lesser individual toassist him and bserve as his best man.The greater individual should help the lesser band should not feel badlyabout it, that it might be beneath his dignity.,The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who saidthat Eve was a bfaceor side of Adam, bwhich one of them walked in front? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is reasonableto say bthat the man walked in front, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA man should not walk behind a woman on a path,as he will look at her constantly, beven if it is his wife.If a womanhappens upon him along a bridge, he shouldwalk quickly in order to bmove her tohis bsideso that she will not walk in front of him. bAnd anyone who walks behind a woman in a riverin order to see her exposed skin when she lifts her clothing as she passes through the water bhas no portion in the World-to-Come./b, bThe Sages taught: One who counts money for a woman from his hand to her hand in order to look upon her, even if he has accumulated Torah and good deeds like Moses our teacher, he will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna, as it is stated: “Hand to hand, the evil man shall not go unpunished”(Proverbs 11:21); one who hands money from his hand to her hand, even if he received the Torah from God’s hand to his own, like Moses, bhe will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna,which is called evil., bRav Naḥman said:From the following verse we know that Samson’s father, bManoah, was an ignoramus, as it is written: “And Manoah…went after his wife”(Judges 13:11)., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects to this: If that is sothat you understand the verse literally, what do you say about the verse bwith regard to Elkana,the father of the prophet Samuel, bas it is written: “And Elkana walked after his wife,”and what of the verse bwith regard tothe prophet bElisha, as it is written: “And he arose and followed her”(II Kings 4:30)? bDoesthis verse bmeanthat he bliterally walked after her? Rather,certainly this verse means that bhe followed her words and advice. bHere, too,then the verse concerning Manoah may be similarly interpreted; he bfollowedhis wife’s bwords band followed her advice,and did not literally walk behind her., bRav Ashi said: And according to what Rav Naḥman said,that bManoah was an ignoramus; he did not evenlearn to breadthe basic Torah stories that even children learn bin school, as it is stated: “Rebecca arose, and her damsels, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man”(Genesis 24:61); they followed him and did bnotwalk bbefore the man. /b,On this topic, bRabbi Yoḥa said:It is preferable to walk bbehind a lion and not behind a woman,and preferable to walk bbehind a woman and not behind idolatry,for then it will appear as if he is accompanying the idolatry. It is preferable to walk bbehind idolatry and not behind a synagogue when the congregation is praying,as he appears to separate himself from the community in that he does not wish to join them in prayer.,This last ihalakhahas numerous caveats: bAnd we only saidthis bin a case where he is not carrying something, and if he is carrying something, this does not apply,as everyone will understand why he did not enter the synagogue. bAnd we only saidthis bin a case where there is no other entranceto the synagogue, band if there is another entrance, this does not apply. And we only saidthis bin a case where he is not riding a donkey, and if he is riding a donkey, this does not apply. And we only saidthis bin a case where he is not donning phylacteries, but if he is donning phylacteries, this does not apply. /b, bRav said: The evil inclination is like a fly and it sits between the two entrances of the heart, as it is stated: “Dead flies make the ointment of the perfumer fetid and putrid”(Ecclesiastes 10:1). bAnd Shmuel said:The evil inclination bis like a type of wheat, as it is stated: “Transgression [ iḥatat /i] couches at the door”(Genesis 4:7); iḥatatis interpreted homiletically as related to iḥitta /i, wheat., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA person has two kidneys; one advises him todo bgood and one advises him todo bevil. And it stands to reasonthat the one advising him to do bgood is to his right andthe one that advises him to do bevil is to his left, as it is written: “A wise man’s understanding is at his right hand, but a fool’s understanding is at his left”(Ecclesiastes 10:2).,Tangential to the subject of kidneys, the Gemara cites that which bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the roles of various organs: bThe kidneys advise, the heart understands, the tongue shapesthe sounds that emerges from the mouth, the bmouth completesthe shaping of the voice, the besophagus takes in and lets out all kinds of food,the btrachea produces the voice, /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. להרחיק כל שהוא ובלבד שירבה בפסין ר' יהודה אומר עד בית סאתים,אמרו לו לא אמרו בית סאתים אלא לגנה ולקרפף אבל אם היה דיר או סהר או מוקצה או חצר אפילו בית חמשת כורין אפילו בית עשרה כורין מותר ומותר להרחיק כל שהוא ובלבד שירבה בפסין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big לימא מתני' דלא כחנניא דתניא עושין פסין לבור וחבלין לשיירא וחנניא אומר חבלין לבור אבל לא פסין,אפי' תימא חנניא בור לחוד באר לחוד,איכא דאמרי מדלא קתני חנניא אומר עושין חבלין לבור ופסין לבאר מכלל דלחנניא לא שנא בור ולא שנא באר חבלין אין פסין לא לימא מתני' דלא כחנניא,אפילו תימא חנניא למאי דקאמר ת"ק קא מהדר ליה,לימא מתני' דלא כר"ע דתנן אחד באר הרבים ובור הרבים ובאר היחיד עושין להן פסין אבל בור היחיד עושין לו מחיצה גבוה עשרה טפחים דברי ר"ע,ואילו הכא קתני לביראות לביראות אין לבורות לא,אפי' תימא ר"ע באר מים חיים דפסיקא ליה לא שנא דרבים ול"ש דיחיד קתני בור מכונסין דלא פסיקא ליה לא קתני,לימא מתני' דלא כר' יהודה בן בבא דתנן רבי יהודה בן בבא אומר אין עושין פסין אלא לבאר הרבים בלבד ואילו הכא קתני לביראות ל"ש דרבים ול"ש דיחיד,אפי' תימא ר' יהודה בן בבא מאי ביראות ביראות דעלמא,מאי דיומדין א"ר ירמיה בן אלעזר דיו עמודין:,ד"יו למ"נודה שב"ח זונ"ית נתק"לקל במי"דה שלש"ה סימן:,תנן התם ר' יהודה אומר כל השיתין פטורין חוץ מן הדיופרא מאי דיופרא אמר עולא אילן העושה דיו פירות בשנה,א"ר ירמיה בן אלעזר דיו פרצוף פנים היה לו לאדם הראשון שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני כתיב (בראשית ב, כב) ויבן ה' אלהים את הצלע וגו' רב ושמואל חד אמר פרצוף וחד אמר זנב,בשלמא למ"ד פרצוף היינו דכתיב אחור וקדם צרתני אלא למ"ד זנב מאי אחור וקדם צרתני,כדר' אמי דא"ר אמי אחור למעשה בראשית וקדם לפורענות,בשלמא אחור למעשה בראשית דלא איברי עד מעלי שבתא אלא וקדם לפורענות מאי היא אילימא משום קללה הא בתחילה נתקלל נחש ולבסוף נתקללה חוה ולבסוף נתקלל אדם,אלא למבול דכתיב (בראשית ז, כג) וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה מאדם ועד בהמה וגו',בשלמא למ"ד פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ב, ז) וייצר תרין יודין אלא למ"ד זנב מאי וייצר,כדר"ש בן פזי דא"ר שמעון בן פזי אוי לי מיצרי אוי לי מיוצרי,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ה, ב) זכר ונקבה בראם אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי זכר ונקבה בראם,לכדר' אבהו דר' אבהו רמי כתיב זכר ונקבה בראם וכתיב (בראשית א, כז) (כי) בצלם אלהים ברא אותו בתחלה עלתה במחשבה לבראות שנים ולבסוף לא נברא אלא אחד,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ב, כא) ויסגור בשר תחתנה אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי ויסגור בשר תחתנה,אמר רב זביד ואיתימא ר' ירמיה ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק לא נצרכה אלא למקום חתך,בשלמא למ"ד זנב היינו דכתיב ויבן אלא למ"ד פרצוף מאי ויבן,לכדר' שמעון בן מנסיא דדריש ר"ש בן מנסיא ויבן ה' אלהים את הצלע מלמד שקילעה הקב"ה לחוה והביאה לאדם הראשון שכן בכרכי הים קורין לקלעיתא בנייתא,דבר אחר ויבן ה' אלהים אמר רב חסדא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מלמד שבנאה הקב"ה לחוה כבניין 18a. bto distancethe boards from the well and expand the enclosed area by bany amount,i.e., as much as one wishes, bprovided that he increases thenumber of upright bboardsbetween the double posts. bRabbi Yehuda says:The partitioned area may be expanded bup toan area of btwo ibeit se’a /i,which is an area of five thousand square cubits.,The Rabbis bsaid to him: They only spoke ofan area of btwo ibeit se’awith regard to a garden or an enclosureused for storing wood, scrap, and the like b[ ikarpef /i]. But if it was a pen [ idir /i], or a stable [ isahar /i], or a backyard, or a courtyardin front of the house, bevenif it had an area of bfive ibeit kor /ior beven ten ibeit kor /i, it is permitted. And it is permitted to distancethe boards and expand the enclosed area bby any amount, provided that one increases theupright bboardsbetween the double posts., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat bthe mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bḤaya, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may arrangeupright bboards around awater bcistern and ropes around a caravan. Ḥayadisagrees and bsays:One may set up bropes for a cistern, but notupright bboards. /b,The Gemara rejects this suggestion: bEven if you saythat the mishna was taught in accordance with the opinion of bḤaya, a cisternof collected rain water has a bdiscretelaw, as the water will eventually be consumed and the upright boards will become unnecessary; and ba wellof spring bwaterhas a bdiscretelaw, as the water is constantly renewed and the upright boards will remain useful., bSome saya different version of the previous passage: bFromthe fact bthatthe ibaraita bdoes not teach: Ḥaya says: One may set up ropes arounda water bcistern and boards around a well, by inference, according tothe opinion of bḤaya, there is no difference between a cistern and a well.In both cases, bropesare bindeedpermitted, whereas upright bboards are not. Let us say the mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bḤaya. /b,The Gemara rejects this argument: bEven if you saythat the mishna was taught in accordance with the opinion of bḤaya,he was only replying bto that which the first itannahad said;since the first itannahad spoken only of a cistern, there was no need for Ḥaya to fully clarify his own position and distinguish between a cistern and a well.,The Gemara further suggests: bLet us say the mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva. As we learnedin a mishna: In beach ofthe cases of ba public well, a public cistern, and a private well, one may arrangeupright bboards for them, butin the case of ba private cistern, one must establisha proper bpartition for it ten handbreadths high;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. /b, bWhereas herein the mishna bit teaches:One may arrange upright boards bfor a well,from which one may infer that bfor a well, yes,it is permitted to use posts, but bfor a cistern, no,it is not permitted. This is opposed to Rabbi Akiva’s opinion, which maintains that posts may be arranged for a public cistern.,The Gemara rejects this argument as well: bEven if you saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Akiva,the itannaof the mishna bteachesthe case of ba well of spring water, which hecan teach in ba distinctmanner because bthere is no differencewhether it belongs to bthe public and there is no differencewhether it belongs bto an individual,as it is always permitted. However, bhe did not teachthe case of ba cisterncontaining bcollectedrain water, bwhich hecould bnotteach in a bdistinctmanner because there is a difference between a public cistern and a private one. However, it cannot be proven from here that he disagrees with Rabbi Akiva.,The Gemara further suggests: bLet us say the mishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda ben Bava, as we learnedin a mishna: bRabbi Yehuda ben Bava says: One may only arrangeupright bboards for a public well, whereas herethe mishna bstates: For wells.The plural term implies that bthere is no differenceif the well belongs to bthe public, and there is no differenceif the well belongs bto an individual. /b,The Gemara also rejects this line of reasoning: bEven if you saythat the mishna is in accordance with bRabbi Yehuda ben Bava,to bwhatis the mishna referring when it says bwells?It is referring to bwells in general,but the itannameans to include only public wells.,The mishna had mentioned double posts [ ideyomadin /i]: The Gemara asks: bWhat are ideyomadin /i? Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: Two [ ideyo /i] posts [ iamudin /i],which are put together to create a single corner piece.,Having cited Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar’s statement with reference to the prefix ideyo /i, the Gemara cites other statements of his. bTwo, toone who was bostracized, praise, nourishment, ruin, attribute, three,are bmnemonicsfor the following statements by Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar., bWe learned therein a mishna: bRabbi Yehuda says: All inferior figs are exemptfrom being tithed, even if they are of doubtfully tithed produce [ idemai /i], as even if the seller is an iam ha’aretz /i, he must certainly have already separated tithes from them, since the loss incurred by tithing is negligible, bexcept for ideyufra /i.The Gemara asks: bWhat is ideyufra /i? Ulla said: A tree that yields two [ ideyo /i]harvests bof fruit [ ipeirot /i] each year. /b, bRabbi Yirmeya ben Elazaralso bsaid: Adamwas first created with btwo [ ideyo /i] faces,one male and the other female. bAs it is stated: “You have formed me behind and before,and laid Your hand upon me” (Psalms 139:5). Similarly, bit is written: “And the itzela /i, whichthe Lord, God, had taken from the man, bHe madea woman, and brought her unto the man” (Genesis 2:22). bRav and Shmueldisagree over the meaning of the word itzela /i: bOne said:It means a female bface,from which God created Eve; band one said:Adam was created with ba tail [ izanav /i],which God removed from him and from which He created Eve.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat itzelameans bface;it is understandable bthat it is written: “You have formed me [ itzartani /i] behind and before.” However, according to the one who saysthat itzelameans btail, what ismeant by the verse: b“You have formed me [ itzartani /i] behind and before”? /b,The Gemara answers that this verse is to be understood as bearing a moral message, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ami, as Rabbi Ami said: Behindmeans Adam was created at the end of bthe act of creation; and beforemeans that he was first bfor punishment. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,it is understandable that Adam was bbehind,or last, bin the act of creation,meaning that bhe was not created untilthe sixth day, bShabbat eve. However, before,or first, bfor punishment, whatdoes bthismean? bIf you saythat he was punished first bbecause of the cursepronounced in the wake of the sin involving the Tree of Knowledge, there is a difficulty. bWasn’t the snake was cursed first, and afterward Eve was cursed, andonly bat the end was Adam cursed? /b, bRather,this refers btothe punishment of the bFlood, as it is written: “And He blotted out every living substance which was upon the face of the ground, both man and cattle,creeping things and fowl of the heaven” (Genesis 7:23). This indicates that the punishment began with man.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat Eve was originally ba faceor side of Adam; it is understandable bthat it is written:“Then the Lord God bformed [ ivayyitzer /i]man” (Genesis 2:7). iVayyitzeris written with ba double iyod /i,one for Adam and one for Eve. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat Eve was created from ba tail, what isconveyed by spelling ivayyitzer /iwith a double iyod /i?,The Gemara responds: This is interpreted homiletically, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said:This comes to emphasize that which one says to himself in every circumstance: bWoe unto me from myevil binclination [ iyetzer /i]if I perform the will of my Maker, band woe to me from my Maker [ iYotzri /i]if I perform the will of my inclination.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat Eve was ba face,it is understandable bthat it is written: “Male and female, He created them,and blessed them, and called their name Man in the day when they were created” (Genesis 5:2), which indicates that from the very beginning of their creation, He fashioned two faces, one for the male and the other for the female. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat Eve was created from ba tail, what isthe meaning of the verse: b“Male and female, He created them”? /b,The Gemara answers: It can be explained bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raised a contradictionbetween the verses: On the one hand bit is written: “Male and female, He created them,”in the plural, bandon the other hand bit is written:“So God created man in His own image, bfor in the image of God He created him”(Genesis 1:27), in the singular. bAt first, the thought enteredGod’s mind bto create two, and ultimately, only one wasactually bcreated. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat Eve was ba face,it is understandable bthat it is written:“And He took one of his sides band closed up the flesh in its place”(Genesis 2:21). bHowever, according to the one who saidthat Eve was created from ba tail, what ismeant by the verse: b“And He closed up the flesh in its place”? /b, bRav Zevid said, and some sayit was bRabbi Yirmeya, and some sayit was bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: It was necessaryto say that the fleshed closed up bonly with regard to the place of the incision. /b,The Gemara challenges the other opinion: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat Eve was created from ba tail;it is understandable bthat it is written: “Andthe Lord God bbuiltthe itzela /i” (Genesis 2:22), as it was a completely new building. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat Eve was a complete bfaceor side, bwhat isthe meaning of: b“And He built”?What needed to be built?,The Gemara responds: This must be interpreted homiletically, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Menasya, as Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya interpreted homileticallythe verse: b“And the Lord God built the itzela /i.”This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, braided for Eveher hair, bandthen bbrought her to Adam, as in the coastal towns, they call braidinghair bbuilding. /b, bAlternatively,the verse: b“And the Lord God built,”can be understood as a description of Eve’s basic shape, as bRav Ḥisda said, and some say it is taught in a ibaraita /i:This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, built Eve like the structure /b
31. Anon., 4 Ezra, 6.20

6.20. and when the seal is placed upon the age which is about to pass away, then I will show these signs: the books shall be opened before the firmament, and all shall see it together.
32. Anon., Seder Eliyahu Rabbah, 1

33. Anon., Apocalypse of Zephaniah, 3.9



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 199, 215, 218, 221
afterlife Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
angels, human-like appearance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
annotation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 213
apocalypse Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 218, 220
apology/apologetic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 250
aquila Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 199, 215
aramaic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 199
ben kalonymus of worms Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 221
book of life Keith, The Gospel as Manuscript: An Early History of the Jesus Tradition as Material Artifact (2020) 61
books, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
books, of deeds Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
codex aleppo Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 213
codex leningrad Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 213
copying errors Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 199
counter narrative Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 250
creation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 199; Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 407
day of atonement Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 218, 221
deeds, of truth/righteousness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
deeds, wicked of humans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
dialogue with trypho Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 250
divine economy Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 92
economy Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 92
eden Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 199
eleasar ben judah Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 221
esv translation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 213
ethnic argumentation, stereotypes Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
ethnicity, ethnography Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
exodus from egypt Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
ferocitas Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
gens, gentes Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
genus Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
god, most high Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
golem Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 199
hades Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
hands of god Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 92
hearts Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
heresy Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 199
hope/hopelessness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
insolentia Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
jewish culture Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
jordan, river Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
judgement Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 218, 221
justice, divine Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
justin martyr Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 250
masoretic text (mt) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 213, 221
memorial/remembrance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
messiah Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 218, 220
midrash Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 213, 215, 218, 220, 221
miracles Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
mishna Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 199
natural world Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
nets Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 215
parallels (between books) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 213
philo of alexandria Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
polemic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 250
prayers Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 221
prophetic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 250
purim Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 250
rabbi elieser Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 218
rabbi jehoshua Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 218
rabbi joshua Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 218
rabbi joshua ben levi Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 218
rabies Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
record of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
religion, dogma/doctrine Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
remember Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
sabbath Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 218, 220
scribe, angelic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
seder eliahu rabba Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 215
sefer rokeach Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 221
sins / iniquity, recording of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
sleep Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 101
symmachus Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 199, 215
tablets, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 349
talmud Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 199
targum Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 215
theology Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 213, 220, 250
torah Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 213, 215, 218
translation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 213
transmission Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 213, 215
trinity Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 92
vulgate Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 215
wisdom Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 220
word, the' Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 92
yalkut shimoni Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 215, 218