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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6304
Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 116-118


nanI shall walk before the LORD In the lands of the living.,I trusted even when I spoke: 'I am greatly afflicted.',Precious in the sight of the LORD Is the death of His saints.,Because He hath inclined His ear unto me, Therefore will I call upon Him all my days.,Return, O my soul, unto Thy rest; For the LORD hath dealt bountifully with thee.,Gracious is the LORD, and righteous; Yea, our God is compassionate.,I said in my haste: 'All men are liars.',I will lift up the cup of salvation, And call upon the name of the LORD.,I love that the LORD should hear my voice and my supplications.,I will pay my vows unto the LORD, Yea, in the presence of all His people;,I will offer to thee the sacrifice of thanksgiving, And will call upon the name of the LORD.,But I called upon the name of the LORD: 'I beseech thee, O LORD, deliver my soul.',The LORD preserveth the simple; I was brought low, and He saved me.,How can I repay unto the LORD All His bountiful dealings toward me?,For thou hast delivered my soul from death, Mine eyes from tears, And my feet from stumbling.,My vows will I pay unto the LORD, Yea, in the presence of all His people.,I beseech Thee, O LORD, for I am Thy servant; I am Thy servant, the son of Thy handmaid; Thou hast loosed my bands.,The cords of death compassed me, And the straits of the nether-world got hold upon me; I found trouble and sorrow.,In the courts of the LORD’S house, In the midst of thee, O Jerusalem. Hallelujah.


nanFor His mercy is great toward us; And the truth of the LORD endureth for ever. Hallelujah.,O praise the LORD, all ye nations; Laud Him, all ye peoples.


nanThe voice of rejoicing and salvation is in the tents of the righteous; The right hand of the LORD doeth valiantly.,They compass me about like bees; They are quenched as the fire of thorns; Verily, in the name of the LORD I will cut them off.,The right hand of the LORD is exalted; The right hand of the LORD doeth valiantly.,Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the LORD; We bless you out of the house of the LORD.,'O give thanks unto the LORD, for He is good, For His mercy endureth for ever.,The LORD is for me; I will not fear; What can man do unto me?,It is better to take refuge in the LORD Than to trust in man.,All nations compass me about; Verily, in the name of the LORD I will cut them off.,Open to me the gates of righteousness; I will enter into them, I will give thanks unto the LORD.,The LORD is for me as my helper; And I shall gaze upon them that hate me.,O give thanks unto the LORD, for He is good, For His mercy endureth for ever.,Thou didst thrust sore at me that I might fall; But the LORD helped me.,They compass me about, yea, they compass me about; Verily, in the name of the LORD I will cut them off.,I shall not die, but live, And declare the works of the LORD.,This is the LORD’S doing; It is marvellous in our eyes.,This is the day which the LORD hath made; We will rejoice and be glad in it.,The LORD is God, and hath given us light; Order the festival procession with boughs, even unto the horns of the altar.,Out of my straits I called upon the LORD; He answered me with great enlargement.,So let them now that fear the LORD say, For His mercy endureth for ever.,The stone which the builders rejected Is become the chief corner-stone.,I will give thanks unto Thee, for Thou hast answered me, And art become my salvation.,So let Israel now say, For His mercy endureth for ever,,So let the house of Aaron now say, For His mercy endureth for ever.,The LORD hath chastened me sore; But He hath not given me over unto death.,It is better to take refuge in the LORD Than to trust in princes.,We beseech Thee, O LORD, save now! We beseech Thee, O LORD, make us now to prosper!,This is the gate of the LORD; The righteous shall enter into it.,The LORD is my strength and song; And He is become my salvation.,Thou art my God, and I will give thanks unto Thee; Thou art my God, I will exalt Thee.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

43 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.4-1.5, 1.8-1.9, 1.11, 2.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. מָשְׁכֵנִי אַחֲרֶיךָ נָּרוּצָה הֱבִיאַנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ חֲדָרָיו נָגִילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָה בָּךְ נַזְכִּירָה דֹדֶיךָ מִיַּיִן מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.5. שְׁחוֹרָה אֲנִי וְנָאוָה בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם כְּאָהֳלֵי קֵדָר כִּירִיעוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 1.8. אִם־לֹא תֵדְעִי לָךְ הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים צְאִי־לָךְ בְּעִקְבֵי הַצֹּאן וּרְעִי אֶת־גְּדִיֹּתַיִךְ עַל מִשְׁכְּנוֹת הָרֹעִים׃ 1.9. לְסֻסָתִי בְּרִכְבֵי פַרְעֹה דִּמִּיתִיךְ רַעְיָתִי׃ 1.11. תּוֹרֵי זָהָב נַעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ עִם נְקֻדּוֹת הַכָּסֶף׃ 2.4. הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל־בֵּית הַיָּיִן וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה׃ 1.4. Draw me, we will run after thee; The king hath brought me into his chambers; We will be glad and rejoice in thee, We will find thy love more fragrant than wine! Sincerely do they love thee. 1.5. ’I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon. 1.8. If thou know not, O thou fairest among women, Go thy way forth by the footsteps of the flock And feed thy kids, beside the shepherds’tents. 1.9. I have compared thee, O my love, To a steed in Pharaoh’s chariots. 1.11. We will make thee circlets of gold With studs of silver. 2.4. He hath brought me to the banqueting-house, And his banner over me is love.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 26.5, 31.10-31.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.5. וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃ 31.11. בְּבוֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם׃ 31.12. הַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ וּלְמַעַן יִלְמְדוּ וְיָרְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְשָׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 31.13. וּבְנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ וְלָמְדוּ לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 26.5. And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous." 31.10. And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles," 31.11. when all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing." 31.12. Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law;" 31.13. and that their children, who have not known, may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.12. וּבְהַגִּיעַ תֹּר נַעֲרָה וְנַעֲרָה לָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ מִקֵּץ הֱיוֹת לָהּ כְּדָת הַנָּשִׁים שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ כִּי כֵּן יִמְלְאוּ יְמֵי מְרוּקֵיהֶן שִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמֹּר וְשִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים בַּבְּשָׂמִים וּבְתַמְרוּקֵי הַנָּשִׁים׃ 2.12. Now when the turn of every maiden was come to go in to king Ahasuerus, after that it had been done to her according to the law for the women, twelve months—for so were the days of their anointing accomplished, to wit, six months with oil of myrrh, and six month with sweet odours, and with other ointments of the women —"
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.46, 13.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.46. בְּבַיִת אֶחָד יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹצִיא מִן־הַבַּיִת מִן־הַבָּשָׂר חוּצָה וְעֶצֶם לֹא תִשְׁבְּרוּ־בוֹ׃ 13.8. וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר בַּעֲבוּר זֶה עָשָׂה יְהוָה לִי בְּצֵאתִי מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 12.46. In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof." 13.8. And thou shalt tell thy son in that day, saying: It is because of that which the LORD did for me when I came forth out of Egypt."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 38-41, 37 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 8.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וְהָלְכוּ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה וְאֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיוֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 4.2. And many nations shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, And to the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths’; For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.23. דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר כֹּה תְבָרֲכוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָמוֹר לָהֶם׃ 6.23. ’Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, saying: On this wise ye shall bless the children of Israel; ye shall say unto them:"
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 24.6, 81.5-81.6, 82.7, 84.4, 94.7, 104.1, 104.31, 106.7, 111.4, 116.13, 118.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.6. זֶה דּוֹר דרשו [דֹּרְשָׁיו] מְבַקְשֵׁי פָנֶיךָ יַעֲקֹב סֶלָה׃ 81.5. כִּי חֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא מִשְׁפָּט לֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב׃ 81.6. עֵדוּת בִּיהוֹסֵף שָׂמוֹ בְּצֵאתוֹ עַל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם שְׂפַת לֹא־יָדַעְתִּי אֶשְׁמָע׃ 82.7. אָכֵן כְּאָדָם תְּמוּתוּן וּכְאַחַד הַשָּׂרִים תִּפֹּלוּ׃ 94.7. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא יִרְאֶה־יָּהּ וְלֹא־יָבִין אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב׃ 104.1. בָּרֲכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ׃ 104.1. הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעְיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים בֵּין הָרִים יְהַלֵּכוּן׃ 104.31. יְהִי כְבוֹד יְהוָה לְעוֹלָם יִשְׂמַח יְהוָה בְּמַעֲשָׂיו׃ 106.7. אֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְמִצְרַיִם לֹא־הִשְׂכִּילוּ נִפְלְאוֹתֶיךָ לֹא זָכְרוּ אֶת־רֹב חֲסָדֶיךָ וַיַּמְרוּ עַל־יָם בְּיַם־סוּף׃ 111.4. זֵכֶר עָשָׂה לְנִפְלְאֹתָיו חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם יְהוָה׃ 116.13. כּוֹס־יְשׁוּעוֹת אֶשָּׂא וּבְשֵׁם יְהוָה אֶקְרָא׃ 118.25. אָנָּא יְהוָה הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא אָנָּא יְהוָה הַצְלִיחָה נָּא׃ 24.6. Such is the generation of them that seek after Him, that seek Thy face, even Jacob. Selah" 81.5. For it is a statute for Israel, an ordice of the God of Jacob." 81.6. He appointed it in Joseph for a testimony, when He went forth against the land of Egypt. The speech of one that I knew not did I hear:" 82.7. Nevertheless ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes.'" 94.7. And they say: 'The LORD will not see, Neither will the God of Jacob give heed.'" 104.1. Bless the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, Thou art very great; Thou art clothed with glory and majesty." 104.31. May the glory of the LORD endure for ever; let the LORD rejoice in His works!" 106.7. Our fathers in Egypt gave no heed unto Thy wonders; they remembered not the multitude of Thy mercies; but were rebellious at the sea, even at the Red Sea." 111.4. He hath made a memorial for His wonderful works; The LORD is gracious and full of compassion." 116.13. I will lift up the cup of salvation, And call upon the name of the LORD." 118.25. We beseech Thee, O LORD, save now! We beseech Thee, O LORD, make us now to prosper!"
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.3, 12.3, 19.1, 19.11, 19.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. וְהָלְכוּ עַמִּים רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 12.3. וּשְׁאַבְתֶּם־מַיִם בְּשָׂשׂוֹן מִמַּעַיְנֵי הַיְשׁוּעָה׃ 19.1. מַשָּׂא מִצְרָיִם הִנֵּה יְהוָה רֹכֵב עַל־עָב קַל וּבָא מִצְרַיִם וְנָעוּ אֱלִילֵי מִצְרַיִם מִפָּנָיו וּלְבַב מִצְרַיִם יִמַּס בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 19.1. וְהָיוּ שָׁתֹתֶיהָ מְדֻכָּאִים כָּל־עֹשֵׂי שֶׂכֶר אַגְמֵי־נָפֶשׁ׃ 19.11. אַךְ־אֱוִלִים שָׂרֵי צֹעַן חַכְמֵי יֹעֲצֵי פַרְעֹה עֵצָה נִבְעָרָה אֵיךְ תֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה בֶּן־חֲכָמִים אֲנִי בֶּן־מַלְכֵי־קֶדֶם׃ 19.13. נוֹאֲלוּ שָׂרֵי צֹעַן נִשְּׁאוּ שָׂרֵי נֹף הִתְעוּ אֶת־מִצְרַיִם פִּנַּת שְׁבָטֶיהָ׃ 2.3. And many peoples shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths.’ For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem." 12.3. Therefore with joy shall ye draw water Out of the wells of salvation." 19.1. The burden of Egypt. Behold, the LORD rideth upon a swift cloud, And cometh unto Egypt; And the idols of Egypt shall be moved at His presence, And the heart of Egypt shall melt within it." 19.11. The princes of Zoan are utter fools; the wisest counsellors of Pharaoh are a senseless counsel; How can ye say unto Pharaoh: ‘I am the son of the wise, The son of ancient kings’?." 19.13. The princes of Zoan are become fools, The princes of Noph are deceived; They have caused Egypt to go astray, That are the corner-stone of her tribes."
11. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 18.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18.22. תִּשָּׁמַע זְעָקָה מִבָּתֵּיהֶם כִּי־תָבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם גְּדוּד פִּתְאֹם כִּי־כָרוּ שיחה [שׁוּחָה] לְלָכְדֵנִי וּפַחִים טָמְנוּ לְרַגְלָי׃ 18.22. Let a cry be heard from their houses, When thou shalt bring a troop suddenly upon them; For they have digged a pit to take me, And hid snares for my feet."
12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 47.1, 47.9 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

47.1. וְהָיָה יעמדו [עָמְדוּ] עָלָיו דַּוָּגִים מֵעֵין גֶּדִי וְעַד־עֵין עֶגְלַיִם מִשְׁטוֹחַ לַחֲרָמִים יִהְיוּ לְמִינָה תִּהְיֶה דְגָתָם כִּדְגַת הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל רַבָּה מְאֹד׃ 47.1. וַיְשִׁבֵנִי אֶל־פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת וְהִנֵּה־מַיִם יֹצְאִים מִתַּחַת מִפְתַּן הַבַּיִת קָדִימָה כִּי־פְנֵי הַבַּיִת קָדִים וְהַמַּיִם יֹרְדִים מִתַּחַת מִכֶּתֶף הַבַּיִת הַיְמָנִית מִנֶּגֶב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 47.9. וְהָיָה כָל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֲ‍שֶׁר־יִשְׁרֹץ אֶל כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא שָׁם נַחֲלַיִם יִחְיֶה וְהָיָה הַדָּגָה רַבָּה מְאֹד כִּי בָאוּ שָׁמָּה הַמַּיִם הָאֵלֶּה וְיֵרָפְאוּ וָחָי כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יָבוֹא שָׁמָּה הַנָּחַל׃ 47.1. And he brought me back unto the door of the house; and, behold, waters issued out from under the threshold of the house eastward, for the forefront of the house looked toward the east; and the waters came down from under, from the right side of the house, on the south of the altar. 47.9. And it shall come to pass, that every living creature wherewith it swarmeth, whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall live; and there shall be a very great multitude of fish; for these waters are come thither, that all things be healed and may live whithersoever the river cometh."
13. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 13.1, 14.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה מָקוֹר נִפְתָּח לְבֵית דָּוִיד וּלְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם לְחַטַּאת וּלְנִדָּה׃ 14.8. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵצְאוּ מַיִם־חַיִּים מִירוּשָׁלִַם חֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הַקַּדְמוֹנִי וְחֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן בַּקַּיִץ וּבָחֹרֶף יִהְיֶה׃ 13.1. In that day there shall be a fountain opened To the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, For purification and for sprinkling." 14.8. And it shall come to pass in that day, That living waters shall go out from Jerusalem: Half of them toward the eastern sea, And half of them toward the western sea; In summer and in winter shall it be."
14. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Qpsa, 16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 32.5, 32.6, 42.15-43.33, 43.12, 43.13, 43.14, 43.15, 43.16, 43.17, 43.18, 43.19, 47.8, 47.9, 47.10, 47.11, 50.16, 50.17, 50.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

32.5. A ruby seal in a setting of gold is a concert of music at a banquet of wine.
16. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 47.8-47.11, 50.16-50.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.138, 2.148 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.138. Secondly, it shows mercy and compassion on those who have been treated unjustly, whose burden of distress it lightens by giving them a share in grace and gift; for the double portion of the inheriting son was no less likely to please the mother, who will be encouraged by the kindness of the law, which did not permit her and her offspring to be totally overcome by their enemies. 2.148. And each house is at that time invested with the character and dignity of a temple, the victim being sacrificed so as to make a suitable feast for the man who has provided it and of those who are collected to share in the feast, being all duly purified with holy ablutions. And those who are to share in the feast come together not as they do to other entertainments, to gratify their bellies with wine and meat, but to fulfil their hereditary custom with prayer and songs of praise.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 84, 80 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

80. and then some one rising up sings a hymn which has been made in honour of God, either such as he has composed himself, or some ancient one of some old poet, for they have left behind them many poems and songs in trimetre iambics, and in psalms of thanksgiving and in hymns, and songs at the time of libation, and at the altar, and in regular order, and in choruses, admirably measured out in various and well diversified strophes. And after him then others also arise in their ranks, in becoming order, while every one else listens in decent silence, except when it is proper for them to take up the burden of the song, and to join in at the end; for then they all, both men and women, join in the hymn.
19. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 8.100 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Mishnah, Arakhin, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.3. There are never less than twenty-one blasts in the Temple and never more than forty-eight. There are never less than two harps, nor more than six. There are never less than two flutes, nor more than twelve. On twelve days in the year the flute was played before the altar: At the slaughtering of the first pesah, At the killing of the second pesah, On the first festival day of Pesah, On the festival day of Atzeret (Shavuot), And on the eight days of Sukkot. And they did not play on a pipe [abuv] of bronze but on a pipe of reed, because its tune is sweeter. Nor was anything but a single pipe used for closing a tune, because it makes a pleasant finale.
21. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.6. A child may read in the Torah and translate, but he may not pass before the ark or lift up his hands. A person in rags may lead the responsive reading of the Shema and translate, but he may not read in the Torah, pass before the ark, or lift up his hands. A blind man may lead the responsive reading of the Shema and translate. Rabbi Judah says: one who has never seen the light from his birth may not lead the responsive reading of the Shema."
22. Mishnah, Pesahim, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.7. The first division [then] went out and the second entered; the second went out and the third entered. As did the first, so did the second and the third. They recited the Hallel. If they finished it, they repeated, and if they repeated [and were not finished yet], they recited it a third time, though they never did recite it a third time. Rabbi Judah says: the third division never reached, “I love Lord for he hears” (Psalms, because the people for it were few."
23. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 4.1, 4.3, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. If Yom Tov of Rosh Hashanah fell on Shabbat, they would blow the shofar in the Temple but not in the country. After the destruction of the Temple, Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed that it should be blown [on Shabbat] in every place where there was a court. Rabbi Eliezer said: Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed for Yavneh only. They said to him: both Yavneh and any place where there is a court." 4.3. In earlier times the lulav was taken for seven days in the Temple, and in the provinces for one day only. When the temple was destroyed, Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that the lulav should be taken in the provinces for seven days in memory of the Temple, [He also decreed] that on the whole of the day of waving it be forbidden [to eat the new produce]." 4.7. The one who passes before the ark on the festival of Rosh Hashanah: the second one blows the shofar. On days when Hallel is said, the first one recites the Hallel."
24. Mishnah, Sukkah, 3.12, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.12. In earlier times the lulav was taken for seven days in the Temple, and in the provinces for one day only. When the temple was destroyed, Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that the lulav should be taken in the provinces for seven days in memory of the Temple, [He also decreed] that on the whole of the day of waving it be forbidden [to eat the new produce]." 4.1. [The rituals of] the lulav and the aravah are for six or seven [days]; The Hallel and the rejoicing are for eight [days]; The sukkah and the water libation are for seven [days]; The flute is for five or six [days]."
25. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. On any day when there is Hallel there was no maamad at Shaharit; [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne'ilah. [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Ben Azzai said to him: Thus did Rabbi Joshua learn: [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah; [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne’ilah. Rabbi Akiva retracted and learned like Ben Azzai."
26. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.3-7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen." 7.4. The following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!)."
27. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.5, 11.23-11.25, 14.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.5. But every woman praying or prophesying with her head unveileddishonors her head. For it is one and the same thing as if she wereshaved. 11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 14.15. What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I willpray with the understanding also. I will sing with the spirit, and Iwill sing with the understanding also.
28. New Testament, Acts, 20.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20.7. On the first day of the week, when the disciples were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and continued his speech until midnight.
29. New Testament, Apocalypse, 19.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19.1. After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation, power, and glory belong to our God:
30. New Testament, John, 1.29, 3.14-3.15, 3.36, 10.28, 19.31, 19.36, 20.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.29. The next day, he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 3.14. As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up 3.15. that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 3.36. One who believes in the Son has eternal life, but one who disobeys the Son won't see life, but the wrath of God remains on him. 10.28. I give eternal life to them. They will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. 19.31. Therefore the Jews, because it was the Preparation Day, so that the bodies wouldn't remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a special one), asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. 19.36. For these things happened, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, "A bone of him will not be broken. 20.23. Whoever's sins you forgive, they are forgiven them. Whoever's sins you retain, they have been retained.
31. New Testament, Luke, 22.7-22.16, 22.19, 24.33-24.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.7. The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. 22.8. He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat. 22.9. They said to him, "Where do you want us to prepare? 22.10. He said to them, "Behold, when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house which he enters. 22.11. Tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 22.12. He will show you a large, furnished upper room. Make preparations there. 22.13. They went, found things as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover. 22.14. When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 22.15. He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer 22.16. for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread. 24.36. As they said these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, "Peace be to you. 24.37. But they were terrified and filled with fear, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. 24.38. He said to them, "Why are you troubled? Why do doubts arise in your hearts? 24.39. See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me. Touch me and see, for a spirit doesn't have flesh and bones, as you see that I have. 24.40. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. 24.41. While they still didn't believe for joy, and wondered, he said to them, "Do you have anything here to eat? 24.42. They gave him a piece of a broiled fish and some honeycomb. 24.43. He took it, and ate in front of them.
32. New Testament, Mark, 10.38, 14.12-14.16, 14.22-14.26, 14.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.38. But Jesus said to them, "You don't know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? 14.12. On the first day of unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the Passover, his disciples asked him, "Where do you want us to go and make ready that you may eat the Passover? 14.13. He sent two of his disciples, and said to them, "Go into the city, and there you will meet a man carrying a pitcher of water. Follow him 14.14. and wherever he enters in, tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 14.15. He will himself show you a large upper room furnished and ready. Make ready for us there. 14.16. His disciples went out, and came into the city, and found things as he had said to them, and they prepared the Passover. 14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God. 14.26. When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. 14.36. He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire.
33. New Testament, Matthew, 26.17-26.19, 26.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26.17. Now on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples came to Jesus, saying to him, "Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover? 26.18. He said, "Go into the city to a certain person, and tell him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is at hand. I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples."' 26.19. The disciples did as Jesus commanded them, and they prepared the Passover. 26.30. When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
34. Tosefta, Pesahim, 10.7-10.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.8. We may not eat an iafikoman[a dessert or other foods eaten after the meal] after [we are finished eating] the Pesach sacrifice; for example nuts, dates and roasted wheat. A man is obligated to be involved with the laws of Pesach the whole night, even if it [is only a discussion] between him and his son, even if it is between him and himself, even if it is between him and his student. It happened that Rabban Gamliel and the Elders were [once] reclining in the house of Beitos ben Zunin in Lud, and they were involved with the laws of Pesach the whole night until the call of the rooster. [Their students] raised the covering of the window from in front of them, and they [then] convened and went to the house of study. What is the blessing on the Pesach sacrifice? Blessed [...] who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us on the eating of the Pesach sacrifice. What is the blessing on the [other] offerings? Blessed [...] who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us on the eating of the offering."
35. Tosefta, Sotah, 6.2-6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. The [beat of the willow] is a tradition from Moses at Sinai, and Abba Sha'ul deduced it from Scripture, as it is says, “Willows of the brook”, the plural denoting two, one for the lulav, and one for the altar. Rabbi Elieser ben Yacov said, Thus were they saying, \"To Him and to thee, O altar, to Him and to thee, O altar!\" Eighteen days and one night (in the year) the entire Hallel is repeated. These are: the eight days of sukkot, the eight days of Hanukkah, the first day of Passover, the night of the first day of Passover, and the first day of Shavuot."
37. Longus, Daphnis And Chloe, 2.31.2-2.31.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. אמר ר' אלעזר גדולה תפלה יותר ממעשים טובים שאין לך גדול במעשים טובים יותר ממשה רבינו אעפ"כ לא נענה אלא בתפלה שנאמר (דברים ג, כו) אל תוסף דבר אלי וסמיך ליה עלה ראש הפסגה:,וא"ר אלעזר גדולה תענית יותר מן הצדקה מאי טעמא זה בגופו וזה בממונו:,וא"ר אלעזר גדולה תפלה יותר מן הקרבנות שנא' (ישעיהו א, יא) למה לי רוב זבחיכם וכתיב ובפרשכם כפיכם,א"ר יוחנן כל כהן שהרג את הנפש לא ישא את כפיו שנא' (ישעיהו א, טו) ידיכם דמים מלאו:,וא"ר אלעזר מיום שחרב בית המקדש ננעלו שערי תפלה שנאמר (איכה ג, ח) גם כי אזעק ואשוע שתם תפלתי ואע"פ ששערי תפלה ננעלו שערי דמעה לא ננעלו שנאמר (תהלים לט, יג) שמעה תפלתי ה' ושועתי האזינה אל דמעתי אל תחרש,רבא לא גזר תעניתא ביומא דעיבא משום שנא' (איכה ג, מד) סכותה בענן לך מעבור תפלה:,וא"ר אלעזר מיום שחרב בית המקדש נפסקה חומת ברזל בין ישראל לאביהם שבשמים שנא' (יחזקאל ד, ג) ואתה קח לך מחבת ברזל ונתתה אותה קיר ברזל בינך ובין העיר:,א"ר חנין א"ר חנינא כל המאריך בתפלתו אין תפלתו חוזרת ריקם מנא לן ממשה רבינו שנא' (דברים ט, כו) ואתפלל אל ה' וכתיב בתריה וישמע ה' אלי גם בפעם ההיא,איני והא א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנא' (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב מאי תקנתיה יעסוק בתורה שנא' (משלי יג, יב) ועץ חיים תאוה באה ואין עץ חיים אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה לא קשיא הא דמאריך ומעיין בה הא דמאריך ולא מעיין בה,א"ר חמא בר' חנינא אם ראה אדם שהתפלל ולא נענה יחזור ויתפלל שנאמר (תהלים כז, יד) קוה אל ה' חזק ויאמץ לבך וקוה אל ה':,ת"ר ארבעה צריכין חזוק ואלו הן תורה ומעשים טובים תפלה ודרך ארץ,תורה ומעשים טובים מנין שנא' (יהושע א, ז) רק חזק ואמץ מאד לשמור ולעשות ככל התורה חזק בתורה ואמץ במעשים טובים,תפלה מנין שנא' קוה אל ה' חזק ויאמץ לבך וקוה אל ה',דרך ארץ מנין שנא' (שמואל ב י, יב) חזק ונתחזק בעד עמנו וגו':,(ישעיהו מט, יד) ותאמר ציון עזבני ה' וה' שכחני היינו עזובה היינו שכוחה אמר ר"ל אמרה כנסת ישראל לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע אדם נושא אשה על אשתו ראשונה זוכר מעשה הראשונה אתה עזבתני ושכחתני,אמר לה הקב"ה בתי י"ב מזלות בראתי ברקיע ועל כל מזל ומזל בראתי לו שלשים חיל ועל כל חיל וחיל בראתי לו שלשים לגיון ועל כל לגיון ולגיון בראתי לו שלשים רהטון ועל כל רהטון ורהטון בראתי לו שלשים קרטון ועל כל קרטון וקרטון בראתי לו שלשים גסטרא ועל כל גסטרא וגסטרא תליתי בו שלש מאות וששים וחמשה אלפי רבוא כוכבים כנגד ימות החמה וכולן לא בראתי אלא בשבילך ואת אמרת עזבתני ושכחתני,(ישעיהו מט, טו) התשכח אשה עולה אמר הקב"ה כלום אשכח עולות אילים ופטרי רחמים שהקרבת לפני במדבר אמרה לפניו רבש"ע הואיל ואין שכחה לפני כסא כבודך שמא לא תשכח לי מעשה העגל אמר לה (ישעיהו מט, טו) גם אלה תשכחנה,אמרה לפניו רבש"ע הואיל ויש שכחה לפני כסא כבודך שמא תשכח לי מעשה סיני אמר לה (ישעיהו מט, טו) ואנכי לא אשכחך,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב גם אלה תשכחנה זה מעשה העגל ואנכי לא אשכחך זה מעשה סיני:,חסידים הראשונים היו שוהין שעה אחת:,מנא הני מילי א"ר יהושע ב"ל אמר קרא (תהלים פד, ה) אשרי יושבי ביתך,ואמר ר' יהושע ב"ל המתפלל צריך לשהות שעה אחת אחר תפלתו שנא' (תהלים קמ, יד) אך צדיקים יודו לשמך ישבו ישרים את פניך,תניא נמי הכי המתפלל צריך שישהא שעה אחת קודם תפלתו ושעה אחת אחר תפלתו קודם תפלתו מנין שנא' אשרי יושבי ביתך לאחר תפלתו מנין דכתיב אך צדיקים יודו לשמך ישבו ישרים את פניך,תנו רבנן חסידים הראשונים היו שוהין שעה אחת ומתפללין שעה אחת וחוזרין ושוהין שעה אחת וכי מאחר ששוהין תשע שעות ביום בתפלה תורתן היאך משתמרת ומלאכתן היאך נעשית,אלא מתוך שחסידים הם תורתם משתמרת ומלאכתן מתברכת:,אפילו המלך שואל בשלומו לא ישיבנו:,אמר רב יוסף לא שנו אלא למלכי ישראל אבל למלכי עכו"ם פוסק,מיתיבי המתפלל וראה אנס בא כנגדו ראה קרון בא כנגדו לא יהא מפסיק אלא מקצר ועולה,לא קשיא הא דאפשר לקצר (יקצר ואם לאו פוסק),ת"ר מעשה בחסיד אחד שהיה מתפלל בדרך בא שר אחד ונתן לו שלום ולא החזיר לו שלום המתין לו עד שסיים תפלתו לאחר שסיים תפלתו א"ל ריקא והלא כתוב בתורתכם (דברים ד, ט) רק השמר לך ושמור נפשך וכתיב (דברים ד, טו) ונשמרתם מאד לנפשותיכם כשנתתי לך שלום למה לא החזרת לי שלום אם הייתי חותך ראשך בסייף מי היה תובע את דמך מידי,א"ל המתן לי עד שאפייסך בדברים א"ל אילו היית עומד לפני מלך בשר ודם ובא חברך ונתן לך שלום היית 32b. bRabbi Elazar said:This story proves that bprayer is greater than good deedswithout prayer ( iTosafot /i), as bthere was none greater inthe performance of bgood deeds than Moses our teacher; nevertheless, his request was granted,albeit in a limited manner, in his request to enter Eretz Yisrael, bonly through prayer,when God permitted him to climb the mountain and look out over the land. bAs,initially bit is stated: “Speak no more to Me,” juxtaposed to which is: “Go up to the summit of the mountain.” /b,After comparing and contrasting prayer and good deeds, the Gemara explores another comparison. bRabbi Elazar said: A fast is greater than charity. What is the reasonthat fasting is greater? Because a fast bisa mitzva performed bwith one’s bodyas he afflicts himself, bwhilecharity bisperformed only bwith one’s money. /b,In another comparison, bRabbi Elazar said: Prayer is greater than sacrifices, as it is stated: “To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices to Me,says the Lord. I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams and the fat of fed beasts; I do not desire the blood of bulls and sheep and goats” (Isaiah 1:11). bAndseveral verses later bit is written: “And when you spread forth your handsI will hide My eyes from you, and even if you increase your prayer, I will not hear; your hands are full of blood” (Isaiah 1:15). Not only Israel’s sacrifices, but even their prayers, which are on a higher spiritual level, will not be accepted.,Speaking of that verse in Isaiah, the Gemara cites that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Any priest who killed a person may not lift his handsin the Priestly Blessing bas it is stated:“And when you spread forth your hands I will hide My eyes from you… byour hands are full of blood.”Here we see that the Priestly Blessing, performed with hands spread forth, is not accepted when performed by priests whose “hands are full of blood.”,On the subject of prayer, bRabbi Elazar also said: Since the day the Temple was destroyed the gates of prayer were lockedand prayer is not accepted as it once was, bas it is saidin lamentation of the Temple’s destruction: b“Though I plead and call out, He shuts out my prayer”(Lamentations 3:8). Yet, bdespitethe fact bthat the gates of prayer were lockedwith the destruction of the Temple, bthe gates of tears were not locked,and one who cries before God may rest assured that his prayers will be answered, bas it is stated: “Hear my prayer, Lord, and give ear to my pleading, keep not silence at my tears”(Psalms 39:13). Since this prayer is a request that God should pay heed to the tears of one who is praying, he is certain that at least the gates of tears are not locked.,With regard to the locking of the gates of prayer, the Gemara relates that bRava did not decree a fast on a cloudy day because it is stated: “You have covered Yourself in a cloud, through which prayer cannot pass”(Lamentations 3:44). The verse indicates that clouds are a bad omen, indicating that God has averted His face (Rav Hai Gaon)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Since the day the Temple was destroyed an iron wall separates Israel from their Father in heaven, as it is statedto the prophet Ezekiel, instructing him to symbolize that separation: b“And take for yourself an iron griddle, and set it as an iron wall between yourself and the city… /bit will be a sign for the house of Israel” (Ezekiel 4:3).,The Gemara cites other statements in praise of prayer: bRabbi Ḥanin saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: Anyone who prolongs his prayer isassured that bhis prayer does not return uswered;it will surely be accepted. bFrom where do wederive this? bFrom Moses our teacher, as it is statedthat Moses said: “So I fell down before the Lord the forty days and forty nights that I fell down; band I prayed to the Lord”(Deuteronomy 9:26–27), band it is written thereafter: “And the Lord heard me that time as well,the Lord would not destroy you” (Deuteronomy 10:10).,The Gemara raises an objection: bIs that so? Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saythat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Anyone who prolongs his prayer and expects it to be answered, will ultimately come to heartache,as it will not be answered. bAs it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick”(Proverbs 13:12). bAnd what is the remedyfor one afflicted with that illness? He should bengage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “But desire fulfilled is the tree of life”(Proverbs 13:12), band tree of life is nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to those who hold fast to it,and those who support it are joyous” (Proverbs 3:18). This is bnot difficult. This,Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba’s statement that one will suffer heartache refers to one bwho prolongshis prayer band expects it to be answered; that,Rabbi Ḥanin’s statement that one who prolongs his prayer is praiseworthy refers to bone who prolongs his prayer anddoes bnot expect it to be answered. /b,On a similar note, bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: A person who prayed and saw that he was not answered,should bpray again, as it is stated: “Hope in the Lord, strengthen yourself, let your heart take courage, and hope in the Lord”(Psalms 27:14). One should turn to God with hope, and if necessary turn to God again with hope.,Connected to the emphasis on the need to bolster one’s effort in prayer, the Gemara notes that bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFourthings brequire bolstering,constant effort to improve, band they are: Torah, good deeds, prayer, and occupation. /b,For each of these, a biblical proof is cited: bFrom whereis it derived that bTorah and good deedsrequire bolstering? bAs it is statedin the instruction to Joshua: b“Only be strong and be extremely courageous, observe and do all of the Torahthat Moses My servant commanded you; do not deviate to the right or to the left, that you may succeed wherever you go” (Joshua 1:7). In this verse, observe refers to Torah study and do refers to good deeds (Maharsha); the apparently repetitive language is not extraneous. The Gemara derives: bBe strong in Torah and be courageous in good deeds. /b, bFrom whereis it derived that bprayerrequires bolstering? bAs it is said: “Hope in the Lord, strengthen yourself, let your heart take courage, and hope in the Lord.” /b, bFrom whereis it derived that boccupationrequires bolstering? bAs it is stated: “Be strong and we will be strong for the sake of our nationand for the cities of our God” (II Samuel 10:12). All of one’s labor requires bolstering.,The Gemara cites a midrash on the following verse from Isaiah, relating to the sin of the Golden Calf and Moses’ supplication for forgiveness: b“But Zion said: The Lord has forsaken me and the Lord has forgotten me.Can a woman forget her suckling baby, that she would not have compassion for the child of her womb? These may forget, but you I will not forget” (Isaiah 49:14–15). The Gemara seeks to clarify: bForsaken is the same as forgotten.They are synonymous; why repeat the same idea twice? bReish Lakish said: The community of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,even when ba man marriesa second bwife after his first wife, hecertainly brecalls the deeds of his firstwife. Yet bYou havenot only bforsaken me,but You have bforgotten meas well., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toIsrael: bMy daughter, I created twelve constellations in the firmament, and for each and every constellation I have created thirty armies, and for each and every army I have created thirty legions [ iligyon /i], and for each and every legion I have created thirty infantry division leaders [ irahaton /i], and for each and every infantry division leader I have created thirty military camp leaders [ ikarton /i], and for each and every military camp leader I have created thirty leaders of forts [ igastera /i], and on each and every leader of a fort I have hung three hundred and sixty-five thousand stars corresponding to the days of the solar year. And all of them I have created only for your sake; and you saidthe Lord bhas forsaken me andthe Lord bhas forgotten me? /b,The verse goes on to say: b“Can a woman forget her suckling baby,that she would not have compassion for the child of her womb? These may forget, but you I will not forget.” The meaning of this verse is that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidto the community of Israel: bHave I forgotten the ram offerings and firstborn animals that you offered before Me in the desert?The community of Israel breplied to Him: Master of the Universe, since there is no forgetfulness before the Throne of Your Glory, perhaps you will not forget my sin of the Golden Calf?God bresponded toIsrael: b“These [ ielu /i] too shall be forgotten.” “ /bThese” is a reference to the sin of the Golden Calf, regarding which Israel said: “These [ ielu /i] are your gods.”,The community of Israel bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, since there is forgetfulness before the Throne of Your Glory, perhaps You willalso bforget the eventsrevolving around the revelation at bSinai?God bsaid toIsrael: bI [ ianokhi /i] will not forget youthe revelation at Sinai, which began with: “I [ ianokhi /i] am the Lord your God.”,The Gemara notes: bThatis what bRabbi Elazar saidthat bRav Oshaya said: What isthe meaning of that which is bwritten: “These too will be forgotten”? That is the sin of the Golden Calf.And what is the meaning of bI will not forget you? Those are the eventsthat transpired at bSinai. /b,We learned in the mishna that bthe earlygenerations of bpiousmen bwould wait one hourin order to achieve the solemn frame of mind appropriate for prayer.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:This is alluded to when bthe verse states: “Happy are those who dwell in Your House”(Psalms 84:5), immediately after which it is said: “They will yet praise You, Selah.”, bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who prays mustalso bwait one hour after his prayer, as it is stated: “Surely the righteous will give thanks unto Your name, the upright will sit before You”(Psalms 140:14), meaning that after thanking God through prayer, one should stay and sit before Him., bThatopinion bwas also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who prays must wait one hour before his prayer and one hour after his prayer. From whereis it derived that one must wait one hour bbefore his prayer? As it is stated: “Happy are those who dwell in Your House.” And from whereis it derived that one must stay one hour bafter his prayer? As it is written: “Surely the righteous will give thanks unto Your name, the upright will sit before You.” /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to waiting before and after prayer: bThe earlygenerations of bpiousmen bwould wait one hour, pray one hour, then wait one hour again.This raises the question: bSincethe early pious men bwould spend nine hours per dayengaged either bin prayeror the requisite waiting periods before and after prayer, three hours each for the morning, afternoon, and evening prayers, bhow is their Torah preserved?There was little time remaining to review their studies. bAnd how was their work accomplished? /b,The Gemara answers: bRather, because they were piousthey merited that btheir Torah is preserved and their work is blessed. /b,Additionally, we learned in the mishna: bEvenif bthe king greets himwhile he is praying, bhe should not respond to himas one may not interrupt his prayer.,In limiting application of this principle, bRav Yosef said: They only taughtthis mishna bwith regard to kings of Israel,as a Jewish king would understand that the individual did not fail to respond to his greeting due to disrespect for the king. bHowever, with regard to kings of the nations of the world, he interruptshis prayer and responds to their greeting due to the potential danger.,The Gemara braised an objectionto Rav Yosef’s statement: bOne who is praying and saw a violent person,feared by all, bcoming toward him,or ba carriage coming toward himand he is in the way, bhe should not stophis prayer bbut rather abridge it and moveout of the way.,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult.Rather, bthisthat teaches to abridge one’s prayer rather than stopping, refers to a case bwhere it is possible to abridgehis prayer and complete it in time, in which case he bshould abridgeit. bAnd ifit is bnota situation where he can abridge his prayer, bhe interruptshis prayer., bThe Sages taught:There was barelated bincident, involving a particular pious man who was prayingwhile traveling balong his pathwhen ban officer [ ihegmon /i] came and greeted him.The pious man did not pause from his prayer band did not respond with a greeting.The officer bwaited for him until he finished his prayer.br bAfter he finished his prayer,the officer bsaid to him:You bgood for nothing.You endangered yourself; I could have killed you. br bIsn’t it written in your Torah: “Take utmost care and guard yourself diligently”(Deuteronomy 4:9)? br bAnd it isalso bwritten: “Take therefore good heed unto yourselves”(Deuteronomy 4:15)? Why did you ignore the danger to your life? br bWhen I greeted you, why did you not respond with a greeting? br bWere I to sever your head with a sword, who would hold me accountable for yourspilled bblood? /b,The pious man bsaid to him: Wait for me until I will appease you withmy bwords. br bHe said to him: Had you been standing before a flesh and blood king and your friend came and greeted you,would byoubr breturn hisgreeting?
39. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; bYou are He Who took me out [ igozi /i] of my mother’s womb”(Psalms 71:6). bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisword: b“ iGozi /i,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ igozi /i] your hair and cast it away”(Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable?It is comparable bto a nut placed in a basinfull bof water,floating on top of the water. If ba person puts his finger on top ofthe nut, bit sinkseither bin this direction or in that direction. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, the bfetus resides in the lower compartmentof the womb; in the bmiddlethree months, the bfetus resides in the middle compartment;and during the blastthree months of pregcy the bfetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this iswhat causes blabor pains. /b,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: bAnd this isthe explanation for bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female are greater thanthose bexperienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male.The Gemara will explain this below., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: What is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b“When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth”(Psalms 139:15). Since it bis not stated: I residedin the lowest parts of the earth, bbut rather: “I was woven togetherin the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bthe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female,that they bare greater than those experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male?The Gemara answers: bThisone, a male fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse.Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. bAnd thatone, a female fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse,i.e., facing upward. Consequently, bthatone, a female fetus, bturns its face aroundbefore it is born, bbut thisone, a male fetus, bdoes not turn its face aroundbefore it is born.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, bsexual intercourse is difficultand harmful bfor the woman and is also difficult for the offspring.During the bmiddlethree months, intercourse is bdifficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring.During the blastthree months, sexual intercourse is bbeneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b,The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who engages in intercoursewith his wife bon the ninetieth dayof her pregcy, bit is as though he spillsher bblood.The Gemara asks: bHow does one knowthat it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? bRather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercoursewith his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, bandrely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b“The Lord preserves the simple”(Psalms 116:6).,§ bThe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe creation of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from whichthe following body parts are formed: The bbones,the bsinews,the bnails,the bbrain that is in its head, andthe bwhite of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from whichare formed the bskin,the bflesh,the bhair, andthe bblack of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul,his bcountece [ iukelaster /i], eyesight, hearing of the ear,the capability of bspeechof bthe mouth,the capability of bwalkingwith bthe legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b, bAnd whena person’s btime to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part ofthe person’s bfather and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: Remove the saltfrom a piece of meat, bandyou may then btoss the meat to a dog,as it has become worthless.,§ bRav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number”(Job 9:10)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that if one bputs an article in a flask,even if the flask is btied and its openingfaces bupward, it is uncertain whetherthe item bis preservedfrom getting lost, band it is uncertain whether it is not preservedfrom being lost. bBut the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its openingfaces bdownward, andyet the fetus bis preserved. /b, bAnother matterthat demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when ba person places his articles on a scaleto be measured, bthe heavierthe item bis,the more bit descends. Butwhen bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,forms a fetus, bthe heavier the offspring gets,the more bit ascends upwardin the womb., bRabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well”(Psalms 139:14)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person plants seedsof different species binone bgarden bed, each and every oneof the seeds bemergesas a grown plant baccording to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all ofthe seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, bemergewhen the offspring is formed bas onesex., bAlternatively,when ba dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ ileyora /i], they all emerge as one colorof dye, bwhereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb,and beach and every oneof the seeds bemerges as its own type.In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., bRav Yosef taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And on that day you shall say: bI will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me”(Isaiah 12:1)? bWith regard to whatmatter bis the verse speaking? /b,It is referring, for example, bto two people who lefttheir homes to go bon a businesstrip. bA thorn penetratedthe body bof one of them,and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. bHe started blaspheming and cursingin frustration. bAfter a period of time, he heard that the ship of the otherperson bhad sunk in the sea,and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then bstarted thankingGod band praisingHim for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. bTherefore, it is statedat the end of the verse: b“Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b, bAnd thisstatement bisidentical to bthat which Rabbi Elazar said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, bWho does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever”(Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that beven the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miraclethat was performed for bhim. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You measure [ izerita /i] my going about [ iorḥi /i] and my lying down [ iriv’i /i], and are acquainted with all my ways”(Psalms 139:3)? This verse bteaches that a person is not created from the entire dropof semen, bbut from its clearpart. iZeritacan mean to winnow, while iorḥiand iriv’ican both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable:This matter is comparable bto a person who winnowsgrain bin the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b,This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one of King David’s psalms: b“For You have girded me [ ivatazreni /i] with strength for battle”(II Samuel 22:40), without the letter ialefin ivatazreni /i; band it is writtenin another psalm: b“Who girds me [ ihame’azreni /i] with strength”(Psalms 18:33), with an ialefin ihame’azreini /i. What is the difference between these two expressions? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ izeiritani /i],i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, band You have girded me [ izeraztani /i] with strength. /b, bRabbi Abbahu taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin Balaam’s blessing: b“Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ irova /i] of Israel”(Numbers 23:10)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ irevi’iyyoteihem /i],anticipating the time bwhen the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b, bAndit was bdue to this matterthat bthe eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: ShouldGod, bwho is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blindedas a divine punishment, bas it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut”(Numbers 24:3)., bAnd thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b“And he lay with her that night”(Genesis 30:16)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act.The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, bas it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ igarem /i] donkey”(Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s bdonkeytoward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby bcausing [ igaram /i]Leah’s conceiving bIssachar. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says:The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the bwoman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male”(Leviticus 12:2)., bThe Sages taught: At first,people bwould saythat if the bwoman emits seed first she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explainfrom which verse this bmatteris derived, buntil Rabbi Tzadok came and explainedthat bitis derived from the following verse: b“These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah”(Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse battributes the males to the females,as the males are called: The sons of Leah, bandit attributes bthe females to the males, /bin that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b“And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons”(I Chronicles 8:40). bIs it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
40. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

115b. צריך לשקועיה בחרוסת משום קפא דאי ס"ד לא צריך לשקועיה נטילת ידים למה לי הא לא נגע ודילמא לעולם אימא לך לא צריך לשקועיה וקפא מריחא מיית אלא למה לי נטילת ידים דילמא משקעו ליה,ואמר רב פפא לא נישהי איניש מרור בחרוסת דילמא אגב חלייה דתבלין מבטיל ליה למרוריה ובעינן טעם מרור וליכא אדבריה רב חסדא לרבנא עוקבא ודרש נטל ידיו בטיבול ראשון נוטל ידיו בטיבול שני,אמרוה רבנן קמיה דרב פפא הא בעלמא איתמר דאי סלקא דעתך הכא איתמר למה לי נטילת ידים תרי זימני הא משא ליה ידיה חדא זימנא,אמר להו רב פפא אדרבה הכא איתמר דאי ס"ד בעלמא איתמר למה לי תרי טיבולי,אלא מאי הכא איתמר נטילת ידים תרי זימני למה לי הא משא ליה ידיה חדא זימנא אמרי כיון דבעי למימר אגדתא והלילא דילמא אסוחי אסחיה לדעתיה ונגע,אמר רבא בלע מצה יצא בלע מרור לא יצא בלע מצה ומרור ידי מצה יצא ידי מרור לא יצא כרכן בסיב ובלען אף ידי מצה נמי לא יצא,אמר רב שימי בר אשי מצה לפני כל אחד ואחד מרור לפני כל אחד ואחד וחרוסת לפני כל אחד ואחד ואין עוקרין את השלחן אלא לפני מי שאומר הגדה,רב הונא אומר כולהו נמי לפני מי שאומר הגדה והלכתא כרב הונא,למה עוקרין את השולחן אמרי דבי ר' ינאי כדי שיכירו תינוקות וישאלו אביי הוה יתיב קמיה דרבה חזא דקא מדלי תכא מקמיה אמר להו עדיין לא קא אכלינן אתו קא מעקרי תכא מיקמן אמר ליה רבה פטרתן מלומר מה נשתנה:,אמר שמואל (דברים טז, ג) לחם עוני (כתיב) לחם שעונין עליו דברים תניא נמי הכי לחם עוני לחם שעונין עליו דברים הרבה דבר אחר לחם עוני עני כתיב מה עני שדרכו בפרוסה 115b. one bmust submerge it in the iḥaroset /i, due tothe bitterness and bpoisonin the lettuce. bFor if it could enter your mindthat one bneed notthoroughly bsubmergethe lettuce in iḥaroset /i, bwhy do Ineed him to bwash handsbefore eating bitter herbs? bHe did not touchthe liquid with his hands, and therefore he did not render it ritually impure. The Gemara rejects this contention: bActually, I will say to you:According to the ihalakha /i, one bneed not submergethe lettuce in iḥaroset bandthe bpoison dies.The poison is nullified bfrom the smellof the iḥaroset /i. The Gemara asks: bButin that case, bwhy do Ineed the bwashing of handsbefore dipping? The Gemara answers: bPerhaps one will submergethe lettuce, and it is therefore necessary to wash one’s hands to avoid the possible transfer of ritual impurity., bAnd Rav Pappa said: A personshould bnot leave bitter herbs in the iḥaroset /ifor a lengthy period of time, blest the sweetnessof the spices in the iḥaroset bnullify its bitterness. Andthe bitter herbs brequire abitter btaste, andthey are bnotbitter when marinated in iḥaroset /i. The Gemara reports: bRav Ḥisda authorized Rabbana Ukvato deliver a lecture, band he taught:If one bwashed his hands for the first dipping,he should bwash his handsagain bfor the second dipping. /b, bThe Sages saidthis ihalakha bbefore Rav Pappaand added: This ihalakha bwas stated generally,i.e., concerning one who dips food twice anytime, not with regard to Passover night. bFor if it could enter your mindthat this bwas stated here,concerning Passover, bwhy do Ineed bwashing ofthe bhands twice?This person bhasalready bwashed his hands once.As he knows he will dip again, he will be careful to preserve his hands in a state of ritual purity and consequently there is no need for him to wash his hands a second time. This is not the case with regard to dipping throughout the rest of the year, when one does not know at the start that he will dip again., bRav Pappa said to them: On the contrary,this ihalakha bwas statedspecifically bhere,with regard to Passover night. bFor if it could enter your mindthat it bwas stated in general, why do Ineed btwo dippings?A person usually dips only once, either at the beginning or in the middle of his meal.,The Gemara asks: bRather, whatwill you say; this ihalakha bwas statedspecifically bhere,with regard to Passover night? If so, bwhy do Ineed btwo washings ofthe bhands? He hasalready bwashed his hands once. They sayin response: bSince he needs to recitethe bHaggadah and ihallel /iin between the two dippings, bperhaps he will divert his thoughts andhis hands bwill toucha ritually impure object., bRava said:If bone swallowed imatza /iwithout chewing it, bhe has fulfilledthe obligation to eat imatza /i, as he has consumed it. However, if bone swallowed bitter herbswithout chewing them, bhe has not fulfilledhis obligation, as he did not taste their bitterness. Furthermore, if bone swallowed imatzaand bitter herbstogether, bhe has fulfilledthe obligation bofeating imatza /i,but bhe has not fulfilledthe obligation bofeating bbitter herbs.If one bwrapped imatzaand bitter herbs bina palm bnet,the thin interlacing of vines that sprouts around a palm tree, band swallowed them, he has not fulfilledhis obligation beven of eating imatza /i.When imatzaand bitter herbs are consumed in this fashion, the imatzadoes not touch one’s mouth. This is not considered eating., bRav Shimi bar Ashi said: iMatza /imust be placed bbefore each and everyparticipant at the seder. Each participant in a seder would recline on a couch at his own personal table. Likewise, bbitter herbsmust be placed bbefore each and everyparticipant, band iḥaroset /imust be placed bbefore each and everyparticipant. bAndduring the seder, before the meal, boneshall bremove the table only from before the one recitingthe bHaggadah.The other tables, which correspond to the seder plates used nowadays, are left in their place., bRav Huna says: Allof the aforementioned foods, i.e., imatza /i, bitter herbs, and iḥaroset /i, must balsobe placed only bbefore the one who recitesthe bHaggadah.When the time comes to eat these items, all the other participants receive a portion from him. The Gemara comments: bAnd the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRav Huna. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhy does one remove the table? The school of Rabbi Yannai say: So that the children will noticethat something is unusual band they will ask:Why is this night different from all other nights? The Gemara relates: bAbaye was sitting before Rabbawhen he was still a child. bHe saw that they were removing the table from before him, and he said tothose removing it: bWe have not yet eaten, and you are taking the table away from us? Rabba said to him: You have exempted us from recitingthe questions of: bWhy isthis night bdifferent [ ima nishtana /i],as you have already asked what is special about the seder night., bShmuel saidthat the phrase: b“The bread of affliction [ ileḥem oni /i]”(Deuteronomy 16:3) means bbread over which one answers [ ionim /i] matters,i.e., one recites the Haggadah over imatza /i. bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: iLeḥem oni /iis bbread over which one answers many matters. Alternatively,in the verse, b“ ileḥem oni /i” isactually bwrittenwithout a vav, which means a poor person. bJust asit is bthe manner of a poorperson btoeat ba pieceof bread, for lack of a whole loaf
41. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא ליבנה ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא לשפרעם ומשפרעם לבית שערים ומבית שערים לצפורי ומצפורי לטבריא וטבריא עמוקה מכולן שנאמר (ישעיהו כט, ד) ושפלת מארץ תדברי,רבי אלעזר אומר שש גלות שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, ה) כי השח יושבי מרום קריה נשגבה ישפילנה ישפילה עד ארץ יגיענה עד עפר א"ר יוחנן ומשם עתידין ליגאל שנאמר (ישעיהו נב, ב) התנערי מעפר קומי שבי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה ועוד זאת התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שאפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ההיא איתתא דאזמנוה לדינא קמיה דאמימר בנהרדעי אזל אמימר למחוזא ולא אזלה בתריה כתב פתיחא עילווה אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והא אנן תנן אפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד,א"ל הנ"מ לענין עדות החדש דא"כ נמצאת מכשילן לעתיד לבא אבל הכא (משלי כב, ז) עבד לוה לאיש מלוה,ת"ר אין כהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזו אחד מתשע תקנות שהתקין ריב"ז שית דהאי פירקא וחדא דפירקא קמא,ואידך דתני' גר שנתגייר בזמן הזה צריך שיפריש רובע לקינו אמר רשב"א כבר נמנה עליה רבן יוחנן וביטלה מפני התקלה,ואידך פלוגתא דרב פפא ורב נחמן בר יצחק רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית,רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי (דתניא) כרם רבעי היה עולה לירושלים מהלך יום לכל צד וזו היא תחומה אילת מן (הצפון) ועקרבת מן (הדרום) לוד מן המערב וירדן מן המזרח,ואמר עולא ואיתימא רבה בר עולא א"ר יוחנן מה טעם כדי לעטר שוקי ירושלים בפירות,ותניא כרם רבעי היה לו לרבי אליעזר במזרח לוד בצד כפר טבי וביקש ר' אליעזר להפקירו לעניים,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי כבר נמנו חבריך עליו והתירוהו מאן חבריך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית דתניא בראשונה היו קושרין לשון של זהורית על פתח אולם מבחוץ הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו על פתח אולם מבפנים,ועדיין היו מציצין ורואין הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו חציו בסלע וחציו בין קרניו של שעיר המשתלח,רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב פפא אמר לך אי סלקא דעתך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי חבריו דרבי אליעזר מי הוה רבו הוה ואידך כיון דתלמידים הוו לאו אורח ארעא למימרא ליה לרביה רבך,ורב פפא מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לך אי ס"ד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי בימי רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מי הוה לשון של זהורית והתניא כל שנותיו של רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאה ועשרים שנה מ' שנה עסק בפרקמטיא מ' שנה למד מ' שנה לימד,ותניא מ' שנה קודם שנחרב הבית לא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין אלא מאדים ותנן משחרב הבית התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואידך אותם ארבעים שנה דלמד תלמיד יושב לפני רבו הוה ואמר מילתא ואסתבר טעמיה 31b. band from Yavne to Usha; and from Ushait returned bto Yavne; and from Yavneit went back bto Usha; and from Usha to Shefaram; and from Shefaram to Beit She’arim; and from Beit She’arim to Tzippori; and from Tzippori to Tiberias. And Tiberias is lower than all of them,as it is in the Jordan Valley. A verse alludes to these movements, bas it is stated: “And brought down, you shall speak out of the ground”(Isaiah 29:4)., bRabbi Elazar says:There are bsix exiles,if you count only the places, not the number of journeys, and a different verse alludes to this, bas it is stated: “For He has brought down those who dwell high, the lofty city laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it to the dust”(Isaiah 26:5). This verse mentions six expressions of lowering: Brought down, laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it, and to the dust. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And from there,i.e., from their lowest place of descent, bthey are destined to be redeemedin the future, bas it is stated: “Shake yourself from the dust, arise, sit,Jerusalem” (Isaiah 52:2)., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: And this, too, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted, that evenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace,not where the Great Sanhedrin is in session, bthe witnesses shouldnevertheless bgo only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathersto deliver testimony to determine the start of the month. Although the date of the month is dependent on the head of the Great Sanhedrin, as it is he who declares that the month is sanctified (see 24a), nevertheless, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted that the members of the Great Sanhedrin may sanctify the month in the absence of the head of the court., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara relates: There was ba certain woman who was called to judgment before Ameimar in Neharde’a. Ameimartemporarily bwent to Meḥoza, and she did not follow himto be judged there. bHe wrote a document of excommunication [ ipetiḥa /i] concerning her,for disobeying the court. bRav Ashi said to Ameimar: Didn’t we learnin the mishna: bEvenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace, the witnesses should go only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathers?This shows that one must appear in the court itself, rather than follow the head of the court.,Ameimar bsaid to him: This applies only to testimonyto determine the start bof the month,for which it is necessary to have a fixed place. The reason is bthat if so,if the witnesses come to court when the head of the court is absent and they will have to go to another place, bconsequently you will be obstructing them for futureoccasions, as they will consider it too much trouble and perhaps they will not come the next time. Therefore, the Sages said that these witnesses should go to the regular place where the Great Sanhedrin meets. bHowever, here,with regard to monetary claims, the verse states: b“The borrower is servant to the lender”(Proverbs 22:7), i.e., the defendant must act as is convenient to the claimant and the court.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPriests are not allowed to ascend with their sandals to the platformto recite the Priestly Blessing in the synagogue. bAnd this is one of the nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. Sixare mentioned bin this chapter:Sounding the ishofaron Shabbat in Yavne, taking the ilulavall seven days, the prohibition against eating new grain the entire day of waving, accepting testimony to determine the start of the month all day, having the witnesses to the New Moon go to the place of meeting, and reciting the Priestly Blessing without sandals. bAnd oneis stated bin the first chapter,that the witnesses to the New Moon may desecrate Shabbat only for the months of Tishrei and Nisan., bAnd the other, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA convert who converts nowadays is required to set aside a quarter /b-shekel bfor his nest,i.e., his pair of doves. By Torah law a convert must bring two burnt-offerings of birds, in addition to his immersion and circumcision. After the destruction, it was instituted that he must set aside the value of two young pigeons in anticipation of the rebuilding of the Temple. bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥaben Zakkai balreadyassembled a majority who bvoted and rescindedthe ordice bdue toa potential bmishap.If a convert is obligated to set aside money, someone might unwittingly use this money, thereby violating the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property., bAnd the otherordice, the ninth, bisthe subject of ba dispute between Rav Pappa and Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak. Rav Pappa said:The ordice concerned the fruit of a bfourth-year grapevine. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:It was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool.,The Gemara elaborates: bRav Pappa saidthat the ordice is referring to the fruit of ba fourth-year grapevine, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iBeitza5a): The fruit of ba fourth-year grapevinehas the status of second-tithe fruits, and therefore their owner bwould ascend to Jerusalemand eat the grapes there. If he is unable to do so, due to the distance involved or the weight of the load, he may redeem the fruits with money where he is, and later redeem that money for other fruits in Jerusalem. However, the Sages decreed that fruit from the environs of Jerusalem should not be redeemed; rather, the owners should bring the fruit itself to Jerusalem. The environs of Jerusalem for this purpose were defined as ba day’s walk in each direction. And this is its boundary: Eilat to the north, Akrabat to the south, Lod to the west, and the Jordanriver bto the east. /b, bAnd Ulla said, and some say Rabba bar Ullasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bwhat reasondid the Sages institute this ordice, that one who lives near Jerusalem must bring his fruit there? bIn order to adorn the markets of Jerusalem with fruit,as this decree ensures that there is always an abundance of fruit in Jerusalem., bAnd it wasfurther btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezerben Hyrcanus, a student of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, bhad a fourth-year grapevinelocated between Lod and Jerusalem, bto the eastof bLod alongside the village of Tavi.The vine was within the boundaries of Jerusalem for the purpose of this ihalakha /i. Rabbi Eliezer could not bring the fruit to the Temple, as the Temple had been destroyed, band Rabbi Eliezer sought to renderthe fruit bownerlessin favor bof the poor,for whom it would be worth the effort to bring the fruit to Jerusalem., bHis students said to him:Our bteacher,there is no need to do so, as byour colleagues have already voted onthe matter band permitted it,as after the destruction of the Temple there is no need to adorn the markets of Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: bWho are: Your colleagues?This is referring to bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The ordice was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool used on Yom Kippur. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAt first they would tie a strip of crimsonwool bto the opening of the Entrance Hallof the Temple bon the outside.If, after the sacrificing of the offerings and the sending of the scapegoat, the strip bturned white,the people bwould rejoice,as this indicated that their sins had been atoned for. If bit did not turn white they would be sad.When the Sages saw that people were overly distressed on Yom Kippur, bthey instituted that they should tiethe strip of crimson wool bto the opening of the Entrance Hall on the inside,where only a few could enter to see it., bButpeople bwould still peek and seeit, and once again, if bit turned white they would rejoice,and if bit did not turn white they would be sad.Therefore, the Sages binstituted that they should tie half ofthe strip bto a rocknear the place where the one who sent the scapegoat stood band half of it between the horns of the scapegoat,so that the people would not know what happened to the strip until after the conclusion of Yom Kippur. This ordice was instituted by Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai.,The Gemara explains this dispute: bWhat is the reasonthat bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak did not statehis opinion with regard to the ordice bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Pappa? Hecould have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkairescinded the ordice of the fruit of fourth-year grapevines, bwas heone of bRabbi Eliezer’s colleagues,that the students would have referred to him in this manner? bHe was his teacher.Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa cannot be the one who instituted this ordice. bAnd the other,Rav Pappa, what would he respond to this? He would say that bsince they wereRabbi Eliezer’s bstudentsit is bnot proper conductfor one bto say to his teacher: Your teacher.Therefore, they referred to Rabbi Yoḥa as Rabbi Eliezer’s colleague.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat bRav Pappa did not statehis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak?Rav Pappa could have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that this ordice for Yom Kippur was instituted by bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, in the days of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was therein fact ba strip of crimsonwool? bIsn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll the years of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’slife were b120 years: Forty years he was involved in businessso that he could achieve ficial independence and study Torah, bforty years he studiedTorah, and bforty years he taughtTorah., bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe forty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed the strip of crimsonwool bwould not turn white; rather,it would bturna deeper shade of bred. And we learnedin the mishna: bWhen the Temple was destroyed Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedhis ordices. This shows that Rabban Yoḥa lived and taught Torah after the destruction. Therefore the ordice of the crimson wool must have been made while Rabban Yoḥa was still studying Torah, before he instituted any ordices. The Gemara asks: bAnd the otherSage, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, what would he answer? According to him, that ordice was instituted during bthose forty years that he studiedTorah. He bwasthen ba student sitting before his teacher, and he said a matter,i.e., he suggested this ordice, band his reasoning made senseto the Sages
42. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

118b. נחלת יעקב אביך וגו' לא כאברהם שכתוב בו (בראשית יג, יז) קום התהלך בארץ לארכה וגו' ולא כיצחק שכתוב בו (בראשית כו, ג) כי לך ולזרעך אתן את כל הארצות האל אלא כיעקב שכתוב בו (בראשית כח, יד) ופרצת ימה וקדמה וצפונה ונגבה,ר"נ בר יצחק אמר ניצול משעבוד גליות כתיב הכא והרכבתיך על במתי ארץ וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כט) ואתה על במותימו תדרוך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המענג את השבת נותנין לו משאלות לבו שנאמר (תהלים לז, ד) והתענג על ה' ויתן לך משאלות לבך עונג זה איני יודע מהו כשהוא אומר וקראת לשבת עונג הוי אומר זה עונג שבת במה מענגו רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמי' דרב אמר בתבשיל של תרדין ודגים גדולים וראשי שומין רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב אפי' דבר מועט ולכבוד שבת עשאו הרי זה עונג מאי היא א"ר פפא כסא דהרסנא,אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל המשמר שבת כהלכתו אפי' עובד ע"ז [כדור] אנוש מוחלין לו שנאמר (ישעיהו נו, ב) אשרי אנוש יעשה זאת וגו' מחללו אל תקרי מחללו אלא מחול לו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אלמלי שמרו ישראל שבת ראשונה לא שלטה בהן אומה ולשון שנאמר (שמות טז, כז) ויהי ביום השביעי יצאו מן העם ללקוט וכתיב בתריה ויבא עמלק אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי אלמלי משמרין ישראל שתי שבתות כהלכתן מיד נגאלים שנא' (ישעיהו נו, ד) כה אמר ה' לסריסים אשר ישמרו את שבתותי וכתיב בתריה והביאותים אל הר קדשי וגו',אמר ר' יוסי יהא חלקי מאוכלי שלש סעודות בשבת א"ר יוסי יהא חלקי מגומרי הלל בכל יום איני והאמר מר הקורא הלל בכל יום הרי זה מחרף ומגדף כי קאמרינן בפסוקי דזמרא,א"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממתפללים עם דמדומי חמה א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מצוה להתפלל עם דמדומי חמה א"ר זירא מאי קרא (תהלים עב, ה) ייראוך עם שמש ולפני ירח דור דורים,וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממתי בחולי מעיים דאמר מר רובן של צדיקים מתים בחולי מעיים וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממתי בדרך מצוה וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממכניסי שבת בטבריא וממוציאי שבת בצפורי וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממושיבי בהמ"ד ולא ממעמידי בהמ"ד,וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי מגבאי צדקה ולא ממחלקי צדקה וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממי שחושדין אותו ואין בו אמר רב פפא לדידי חשדן ולא הוה בי,א"ר יוסי חמש בעילות בעלתי ונטעתי חמשה ארזים בישראל ומאן אינון ר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי ור' אלעזר בר"י ור' חלפתא בר"י ור' אבטילס בר"י ורבי מנחם בר' יוסי והאיכא ורדימס היינו ורדימס היינו מנחם ואמאי קרי ליה ורדימס שפניו דומין לורד למימרא דרבי יוסי מצות עונה לא קיים אלא אימא חמש בעילות בעלתי ושניתי,אמר רבי יוסי מימי לא קריתי לאשתי אשתי ולשורי שורי אלא לאשתי ביתי ולשורי שדי,אמר ר' יוסי מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי איני והאמרו ליה לרבי מאי טעמא קראו לך רבינו הקדוש אמר להו מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי ברבי מילתא אחריתי הוה ביה שלא הכניס ידו תחת אבנטו וא"ר יוסי מימי לא ראו קורות ביתי אימרי חלוקי,וא"ר יוסי מימי לא עברתי על דברי חברי יודע אני בעצמי שאיני כהן אם אומרים לי חבירי עלה לדוכן אני עולה וא"ר יוסי מימי לא אמרתי דבר וחזרתי לאחורי,אמר רב נחמן) תיתי לי דקיימית ג' סעודות בשבת אמר רב יהודה תיתי לי דקיימית עיון תפלה אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע תיתי לי דלא סגינא ד' אמות בגילוי הראש אמר רב ששת תיתי לי דקיימית מצות תפילין ואמר ר"נ תיתי לי דקיימית מצות ציצית,אמר ליה רב יוסף לרב יוסף בריה דרבה אבוך במאי זהיר טפי אמר ליה בציצית יומא חד הוה קא סליק בדרגא איפסיק ליה חוטא ולא נחית ואתא כמה דלא רמיה ואמר אביי תיתי לי דכי חזינא צורבא מרבנן דשלים מסכתיה 118b. bon the inheritance of Jacob your father,as the mouth of God has spoken” (Isaiah 58:13–14). The reward for delighting in Shabbat is specifically the portion of Jacob. bNot that of Abraham, about whom it is written, “Rise, walk through the land through its lengthand its width because I have given it to you” (Genesis 13:17), i.e., only this land alone in its borders. bAnd not that of Isaac, about whom it is written,“Dwell in this land and I will be with you and I will bless you bbecause I will give all of these lands to you and your offspring”(Genesis 26:3), meaning these lands and no others. bRather, that of Jacob, about whom it is written,“And your offspring will be like the dust of the earth, band you will spread out to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south,and all of the families of the land will be blessed through you and your offspring” (Genesis 28:14). There are no boundaries for Jacob’s portion., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:One who delights in Shabbat bis rescued from the oppression of exile.He derives it by means of a verbal analogy. bIt is written here,with regard to Shabbat: b“And I will cause you to ride on the heights [ ibamotei /i] of the world”(Isaiah 58:14), band it is written there:“You are fortunate Israel, who is like you? A nation redeemed by God, the shield that aids you and the sword of your triumph. Your enemies will try to defeat you band you will trample their high places [ ibamoteimo /i]”(Deuteronomy 33:29). bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:With regard to banyone who delights in the Shabbat,God bgrants him his heart’s desires,as bit is stated: “And you shall delight in God and He will grant you your heart’s desires”(Psalms 37:4). bThis delightin God, which is mentioned in the verse, bI do not know what it is. When it says: “And you shall call the Shabbat delight,”one bmust say: It is the delight of Shabbat.The Gemara asks: bWith what does one delightin the day of Shabbat? bRav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: With a dish of beets, and large fish, and heads of garlic. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashisaid that bRav said: Evenwith regard to ba small item and one prepared it in deference to Shabbat, it isa bdelight.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe small item mentioned? bRav Pappa said: Small fried fish. /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to banyone who observes Shabbat in accordance with its ihalakhot /i, evenif he bworships idolatry asin bthe generation of Enosh,God bforgives himhis sins, bas it is stated: “Fortunate is the man [enosh] who does thisand the person who holds strong to it, one who guards the Shabbat bfrom desecrating it [ imeḥallelo /i],and guards his hand from doing any evil” (Isaiah 56:2). bDo not readit as: bFrom desecrating it [ imeḥallelo /i], but rather: He is forgiven [ imaḥul lo /i].With regard to the generation of Enosh it is written: “And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh. Then they began [ ihuḥal /i] to call upon the Name of God” (Genesis 4:26), meaning to desecrate [ ileḥallel /i] His name., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Had the Jewish peopleproperly bobservedthe bfirst Shabbatthat was commanded them, bno nation or tongue would haveever bruled them, as it is stated: “And it happened on the seventh day, some people went out from the nation to collectand they did not find” (Exodus 16:27). bAnd it is written afterthey went out to collect manna: b“And Amalek cameand fought with Israel in Refidim” (Exodus 17:8). bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: If only the Jewish people would keep two iShabbatotin accordance with their ihalakhot /i,they would be bimmediately redeemed,as bit is stated: “So said God to the eunuchs who will keep My Shabbatot”(Isaiah 56:4), band it is written afterthat: b“And I will bring them to My holy mountainand will let them rejoice in My house of prayer” (Isaiah 56:7)., bRabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who eat three meals on Shabbat.Apropos this statement of Rabbi Yosei, the Gemara cites additional declarations. bRabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who complete hallel every day.The Gemara is surprised at this: bIs that so? Didn’t the Master say: One who reads ihallelevery day istantamount to bone who curses and blasphemesGod. He displays contempt for ihallelby not reserving it for days on which miracles occurred. The Gemara answers: bWhen we saythis statement of Rabbi Yosei, we are referring to bthe verses of praise [ ipesukei dezimra /i],recited during the morning service, not to ihallel(Psalms 113–118) recited on special days.,And furthermore, bRabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who praythe morning and afternoon prayers bwith the reddening of the sun,i.e., the morning prayer at sunrise and the afternoon prayer adjacent to nightfall. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is a mitzva to pray with the reddening of the sun. Rabbi Zeira said: What versealludes to this? b“They will fear You with the sun and before the moon, generation upon generation”(Psalms 72:5). Fear of God, prayer, should be with the sun and before the moon., bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who die from intestinal disease, as the Master said: Most righteous people die of intestinal disease.It is a very harsh disease through which the sins of righteous people are cleansed before their death and also, as a result, they die with a clean body. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who die on the path toperform ba mitzva. And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who accept Shabbat in Tiberias,which is in a valley where day turns to evening earlier, band among those who see Shabbat out in Tzippori,which is located on a mountain top where the sun is visible for longer, and Shabbat ends later. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who seatothers bin the study hall,i.e., who cause others to come sit and study, band not among those who causeothers bto stand in the study hall,i.e., who announce that it is time to leave the study hall and go to eat., bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among the collectors of charity and not the distributors of charity.One who collects charity collects fixed amounts, whereas distributors may inadvertently fail to give the poor person enough to cover his needs. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be with one whomothers bsuspectof sin band there is nobasis for suspecting bhim. Rav Pappa said: They suspected me, and there was nobasis for suspecting bme. /b,Furthermore, bRabbi Yosei said: I engaged in relations five times, and I planted five cedars in Eretz Yisrael. And who arethese cedars? The sons of Rabbi Yosei, who were great Sages of Israel: bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Ḥalafta, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Avtilas, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Menaḥem, son of Rabbi Yosei.The Gemara asks: bIsn’t there Vardimas,who was also Rabbi Yosei’s son? The Gemara answers: bVardimas is the same as Menaḥem. And why did they call him Vardimas?Because bhis face was asbeautiful as ba rose [ ivered /i].The Gemara asks: bIs that to saybased on this statement that bRabbi Yosei did not fulfill the mitzva ofhis wife’s bconjugal rights,but only had relations with her five times? bRather, sayit this way: bI engaged in relations five times and I did so again,and the Sages said that one who seeks to father male offspring should engage in relations and do so again.,Furthermore, bRabbi Yosei saidthat he always spoke euphemistically: bIn all my days, I did not call my wife, my wife, nor my ox, my ox. Rather,I called bmy wife, my home,because she is the essence of the home, band my ox, my field,because it is the primary force in the fields., bRabbi Yosei said: In all my days,due to modesty, bI never looked at my circumcision.The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t they say to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bWhy did they call you our holy Rabbi? He said to them:It is because bin all my days I never looked at my circumcision.If so, why wasn’t Rabbi Yosei also called our holy Rabbi? The Gemara replies: bInthe case of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, banother matterof modesty bwaspresent bin him, as he did not insert his hand below his beltdue to his great modesty. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days, the walls of my house never saw the seams of my robedue to modesty, as he would only undress under his bed sheets., bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days I never violated the words of my friends. I know about myself that I am not a priest,and nevertheless, bif my friends say to me: Go up to the platformwith the priests, bI go up. And Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days I never said something and then retreatedfrom it. Rabbi Yosei never said something positive or negative about a specific person and then denied it., bRav Naḥman said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilledthe obligation to eat bthree meals on Shabbatmagnificently. bRav Yehuda said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilledthe obligation of bconsiderationduring bprayer. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: May I receivemy reward because bI never walked four cubits with my head uncovered. Rav Sheshet said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilled the mitzva of phylacteriesmagnificently. bAnd Rav Naḥman said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilled the mitzva of ritual fringesmagnificently., bRav Yosef said to Rav Yosef, son of Rabba: In whatarea bwas your father,Rabba, bespecially vigilant?He bsaid to him:It was binthe mitzva of britual fringes.The Gemara relates: bOne day he was climbing the stairswhen a bstringfrom his ritual fringes bwas severed, and he would not descend until he placeda new string bonthe garment. bAnd Abaye said: May I receivemy reward because bwhen I see a young Torah scholar who has completed a tractatethat bhestudied
43. Anon., Soferim, 18.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
2 chronicles, psalms, liturgical use of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
aaron Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 94; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 116
abraham (patriarch) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 247
acrostic Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
agent, omissions Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 202
alexandria Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
alleluia Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 279
altar Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
amram gaon Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
antiochus iii (seleucid ruler) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
ar-raḥmān Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 763
aramaic, targumim Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
ashkenaz Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
babylonia Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
ben sira Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
berkovitz, a.j. Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
berthe of blois, queen of france, hebrew Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
bouleuterion Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
cairo geniza Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
cardo (maximus) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
cento Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224, 227
chancel screen Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
chora Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
christian monastics Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
conch (shell-shaped motif ) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
conybeare, f. c. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
covenant Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
creation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
cultic texts in hebrew bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
david/davidic Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
de musica, augustine Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
deacon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
diakonoi Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
easter, date of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 494
elbogen, ismar Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 94
elders Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
ephrata cloister, lancaster county Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
ethrog Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
eucharist, connection with hymnody Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
exedra Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
exodus, as paradigm of redemption Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213
ezekiel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
facades Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
feast of taberoacles Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
flute Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
form, of psalms Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217
frescoes Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
gamaliel of yavneh, rabban, on passover Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69
genre Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
geonim Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
gerousia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
gihon, river or spring Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
god, as mare that distracts pharaohs stallion Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213
ground Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
halakhah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
hallel, sung during the exodus Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
hallel Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9, 224, 227; Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69; Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
hallel psalms Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
hannah (mother of samuel) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 247
hanukka Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
hasidism Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
hebrew language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
hellenistic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
homer Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
house of wine as sinai Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
hymn Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 129
hymn of creation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
hymns, early christian Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
hymns, in new testament Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
israel/israelite, land of Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
jacob Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 202
jeremiah Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 116
jerusalem, see also zion joseph Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 202
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), jerusalem temple, scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), liturgy and scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), second temple period Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
jesus, as lamb of god Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
jesus (of nazareth) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 247
jesus christ, in the fourth gospel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
jewish scribe x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
john, fourth gospel' "151.0_375.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
josephus (flavius josephus), on jerusalem temple and scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
judaism Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
karaim, language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
karaism Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
karaite Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
kingship, davidic Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 202
knowledge, historical Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217
kraft, r. a. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
langer, ruth Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
last supper Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
leadership, synagogue, leadership, town, communal Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
lectionary manuscripts, in jewish liturgies Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
lectionary manuscripts, readings, liturgical Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 825
libation Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 212
life, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
literary history of hebrew bible, cultic texts Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
literary history of hebrew bible, genres and text types, development of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
literary history of hebrew bible, major literary complexes Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
literary history of hebrew bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
literary structure of surahs Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 763
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
liturgy Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9, 227; Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217; Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 763
liturgy and scripture, cultic texts in hebrew bible/old testament Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
liturgy and scripture, in jerusalem temple Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
liturgy and scripture, psalms, liturgical use of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
liturgy and scripture, synagogues, readings in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 825
liturgy and scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 825
lords supper Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 129
lucius, e. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
maftir Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
mahzor/mahzorim Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
maimonides Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
mare, impersonated by god Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213
mareotic community Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
meals, festive Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 212
memory, communal Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217
mesopotamia Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
meturgeman Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
middle ages Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
midrash/midrashim/midrashic Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
miqveh (ritual bath, stepped cistern) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
mishnah, on temple liturgy Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
moses Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 116
motifs, in tamid psalms as a group Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 202
motifs, missing from tamid psalms Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 202
music, early christian Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
music, early hymnody and psalmody Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
music, liberal art of music (musica) Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
music Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 212
mussaf (additional amidah), sabbath and holidays Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
ner tamid (eternal light) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
niche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
numerological exegesis Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
nymphaeum Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
opus latericium Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
opus listatum Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
opus reticulatum Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
opus sectile Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
opus vittatum Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
oral tradition Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
passion narratives Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
passover, hallel Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
passover, leaven and Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69
passover, psalms recited during Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213
passover Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 212; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
passover haggadah, its polarities reflected in yannais qedushta shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
passover haggadah Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69
passover seder, in yannais qedushta shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
performance Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
pesaḥ, passover Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
pesuqe de-zimra Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
philo Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69
philo of alexandria, debates on writings of Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
prayer, communal, public Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
prayer, monastic Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 494
prayer Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 116, 334
priest Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
procession Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
prophetic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
prophets (books of) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
psalm/psalmist Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
psalm Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 279, 280
psalms, as cultic texts Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
psalms, five books of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
psalms, hallel psalms Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
psalms, in jewish liturgies Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
psalms, yahwistic and elohistic Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
psalms Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 763; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
psalter, formation Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 257
qedushta shir ha-shirim (yannai), passover emphasized in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
qedushta shir ha-shirim (yannai) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213, 253
qumran Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217
qumran psalms scroll Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 257
r. elazar (son of r.yosi the galilean) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
r. yohanan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
r.yosi Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
recitation, oral Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217
reclining Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 129
reif, stefan Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
rite/rites, medieval Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
rite/rites, of the land of israel Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
roman period Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
rosh hashanah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
runia, d.t. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
sabbath/shabbat/shabbatot Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
salvation Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 116
sanctity of, lintels Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
sarah (matriarch) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 247
schürer, e. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
seat, cathedra, of moses Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
sefer shimmush tehillim Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
serpent (of paradise) Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 763
shavuot Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
shavuot (pentecost) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
sheliah tzibbur, prayer leader Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
shema, reciting antiphonally Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
shofar Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
siloam Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
singing Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 129, 212
soferim Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
song of the sea Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
soup kitchen, nave Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
stemberger, günter Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
sukkot, shofar, lulav, ethrog Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554, 642
symposium' Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69
symposium (plato), synagogues, liturgical readings in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 825
synagogue architecture, aisles Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
talabardon, susanne Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
teacher Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
teaching/teachings Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
temple Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
theognis Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
torah, as wine Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
torah, oral Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
torah Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
trakai Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
vice and virtue lists Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 189
willow Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
willow procession Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
wine, symbol of torah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
yahweh, inactivity Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 202
yehi khavod Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
yehoshua ben levi Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
yosi, rabbi Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224, 227