Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6304
Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 115


nanYe that fear the LORD, trust in the LORD! He is their help and their shield.,But our God is in the heavens; Whatsoever pleased Him He hath done.,The dead praise not the LORD, Neither any that go down into silence;,The LORD increase you more and more, You and your children.,O house of Aaron, trust ye in the LORD! He is their help and their shield!,Not unto us, O LORD, not unto us, But unto Thy name give glory, For Thy mercy, and for Thy truth's sake.,Blessed be ye of the LORD Who made heaven and earth.,O Israel, trust thou in the LORD! He is their help and their shield!,The LORD hath been mindful of us, He will bless— He will bless the house of Israel; He will bless the house of Aaron.,They that make them shall be like unto them; Yea, every one that trusteth in them.,The heavens are the heavens of the LORD; But the earth hath He given to the children of men.,They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not;,But we will bless the LORD From this time forth and for ever. Hallelujah.,Wherefore should the nations say: 'Where is now their God?',They have hands, but they handle not; Feet have they, but they walk not; Neither speak they with their throat. .,He will bless them that fear the LORD, Both small and great.,Their idols are silver and gold, The work of men's hands.,They have ears, but they hear not; Noses have they, but they smell not;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

54 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.4-1.5, 1.8-1.9, 1.11, 2.4, 5.10-5.16, 6.1, 6.3, 8.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. מָשְׁכֵנִי אַחֲרֶיךָ נָּרוּצָה הֱבִיאַנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ חֲדָרָיו נָגִילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָה בָּךְ נַזְכִּירָה דֹדֶיךָ מִיַּיִן מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.5. שְׁחוֹרָה אֲנִי וְנָאוָה בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם כְּאָהֳלֵי קֵדָר כִּירִיעוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 1.8. אִם־לֹא תֵדְעִי לָךְ הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים צְאִי־לָךְ בְּעִקְבֵי הַצֹּאן וּרְעִי אֶת־גְּדִיֹּתַיִךְ עַל מִשְׁכְּנוֹת הָרֹעִים׃ 1.9. לְסֻסָתִי בְּרִכְבֵי פַרְעֹה דִּמִּיתִיךְ רַעְיָתִי׃ 1.11. תּוֹרֵי זָהָב נַעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ עִם נְקֻדּוֹת הַכָּסֶף׃ 2.4. הֱבִיאַנִי אֶל־בֵּית הַיָּיִן וְדִגְלוֹ עָלַי אַהֲבָה׃ 5.11. רֹאשׁוֹ כֶּתֶם פָּז קְוּצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִּים שְׁחֹרוֹת כָּעוֹרֵב׃ 5.12. עֵינָיו כְּיוֹנִים עַל־אֲפִיקֵי מָיִם רֹחֲצוֹת בֶּחָלָב יֹשְׁבוֹת עַל־מִלֵּאת׃ 5.13. לְחָיָו כַּעֲרוּגַת הַבֹּשֶׂם מִגְדְּלוֹת מֶרְקָחִים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו שׁוֹשַׁנִּים נֹטְפוֹת מוֹר עֹבֵר׃ 5.14. יָדָיו גְּלִילֵי זָהָב מְמֻלָּאִים בַּתַּרְשִׁישׁ מֵעָיו עֶשֶׁת שֵׁן מְעֻלֶּפֶת סַפִּירִים׃ 5.15. שׁוֹקָיו עַמּוּדֵי שֵׁשׁ מְיֻסָּדִים עַל־אַדְנֵי־פָז מַרְאֵהוּ כַּלְּבָנוֹן בָּחוּר כָּאֲרָזִים׃ 5.16. חִכּוֹ מַמְתַקִּים וְכֻלּוֹ מַחֲּמַדִּים זֶה דוֹדִי וְזֶה רֵעִי בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 6.1. אָנָה הָלַךְ דּוֹדֵךְ הַיָּפָה בַּנָּשִׁים אָנָה פָּנָה דוֹדֵךְ וּנְבַקְשֶׁנּוּ עִמָּךְ׃ 6.1. מִי־זֹאת הַנִּשְׁקָפָה כְּמוֹ־שָׁחַר יָפָה כַלְּבָנָה בָּרָה כַּחַמָּה אֲיֻמָּה כַּנִּדְגָּלוֹת׃ 6.3. אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי לִי הָרֹעֶה בַּשׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 8.13. הַיוֹשֶׁבֶת בַּגַּנִּים חֲבֵרִים מַקְשִׁיבִים לְקוֹלֵךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי׃ 1.4. Draw me, we will run after thee; The king hath brought me into his chambers; We will be glad and rejoice in thee, We will find thy love more fragrant than wine! Sincerely do they love thee. 1.5. ’I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon. 1.8. If thou know not, O thou fairest among women, Go thy way forth by the footsteps of the flock And feed thy kids, beside the shepherds’tents. 1.9. I have compared thee, O my love, To a steed in Pharaoh’s chariots. 1.11. We will make thee circlets of gold With studs of silver. 2.4. He hath brought me to the banqueting-house, And his banner over me is love. 5.10. ’My beloved is white and ruddy, Pre-eminent above ten thousand. 5.11. His head is as the most fine gold, His locks are curled, And black as a raven. 5.12. His eyes are like doves Beside the water-brooks; Washed with milk, And fitly set. 5.13. His cheeks are as a bed of spices, As banks of sweet herbs; His lips are as lilies, Dropping with flowing myrrh. 5.14. His hands are as rods of gold Set with beryl; His body is as polished ivory Overlaid with sapphires. 5.15. His legs are as pillars of marble, Set upon sockets of fine gold; His aspect is like Lebanon, Excellent as the cedars. 5.16. His mouth is most sweet; Yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.’ 6.1. ’Whither is thy beloved gone, O thou fairest among women? Whither hath thy beloved turned him, That we may seek him with thee?’ 6.3. I am my beloved’s, and my beloved is mine, That feedeth among the lilies.’ 8.13. Thou that dwellest in the gardens, The companions hearken for thy voice: ‘Cause me to hear it.’
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 9.10-9.22, 9.25-9.29, 26.5, 31.10-31.13, 32.15-32.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.11. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה נָתַן יְהוָה אֵלַי אֶת־שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָאֲבָנִים לֻחוֹת הַבְּרִית׃ 9.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי קוּם רֵד מַהֵר מִזֶּה כִּי שִׁחֵת עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ מִמִּצְרָיִם סָרוּ מַהֵר מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִם עָשׂוּ לָהֶם מַסֵּכָה׃ 9.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר רָאִיתִי אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְהִנֵּה עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף הוּא׃ 9.14. הֶרֶף מִמֶּנִּי וְאַשְׁמִידֵם וְאֶמְחֶה אֶת־שְׁמָם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ לְגוֹי־עָצוּם וָרָב מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 9.16. וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה חֲטָאתֶם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם עֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה סַרְתֶּם מַהֵר מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם׃ 9.19. כִּי יָגֹרְתִּי מִפְּנֵי הָאַף וְהַחֵמָה אֲשֶׁר קָצַף יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם לְהַשְׁמִיד אֶתְכֶם וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֵלַי גַּם בַּפַּעַם הַהִוא׃ 9.22. וּבְתַבְעֵרָה וּבְמַסָּה וּבְקִבְרֹת הַתַּאֲוָה מַקְצִפִים הֱיִיתֶם אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 9.25. וָאֶתְנַפַּל לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת אַרְבָּעִים הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־אַרְבָּעִים הַלַּיְלָה אֲשֶׁר הִתְנַפָּלְתִּי כִּי־אָמַר יְהוָה לְהַשְׁמִיד אֶתְכֶם׃ 9.26. וָאֶתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וָאֹמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַל־תַּשְׁחֵת עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר פָּדִיתָ בְּגָדְלֶךָ אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתָ מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה׃ 9.27. זְכֹר לַעֲבָדֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב אַל־תֵּפֶן אֶל־קְשִׁי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאֶל־רִשְׁעוֹ וְאֶל־חַטָּאתוֹ׃ 9.28. פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָנוּ מִשָּׁם מִבְּלִי יְכֹלֶת יְהוָה לַהֲבִיאָם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר לָהֶם וּמִשִּׂנְאָתוֹ אוֹתָם הוֹצִיאָם לַהֲמִתָם בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 9.29. וְהֵם עַמְּךָ וְנַחֲלָתֶךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתָ בְּכֹחֲךָ הַגָּדֹל וּבִזְרֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה׃ 26.5. וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃ 31.11. בְּבוֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם׃ 31.12. הַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ וּלְמַעַן יִלְמְדוּ וְיָרְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְשָׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 31.13. וּבְנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ וְלָמְדוּ לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 32.15. וַיִּשְׁמַן יְשֻׁרוּן וַיִּבְעָט שָׁמַנְתָּ עָבִיתָ כָּשִׂיתָ וַיִּטֹּשׁ אֱלוֹהַ עָשָׂהוּ וַיְנַבֵּל צוּר יְשֻׁעָתוֹ׃ 32.16. יַקְנִאֻהוּ בְּזָרִים בְּתוֹעֵבֹת יַכְעִיסֻהוּ׃ 32.17. יִזְבְּחוּ לַשֵּׁדִים לֹא אֱלֹהַ אֱלֹהִים לֹא יְדָעוּם חֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרֹב בָּאוּ לֹא שְׂעָרוּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 32.18. צוּר יְלָדְךָ תֶּשִׁי וַתִּשְׁכַּח אֵל מְחֹלְלֶךָ׃ 9.10. And the LORD delivered unto me the two tables of stone written with the finger of God; and on them was written according to all the words, which the LORD spoke with you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly." 9.11. And it came to pass at the end of forty days and forty nights, that the LORD gave me the two tables of stone, even the tables of the covet." 9.12. And the LORD said unto me: ‘Arise, get thee down quickly from hence; for thy people that thou hast brought forth out of Egypt have dealt corruptly; they are quickly turned aside out of the way which I commanded them; they have made them a molten image.’" 9.13. Furthermore the LORD spoke unto me, saying: ‘I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiffnecked people;" 9.14. let Me alone, that I may destroy them, and blot out their name from under heaven; and I will make of thee a nation mightier and greater than they.’" 9.16. And I looked, and, behold, ye had sinned against the LORD your God; ye had made you a molten calf; ye had turned aside quickly out of the way which the LORD had commanded you." 9.19. For I was in dread of the anger and hot displeasure, wherewith the LORD was wroth against you to destroy you. But the LORD hearkened unto me that time also." 9.22. And at Taberah, and at Massah, and at Kibroth-hattaavah, ye made the LORD wroth." 9.25. So I fell down before the LORD the forty days and forty nights that I fell down; because the LORD had said He would destroy you." 9.26. And I prayed unto the LORD, and said: ‘O Lord GOD, destroy not Thy people and Thine inheritance, that Thou hast redeemed through Thy greatness, that Thou hast brought forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand." 9.27. Remember Thy servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; look not unto the stubbornness of this people, nor to their wickedness, nor to their sin;" 9.28. lest the land whence Thou broughtest us out say: Because the LORD was not able to bring them into the land which He promised unto them, and because He hated them, He hath brought them out to slay them in the wilderness." 9.29. Yet they are Thy people and Thine inheritance, that Thou didst bring out by Thy great power and by Thy outstretched arm.’" 26.5. And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous." 31.10. And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles," 31.11. when all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing." 31.12. Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law;" 31.13. and that their children, who have not known, may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’" 32.15. But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked— Thou didst wax fat, thou didst grow thick, thou didst become gross— And he forsook God who made him, And contemned the Rock of his salvation." 32.16. They roused Him to jealousy with strange gods, With abominations did they provoke Him." 32.17. They sacrificed unto demons, no-gods, Gods that they knew not, New gods that came up of late, Which your fathers dreaded not." 32.18. of the Rock that begot thee thou wast unmindful, And didst forget God that bore thee. ."
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.12. וּבְהַגִּיעַ תֹּר נַעֲרָה וְנַעֲרָה לָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ מִקֵּץ הֱיוֹת לָהּ כְּדָת הַנָּשִׁים שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ כִּי כֵּן יִמְלְאוּ יְמֵי מְרוּקֵיהֶן שִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמֹּר וְשִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים בַּבְּשָׂמִים וּבְתַמְרוּקֵי הַנָּשִׁים׃ 2.12. Now when the turn of every maiden was come to go in to king Ahasuerus, after that it had been done to her according to the law for the women, twelve months—for so were the days of their anointing accomplished, to wit, six months with oil of myrrh, and six month with sweet odours, and with other ointments of the women —"
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.8, 1.10-1.11, 1.14, 2.5-2.10, 12.46, 13.8, 15.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.8. וַיָּקָם מֶלֶךְ־חָדָשׁ עַל־מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַע אֶת־יוֹסֵף׃ 1.11. וַיָּשִׂימוּ עָלָיו שָׂרֵי מִסִּים לְמַעַן עַנֹּתוֹ בְּסִבְלֹתָם וַיִּבֶן עָרֵי מִסְכְּנוֹת לְפַרְעֹה אֶת־פִּתֹם וְאֶת־רַעַמְסֵס׃ 1.14. וַיְמָרְרוּ אֶת־חַיֵּיהֶם בַּעֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה בְּחֹמֶר וּבִלְבֵנִים וּבְכָל־עֲבֹדָה בַּשָּׂדֶה אֵת כָּל־עֲבֹדָתָם אֲשֶׁר־עָבְדוּ בָהֶם בְּפָרֶךְ׃ 2.5. וַתֵּרֶד בַּת־פַּרְעֹה לִרְחֹץ עַל־הַיְאֹר וְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ הֹלְכֹת עַל־יַד הַיְאֹר וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־הַתֵּבָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסּוּף וַתִּשְׁלַח אֶת־אֲמָתָהּ וַתִּקָּחֶהָ 2.6. וַתִּפְתַּח וַתִּרְאֵהוּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וְהִנֵּה־נַעַר בֹּכֶה וַתַּחְמֹל עָלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר מִיַּלְדֵי הָעִבְרִים זֶה׃ 2.7. וַתֹּאמֶר אֲחֹתוֹ אֶל־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה הַאֵלֵךְ וְקָרָאתִי לָךְ אִשָּׁה מֵינֶקֶת מִן הָעִבְרִיֹּת וְתֵינִק לָךְ אֶת־הַיָּלֶד׃ 2.8. וַתֹּאמֶר־לָהּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹה לֵכִי וַתֵּלֶךְ הָעַלְמָה וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־אֵם הַיָּלֶד׃ 2.9. וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ בַּת־פַּרְעֹה הֵילִיכִי אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד הַזֶּה וְהֵינִקִהוּ לִי וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן אֶת־שְׂכָרֵךְ וַתִּקַּח הָאִשָּׁה הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּנִיקֵהוּ׃ 12.46. בְּבַיִת אֶחָד יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹצִיא מִן־הַבַּיִת מִן־הַבָּשָׂר חוּצָה וְעֶצֶם לֹא תִשְׁבְּרוּ־בוֹ׃ 13.8. וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר בַּעֲבוּר זֶה עָשָׂה יְהוָה לִי בְּצֵאתִי מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 15.11. מִי־כָמֹכָה בָּאֵלִם יְהוָה מִי כָּמֹכָה נֶאְדָּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ נוֹרָא תְהִלֹּת עֹשֵׂה פֶלֶא׃ 1.8. Now there arose a new king over Egypt, who knew not Joseph." 1.10. come, let us deal wisely with them, lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there befalleth us any war, they also join themselves unto our enemies, and fight against us, and get them up out of the land.’" 1.11. Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh store-cities, Pithom and Raamses." 1.14. And they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field; in all their service, wherein they made them serve with rigour." 2.5. And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe in the river; and her maidens walked along by the river-side; and she saw the ark among the flags, and sent her handmaid to fetch it." 2.6. And she opened it, and saw it, even the child; and behold a boy that wept. And she had compassion on him, and said: ‘This is one of the Hebrews’children.’" 2.7. Then said his sister to Pharaoh’s daughter: ‘Shall I go and call thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee?’" 2.8. And Pharaoh’s daughter said to her: ‘Go.’ And the maiden went and called the child’s mother." 2.9. And Pharaoh’s daughter said unto her: ‘Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages.’ And the woman took the child, and nursed it." 2.10. And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name Moses, and said: ‘Because I drew him out of the water.’" 12.46. In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof." 13.8. And thou shalt tell thy son in that day, saying: It is because of that which the LORD did for me when I came forth out of Egypt." 15.11. Who is like unto Thee, O LORD, among the mighty? Who is like unto Thee, glorious in holiness, Fearful in praises, doing wonders?"
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.1, 43.29, 45.1, 45.4-45.11, 45.15-45.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃ 2.1. וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃ 43.29. וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא אֶת־בִּנְיָמִין אָחִיו בֶּן־אִמּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר הֲזֶה אֲחִיכֶם הַקָּטֹן אֲשֶׁר אֲמַרְתֶּם אֵלָי וַיֹּאמַר אֱלֹהִים יָחְנְךָ בְּנִי׃ 45.1. וְלֹא־יָכֹל יוֹסֵף לְהִתְאַפֵּק לְכֹל הַנִּצָּבִים עָלָיו וַיִּקְרָא הוֹצִיאוּ כָל־אִישׁ מֵעָלָי וְלֹא־עָמַד אִישׁ אִתּוֹ בְּהִתְוַדַּע יוֹסֵף אֶל־אֶחָיו׃ 45.1. וְיָשַׁבְתָּ בְאֶרֶץ־גֹּשֶׁן וְהָיִיתָ קָרוֹב אֵלַי אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבְנֵי בָנֶיךָ וְצֹאנְךָ וּבְקָרְךָ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ׃ 45.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹסֵף אֶל־אֶחָיו גְּשׁוּ־נָא אֵלַי וַיִּגָּשׁוּ וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי יוֹסֵף אֲחִיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־מְכַרְתֶּם אֹתִי מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 45.5. וְעַתָּה אַל־תֵּעָצְבוּ וְאַל־יִחַר בְּעֵינֵיכֶם כִּי־מְכַרְתֶּם אֹתִי הֵנָּה כִּי לְמִחְיָה שְׁלָחַנִי אֱלֹהִים לִפְנֵיכֶם׃ 45.6. כִּי־זֶה שְׁנָתַיִם הָרָעָב בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ וְעוֹד חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים אֲשֶׁר אֵין־חָרִישׁ וְקָצִּיר׃ 45.7. וַיִּשְׁלָחֵנִי אֱלֹהִים לִפְנֵיכֶם לָשׂוּם לָכֶם שְׁאֵרִית בָּאָרֶץ וּלְהַחֲיוֹת לָכֶם לִפְלֵיטָה גְּדֹלָה׃ 45.8. וְעַתָּה לֹא־אַתֶּם שְׁלַחְתֶּם אֹתִי הֵנָּה כִּי הָאֱלֹהִים וַיְשִׂימֵנִי לְאָב לְפַרְעֹה וּלְאָדוֹן לְכָל־בֵּיתוֹ וּמֹשֵׁל בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 45.9. מַהֲרוּ וַעֲלוּ אֶל־אָבִי וַאֲמַרְתֶּם אֵלָיו כֹּה אָמַר בִּנְךָ יוֹסֵף שָׂמַנִי אֱלֹהִים לְאָדוֹן לְכָל־מִצְרָיִם רְדָה אֵלַי אַל־תַּעֲמֹד׃ 45.11. וְכִלְכַּלְתִּי אֹתְךָ שָׁם כִּי־עוֹד חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים רָעָב פֶּן־תִּוָּרֵשׁ אַתָּה וּבֵיתְךָ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ׃ 45.15. וַיְנַשֵּׁק לְכָל־אֶחָיו וַיֵּבְךְּ עֲלֵיהֶם וְאַחֲרֵי כֵן דִּבְּרוּ אֶחָיו אִתּוֹ׃ 45.16. וְהַקֹּל נִשְׁמַע בֵּית פַּרְעֹה לֵאמֹר בָּאוּ אֲחֵי יוֹסֵף וַיִּיטַב בְּעֵינֵי פַרְעֹה וּבְעֵינֵי עֲבָדָיו׃ 2.1. And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them." 43.29. And he lifted up his eyes, and saw Benjamin his brother, his mother’s son, and said: ‘Is this your youngest brother of whom ye spoke unto me?’ And he said: ‘God be gracious unto thee, my son.’" 45.1. Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by him; and he cried: ‘Cause every man to go out from me.’ And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren." 45.4. And Joseph said unto his brethren: ‘Come near to me, I pray you.’ And they came near. And he said: ‘I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt." 45.5. And now be not grieved, nor angry with yourselves, that ye sold me hither; for God did send me before you to preserve life." 45.6. For these two years hath the famine been in the land; and there are yet five years, in which there shall be neither plowing nor harvest." 45.7. And God sent me before you to give you a remt on the earth, and to save you alive for a great deliverance." 45.8. So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God; and He hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and ruler over all the land of Egypt." 45.9. Hasten ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him: Thus saith thy son Joseph: God hath made me lord of all Egypt; come down unto me, tarry not." 45.10. And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children’s children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast;" 45.11. and there will I sustain thee; for there are yet five years of famine; lest thou come to poverty, thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast." 45.15. And he kissed all his brethren, and wept upon them; and after that his brethren talked with him." 45.16. And the report thereof was heard in Pharaoh’s house, saying: ‘Joseph’s brethren are come’; and it pleased Pharaoh well, and his servants."
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.1-1.12, 2.6-2.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. הֲלֹא־את [אַתָּה] שַׂכְתָּ בַעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד־בֵּיתוֹ וּבְעַד כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ מִסָּבִיב מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו בֵּרַכְתָּ וּמִקְנֵהוּ פָּרַץ בָּאָרֶץ׃ 1.1. אִישׁ הָיָה בְאֶרֶץ־עוּץ אִיּוֹב שְׁמוֹ וְהָיָה הָאִישׁ הַהוּא תָּם וְיָשָׁר וִירֵא אֱלֹהִים וְסָר מֵרָע׃ 1.2. וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לוֹ שִׁבְעָה בָנִים וְשָׁלוֹשׁ בָּנוֹת׃ 1.2. וַיָּקָם אִיּוֹב וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־מְעִלוֹ וַיָּגָז אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּפֹּל אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ׃ 1.3. וַיְהִי מִקְנֵהוּ שִׁבְעַת אַלְפֵי־צֹאן וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אַלְפֵי גְמַלִּים וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת צֶמֶד־בָּקָר וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אֲתוֹנוֹת וַעֲבֻדָּה רַבָּה מְאֹד וַיְהִי הָאִישׁ הַהוּא גָּדוֹל מִכָּל־בְּנֵי־קֶדֶם׃ 1.4. וְהָלְכוּ בָנָיו וְעָשׂוּ מִשְׁתֶּה בֵּית אִישׁ יוֹמוֹ וְשָׁלְחוּ וְקָרְאוּ לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת אחיתיהם [אַחְיוֹתֵיהֶם] לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת עִמָּהֶם׃ 1.5. וַיְהִי כִּי הִקִּיפוּ יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה וַיִּשְׁלַח אִיּוֹב וַיְקַדְּשֵׁם וְהִשְׁכִּים בַּבֹּקֶר וְהֶעֱלָה עֹלוֹת מִסְפַּר כֻּלָּם כִּי אָמַר אִיּוֹב אוּלַי חָטְאוּ בָנַי וּבֵרֲכוּ אֱלֹהִים בִּלְבָבָם כָּכָה יַעֲשֶׂה אִיּוֹב כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 1.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן מֵאַיִן תָּבֹא וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר מִשּׁוּט בָּאָרֶץ וּמֵהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ׃ 1.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הֲשַׂמְתָּ לִבְּךָ עַל־עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב כִּי אֵין כָּמֹהוּ בָּאָרֶץ אִישׁ תָּם וְיָשָׁר יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים וְסָר מֵרָע׃ 1.9. וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר הַחִנָּם יָרֵא אִיּוֹב אֱלֹהִים׃ 1.11. וְאוּלָם שְׁלַח־נָא יָדְךָ וְגַע בְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אִם־לֹא עַל־פָּנֶיךָ יְבָרֲכֶךָּ׃ 1.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הִנֵּה כָל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ בְּיָדֶךָ רַק אֵלָיו אַל־תִּשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ וַיֵּצֵא הַשָּׂטָן מֵעִם פְּנֵי יְהוָה׃ 2.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הִנּוֹ בְיָדֶךָ אַךְ אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ שְׁמֹר׃ 2.7. וַיֵּצֵא הַשָּׂטָן מֵאֵת פְּנֵי יְהוָה וַיַּךְ אֶת־אִיּוֹב בִּשְׁחִין רָע מִכַּף רַגְלוֹ עד [וְעַד] קָדְקֳדוֹ׃ 2.8. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ חֶרֶשׂ לְהִתְגָּרֵד בּוֹ וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ־הָאֵפֶר׃ 2.9. וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ עֹדְךָ מַחֲזִיק בְּתֻמָּתֶךָ בָּרֵךְ אֱלֹהִים וָמֻת׃ 1.1. THERE was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was whole-hearted and upright, and one that feared God, and shunned evil." 1.2. And there were born unto him seven sons and three daughters." 1.3. His possessions also were seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five hundred yoke of oxen, and five hundred she-asses, and a very great household; so that this man was the greatest of all the children of the east." 1.4. And his sons used to go and hold a feast in the house of each one upon his day; and they would send and invite their three sisters to eat and to drink with them." 1.5. And it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and offered burnt-offerings according to the number of them all; for Job said: ‘It may be that my sons have sinned, and blasphemed God in their hearts.’ Thus did Job continually." 1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them." 1.7. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Whence comest thou?’ Then Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.’" 1.8. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Hast thou considered My servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a whole-hearted and an upright man, one that feareth God, and shunneth evil?’" 1.9. Then Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘Doth Job fear God for nought?" 1.10. Hast not Thou made a hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath, on every side? Thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions are increased in the land." 1.11. But put forth Thy hand now, and touch all that he hath, surely he will blaspheme Thee to Thy face.’" 1.12. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thy hand.’ So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD." 2.6. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Behold, he is in thy hand; only spare his life.’" 2.7. So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD, and smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot even unto his crown." 2.8. And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself therewith; and he sat among the ashes." 2.9. Then said his wife unto him: ‘Dost thou still hold fast thine integrity? blaspheme God, and die.’" 2.10. But he said unto her: ‘Thou speakest as one of the impious women speaketh. What? shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?’ For all this did not Job sin with his lips."
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וְהָלְכוּ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה וְאֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיוֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 4.2. And many nations shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, And to the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths’; For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem."
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 31.8-31.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.8. פְּתַח־פִּיךָ לְאִלֵּם אֶל־דִּין כָּל־בְּנֵי חֲלוֹף׃ 31.9. פְּתַח־פִּיךָ שְׁפָט־צֶדֶק וְדִין עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן׃ 31.11. בָּטַח בָּהּ לֵב בַּעְלָהּ וְשָׁלָל לֹא יֶחְסָר׃ 31.12. גְּמָלַתְהוּ טוֹב וְלֹא־רָע כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיה׃ 31.13. דָּרְשָׁה צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים וַתַּעַשׂ בְּחֵפֶץ כַּפֶּיהָ׃ 31.14. הָיְתָה כָּאֳנִיּוֹת סוֹחֵר מִמֶּרְחָק תָּבִיא לַחְמָהּ׃ 31.15. וַתָּקָם בְּעוֹד לַיְלָה וַתִּתֵּן טֶרֶף לְבֵיתָהּ וְחֹק לְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.16. זָמְמָה שָׂדֶה וַתִּקָּחֵהוּ מִפְּרִי כַפֶּיהָ נטע [נָטְעָה] כָּרֶם׃ 31.17. חָגְרָה בְעוֹז מָתְנֶיהָ וַתְּאַמֵּץ זְרֹעוֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.18. טָעֲמָה כִּי־טוֹב סַחְרָהּ לֹא־יִכְבֶּה בליל [בַלַּיְלָה] נֵרָהּ׃ 31.19. יָדֶיהָ שִׁלְּחָה בַכִּישׁוֹר וְכַפֶּיהָ תָּמְכוּ פָלֶךְ׃ 31.21. לֹא־תִירָא לְבֵיתָהּ מִשָּׁלֶג כִּי כָל־בֵּיתָהּ לָבֻשׁ שָׁנִים׃ 31.22. מַרְבַדִּים עָשְׂתָה־לָּהּ שֵׁשׁ וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁהּ׃ 31.23. נוֹדָע בַּשְּׁעָרִים בַּעְלָהּ בְּשִׁבְתּוֹ עִם־זִקְנֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 31.24. סָדִין עָשְׂתָה וַתִּמְכֹּר וַחֲגוֹר נָתְנָה לַכְּנַעֲנִי׃ 31.25. עֹז־וְהָדָר לְבוּשָׁהּ וַתִּשְׂחַק לְיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן׃ 31.26. פִּיהָ פָּתְחָה בְחָכְמָה וְתוֹרַת־חֶסֶד עַל־לְשׁוֹנָהּ׃ 31.27. צוֹפִיָּה הֲלִיכוֹת בֵּיתָהּ וְלֶחֶם עַצְלוּת לֹא תֹאכֵל׃ 31.28. קָמוּ בָנֶיהָ וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ בַּעְלָהּ וַיְהַלְלָהּ׃ 31.29. רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל־כֻּלָּנָה׃ 31.31. תְּנוּ־לָהּ מִפְּרִי יָדֶיהָ וִיהַלְלוּהָ בַשְּׁעָרִים מַעֲשֶׂיהָ׃ 31.8. Open thy mouth for the dumb, in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction." 31.9. Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy." 31.10. A woman of valour who can find? For her price is far above rubies." 31.11. The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, and he hath no lack of gain." 31.12. She doeth him good and not evil all the days of her life." 31.13. She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands." 31.14. She is like the merchant-ships; she bringeth her food from afar." 31.15. She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth food to her household, and a portion to her maidens." 31.16. She considereth a field, and buyeth it; with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard." 31.17. She girdeth her loins with strength, And maketh strong her arms." 31.18. She perceiveth that her merchandise is good; Her lamp goeth not out by night." 31.19. She layeth her hands to the distaff, And her hands hold the spindle." 31.20. She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; Yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy." 31.21. She is not afraid of the snow for her household; For all her household are clothed with scarlet." 31.22. She maketh for herself coverlets; Her clothing is fine linen and purple." 31.23. Her husband is known in the gates, When he sitteth among the elders of the land." 31.24. She maketh linen garments and selleth them; And delivereth girdles unto the merchant." 31.25. Strength and dignity are her clothing; And she laugheth at the time to come." 31.26. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; And the law of kindness is on her tongue." 31.27. She looketh well to the ways of her household, And eateth not the bread of idleness." 31.28. Her children rise up, and call her blessed; Her husband also, and he praiseth her:" 31.29. ’Many daughters have done valiantly, But thou excellest them all.’" 31.30. Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain; But a woman that feareth the LORD, she shall be praised." 31.31. Give her of the fruit of her hands; And let her works praise her in the gates."
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 33.6, 84.4, 103.19-103.21, 104.1, 104.31, 106.7, 111.4, 115.3-115.8, 118.25, 148.1, 148.3, 148.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.6. בִּדְבַר יְהוָה שָׁמַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ וּבְרוּחַ פִּיו כָּל־צְבָאָם׃ 103.19. יְהוָה בַּשָּׁמַיִם הֵכִין כִּסְאוֹ וּמַלְכוּתוֹ בַּכֹּל מָשָׁלָה׃ 103.21. בָּרֲכוּ יְהוָה כָּל־צְבָאָיו מְשָׁרְתָיו עֹשֵׂי רְצוֹנוֹ׃ 104.1. בָּרֲכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ׃ 104.1. הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעְיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים בֵּין הָרִים יְהַלֵּכוּן׃ 104.31. יְהִי כְבוֹד יְהוָה לְעוֹלָם יִשְׂמַח יְהוָה בְּמַעֲשָׂיו׃ 106.7. אֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְמִצְרַיִם לֹא־הִשְׂכִּילוּ נִפְלְאוֹתֶיךָ לֹא זָכְרוּ אֶת־רֹב חֲסָדֶיךָ וַיַּמְרוּ עַל־יָם בְּיַם־סוּף׃ 111.4. זֵכֶר עָשָׂה לְנִפְלְאֹתָיו חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם יְהוָה׃ 115.3. וֵאלֹהֵינוּ בַשָּׁמָיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־חָפֵץ עָשָׂה׃ 115.4. עֲ‍צַבֵּיהֶם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃ 115.5. פֶּה־לָהֶם וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ׃ 115.6. אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִשְׁמָעוּ אַף לָהֶם וְלֹא יְרִיחוּן׃ 115.7. יְדֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְמִישׁוּן רַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְהַלֵּכוּ לֹא־יֶהְגּוּ בִּגְרוֹנָם׃ 115.8. כְּמוֹהֶם יִהְיוּ עֹשֵׂיהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בֹּטֵחַ בָּהֶם׃ 118.25. אָנָּא יְהוָה הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא אָנָּא יְהוָה הַצְלִיחָה נָּא׃ 148.1. הַחַיָּה וְכָל־בְּהֵמָה רֶמֶשׂ וְצִפּוֹר כָּנָף׃ 148.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ הַלְלוּ אֶת־יְהוָה מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם הַלְלוּהוּ בַּמְּרוֹמִים׃ 148.3. הַלְלוּהוּ שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל־כּוֹכְבֵי אוֹר׃ 148.5. יְהַלְלוּ אֶת־שֵׁם יְהוָה כִּי הוּא צִוָּה וְנִבְרָאוּ׃ 33.6. By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; And all the host of them by the breath of His mouth." 103.19. The LORD hath established His throne in the heavens; And His kingdom ruleth over all." 103.20. Bless the LORD, ye angels of His, Ye mighty in strength, that fulfil His word, Hearkening unto the voice of His word." 103.21. Bless the LORD, all ye His hosts; Ye ministers of His, that do His pleasure." 104.1. Bless the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, Thou art very great; Thou art clothed with glory and majesty." 104.31. May the glory of the LORD endure for ever; let the LORD rejoice in His works!" 106.7. Our fathers in Egypt gave no heed unto Thy wonders; they remembered not the multitude of Thy mercies; but were rebellious at the sea, even at the Red Sea." 111.4. He hath made a memorial for His wonderful works; The LORD is gracious and full of compassion." 115.3. But our God is in the heavens; Whatsoever pleased Him He hath done." 115.4. Their idols are silver and gold, The work of men's hands." 115.5. They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not;" 115.6. They have ears, but they hear not; Noses have they, but they smell not;" 115.7. They have hands, but they handle not; Feet have they, but they walk not; Neither speak they with their throat. ." 115.8. They that make them shall be like unto them; Yea, every one that trusteth in them." 118.25. We beseech Thee, O LORD, save now! We beseech Thee, O LORD, make us now to prosper!" 148.1. Hallelujah. Praise ye the LORD from the heavens; Praise Him in the heights." 148.3. Praise ye Him, sun and moon; Praise Him, all ye stars of light." 148.5. Let them praise the name of the LORD; For He commanded, and they were created."
11. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.4-1.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוִים עַל־הַגַּגּוֹת לִצְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוִים הַנִּשְׁבָּעִים לַיהוָה וְהַנִּשְׁבָּעִים בְּמַלְכָּם׃ 1.5. And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; And them that worship, that swear to the LORD And swear by Malcam;"
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 12.25-12.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.25. וַיִּבֶן יָרָבְעָם אֶת־שְׁכֶם בְּהַר אֶפְרַיִם וַיֵּשֶׁב בָּהּ וַיֵּצֵא מִשָּׁם וַיִּבֶן אֶת־פְּנוּאֵל׃ 12.26. וַיֹּאמֶר יָרָבְעָם בְּלִבּוֹ עַתָּה תָּשׁוּב הַמַּמְלָכָה לְבֵית דָּוִד׃ 12.27. אִם־יַעֲלֶה הָעָם הַזֶּה לַעֲשׂוֹת זְבָחִים בְּבֵית־יְהוָה בִּירוּשָׁלִַם וְשָׁב לֵב הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־אֲדֹנֵיהֶם אֶל־רְחַבְעָם מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה וַהֲרָגֻנִי וְשָׁבוּ אֶל־רְחַבְעָם מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה׃ 12.28. וַיִּוָּעַץ הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁנֵי עֶגְלֵי זָהָב וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם רַב־לָכֶם מֵעֲלוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם הִנֵּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלוּךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 12.29. וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־הָאֶחָד בְּבֵית־אֵל וְאֶת־הָאֶחָד נָתַן בְּדָן׃ 12.25. Then Jeroboam built Shechem in the hill-country of Ephraim, and dwelt therein; and he went out from thence, and built Penuel." 12.26. And Jeroboam said in his heart: ‘Now will the kingdom return to the house of David." 12.27. If this people go up to offer sacrifices in the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, then will the heart of this people turn back unto their lord, even unto Rehoboam king of Judah; and they will kill me, and return to Rehoboam king of Judah.’" 12.28. Whereupon the king took counsel, and made two calves of gold; and he said unto them: ‘Ye have gone up long enough to Jerusalem; behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.’" 12.29. And he set the one in Beth-el, and the other put he in Dan." 12.30. And this thing became a sin; for the people went to worship before the one, even unto Dan."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 17.16, 21.5, 23.4-23.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.16. וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם מַסֵּכָה שנים [שְׁנֵי] עֲגָלִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֲשֵׁירָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הַבָּעַל׃ 21.5. וַיִּבֶן מִזְבְּחוֹת לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם בִּשְׁתֵּי חַצְרוֹת בֵּית־יְהוָה׃ 23.4. וַיְצַו הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־חִלְקִיָּהוּ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל וְאֶת־כֹּהֲנֵי הַמִּשְׁנֶה וְאֶת־שֹׁמְרֵי הַסַּף לְהוֹצִיא מֵהֵיכַל יְהוָה אֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים הָעֲשׂוּיִם לַבַּעַל וְלָאֲשֵׁרָה וּלְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם וַיִּשְׂרְפֵם מִחוּץ לִירוּשָׁלִַם בְּשַׁדְמוֹת קִדְרוֹן וְנָשָׂא אֶת־עֲפָרָם בֵּית־אֵל׃ 23.5. וְהִשְׁבִּית אֶת־הַכְּמָרִים אֲשֶׁר נָתְנוּ מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה וַיְקַטֵּר בַּבָּמוֹת בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה וּמְסִבֵּי יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְאֶת־הַמְקַטְּרִים לַבַּעַל לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְלַיָּרֵחַ וְלַמַּזָּלוֹת וּלְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 17.16. and they forsook all the commandments of the LORD their God, and made them molten images, even two calves, and made an Asherah, and worshipped all the host of heaven, and served Baal;" 21.5. And he built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the LORD." 23.4. And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, and the priests of the second order, and the keepers of the door, to bring forth out of the temple of the LORD all the vessels that were made for Baal, and for the Asherah, and for all the host of heaven; and he burned them without Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried the ashes of them unto Beth-el." 23.5. And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to offer in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that offered unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the constellations, and to all the host of heaven."
14. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

15. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.3, 12.3, 19.1, 19.11, 19.13, 24.21, 24.23, 34.4, 40.2-40.3, 40.26, 44.9-44.20, 44.22, 45.12, 58.1, 58.3-58.6, 58.8, 65.8-65.10, 65.24, 66.10-66.11, 66.14-66.16, 66.20, 66.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. וְהָלְכוּ עַמִּים רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 12.3. וּשְׁאַבְתֶּם־מַיִם בְּשָׂשׂוֹן מִמַּעַיְנֵי הַיְשׁוּעָה׃ 19.1. מַשָּׂא מִצְרָיִם הִנֵּה יְהוָה רֹכֵב עַל־עָב קַל וּבָא מִצְרַיִם וְנָעוּ אֱלִילֵי מִצְרַיִם מִפָּנָיו וּלְבַב מִצְרַיִם יִמַּס בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 19.1. וְהָיוּ שָׁתֹתֶיהָ מְדֻכָּאִים כָּל־עֹשֵׂי שֶׂכֶר אַגְמֵי־נָפֶשׁ׃ 19.11. אַךְ־אֱוִלִים שָׂרֵי צֹעַן חַכְמֵי יֹעֲצֵי פַרְעֹה עֵצָה נִבְעָרָה אֵיךְ תֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה בֶּן־חֲכָמִים אֲנִי בֶּן־מַלְכֵי־קֶדֶם׃ 19.13. נוֹאֲלוּ שָׂרֵי צֹעַן נִשְּׁאוּ שָׂרֵי נֹף הִתְעוּ אֶת־מִצְרַיִם פִּנַּת שְׁבָטֶיהָ׃ 24.21. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִפְקֹד יְהוָה עַל־צְבָא הַמָּרוֹם בַּמָּרוֹם וְעַל־מַלְכֵי הָאֲדָמָה עַל־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 24.23. וְחָפְרָה הַלְּבָנָה וּבוֹשָׁה הַחַמָּה כִּי־מָלַךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּהַר צִיּוֹן וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם וְנֶגֶד זְקֵנָיו כָּבוֹד׃ 34.4. וְנָמַקּוּ כָּל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנָגֹלּוּ כַסֵּפֶר הַשָּׁמָיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם יִבּוֹל כִּנְבֹל עָלֶה מִגֶּפֶן וּכְנֹבֶלֶת מִתְּאֵנָה׃ 40.2. הַמְסֻכָּן תְּרוּמָה עֵץ לֹא־יִרְקַב יִבְחָר חָרָשׁ חָכָם יְבַקֶּשׁ־לוֹ לְהָכִין פֶּסֶל לֹא יִמּוֹט׃ 40.2. דַּבְּרוּ עַל־לֵב יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְקִרְאוּ אֵלֶיהָ כִּי מָלְאָה צְבָאָהּ כִּי נִרְצָה עֲוֺנָהּ כִּי לָקְחָה מִיַּד יְהוָה כִּפְלַיִם בְּכָל־חַטֹּאתֶיהָ׃ 40.3. קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 40.3. וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 40.26. שְׂאוּ־מָרוֹם עֵינֵיכֶם וּרְאוּ מִי־בָרָא אֵלֶּה הַמּוֹצִיא בְמִסְפָּר צְבָאָם לְכֻלָּם בְּשֵׁם יִקְרָא מֵרֹב אוֹנִים וְאַמִּיץ כֹּחַ אִישׁ לֹא נֶעְדָּר׃ 44.9. יֹצְרֵי־פֶסֶל כֻּלָּם תֹּהוּ וַחֲמוּדֵיהֶם בַּל־יוֹעִילוּ וְעֵדֵיהֶם הֵמָּה בַּל־יִרְאוּ וּבַל־יֵדְעוּ לְמַעַן יֵבֹשׁוּ׃ 44.11. הֵן כָּל־חֲבֵרָיו יֵבֹשׁוּ וְחָרָשִׁים הֵמָּה מֵאָדָם יִתְקַבְּצוּ כֻלָּם יַעֲמֹדוּ יִפְחֲדוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ יָחַד׃ 44.12. חָרַשׁ בַּרְזֶל מַעֲצָד וּפָעַל בַּפֶּחָם וּבַמַּקָּבוֹת יִצְּרֵהוּ וַיִּפְעָלֵהוּ בִּזְרוֹעַ כֹּחוֹ גַּם־רָעֵב וְאֵין כֹּחַ לֹא־שָׁתָה מַיִם וַיִּיעָף׃ 44.13. חָרַשׁ עֵצִים נָטָה קָו יְתָאֲרֵהוּ בַשֶּׂרֶד יַעֲשֵׂהוּ בַּמַּקְצֻעוֹת וּבַמְּחוּגָה יְתָאֳרֵהוּ וַיַּעֲשֵׂהוּ כְּתַבְנִית אִישׁ כְּתִפְאֶרֶת אָדָם לָשֶׁבֶת בָּיִת׃ 44.14. לִכְרָת־לוֹ אֲרָזִים וַיִּקַּח תִּרְזָה וְאַלּוֹן וַיְאַמֶּץ־לוֹ בַּעֲצֵי־יָעַר נָטַע אֹרֶן וְגֶשֶׁם יְגַדֵּל׃ 44.15. וְהָיָה לְאָדָם לְבָעֵר וַיִּקַּח מֵהֶם וַיָּחָם אַף־יַשִּׂיק וְאָפָה לָחֶם אַף־יִפְעַל־אֵל וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ עָשָׂהוּ פֶסֶל וַיִּסְגָּד־לָמוֹ׃ 44.16. חֶצְיוֹ שָׂרַף בְּמוֹ־אֵשׁ עַל־חֶצְיוֹ בָּשָׂר יֹאכֵל יִצְלֶה צָלִי וְיִשְׂבָּע אַף־יָחֹם וְיֹאמַר הֶאָח חַמּוֹתִי רָאִיתִי אוּר׃ 44.17. וּשְׁאֵרִיתוֹ לְאֵל עָשָׂה לְפִסְלוֹ יסגוד־[יִסְגָּד־] לוֹ וְיִשְׁתַּחוּ וְיִתְפַּלֵּל אֵלָיו וְיֹאמַר הַצִּילֵנִי כִּי אֵלִי אָתָּה׃ 44.18. לֹא יָדְעוּ וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כִּי טַח מֵרְאוֹת עֵינֵיהֶם מֵהַשְׂכִּיל לִבֹּתָם׃ 44.19. וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶל־לִבּוֹ וְלֹא דַעַת וְלֹא־תְבוּנָה לֵאמֹר חֶצְיוֹ שָׂרַפְתִּי בְמוֹ־אֵשׁ וְאַף אָפִיתִי עַל־גֶּחָלָיו לֶחֶם אֶצְלֶה בָשָׂר וְאֹכֵל וְיִתְרוֹ לְתוֹעֵבָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לְבוּל עֵץ אֶסְגּוֹד׃ 44.22. מָחִיתִי כָעָב פְּשָׁעֶיךָ וְכֶעָנָן חַטֹּאותֶיךָ שׁוּבָה אֵלַי כִּי גְאַלְתִּיךָ׃ 45.12. אָנֹכִי עָשִׂיתִי אֶרֶץ וְאָדָם עָלֶיהָ בָרָאתִי אֲנִי יָדַי נָטוּ שָׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם צִוֵּיתִי׃ 58.1. קְרָא בְגָרוֹן אַל־תַּחְשֹׂךְ כַּשּׁוֹפָר הָרֵם קוֹלֶךָ וְהַגֵּד לְעַמִּי פִּשְׁעָם וּלְבֵית יַעֲקֹב חַטֹּאתָם׃ 58.1. וְתָפֵק לָרָעֵב נַפְשֶׁךָ וְנֶפֶשׁ נַעֲנָה תַּשְׂבִּיעַ וְזָרַח בַּחֹשֶׁךְ אוֹרֶךָ וַאֲפֵלָתְךָ כַּצָּהֳרָיִם׃ 58.3. לָמָּה צַּמְנוּ וְלֹא רָאִיתָ עִנִּינוּ נַפְשֵׁנוּ וְלֹא תֵדָע הֵן בְּיוֹם צֹמְכֶם תִּמְצְאוּ־חֵפֶץ וְכָל־עַצְּבֵיכֶם תִּנְגֹּשׂוּ׃ 58.4. הֵן לְרִיב וּמַצָּה תָּצוּמוּ וּלְהַכּוֹת בְּאֶגְרֹף רֶשַׁע לֹא־תָצוּמוּ כַיּוֹם לְהַשְׁמִיעַ בַּמָּרוֹם קוֹלְכֶם׃ 58.5. הֲכָזֶה יִהְיֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ יוֹם עַנּוֹת אָדָם נַפְשׁוֹ הֲלָכֹף כְּאַגְמֹן רֹאשׁוֹ וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר יַצִּיעַ הֲלָזֶה תִּקְרָא־צוֹם וְיוֹם רָצוֹן לַיהוָה׃ 58.6. הֲלוֹא זֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ פַּתֵּחַ חַרְצֻבּוֹת רֶשַׁע הַתֵּר אֲגֻדּוֹת מוֹטָה וְשַׁלַּח רְצוּצִים חָפְשִׁים וְכָל־מוֹטָה תְּנַתֵּקוּ׃ 58.8. אָז יִבָּקַע כַּשַּׁחַר אוֹרֶךָ וַאֲרֻכָתְךָ מְהֵרָה תִצְמָח וְהָלַךְ לְפָנֶיךָ צִדְקֶךָ כְּבוֹד יְהוָה יַאַסְפֶךָ׃ 65.8. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר יִמָּצֵא הַתִּירוֹשׁ בָּאֶשְׁכּוֹל וְאָמַר אַל־תַּשְׁחִיתֵהוּ כִּי בְרָכָה בּוֹ כֵּן אֶעֱשֶׂה לְמַעַן עֲבָדַי לְבִלְתִּי הַשְׁחִית הַכֹּל׃ 65.9. וְהוֹצֵאתִי מִיַּעֲקֹב זֶרַע וּמִיהוּדָה יוֹרֵשׁ הָרָי וִירֵשׁוּהָ בְחִירַי וַעֲבָדַי יִשְׁכְּנוּ־שָׁמָּה׃ 65.24. וְהָיָה טֶרֶם־יִקְרָאוּ וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה עוֹד הֵם מְדַבְּרִים וַאֲנִי אֶשְׁמָע׃ 66.11. לְמַעַן תִּינְקוּ וּשְׂבַעְתֶּם מִשֹּׁד תַּנְחֻמֶיהָ לְמַעַן תָּמֹצּוּ וְהִתְעַנַּגְתֶּם מִזִּיז כְּבוֹדָהּ׃ 66.14. וּרְאִיתֶם וְשָׂשׂ לִבְּכֶם וְעַצְמוֹתֵיכֶם כַּדֶּשֶׁא תִפְרַחְנָה וְנוֹדְעָה יַד־יְהוָה אֶת־עֲבָדָיו וְזָעַם אֶת־אֹיְבָיו׃ 66.15. כִּי־הִנֵּה יְהוָה בָּאֵשׁ יָבוֹא וְכַסּוּפָה מַרְכְּבֹתָיו לְהָשִׁיב בְּחֵמָה אַפּוֹ וְגַעֲרָתוֹ בְּלַהֲבֵי־אֵשׁ׃ 66.16. כִּי בָאֵשׁ יְהוָה נִשְׁפָּט וּבְחַרְבּוֹ אֶת־כָּל־בָּשָׂר וְרַבּוּ חַלְלֵי יְהוָה׃ 66.24. וְיָצְאוּ וְרָאוּ בְּפִגְרֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים הַפֹּשְׁעִים בִּי כִּי תוֹלַעְתָּם לֹא תָמוּת וְאִשָּׁם לֹא תִכְבֶּה וְהָיוּ דֵרָאוֹן לְכָל־בָּשָׂר׃ 2.3. And many peoples shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths.’ For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem." 12.3. Therefore with joy shall ye draw water Out of the wells of salvation." 19.1. The burden of Egypt. Behold, the LORD rideth upon a swift cloud, And cometh unto Egypt; And the idols of Egypt shall be moved at His presence, And the heart of Egypt shall melt within it." 19.11. The princes of Zoan are utter fools; the wisest counsellors of Pharaoh are a senseless counsel; How can ye say unto Pharaoh: ‘I am the son of the wise, The son of ancient kings’?." 19.13. The princes of Zoan are become fools, The princes of Noph are deceived; They have caused Egypt to go astray, That are the corner-stone of her tribes." 24.21. And it shall come to pass in that day, That the LORD will punish the host of the high heaven on high, And the kings of the earth upon the earth." 24.23. Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed; For the LORD of hosts will reign in mount Zion, And in Jerusalem, and before His elders shall be Glory." 34.4. And all the host of heaven shall moulder away, And the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll; And all their host shall fall down, As the leaf falleth off from the vine, And as a falling fig from the fig-tree." 40.2. Bid Jerusalem take heart, and proclaim unto her, that her time of service is accomplished, that her guilt is paid off; that she hath received of the LORD’S hand double for all her sins." 40.3. Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God." 40.26. Lift up your eyes on high, And see: who hath created these? He that bringeth out their host by number, He calleth them all by name; By the greatness of His might, and for that He is strong in power, Not one faileth." 44.9. They that fashion a graven image are all of them vanity, And their delectable things shall not profit; And their own witnesses see not, nor know; That they may be ashamed." 44.10. Who hath fashioned a god, or molten an image That is profitable for nothing?" 44.11. Behold, all the fellows thereof shall be ashamed; And the craftsmen skilled above men; Let them all be gathered together, let them stand up; They shall fear, they shall be ashamed together." 44.12. The smith maketh an axe, And worketh in the coals, and fashioneth it with hammers, And worketh it with his strong arm; Yea, he is hungry, and his strength faileth; He drinketh no water, and is faint." 44.13. The carpenter stretcheth out a line; He marketh it out with a pencil; He fitteth it with planes, And he marketh it out with the compasses, And maketh it after the figure of a man, According to the beauty of a man, to dwell in the house." 44.14. He heweth him down cedars, And taketh the ilex and the oak, And strengtheneth for himself one among the trees of the forest; He planteth a bay-tree, and the rain doth nourish it." 44.15. Then a man useth it for fuel; And he taketh thereof, and warmeth himself; Yea, he kindleth it, and baketh bread; Yea, he maketh a god, and worshippeth it; He maketh it a graven image, and falleth down thereto." 44.16. He burneth the half thereof in the fire; With the half thereof he eateth flesh; He roasteth roast, and is satisfied; Yea, he warmeth himself, and saith: ‘Aha, I am warm, I have seen the fire’;" 44.17. And the residue thereof he maketh a god, even his graven image; He falleth down unto it and worshippeth, and prayeth unto it, And saith: ‘Deliver me, for thou art my god.’" 44.18. They know not, neither do they understand; For their eyes are bedaubed, that they cannot see, And their hearts, that they cannot understand." 44.19. And none considereth in his heart, Neither is there knowledge nor understanding to say: ‘I have burned the half of it in the fire; Yea, also I have baked bread upon the coals thereof; I have roasted flesh and eaten it; And shall I make the residue thereof an abomination? Shall I fall down to the stock of a tree?’" 44.20. He striveth after ashes, A deceived heart hath turned him aside, That he cannot deliver his soul, nor say: ‘Is there not a lie in my right hand?’" 44.22. I have blotted out, as a thick cloud, thy transgressions, And, as a cloud, thy sins; Return unto Me, for I have redeemed thee." 45.12. I, even I, have made the earth, And created man upon it; I, even My hands, have stretched out the heavens, And all their host have I commanded." 58.1. Cry aloud, spare not, Lift up they voice like a horn, And declare unto My people their transgression, And to the house of Jacob their sins." 58.3. ’Wherefore have we fasted, and Thou seest not? Wherefore have we afflicted our soul, and Thou takest no knowledge?’— Behold, in the day of your fast ye pursue your business, And exact all your labours." 58.4. Behold, ye fast for strife and contention, And to smite with the fist of wickedness; Ye fast not this day So as to make your voice to be heard on high." 58.5. Is such the fast that I have chosen? The day for a man to afflict his soul? Is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, And to spread sackcloth and ashes under him? Wilt thou call this a fast, And an acceptable day to the LORD?" 58.6. Is not this the fast that I have chosen? To loose the fetters of wickedness, To undo the bands of the yoke, And to let the oppressed go free, And that ye break every yoke?" 58.8. Then shall thy light break forth as the morning, And thy healing shall spring forth speedily; And thy righteousness shall go before thee, The glory of the LORD shall be thy rearward." 65.8. Thus saith the LORD: As, when wine is found in the cluster, One saith: ‘Destroy it not, For a blessing is in it’; So will I do for My servants’ sakes, That I may not destroy all." 65.9. And I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of My mountains; and Mine elect shall inherit it, And My servants shall dwell there." 65.10. And Sharon shall be a fold of flocks, and the valley of Achor a place for herds to lie down in, for My people that have sought Me;" 65.24. And it shall come to pass that, before they call, I will answer, And while they are yet speaking, I will hear." 66.10. Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, And be glad with her, all ye that love her; Rejoice for joy with her, All ye that mourn for her;" 66.11. That ye may suck, and be satisfied With the breast of her consolations; That ye may drink deeply with delight of the abundance of her glory." 66.14. And when ye see this, your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like young grass; and the hand of the LORD shall be known toward His servants, and He will have indignation against His enemies." 66.15. For, behold, the LORD will come in fire, And His chariots shall be like the whirlwind; to render His anger with fury, And His rebuke with flames of fire. " 66.16. For by fire will the LORD contend, And by His sword with all flesh; And the slain of the LORD shall be many." 66.20. And they shall bring all your brethren out of all the nations for an offering unto the LORD, upon horses, and in chariots, and in fitters, and upon mules, and upon swift beasts, to My holy mountain Jerusalem, saith the LORD, as the children of Israel bring their offering in a clean vessel into the house of the LORD." 66.24. And they shall go forth, and look Upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me; For their worm shall not die, Neither shall their fire be quenched; And they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh. "
16. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.1-10.16, 19.13, 31.35-31.36, 33.22, 51.15, 51.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.1. וַיהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֱמֶת הוּא־אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים וּמֶלֶךְ עוֹלָם מִקִּצְפּוֹ תִּרְעַשׁ הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא־יָכִלוּ גוֹיִם זַעְמוֹ׃ 10.1. שִׁמְעוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 10.2. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־דֶּרֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם אַל־תִּלְמָדוּ וּמֵאֹתוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם אַל־תֵּחָתּוּ כִּי־יֵחַתּוּ הַגּוֹיִם מֵהֵמָּה׃ 10.2. אָהֳלִי שֻׁדָּד וְכָל־מֵיתָרַי נִתָּקוּ בָּנַי יְצָאֻנִי וְאֵינָם אֵין־נֹטֶה עוֹד אָהֳלִי וּמֵקִים יְרִיעוֹתָי׃ 10.3. כִּי־חֻקּוֹת הָעַמִּים הֶבֶל הוּא כִּי־עֵץ מִיַּעַר כְּרָתוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי־חָרָשׁ בַּמַּעֲצָד׃ 10.4. בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב יְיַפֵּהוּ בְּמַסְמְרוֹת וּבְמַקָּבוֹת יְחַזְּקוּם וְלוֹא יָפִיק׃ 10.5. כְּתֹמֶר מִקְשָׁה הֵמָּה וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ נָשׂוֹא יִנָּשׂוּא כִּי לֹא יִצְעָדוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ מֵהֶם כִּי־לֹא יָרֵעוּ וְגַם־הֵיטֵיב אֵין אוֹתָם׃ 10.6. מֵאֵין כָּמוֹךָ יְהוָה גָּדוֹל אַתָּה וְגָדוֹל שִׁמְךָ בִּגְבוּרָה׃ 10.7. מִי לֹא יִרָאֲךָ מֶלֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם כִּי לְךָ יָאָתָה כִּי בְכָל־חַכְמֵי הַגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מַלְכוּתָם מֵאֵין כָּמוֹךָ׃ 10.8. וּבְאַחַת יִבְעֲרוּ וְיִכְסָלוּ מוּסַר הֲבָלִים עֵץ הוּא׃ 10.9. כֶּסֶף מְרֻקָּע מִתַּרְשִׁישׁ יוּבָא וְזָהָב מֵאוּפָז מַעֲשֵׂה חָרָשׁ וִידֵי צוֹרֵף תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁם מַעֲשֵׂה חֲכָמִים כֻּלָּם׃ 10.11. כִּדְנָה תֵּאמְרוּן לְהוֹם אֱלָהַיָּא דִּי־שְׁמַיָּא וְאַרְקָא לָא עֲבַדוּ יֵאבַדוּ מֵאַרְעָא וּמִן־תְּחוֹת שְׁמַיָּא אֵלֶּה׃ 10.12. עֹשֵׂה אֶרֶץ בְּכֹחוֹ מֵכִין תֵּבֵל בְּחָכְמָתוֹ וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ נָטָה שָׁמָיִם׃ 10.13. לְקוֹל תִּתּוֹ הֲמוֹן מַיִם בַּשָּׁמַיִם וַיַּעֲלֶה נְשִׂאִים מִקְצֵה ארץ [הָאָרֶץ] בְּרָקִים לַמָּטָר עָשָׂה וַיּוֹצֵא רוּחַ מֵאֹצְרֹתָיו׃ 10.14. נִבְעַר כָּל־אָדָם מִדַּעַת הֹבִישׁ כָּל־צוֹרֵף מִפָּסֶל כִּי שֶׁקֶר נִסְכּוֹ וְלֹא־רוּחַ בָּם׃ 10.15. הֶבֶל הֵמָּה מַעֲשֵׂה תַּעְתֻּעִים בְּעֵת פְּקֻדָּתָם יֹאבֵדוּ׃ 10.16. לֹא־כְאֵלֶּה חֵלֶק יַעֲקֹב כִּי־יוֹצֵר הַכֹּל הוּא וְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֵׁבֶט נַחֲלָתוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 19.13. וְהָיוּ בָּתֵּי יְרוּשָׁלִַם וּבָתֵּי מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה כִּמְקוֹם הַתֹּפֶת הַטְּמֵאִים לְכֹל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר קִטְּרוּ עַל־גַּגֹּתֵיהֶם לְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהַסֵּךְ נְסָכִים לֵאלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃ 31.35. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה נֹתֵן שֶׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם חֻקֹּת יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְאוֹר לָיְלָה רֹגַע הַיָּם וַיֶּהֱמוּ גַלָּיו יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 31.36. אִם־יָמֻשׁוּ הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה מִלְּפָנַי נְאֻם־יְהוָה גַּם זֶרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁבְּתוּ מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי לְפָנַי כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 33.22. אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִסָּפֵר צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא יִמַּד חוֹל הַיָּם כֵּן אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זֶרַע דָּוִד עַבְדִּי וְאֶת־הַלְוִיִּם מְשָׁרְתֵי אֹתִי׃ 51.15. עֹשֵׂה אֶרֶץ בְּכֹחוֹ מֵכִין תֵּבֵל בְּחָכְמָתוֹ וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ נָטָה שָׁמָיִם׃ 51.19. לֹא־כְאֵלֶּה חֵלֶק יַעֲקוֹב כִּי־יוֹצֵר הַכֹּל הוּא וְשֵׁבֶט נַחֲלָתוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 10.1. Hear ye the word which the LORD speaketh unto you, O house of Israel;" 10.2. thus saith the LORD: Learn not the way of the nations, And be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; For the nations are dismayed at them." 10.3. For the customs of the peoples are vanity; For it is but a tree which one cutteth out of the forest, The work of the hands of the workman with the axe." 10.4. They deck it with silver and with gold, They fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not." 10.5. They are like a pillar in a garden of cucumbers, and speak not; They must needs be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them, for they cannot do evil, Neither is it in them to do good." 10.6. There is none like unto Thee, O LORD; Thou art great, and Thy name is great in might." 10.7. Who would not fear Thee, O king of the nations? For it befitteth Thee; Forasmuch as among all the wise men of the nations, and in all their royalty, There is none like unto Thee." 10.8. But they are altogether brutish and foolish: The vanities by which they are instructed are but a stock;" 10.9. Silver beaten into plates which is brought from Tarshish, And gold from Uphaz, The work of the craftsman and of the hands of the goldsmith; Blue and purple is their clothing; They are all the work of skilful men." 10.10. But the LORD God is the true God, He is the living God, and the everlasting King; At His wrath the earth trembleth, And the nations are not able to abide His indignation." 10.11. Thus shall ye say unto them: ‘The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth, these shall perish from the earth, and from under the heavens.’" 10.12. He that hath made the earth by His power, That hath established the world by His wisdom, And hath stretched out the heavens by His understanding;" 10.13. At the sound of His giving a multitude of waters in the heavens, When He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth; When He maketh lightnings with the rain, And bringeth forth the wind out of His treasuries;" 10.14. Every man is proved to be brutish, without knowledge, Every goldsmith is put to shame by the graven image, His molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them." 10.15. They are vanity, a work of delusion; In the time of their visitation they shall perish." 10.16. Not like these is the portion of Jacob; For He is the former of all things, And Israel is the tribe of His inheritance; The LORD of hosts is His name." 19.13. and the houses of Jerusalem, and the houses of the kings of Judah, which are defiled, shall be as the place of Topheth, even all the houses upon whose roofs they have offered unto all the host of heaven, and have poured out drink-offerings unto other gods." 31.35. Thus saith the LORD, Who giveth the sun for a light by day, And the ordices of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, Who stirreth up the sea, that the waves thereof roar, The LORD of hosts is His name:" 31.36. If these ordices depart from before Me, Saith the LORD, Then the seed of Israel also shall cease From being a nation before Me for ever." 33.22. As the host of heaven cannot be numbered, Neither the sand of the sea measured; So will I multiply the seed of David My servant, And the Levites that minister unto Me." 51.15. He that hath made the earth by His power, That hath established the world by His wisdom, And hath stretched out the heavens by His discernment;" 51.19. The portion of Jacob is not like these; For He is the former of all things, And [Israel] is the tribe of His inheritance; The LORD of hosts is His name. ."
17. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 8.23, 8.27-8.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.23. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם גִּדְעוֹן לֹא־אֶמְשֹׁל אֲנִי בָּכֶם וְלֹא־יִמְשֹׁל בְּנִי בָּכֶם יְהוָה יִמְשֹׁל בָּכֶם׃ 8.27. וַיַּעַשׂ אוֹתוֹ גִדְעוֹן לְאֵפוֹד וַיַּצֵּג אוֹתוֹ בְעִירוֹ בְּעָפְרָה וַיִּזְנוּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרָיו שָׁם וַיְהִי לְגִדְעוֹן וּלְבֵיתוֹ לְמוֹקֵשׁ׃ 8.28. וַיִּכָּנַע מִדְיָן לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא יָסְפוּ לָשֵׂאת רֹאשָׁם וַתִּשְׁקֹט הָאָרֶץ אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בִּימֵי גִדְעוֹן׃ 8.23. And Gid῾on said to them, I will not rule over you, neither shall my son rule over you: the Lord shall rule over you." 8.27. And Gid῾on made an efod of this, and put it in his city, even in ῾ofra: and all Yisra᾽el went astray there after it: which thing became a snare to Gid῾on, and to his house." 8.28. Thus was Midyan subdued before the children of Yisra᾽el, so that they lifted up their heads no more. And the country was in quietness for forty years in the days of Gid῾on."
18. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 47.1, 47.9 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

47.1. וְהָיָה יעמדו [עָמְדוּ] עָלָיו דַּוָּגִים מֵעֵין גֶּדִי וְעַד־עֵין עֶגְלַיִם מִשְׁטוֹחַ לַחֲרָמִים יִהְיוּ לְמִינָה תִּהְיֶה דְגָתָם כִּדְגַת הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל רַבָּה מְאֹד׃ 47.1. וַיְשִׁבֵנִי אֶל־פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת וְהִנֵּה־מַיִם יֹצְאִים מִתַּחַת מִפְתַּן הַבַּיִת קָדִימָה כִּי־פְנֵי הַבַּיִת קָדִים וְהַמַּיִם יֹרְדִים מִתַּחַת מִכֶּתֶף הַבַּיִת הַיְמָנִית מִנֶּגֶב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 47.9. וְהָיָה כָל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֲ‍שֶׁר־יִשְׁרֹץ אֶל כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא שָׁם נַחֲלַיִם יִחְיֶה וְהָיָה הַדָּגָה רַבָּה מְאֹד כִּי בָאוּ שָׁמָּה הַמַּיִם הָאֵלֶּה וְיֵרָפְאוּ וָחָי כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יָבוֹא שָׁמָּה הַנָּחַל׃ 47.1. And he brought me back unto the door of the house; and, behold, waters issued out from under the threshold of the house eastward, for the forefront of the house looked toward the east; and the waters came down from under, from the right side of the house, on the south of the altar. 47.9. And it shall come to pass, that every living creature wherewith it swarmeth, whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall live; and there shall be a very great multitude of fish; for these waters are come thither, that all things be healed and may live whithersoever the river cometh."
19. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.6. אַתָּה־הוּא יְהוָה לְבַדֶּךָ את [אַתָּה] עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הַיַּמִּים וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם וְאַתָּה מְחַיֶּה אֶת־כֻּלָּם וּצְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם לְךָ מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים׃ 9.6. Thou art the LORD, even Thou alone; Thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all things that are thereon, the seas and all that is in them, and Thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth Thee."
20. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 13.1, 14.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה מָקוֹר נִפְתָּח לְבֵית דָּוִיד וּלְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם לְחַטַּאת וּלְנִדָּה׃ 14.8. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵצְאוּ מַיִם־חַיִּים מִירוּשָׁלִַם חֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הַקַּדְמוֹנִי וְחֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן בַּקַּיִץ וּבָחֹרֶף יִהְיֶה׃ 13.1. In that day there shall be a fountain opened To the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, For purification and for sprinkling." 14.8. And it shall come to pass in that day, That living waters shall go out from Jerusalem: Half of them toward the eastern sea, And half of them toward the western sea; In summer and in winter shall it be."
21. Anon., 1 Enoch, 19 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

19. And Uriel said to me: 'Here shall stand the angels who have connected themselves with women, and their spirits assuming many different forms are defiling mankind and shall lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, (here shall they stand,) till the day of the great judgement in,which they shall be judged till they are made an end of. And the women also of the angels who",went astray shall become sirens.' And I, Enoch, alone saw the vision, the ends of all things: and no man shall see as I have seen.
22. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Qpsa, 16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 4.32, 8.9-8.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.32. וְכָל־דארי [דָּיְרֵי] אַרְעָא כְּלָה חֲשִׁיבִין וּכְמִצְבְּיֵהּ עָבֵד בְּחֵיל שְׁמַיָּא ודארי [וְדָיְרֵי] אַרְעָא וְלָא אִיתַי דִּי־יְמַחֵא בִידֵהּ וְיֵאמַר לֵהּ מָה עֲבַדְתְּ׃ 8.9. וּמִן־הָאַחַת מֵהֶם יָצָא קֶרֶן־אַחַת מִצְּעִירָה וַתִּגְדַּל־יֶתֶר אֶל־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶל־הַמִּזְרָח וְאֶל־הַצֶּבִי׃ 8.11. וְעַד שַׂר־הַצָּבָא הִגְדִּיל וּמִמֶּנּוּ הרים [הוּרַם] הַתָּמִיד וְהֻשְׁלַךְ מְכוֹן מִקְדָּשׁוֹ׃ 8.12. וְצָבָא תִּנָּתֵן עַל־הַתָּמִיד בְּפָשַׁע וְתַשְׁלֵךְ אֱמֶת אַרְצָה וְעָשְׂתָה וְהִצְלִיחָה׃ 8.13. וָאֶשְׁמְעָה אֶחָד־קָדוֹשׁ מְדַבֵּר וַיֹּאמֶר אֶחָד קָדוֹשׁ לַפַּלְמוֹנִי הַמְדַבֵּר עַד־מָתַי הֶחָזוֹן הַתָּמִיד וְהַפֶּשַׁע שֹׁמֵם תֵּת וְקֹדֶשׁ וְצָבָא מִרְמָס׃ 4.32. And all the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as nothing; And He doeth according to His will in the host of heaven, And among the inhabitants of the earth; And none can stay His hand, Or say unto Him: What doest Thou?" 8.9. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the beauteous land." 8.10. And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and some of the host and of the stars it cast down to the ground, and trampled upon them." 8.11. Yea, it magnified itself, even to the prince of the host; and from him the continual burnt-offering was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down." 8.12. And the host was given over to it together with the continual burnt-offering through transgression; and it cast down truth to the ground, and it wrought, and prospered." 8.13. Then I heard a holy one speaking; and another holy one said unto that certain one who spoke: ‘How long shall be the vision concerning the continual burnt-offering, and the transgression that causes appalment, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trampled under foot?’"
24. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 32.5, 32.6, 42.15-43.33, 43.12, 43.13, 43.14, 43.15, 43.16, 43.17, 43.18, 43.19, 47.8, 47.9, 47.10, 47.11, 50.16, 50.17, 50.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

32.5. A ruby seal in a setting of gold is a concert of music at a banquet of wine.
25. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 47.8-47.11, 50.16-50.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.138, 2.148 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.138. Secondly, it shows mercy and compassion on those who have been treated unjustly, whose burden of distress it lightens by giving them a share in grace and gift; for the double portion of the inheriting son was no less likely to please the mother, who will be encouraged by the kindness of the law, which did not permit her and her offspring to be totally overcome by their enemies. 2.148. And each house is at that time invested with the character and dignity of a temple, the victim being sacrificed so as to make a suitable feast for the man who has provided it and of those who are collected to share in the feast, being all duly purified with holy ablutions. And those who are to share in the feast come together not as they do to other entertainments, to gratify their bellies with wine and meat, but to fulfil their hereditary custom with prayer and songs of praise.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 84, 80 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

80. and then some one rising up sings a hymn which has been made in honour of God, either such as he has composed himself, or some ancient one of some old poet, for they have left behind them many poems and songs in trimetre iambics, and in psalms of thanksgiving and in hymns, and songs at the time of libation, and at the altar, and in regular order, and in choruses, admirably measured out in various and well diversified strophes. And after him then others also arise in their ranks, in becoming order, while every one else listens in decent silence, except when it is proper for them to take up the burden of the song, and to join in at the end; for then they all, both men and women, join in the hymn.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.112-1.133 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.112. for what can be more insignificant than a louse? And yet it was so powerful that all Egypt fainted under the host of them, and was compelled to cry out, that "this is the anger of God." For all the earth put together, from one end to the other, could not withstand the hand of God, no nor all the universe. 1.113. Such then were the chastisements which were inflicted by the agency of the brother of Moses. But those in which Moses himself was the minister, and from what parts of nature they were derived, must be next considered. Now next after the earth and the water, the air and the heaven, which are the purest portions of the essences of the universe, succeeded them as the medium of the correction of the Egyptians: and of this correction Moses was the minister; 1.114. and first of all he began to operate upon the air. For Egypt almost alone, if you except those countries which lie to the south of the equator, never is subject to that one of the seasons of the year which is called winter, perhaps, as some say, from the fact of its not being at any great distance from the torrid zone, since the essence of fire flows from that quarter in an invisible manner, and scorches everything all around, or perhaps it is because the river overflows at the time of the summer solstice, and so consumes all the clouds before they can collect for winter; 1.115. for the river begins to rise at the beginning of the summer, and to fall towards the end of summer; during which period the etesian gales increase in violence blowing from a direction opposite to the mouths of the Nile, and by which it is prevented from flowing freely into the sea, and by the violence of which winds, the sea itself is also raised to a considerable height, and erects vast waves like a long wall, and so the river is agitated within the country. And then when the two streams meet together, the river descending from its sources above, and the waters which ought to escape abroad being turned back by the beating of the sea, and not being able to extend their breadth, for the banks on each side of the river confine its streams, the river, as is natural, rises to a height, and breaks its bounds; 1.116. perhaps also it does so because it was superfluous for winter to occur in Egypt; for the object for which showers of rain are usually serviceable, is in this instance provided for by the river which overflows the fields, and turns them into one vast lake, to make them productive of the annual crops; 1.117. but nature does not expend her powers to no purpose when they are not wanted, so as to provide rain for a land which does not require it, but it rejoices in the variety and diversity of scientific operations, and arranges the harmony of the universe from a number of opposite qualities. And for this reason it supplies the benefits which are derivable from water, to some countries, by bestowing it on them from above, namely from heaven, and to others it gives it from below by means of springs and rivers; 1.118. though then the land was thus arranged, and enjoyed spring during the winter solstice, and since it is only the parts along the seacoasts that are ever moistened with a few drops of rain, and since the country beyond Memphis, where the palace of the king of Egypt is, does never even see snow at all; now, on the contrary, the air suddenly assumed a new appearance, so that all the things which are seen in the most stormy and wintry countries, come upon it all together; abundance of rain, and torrents of dense and ceaseless hail, and heavy winds met together and beat against one another with violence; and the clouds burst, and there were incessant lightnings, and thunders, and continued roarings, and flashes which made a most wonderful and fearful appearance. For though the lightning and the thunderbolts penetrated and descended through the hail, being quite a contrary substance, still they did not melt it, nor were the flashes extinguished by it, but they remained as they were before, and ran up and down in long lines, and even preserved the hail. 1.119. And not only did the excessive violence of the storm drive all the inhabitants to excessive despair, but the unprecedented character of the visitation tended likewise to the same point. For they believed, as was indeed the case, that all these novel and fearful calamities were caused by the divine anger, the air having assumed a novel appearance, such as it had never worn before, to the destruction and overthrow of all trees and fruits, by which also great numbers of animals were destroyed, some in consequence of the exceeding cold, others though the weight of the hail which fell upon them, as if they had been stoned, while some again were destroyed by the fire of the lightning. And some remained half consumed, bearing the marks of the wounds caused by the thunderbolts, for the admonition and warning of all who saw them. 1.120. And when this evil had abated, and when the king and his court had again resumed their confidence, Moses stretched forth his rod into the air, at the command of God. And then a south wind of an uncommon violence set in, which increased in intensity and vehemence the whole of that day and night, being of itself a very great affliction; for it is a drying wind, causing headaches, and terrible to bear, calculated to cause grief, and terror, and perplexity in Egypt above all countries, inasmuch as it lies to the south, in which part of the heaven the revolutions of the light-giving stars take place, so that whenever that wind is set in motion, the light of the sun and its fire is driven in that direction and scorches up every thing. 1.121. And with this wind a countless number of animals was brought over the land, animals destroying all plants, locusts, which devoured every thing incessantly like a stream, consuming all that the thunderstorms and the hail had left, so that there was not a green shoot seen any longer in all that vast country. 1.122. And then at length the men in authority came, though late, to an accurate perception of the evils that had come upon them, and came and said to the king, "How long wilt thou refuse to permit the men to depart? Dost thou not understand, from what has already taken place, that Egypt is destroyed?" And he agreed to all they said, yielding as far as appearances went at least; but again, when the evil was abated at the prayer of Moses, the wind came from the sea side, and took up the locusts and scattered them. 1.123. And when they had been completely dispersed, and when the king was again obstinate respecting the allowing the nation to depart, a greater evil than the former ones was descended upon him. For while it was bright daylight, on a sudden, a thick darkness overspread the land, as if an eclipse of the sun more complete than any common one had taken place. And it continued with a long series of clouds and impenetrable density, all the course of the sun's rays being cut off by the massive thickness of the veil which was interposed, so that day did not at all differ from night. For what indeed did it resemble, but one very long night equal in length to three days and an equal number of nights? 1.124. And at this time they say that some persons threw themselves on their beds, and did not venture to rise up, and that some, when any of the necessities of nature overtook them, could only move with difficulty by feeling their way along the walls or whatever else they could lay hold of, like so many blind men; for even the light of the fire lit for necessary uses was either extinguished by the violence of the storm, or else it was made invisible and overwhelmed by the density of the darkness, so that that most indispensable of all the external senses, namely, sight, though unimpaired, was deprived of its office, not being able to discern any thing, and all the other senses were overthrown like subjects, the leader having fallen down. 1.125. For neither was any one able to speak or to hear, nor could any one venture to take food, but they lay themselves down in quiet and hunger, not exercising any of the outward senses, but being wholly overwhelmed by the affliction, till Moses again had compassion on them, and besought God in their behalf. And he restored fine weather, and produced light instead of darkness, and day instead of night. 1.126. Such, they say, were the punishments inflicted by the agency of Moses alone, the plague, namely, of hail and thunderstorms, the plague of locusts, and the plague of darkness, which rejected every imaginable description of light. Then he himself and his brother brought on one together, which I shall proceed to relate. 1.127. At the command of God they both took up ashes from the furnace in their hands, which Moses on his part sprinkled in the air. Then a dust arose on a sudden, and produced a terrible, and most painful, and incurable ulceration over the whole skin both of man and of the brute beasts; and immediately their bodies became swollen with the pustules, having blisters all over them full of matter which any one might have supposed were burning underneath and ready to burst; 1.128. and the men were, as was natural, oppressed with pain and excessive agony from the ulceration and inflammation, and they suffered in their souls even more than in their bodies, being wholly exhausted with anguish. For there was one vast uninterrupted sore to be seen from head to foot, those which covered any particular part of any separate limb spreading so as to become confused into one huge ulcer; until again, at the supplication of the lawgiver, which he made on behalf of the sufferers, the disease became more tolerable. 1.129. Therefore, in this instance the two brothers afforded the Egyptians this warning in unison, and very properly; the brother of Moses acting by means of the dust which rose up, since to him had been committed the superintendence of the things which proceeded from the earth; and Moses, by means of the air which was thus changed for the affliction of the inhabitants, and his ministrations were assigned to the afflictions to be cause by the air and by the heaven. 1.130. The remaining punishments are three in number, and they were inflicted by God himself without any agency or ministration of man, each of which I will now proceed to relate as well I can. The first is that which was inflicted by means of that animal which is the boldest in all nature, namely, the dog-fly (kynomuia 1.131. And so the dog-fly, having derived boldness from both these animals, is a biting and treacherous creature; for it shoots in from a distance with a whizzing sound like an arrow; and when it has reached its mark it sticks very closely with great force. 1.132. But at this time its attack was prompted by God, so that its treachery and hostility were redoubled, since it not only displayed all its own natural covetousness, but also all that eagerness which it derived from the divine providence which went it forth, and armed it and excited it to acts of valour against the natives. 1.133. And after the dog-fly there followed another punishment unconnected with any human agency, namely, the mortality among the cattle; for all the herds of oxen, and flocks of goats, and vast flocks of sheep, and all the beasts of burden, and all other domestic animals of every kind died in one day in a body, as if by some agreement or at some given signal; foreshowing the destruction of human beings which was about to take place a short time afterwards as in a pestilential disease; for the sudden destruction of irrational animals is said to be an ordinary prelude to pestilential diseases.
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 8.100 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Mishnah, Arakhin, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.3. There are never less than twenty-one blasts in the Temple and never more than forty-eight. There are never less than two harps, nor more than six. There are never less than two flutes, nor more than twelve. On twelve days in the year the flute was played before the altar: At the slaughtering of the first pesah, At the killing of the second pesah, On the first festival day of Pesah, On the festival day of Atzeret (Shavuot), And on the eight days of Sukkot. And they did not play on a pipe [abuv] of bronze but on a pipe of reed, because its tune is sweeter. Nor was anything but a single pipe used for closing a tune, because it makes a pleasant finale.
31. Mishnah, Pesahim, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.7. The first division [then] went out and the second entered; the second went out and the third entered. As did the first, so did the second and the third. They recited the Hallel. If they finished it, they repeated, and if they repeated [and were not finished yet], they recited it a third time, though they never did recite it a third time. Rabbi Judah says: the third division never reached, “I love Lord for he hears” (Psalms, because the people for it were few."
32. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 4.1, 4.3, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. If Yom Tov of Rosh Hashanah fell on Shabbat, they would blow the shofar in the Temple but not in the country. After the destruction of the Temple, Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed that it should be blown [on Shabbat] in every place where there was a court. Rabbi Eliezer said: Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed for Yavneh only. They said to him: both Yavneh and any place where there is a court." 4.3. In earlier times the lulav was taken for seven days in the Temple, and in the provinces for one day only. When the temple was destroyed, Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that the lulav should be taken in the provinces for seven days in memory of the Temple, [He also decreed] that on the whole of the day of waving it be forbidden [to eat the new produce]." 4.7. The one who passes before the ark on the festival of Rosh Hashanah: the second one blows the shofar. On days when Hallel is said, the first one recites the Hallel."
33. Mishnah, Sukkah, 3.12, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.12. In earlier times the lulav was taken for seven days in the Temple, and in the provinces for one day only. When the temple was destroyed, Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that the lulav should be taken in the provinces for seven days in memory of the Temple, [He also decreed] that on the whole of the day of waving it be forbidden [to eat the new produce]." 4.1. [The rituals of] the lulav and the aravah are for six or seven [days]; The Hallel and the rejoicing are for eight [days]; The sukkah and the water libation are for seven [days]; The flute is for five or six [days]."
34. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. On any day when there is Hallel there was no maamad at Shaharit; [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne'ilah. [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Ben Azzai said to him: Thus did Rabbi Joshua learn: [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah; [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne’ilah. Rabbi Akiva retracted and learned like Ben Azzai."
35. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.3-7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen." 7.4. The following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!)."
36. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.5, 11.23-11.25, 14.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.5. But every woman praying or prophesying with her head unveileddishonors her head. For it is one and the same thing as if she wereshaved. 11.23. For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered toyou, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed tookbread. 11.24. When he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, "Take,eat. This is my body, which is broken for you. Do this in memory ofme. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me. 14.15. What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I willpray with the understanding also. I will sing with the spirit, and Iwill sing with the understanding also.
37. New Testament, Acts, 20.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20.7. On the first day of the week, when the disciples were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and continued his speech until midnight.
38. New Testament, Apocalypse, 19.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19.1. After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, "Hallelujah! Salvation, power, and glory belong to our God:
39. New Testament, Galatians, 4.1-4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. But I say that so long as the heir is a child, he is nodifferent from a bondservant, though he is lord of all; 4.2. but isunder guardians and stewards until the day appointed by the father. 4.3. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world. 4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father! 4.7. Soyou are no longer a bondservant, but a son; and if a son, then an heirof God through Christ. 4.8. However at that time, not knowing God, youwere in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 4.9. But now thatyou have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, why do youturn back again to the weak and miserable elements, to which you desireto be in bondage all over again? 4.10. You observe days, months,seasons, and years. 4.11. I am afraid for you, that I might havewasted my labor for you.
40. New Testament, John, 1.29, 3.14-3.15, 3.36, 10.28, 19.31, 19.36, 20.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.29. The next day, he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 3.14. As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up 3.15. that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 3.36. One who believes in the Son has eternal life, but one who disobeys the Son won't see life, but the wrath of God remains on him. 10.28. I give eternal life to them. They will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. 19.31. Therefore the Jews, because it was the Preparation Day, so that the bodies wouldn't remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a special one), asked of Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. 19.36. For these things happened, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, "A bone of him will not be broken. 20.23. Whoever's sins you forgive, they are forgiven them. Whoever's sins you retain, they have been retained.
41. New Testament, Luke, 22.7-22.16, 22.19, 24.33-24.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.7. The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. 22.8. He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat. 22.9. They said to him, "Where do you want us to prepare? 22.10. He said to them, "Behold, when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house which he enters. 22.11. Tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 22.12. He will show you a large, furnished upper room. Make preparations there. 22.13. They went, found things as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover. 22.14. When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 22.15. He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer 22.16. for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me. 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread. 24.36. As they said these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, "Peace be to you. 24.37. But they were terrified and filled with fear, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. 24.38. He said to them, "Why are you troubled? Why do doubts arise in your hearts? 24.39. See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me. Touch me and see, for a spirit doesn't have flesh and bones, as you see that I have. 24.40. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. 24.41. While they still didn't believe for joy, and wondered, he said to them, "Do you have anything here to eat? 24.42. They gave him a piece of a broiled fish and some honeycomb. 24.43. He took it, and ate in front of them.
42. New Testament, Mark, 10.38, 14.12-14.16, 14.22-14.26, 14.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.38. But Jesus said to them, "You don't know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? 14.12. On the first day of unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the Passover, his disciples asked him, "Where do you want us to go and make ready that you may eat the Passover? 14.13. He sent two of his disciples, and said to them, "Go into the city, and there you will meet a man carrying a pitcher of water. Follow him 14.14. and wherever he enters in, tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?"' 14.15. He will himself show you a large upper room furnished and ready. Make ready for us there. 14.16. His disciples went out, and came into the city, and found things as he had said to them, and they prepared the Passover. 14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body. 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. 14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God. 14.26. When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. 14.36. He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire.
43. New Testament, Matthew, 26.17-26.19, 26.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26.17. Now on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples came to Jesus, saying to him, "Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover? 26.18. He said, "Go into the city to a certain person, and tell him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is at hand. I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples."' 26.19. The disciples did as Jesus commanded them, and they prepared the Passover. 26.30. When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
44. Tosefta, Pesahim, 10.7-10.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.8. We may not eat an iafikoman[a dessert or other foods eaten after the meal] after [we are finished eating] the Pesach sacrifice; for example nuts, dates and roasted wheat. A man is obligated to be involved with the laws of Pesach the whole night, even if it [is only a discussion] between him and his son, even if it is between him and himself, even if it is between him and his student. It happened that Rabban Gamliel and the Elders were [once] reclining in the house of Beitos ben Zunin in Lud, and they were involved with the laws of Pesach the whole night until the call of the rooster. [Their students] raised the covering of the window from in front of them, and they [then] convened and went to the house of study. What is the blessing on the Pesach sacrifice? Blessed [...] who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us on the eating of the Pesach sacrifice. What is the blessing on the [other] offerings? Blessed [...] who has sanctified us with His commandments and has commanded us on the eating of the offering."
45. Tosefta, Sotah, 6.2-6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

46. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. The [beat of the willow] is a tradition from Moses at Sinai, and Abba Sha'ul deduced it from Scripture, as it is says, “Willows of the brook”, the plural denoting two, one for the lulav, and one for the altar. Rabbi Elieser ben Yacov said, Thus were they saying, \"To Him and to thee, O altar, to Him and to thee, O altar!\" Eighteen days and one night (in the year) the entire Hallel is repeated. These are: the eight days of sukkot, the eight days of Hanukkah, the first day of Passover, the night of the first day of Passover, and the first day of Shavuot."
47. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 343 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

48. Longus, Daphnis And Chloe, 2.31.2-2.31.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. אמר ר' אלעזר גדולה תפלה יותר ממעשים טובים שאין לך גדול במעשים טובים יותר ממשה רבינו אעפ"כ לא נענה אלא בתפלה שנאמר (דברים ג, כו) אל תוסף דבר אלי וסמיך ליה עלה ראש הפסגה:,וא"ר אלעזר גדולה תענית יותר מן הצדקה מאי טעמא זה בגופו וזה בממונו:,וא"ר אלעזר גדולה תפלה יותר מן הקרבנות שנא' (ישעיהו א, יא) למה לי רוב זבחיכם וכתיב ובפרשכם כפיכם,א"ר יוחנן כל כהן שהרג את הנפש לא ישא את כפיו שנא' (ישעיהו א, טו) ידיכם דמים מלאו:,וא"ר אלעזר מיום שחרב בית המקדש ננעלו שערי תפלה שנאמר (איכה ג, ח) גם כי אזעק ואשוע שתם תפלתי ואע"פ ששערי תפלה ננעלו שערי דמעה לא ננעלו שנאמר (תהלים לט, יג) שמעה תפלתי ה' ושועתי האזינה אל דמעתי אל תחרש,רבא לא גזר תעניתא ביומא דעיבא משום שנא' (איכה ג, מד) סכותה בענן לך מעבור תפלה:,וא"ר אלעזר מיום שחרב בית המקדש נפסקה חומת ברזל בין ישראל לאביהם שבשמים שנא' (יחזקאל ד, ג) ואתה קח לך מחבת ברזל ונתתה אותה קיר ברזל בינך ובין העיר:,א"ר חנין א"ר חנינא כל המאריך בתפלתו אין תפלתו חוזרת ריקם מנא לן ממשה רבינו שנא' (דברים ט, כו) ואתפלל אל ה' וכתיב בתריה וישמע ה' אלי גם בפעם ההיא,איני והא א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנא' (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב מאי תקנתיה יעסוק בתורה שנא' (משלי יג, יב) ועץ חיים תאוה באה ואין עץ חיים אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה לא קשיא הא דמאריך ומעיין בה הא דמאריך ולא מעיין בה,א"ר חמא בר' חנינא אם ראה אדם שהתפלל ולא נענה יחזור ויתפלל שנאמר (תהלים כז, יד) קוה אל ה' חזק ויאמץ לבך וקוה אל ה':,ת"ר ארבעה צריכין חזוק ואלו הן תורה ומעשים טובים תפלה ודרך ארץ,תורה ומעשים טובים מנין שנא' (יהושע א, ז) רק חזק ואמץ מאד לשמור ולעשות ככל התורה חזק בתורה ואמץ במעשים טובים,תפלה מנין שנא' קוה אל ה' חזק ויאמץ לבך וקוה אל ה',דרך ארץ מנין שנא' (שמואל ב י, יב) חזק ונתחזק בעד עמנו וגו':,(ישעיהו מט, יד) ותאמר ציון עזבני ה' וה' שכחני היינו עזובה היינו שכוחה אמר ר"ל אמרה כנסת ישראל לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע אדם נושא אשה על אשתו ראשונה זוכר מעשה הראשונה אתה עזבתני ושכחתני,אמר לה הקב"ה בתי י"ב מזלות בראתי ברקיע ועל כל מזל ומזל בראתי לו שלשים חיל ועל כל חיל וחיל בראתי לו שלשים לגיון ועל כל לגיון ולגיון בראתי לו שלשים רהטון ועל כל רהטון ורהטון בראתי לו שלשים קרטון ועל כל קרטון וקרטון בראתי לו שלשים גסטרא ועל כל גסטרא וגסטרא תליתי בו שלש מאות וששים וחמשה אלפי רבוא כוכבים כנגד ימות החמה וכולן לא בראתי אלא בשבילך ואת אמרת עזבתני ושכחתני,(ישעיהו מט, טו) התשכח אשה עולה אמר הקב"ה כלום אשכח עולות אילים ופטרי רחמים שהקרבת לפני במדבר אמרה לפניו רבש"ע הואיל ואין שכחה לפני כסא כבודך שמא לא תשכח לי מעשה העגל אמר לה (ישעיהו מט, טו) גם אלה תשכחנה,אמרה לפניו רבש"ע הואיל ויש שכחה לפני כסא כבודך שמא תשכח לי מעשה סיני אמר לה (ישעיהו מט, טו) ואנכי לא אשכחך,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב גם אלה תשכחנה זה מעשה העגל ואנכי לא אשכחך זה מעשה סיני:,חסידים הראשונים היו שוהין שעה אחת:,מנא הני מילי א"ר יהושע ב"ל אמר קרא (תהלים פד, ה) אשרי יושבי ביתך,ואמר ר' יהושע ב"ל המתפלל צריך לשהות שעה אחת אחר תפלתו שנא' (תהלים קמ, יד) אך צדיקים יודו לשמך ישבו ישרים את פניך,תניא נמי הכי המתפלל צריך שישהא שעה אחת קודם תפלתו ושעה אחת אחר תפלתו קודם תפלתו מנין שנא' אשרי יושבי ביתך לאחר תפלתו מנין דכתיב אך צדיקים יודו לשמך ישבו ישרים את פניך,תנו רבנן חסידים הראשונים היו שוהין שעה אחת ומתפללין שעה אחת וחוזרין ושוהין שעה אחת וכי מאחר ששוהין תשע שעות ביום בתפלה תורתן היאך משתמרת ומלאכתן היאך נעשית,אלא מתוך שחסידים הם תורתם משתמרת ומלאכתן מתברכת:,אפילו המלך שואל בשלומו לא ישיבנו:,אמר רב יוסף לא שנו אלא למלכי ישראל אבל למלכי עכו"ם פוסק,מיתיבי המתפלל וראה אנס בא כנגדו ראה קרון בא כנגדו לא יהא מפסיק אלא מקצר ועולה,לא קשיא הא דאפשר לקצר (יקצר ואם לאו פוסק),ת"ר מעשה בחסיד אחד שהיה מתפלל בדרך בא שר אחד ונתן לו שלום ולא החזיר לו שלום המתין לו עד שסיים תפלתו לאחר שסיים תפלתו א"ל ריקא והלא כתוב בתורתכם (דברים ד, ט) רק השמר לך ושמור נפשך וכתיב (דברים ד, טו) ונשמרתם מאד לנפשותיכם כשנתתי לך שלום למה לא החזרת לי שלום אם הייתי חותך ראשך בסייף מי היה תובע את דמך מידי,א"ל המתן לי עד שאפייסך בדברים א"ל אילו היית עומד לפני מלך בשר ודם ובא חברך ונתן לך שלום היית 32b. bRabbi Elazar said:This story proves that bprayer is greater than good deedswithout prayer ( iTosafot /i), as bthere was none greater inthe performance of bgood deeds than Moses our teacher; nevertheless, his request was granted,albeit in a limited manner, in his request to enter Eretz Yisrael, bonly through prayer,when God permitted him to climb the mountain and look out over the land. bAs,initially bit is stated: “Speak no more to Me,” juxtaposed to which is: “Go up to the summit of the mountain.” /b,After comparing and contrasting prayer and good deeds, the Gemara explores another comparison. bRabbi Elazar said: A fast is greater than charity. What is the reasonthat fasting is greater? Because a fast bisa mitzva performed bwith one’s bodyas he afflicts himself, bwhilecharity bisperformed only bwith one’s money. /b,In another comparison, bRabbi Elazar said: Prayer is greater than sacrifices, as it is stated: “To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices to Me,says the Lord. I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams and the fat of fed beasts; I do not desire the blood of bulls and sheep and goats” (Isaiah 1:11). bAndseveral verses later bit is written: “And when you spread forth your handsI will hide My eyes from you, and even if you increase your prayer, I will not hear; your hands are full of blood” (Isaiah 1:15). Not only Israel’s sacrifices, but even their prayers, which are on a higher spiritual level, will not be accepted.,Speaking of that verse in Isaiah, the Gemara cites that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Any priest who killed a person may not lift his handsin the Priestly Blessing bas it is stated:“And when you spread forth your hands I will hide My eyes from you… byour hands are full of blood.”Here we see that the Priestly Blessing, performed with hands spread forth, is not accepted when performed by priests whose “hands are full of blood.”,On the subject of prayer, bRabbi Elazar also said: Since the day the Temple was destroyed the gates of prayer were lockedand prayer is not accepted as it once was, bas it is saidin lamentation of the Temple’s destruction: b“Though I plead and call out, He shuts out my prayer”(Lamentations 3:8). Yet, bdespitethe fact bthat the gates of prayer were lockedwith the destruction of the Temple, bthe gates of tears were not locked,and one who cries before God may rest assured that his prayers will be answered, bas it is stated: “Hear my prayer, Lord, and give ear to my pleading, keep not silence at my tears”(Psalms 39:13). Since this prayer is a request that God should pay heed to the tears of one who is praying, he is certain that at least the gates of tears are not locked.,With regard to the locking of the gates of prayer, the Gemara relates that bRava did not decree a fast on a cloudy day because it is stated: “You have covered Yourself in a cloud, through which prayer cannot pass”(Lamentations 3:44). The verse indicates that clouds are a bad omen, indicating that God has averted His face (Rav Hai Gaon)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Since the day the Temple was destroyed an iron wall separates Israel from their Father in heaven, as it is statedto the prophet Ezekiel, instructing him to symbolize that separation: b“And take for yourself an iron griddle, and set it as an iron wall between yourself and the city… /bit will be a sign for the house of Israel” (Ezekiel 4:3).,The Gemara cites other statements in praise of prayer: bRabbi Ḥanin saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: Anyone who prolongs his prayer isassured that bhis prayer does not return uswered;it will surely be accepted. bFrom where do wederive this? bFrom Moses our teacher, as it is statedthat Moses said: “So I fell down before the Lord the forty days and forty nights that I fell down; band I prayed to the Lord”(Deuteronomy 9:26–27), band it is written thereafter: “And the Lord heard me that time as well,the Lord would not destroy you” (Deuteronomy 10:10).,The Gemara raises an objection: bIs that so? Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saythat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Anyone who prolongs his prayer and expects it to be answered, will ultimately come to heartache,as it will not be answered. bAs it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick”(Proverbs 13:12). bAnd what is the remedyfor one afflicted with that illness? He should bengage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “But desire fulfilled is the tree of life”(Proverbs 13:12), band tree of life is nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to those who hold fast to it,and those who support it are joyous” (Proverbs 3:18). This is bnot difficult. This,Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba’s statement that one will suffer heartache refers to one bwho prolongshis prayer band expects it to be answered; that,Rabbi Ḥanin’s statement that one who prolongs his prayer is praiseworthy refers to bone who prolongs his prayer anddoes bnot expect it to be answered. /b,On a similar note, bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: A person who prayed and saw that he was not answered,should bpray again, as it is stated: “Hope in the Lord, strengthen yourself, let your heart take courage, and hope in the Lord”(Psalms 27:14). One should turn to God with hope, and if necessary turn to God again with hope.,Connected to the emphasis on the need to bolster one’s effort in prayer, the Gemara notes that bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFourthings brequire bolstering,constant effort to improve, band they are: Torah, good deeds, prayer, and occupation. /b,For each of these, a biblical proof is cited: bFrom whereis it derived that bTorah and good deedsrequire bolstering? bAs it is statedin the instruction to Joshua: b“Only be strong and be extremely courageous, observe and do all of the Torahthat Moses My servant commanded you; do not deviate to the right or to the left, that you may succeed wherever you go” (Joshua 1:7). In this verse, observe refers to Torah study and do refers to good deeds (Maharsha); the apparently repetitive language is not extraneous. The Gemara derives: bBe strong in Torah and be courageous in good deeds. /b, bFrom whereis it derived that bprayerrequires bolstering? bAs it is said: “Hope in the Lord, strengthen yourself, let your heart take courage, and hope in the Lord.” /b, bFrom whereis it derived that boccupationrequires bolstering? bAs it is stated: “Be strong and we will be strong for the sake of our nationand for the cities of our God” (II Samuel 10:12). All of one’s labor requires bolstering.,The Gemara cites a midrash on the following verse from Isaiah, relating to the sin of the Golden Calf and Moses’ supplication for forgiveness: b“But Zion said: The Lord has forsaken me and the Lord has forgotten me.Can a woman forget her suckling baby, that she would not have compassion for the child of her womb? These may forget, but you I will not forget” (Isaiah 49:14–15). The Gemara seeks to clarify: bForsaken is the same as forgotten.They are synonymous; why repeat the same idea twice? bReish Lakish said: The community of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,even when ba man marriesa second bwife after his first wife, hecertainly brecalls the deeds of his firstwife. Yet bYou havenot only bforsaken me,but You have bforgotten meas well., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toIsrael: bMy daughter, I created twelve constellations in the firmament, and for each and every constellation I have created thirty armies, and for each and every army I have created thirty legions [ iligyon /i], and for each and every legion I have created thirty infantry division leaders [ irahaton /i], and for each and every infantry division leader I have created thirty military camp leaders [ ikarton /i], and for each and every military camp leader I have created thirty leaders of forts [ igastera /i], and on each and every leader of a fort I have hung three hundred and sixty-five thousand stars corresponding to the days of the solar year. And all of them I have created only for your sake; and you saidthe Lord bhas forsaken me andthe Lord bhas forgotten me? /b,The verse goes on to say: b“Can a woman forget her suckling baby,that she would not have compassion for the child of her womb? These may forget, but you I will not forget.” The meaning of this verse is that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidto the community of Israel: bHave I forgotten the ram offerings and firstborn animals that you offered before Me in the desert?The community of Israel breplied to Him: Master of the Universe, since there is no forgetfulness before the Throne of Your Glory, perhaps you will not forget my sin of the Golden Calf?God bresponded toIsrael: b“These [ ielu /i] too shall be forgotten.” “ /bThese” is a reference to the sin of the Golden Calf, regarding which Israel said: “These [ ielu /i] are your gods.”,The community of Israel bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, since there is forgetfulness before the Throne of Your Glory, perhaps You willalso bforget the eventsrevolving around the revelation at bSinai?God bsaid toIsrael: bI [ ianokhi /i] will not forget youthe revelation at Sinai, which began with: “I [ ianokhi /i] am the Lord your God.”,The Gemara notes: bThatis what bRabbi Elazar saidthat bRav Oshaya said: What isthe meaning of that which is bwritten: “These too will be forgotten”? That is the sin of the Golden Calf.And what is the meaning of bI will not forget you? Those are the eventsthat transpired at bSinai. /b,We learned in the mishna that bthe earlygenerations of bpiousmen bwould wait one hourin order to achieve the solemn frame of mind appropriate for prayer.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:This is alluded to when bthe verse states: “Happy are those who dwell in Your House”(Psalms 84:5), immediately after which it is said: “They will yet praise You, Selah.”, bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who prays mustalso bwait one hour after his prayer, as it is stated: “Surely the righteous will give thanks unto Your name, the upright will sit before You”(Psalms 140:14), meaning that after thanking God through prayer, one should stay and sit before Him., bThatopinion bwas also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who prays must wait one hour before his prayer and one hour after his prayer. From whereis it derived that one must wait one hour bbefore his prayer? As it is stated: “Happy are those who dwell in Your House.” And from whereis it derived that one must stay one hour bafter his prayer? As it is written: “Surely the righteous will give thanks unto Your name, the upright will sit before You.” /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to waiting before and after prayer: bThe earlygenerations of bpiousmen bwould wait one hour, pray one hour, then wait one hour again.This raises the question: bSincethe early pious men bwould spend nine hours per dayengaged either bin prayeror the requisite waiting periods before and after prayer, three hours each for the morning, afternoon, and evening prayers, bhow is their Torah preserved?There was little time remaining to review their studies. bAnd how was their work accomplished? /b,The Gemara answers: bRather, because they were piousthey merited that btheir Torah is preserved and their work is blessed. /b,Additionally, we learned in the mishna: bEvenif bthe king greets himwhile he is praying, bhe should not respond to himas one may not interrupt his prayer.,In limiting application of this principle, bRav Yosef said: They only taughtthis mishna bwith regard to kings of Israel,as a Jewish king would understand that the individual did not fail to respond to his greeting due to disrespect for the king. bHowever, with regard to kings of the nations of the world, he interruptshis prayer and responds to their greeting due to the potential danger.,The Gemara braised an objectionto Rav Yosef’s statement: bOne who is praying and saw a violent person,feared by all, bcoming toward him,or ba carriage coming toward himand he is in the way, bhe should not stophis prayer bbut rather abridge it and moveout of the way.,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult.Rather, bthisthat teaches to abridge one’s prayer rather than stopping, refers to a case bwhere it is possible to abridgehis prayer and complete it in time, in which case he bshould abridgeit. bAnd ifit is bnota situation where he can abridge his prayer, bhe interruptshis prayer., bThe Sages taught:There was barelated bincident, involving a particular pious man who was prayingwhile traveling balong his pathwhen ban officer [ ihegmon /i] came and greeted him.The pious man did not pause from his prayer band did not respond with a greeting.The officer bwaited for him until he finished his prayer.br bAfter he finished his prayer,the officer bsaid to him:You bgood for nothing.You endangered yourself; I could have killed you. br bIsn’t it written in your Torah: “Take utmost care and guard yourself diligently”(Deuteronomy 4:9)? br bAnd it isalso bwritten: “Take therefore good heed unto yourselves”(Deuteronomy 4:15)? Why did you ignore the danger to your life? br bWhen I greeted you, why did you not respond with a greeting? br bWere I to sever your head with a sword, who would hold me accountable for yourspilled bblood? /b,The pious man bsaid to him: Wait for me until I will appease you withmy bwords. br bHe said to him: Had you been standing before a flesh and blood king and your friend came and greeted you,would byoubr breturn hisgreeting?
50. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. bWhat is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; bYou are He Who took me out [ igozi /i] of my mother’s womb”(Psalms 71:6). bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisword: b“ iGozi /i,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ igozi /i] your hair and cast it away”(Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable?It is comparable bto a nut placed in a basinfull bof water,floating on top of the water. If ba person puts his finger on top ofthe nut, bit sinkseither bin this direction or in that direction. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, the bfetus resides in the lower compartmentof the womb; in the bmiddlethree months, the bfetus resides in the middle compartment;and during the blastthree months of pregcy the bfetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this iswhat causes blabor pains. /b,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: bAnd this isthe explanation for bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female are greater thanthose bexperienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male.The Gemara will explain this below., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: What is the versefrom which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b“When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth”(Psalms 139:15). Since it bis not stated: I residedin the lowest parts of the earth, bbut rather: “I was woven togetherin the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bthe labor pains experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba female,that they bare greater than those experienced bya woman who gives birth to ba male?The Gemara answers: bThisone, a male fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse.Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. bAnd thatone, a female fetus, bemerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse,i.e., facing upward. Consequently, bthatone, a female fetus, bturns its face aroundbefore it is born, bbut thisone, a male fetus, bdoes not turn its face aroundbefore it is born.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe first three monthsof pregcy, bsexual intercourse is difficultand harmful bfor the woman and is also difficult for the offspring.During the bmiddlethree months, intercourse is bdifficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring.During the blastthree months, sexual intercourse is bbeneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b,The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who engages in intercoursewith his wife bon the ninetieth dayof her pregcy, bit is as though he spillsher bblood.The Gemara asks: bHow does one knowthat it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? bRather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercoursewith his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, bandrely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b“The Lord preserves the simple”(Psalms 116:6).,§ bThe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe creation of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from whichthe following body parts are formed: The bbones,the bsinews,the bnails,the bbrain that is in its head, andthe bwhite of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from whichare formed the bskin,the bflesh,the bhair, andthe bblack of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul,his bcountece [ iukelaster /i], eyesight, hearing of the ear,the capability of bspeechof bthe mouth,the capability of bwalkingwith bthe legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b, bAnd whena person’s btime to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part ofthe person’s bfather and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: Thisis in accordance with the adage bthat people say: Remove the saltfrom a piece of meat, bandyou may then btoss the meat to a dog,as it has become worthless.,§ bRav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number”(Job 9:10)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that if one bputs an article in a flask,even if the flask is btied and its openingfaces bupward, it is uncertain whetherthe item bis preservedfrom getting lost, band it is uncertain whether it is not preservedfrom being lost. bBut the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its openingfaces bdownward, andyet the fetus bis preserved. /b, bAnother matterthat demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when ba person places his articles on a scaleto be measured, bthe heavierthe item bis,the more bit descends. Butwhen bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,forms a fetus, bthe heavier the offspring gets,the more bit ascends upwardin the womb., bRabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well”(Psalms 139:14)? bCome and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and bloodis that when ba person plants seedsof different species binone bgarden bed, each and every oneof the seeds bemergesas a grown plant baccording to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all ofthe seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, bemergewhen the offspring is formed bas onesex., bAlternatively,when ba dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ ileyora /i], they all emerge as one colorof dye, bwhereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb,and beach and every oneof the seeds bemerges as its own type.In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., bRav Yosef taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And on that day you shall say: bI will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me”(Isaiah 12:1)? bWith regard to whatmatter bis the verse speaking? /b,It is referring, for example, bto two people who lefttheir homes to go bon a businesstrip. bA thorn penetratedthe body bof one of them,and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. bHe started blaspheming and cursingin frustration. bAfter a period of time, he heard that the ship of the otherperson bhad sunk in the sea,and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then bstarted thankingGod band praisingHim for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. bTherefore, it is statedat the end of the verse: b“Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b, bAnd thisstatement bisidentical to bthat which Rabbi Elazar said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, bWho does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever”(Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that beven the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miraclethat was performed for bhim. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “You measure [ izerita /i] my going about [ iorḥi /i] and my lying down [ iriv’i /i], and are acquainted with all my ways”(Psalms 139:3)? This verse bteaches that a person is not created from the entire dropof semen, bbut from its clearpart. iZeritacan mean to winnow, while iorḥiand iriv’ican both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable:This matter is comparable bto a person who winnowsgrain bin the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b,This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one of King David’s psalms: b“For You have girded me [ ivatazreni /i] with strength for battle”(II Samuel 22:40), without the letter ialefin ivatazreni /i; band it is writtenin another psalm: b“Who girds me [ ihame’azreni /i] with strength”(Psalms 18:33), with an ialefin ihame’azreini /i. What is the difference between these two expressions? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ izeiritani /i],i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, band You have girded me [ izeraztani /i] with strength. /b, bRabbi Abbahu taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenin Balaam’s blessing: b“Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ irova /i] of Israel”(Numbers 23:10)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ irevi’iyyoteihem /i],anticipating the time bwhen the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b, bAndit was bdue to this matterthat bthe eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: ShouldGod, bwho is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blindedas a divine punishment, bas it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut”(Numbers 24:3)., bAnd thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b“And he lay with her that night”(Genesis 30:16)? The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act.The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, bas it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ igarem /i] donkey”(Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s bdonkeytoward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby bcausing [ igaram /i]Leah’s conceiving bIssachar. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says:The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the bwoman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male”(Leviticus 12:2)., bThe Sages taught: At first,people bwould saythat if the bwoman emits seed first she gives birth to a male,and if the bman emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explainfrom which verse this bmatteris derived, buntil Rabbi Tzadok came and explainedthat bitis derived from the following verse: b“These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah”(Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse battributes the males to the females,as the males are called: The sons of Leah, bandit attributes bthe females to the males, /bin that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b“And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons”(I Chronicles 8:40). bIs it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
51. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

115b. צריך לשקועיה בחרוסת משום קפא דאי ס"ד לא צריך לשקועיה נטילת ידים למה לי הא לא נגע ודילמא לעולם אימא לך לא צריך לשקועיה וקפא מריחא מיית אלא למה לי נטילת ידים דילמא משקעו ליה,ואמר רב פפא לא נישהי איניש מרור בחרוסת דילמא אגב חלייה דתבלין מבטיל ליה למרוריה ובעינן טעם מרור וליכא אדבריה רב חסדא לרבנא עוקבא ודרש נטל ידיו בטיבול ראשון נוטל ידיו בטיבול שני,אמרוה רבנן קמיה דרב פפא הא בעלמא איתמר דאי סלקא דעתך הכא איתמר למה לי נטילת ידים תרי זימני הא משא ליה ידיה חדא זימנא,אמר להו רב פפא אדרבה הכא איתמר דאי ס"ד בעלמא איתמר למה לי תרי טיבולי,אלא מאי הכא איתמר נטילת ידים תרי זימני למה לי הא משא ליה ידיה חדא זימנא אמרי כיון דבעי למימר אגדתא והלילא דילמא אסוחי אסחיה לדעתיה ונגע,אמר רבא בלע מצה יצא בלע מרור לא יצא בלע מצה ומרור ידי מצה יצא ידי מרור לא יצא כרכן בסיב ובלען אף ידי מצה נמי לא יצא,אמר רב שימי בר אשי מצה לפני כל אחד ואחד מרור לפני כל אחד ואחד וחרוסת לפני כל אחד ואחד ואין עוקרין את השלחן אלא לפני מי שאומר הגדה,רב הונא אומר כולהו נמי לפני מי שאומר הגדה והלכתא כרב הונא,למה עוקרין את השולחן אמרי דבי ר' ינאי כדי שיכירו תינוקות וישאלו אביי הוה יתיב קמיה דרבה חזא דקא מדלי תכא מקמיה אמר להו עדיין לא קא אכלינן אתו קא מעקרי תכא מיקמן אמר ליה רבה פטרתן מלומר מה נשתנה:,אמר שמואל (דברים טז, ג) לחם עוני (כתיב) לחם שעונין עליו דברים תניא נמי הכי לחם עוני לחם שעונין עליו דברים הרבה דבר אחר לחם עוני עני כתיב מה עני שדרכו בפרוסה 115b. one bmust submerge it in the iḥaroset /i, due tothe bitterness and bpoisonin the lettuce. bFor if it could enter your mindthat one bneed notthoroughly bsubmergethe lettuce in iḥaroset /i, bwhy do Ineed him to bwash handsbefore eating bitter herbs? bHe did not touchthe liquid with his hands, and therefore he did not render it ritually impure. The Gemara rejects this contention: bActually, I will say to you:According to the ihalakha /i, one bneed not submergethe lettuce in iḥaroset bandthe bpoison dies.The poison is nullified bfrom the smellof the iḥaroset /i. The Gemara asks: bButin that case, bwhy do Ineed the bwashing of handsbefore dipping? The Gemara answers: bPerhaps one will submergethe lettuce, and it is therefore necessary to wash one’s hands to avoid the possible transfer of ritual impurity., bAnd Rav Pappa said: A personshould bnot leave bitter herbs in the iḥaroset /ifor a lengthy period of time, blest the sweetnessof the spices in the iḥaroset bnullify its bitterness. Andthe bitter herbs brequire abitter btaste, andthey are bnotbitter when marinated in iḥaroset /i. The Gemara reports: bRav Ḥisda authorized Rabbana Ukvato deliver a lecture, band he taught:If one bwashed his hands for the first dipping,he should bwash his handsagain bfor the second dipping. /b, bThe Sages saidthis ihalakha bbefore Rav Pappaand added: This ihalakha bwas stated generally,i.e., concerning one who dips food twice anytime, not with regard to Passover night. bFor if it could enter your mindthat this bwas stated here,concerning Passover, bwhy do Ineed bwashing ofthe bhands twice?This person bhasalready bwashed his hands once.As he knows he will dip again, he will be careful to preserve his hands in a state of ritual purity and consequently there is no need for him to wash his hands a second time. This is not the case with regard to dipping throughout the rest of the year, when one does not know at the start that he will dip again., bRav Pappa said to them: On the contrary,this ihalakha bwas statedspecifically bhere,with regard to Passover night. bFor if it could enter your mindthat it bwas stated in general, why do Ineed btwo dippings?A person usually dips only once, either at the beginning or in the middle of his meal.,The Gemara asks: bRather, whatwill you say; this ihalakha bwas statedspecifically bhere,with regard to Passover night? If so, bwhy do Ineed btwo washings ofthe bhands? He hasalready bwashed his hands once. They sayin response: bSince he needs to recitethe bHaggadah and ihallel /iin between the two dippings, bperhaps he will divert his thoughts andhis hands bwill toucha ritually impure object., bRava said:If bone swallowed imatza /iwithout chewing it, bhe has fulfilledthe obligation to eat imatza /i, as he has consumed it. However, if bone swallowed bitter herbswithout chewing them, bhe has not fulfilledhis obligation, as he did not taste their bitterness. Furthermore, if bone swallowed imatzaand bitter herbstogether, bhe has fulfilledthe obligation bofeating imatza /i,but bhe has not fulfilledthe obligation bofeating bbitter herbs.If one bwrapped imatzaand bitter herbs bina palm bnet,the thin interlacing of vines that sprouts around a palm tree, band swallowed them, he has not fulfilledhis obligation beven of eating imatza /i.When imatzaand bitter herbs are consumed in this fashion, the imatzadoes not touch one’s mouth. This is not considered eating., bRav Shimi bar Ashi said: iMatza /imust be placed bbefore each and everyparticipant at the seder. Each participant in a seder would recline on a couch at his own personal table. Likewise, bbitter herbsmust be placed bbefore each and everyparticipant, band iḥaroset /imust be placed bbefore each and everyparticipant. bAndduring the seder, before the meal, boneshall bremove the table only from before the one recitingthe bHaggadah.The other tables, which correspond to the seder plates used nowadays, are left in their place., bRav Huna says: Allof the aforementioned foods, i.e., imatza /i, bitter herbs, and iḥaroset /i, must balsobe placed only bbefore the one who recitesthe bHaggadah.When the time comes to eat these items, all the other participants receive a portion from him. The Gemara comments: bAnd the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRav Huna. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhy does one remove the table? The school of Rabbi Yannai say: So that the children will noticethat something is unusual band they will ask:Why is this night different from all other nights? The Gemara relates: bAbaye was sitting before Rabbawhen he was still a child. bHe saw that they were removing the table from before him, and he said tothose removing it: bWe have not yet eaten, and you are taking the table away from us? Rabba said to him: You have exempted us from recitingthe questions of: bWhy isthis night bdifferent [ ima nishtana /i],as you have already asked what is special about the seder night., bShmuel saidthat the phrase: b“The bread of affliction [ ileḥem oni /i]”(Deuteronomy 16:3) means bbread over which one answers [ ionim /i] matters,i.e., one recites the Haggadah over imatza /i. bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: iLeḥem oni /iis bbread over which one answers many matters. Alternatively,in the verse, b“ ileḥem oni /i” isactually bwrittenwithout a vav, which means a poor person. bJust asit is bthe manner of a poorperson btoeat ba pieceof bread, for lack of a whole loaf
52. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא ליבנה ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא לשפרעם ומשפרעם לבית שערים ומבית שערים לצפורי ומצפורי לטבריא וטבריא עמוקה מכולן שנאמר (ישעיהו כט, ד) ושפלת מארץ תדברי,רבי אלעזר אומר שש גלות שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, ה) כי השח יושבי מרום קריה נשגבה ישפילנה ישפילה עד ארץ יגיענה עד עפר א"ר יוחנן ומשם עתידין ליגאל שנאמר (ישעיהו נב, ב) התנערי מעפר קומי שבי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה ועוד זאת התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שאפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ההיא איתתא דאזמנוה לדינא קמיה דאמימר בנהרדעי אזל אמימר למחוזא ולא אזלה בתריה כתב פתיחא עילווה אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והא אנן תנן אפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד,א"ל הנ"מ לענין עדות החדש דא"כ נמצאת מכשילן לעתיד לבא אבל הכא (משלי כב, ז) עבד לוה לאיש מלוה,ת"ר אין כהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזו אחד מתשע תקנות שהתקין ריב"ז שית דהאי פירקא וחדא דפירקא קמא,ואידך דתני' גר שנתגייר בזמן הזה צריך שיפריש רובע לקינו אמר רשב"א כבר נמנה עליה רבן יוחנן וביטלה מפני התקלה,ואידך פלוגתא דרב פפא ורב נחמן בר יצחק רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית,רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי (דתניא) כרם רבעי היה עולה לירושלים מהלך יום לכל צד וזו היא תחומה אילת מן (הצפון) ועקרבת מן (הדרום) לוד מן המערב וירדן מן המזרח,ואמר עולא ואיתימא רבה בר עולא א"ר יוחנן מה טעם כדי לעטר שוקי ירושלים בפירות,ותניא כרם רבעי היה לו לרבי אליעזר במזרח לוד בצד כפר טבי וביקש ר' אליעזר להפקירו לעניים,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי כבר נמנו חבריך עליו והתירוהו מאן חבריך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית דתניא בראשונה היו קושרין לשון של זהורית על פתח אולם מבחוץ הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו על פתח אולם מבפנים,ועדיין היו מציצין ורואין הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו חציו בסלע וחציו בין קרניו של שעיר המשתלח,רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב פפא אמר לך אי סלקא דעתך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי חבריו דרבי אליעזר מי הוה רבו הוה ואידך כיון דתלמידים הוו לאו אורח ארעא למימרא ליה לרביה רבך,ורב פפא מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לך אי ס"ד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי בימי רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מי הוה לשון של זהורית והתניא כל שנותיו של רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאה ועשרים שנה מ' שנה עסק בפרקמטיא מ' שנה למד מ' שנה לימד,ותניא מ' שנה קודם שנחרב הבית לא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין אלא מאדים ותנן משחרב הבית התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואידך אותם ארבעים שנה דלמד תלמיד יושב לפני רבו הוה ואמר מילתא ואסתבר טעמיה 31b. band from Yavne to Usha; and from Ushait returned bto Yavne; and from Yavneit went back bto Usha; and from Usha to Shefaram; and from Shefaram to Beit She’arim; and from Beit She’arim to Tzippori; and from Tzippori to Tiberias. And Tiberias is lower than all of them,as it is in the Jordan Valley. A verse alludes to these movements, bas it is stated: “And brought down, you shall speak out of the ground”(Isaiah 29:4)., bRabbi Elazar says:There are bsix exiles,if you count only the places, not the number of journeys, and a different verse alludes to this, bas it is stated: “For He has brought down those who dwell high, the lofty city laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it to the dust”(Isaiah 26:5). This verse mentions six expressions of lowering: Brought down, laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it, and to the dust. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And from there,i.e., from their lowest place of descent, bthey are destined to be redeemedin the future, bas it is stated: “Shake yourself from the dust, arise, sit,Jerusalem” (Isaiah 52:2)., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: And this, too, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted, that evenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace,not where the Great Sanhedrin is in session, bthe witnesses shouldnevertheless bgo only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathersto deliver testimony to determine the start of the month. Although the date of the month is dependent on the head of the Great Sanhedrin, as it is he who declares that the month is sanctified (see 24a), nevertheless, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted that the members of the Great Sanhedrin may sanctify the month in the absence of the head of the court., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara relates: There was ba certain woman who was called to judgment before Ameimar in Neharde’a. Ameimartemporarily bwent to Meḥoza, and she did not follow himto be judged there. bHe wrote a document of excommunication [ ipetiḥa /i] concerning her,for disobeying the court. bRav Ashi said to Ameimar: Didn’t we learnin the mishna: bEvenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace, the witnesses should go only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathers?This shows that one must appear in the court itself, rather than follow the head of the court.,Ameimar bsaid to him: This applies only to testimonyto determine the start bof the month,for which it is necessary to have a fixed place. The reason is bthat if so,if the witnesses come to court when the head of the court is absent and they will have to go to another place, bconsequently you will be obstructing them for futureoccasions, as they will consider it too much trouble and perhaps they will not come the next time. Therefore, the Sages said that these witnesses should go to the regular place where the Great Sanhedrin meets. bHowever, here,with regard to monetary claims, the verse states: b“The borrower is servant to the lender”(Proverbs 22:7), i.e., the defendant must act as is convenient to the claimant and the court.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPriests are not allowed to ascend with their sandals to the platformto recite the Priestly Blessing in the synagogue. bAnd this is one of the nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. Sixare mentioned bin this chapter:Sounding the ishofaron Shabbat in Yavne, taking the ilulavall seven days, the prohibition against eating new grain the entire day of waving, accepting testimony to determine the start of the month all day, having the witnesses to the New Moon go to the place of meeting, and reciting the Priestly Blessing without sandals. bAnd oneis stated bin the first chapter,that the witnesses to the New Moon may desecrate Shabbat only for the months of Tishrei and Nisan., bAnd the other, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA convert who converts nowadays is required to set aside a quarter /b-shekel bfor his nest,i.e., his pair of doves. By Torah law a convert must bring two burnt-offerings of birds, in addition to his immersion and circumcision. After the destruction, it was instituted that he must set aside the value of two young pigeons in anticipation of the rebuilding of the Temple. bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥaben Zakkai balreadyassembled a majority who bvoted and rescindedthe ordice bdue toa potential bmishap.If a convert is obligated to set aside money, someone might unwittingly use this money, thereby violating the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property., bAnd the otherordice, the ninth, bisthe subject of ba dispute between Rav Pappa and Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak. Rav Pappa said:The ordice concerned the fruit of a bfourth-year grapevine. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:It was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool.,The Gemara elaborates: bRav Pappa saidthat the ordice is referring to the fruit of ba fourth-year grapevine, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iBeitza5a): The fruit of ba fourth-year grapevinehas the status of second-tithe fruits, and therefore their owner bwould ascend to Jerusalemand eat the grapes there. If he is unable to do so, due to the distance involved or the weight of the load, he may redeem the fruits with money where he is, and later redeem that money for other fruits in Jerusalem. However, the Sages decreed that fruit from the environs of Jerusalem should not be redeemed; rather, the owners should bring the fruit itself to Jerusalem. The environs of Jerusalem for this purpose were defined as ba day’s walk in each direction. And this is its boundary: Eilat to the north, Akrabat to the south, Lod to the west, and the Jordanriver bto the east. /b, bAnd Ulla said, and some say Rabba bar Ullasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bwhat reasondid the Sages institute this ordice, that one who lives near Jerusalem must bring his fruit there? bIn order to adorn the markets of Jerusalem with fruit,as this decree ensures that there is always an abundance of fruit in Jerusalem., bAnd it wasfurther btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezerben Hyrcanus, a student of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, bhad a fourth-year grapevinelocated between Lod and Jerusalem, bto the eastof bLod alongside the village of Tavi.The vine was within the boundaries of Jerusalem for the purpose of this ihalakha /i. Rabbi Eliezer could not bring the fruit to the Temple, as the Temple had been destroyed, band Rabbi Eliezer sought to renderthe fruit bownerlessin favor bof the poor,for whom it would be worth the effort to bring the fruit to Jerusalem., bHis students said to him:Our bteacher,there is no need to do so, as byour colleagues have already voted onthe matter band permitted it,as after the destruction of the Temple there is no need to adorn the markets of Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: bWho are: Your colleagues?This is referring to bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The ordice was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool used on Yom Kippur. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAt first they would tie a strip of crimsonwool bto the opening of the Entrance Hallof the Temple bon the outside.If, after the sacrificing of the offerings and the sending of the scapegoat, the strip bturned white,the people bwould rejoice,as this indicated that their sins had been atoned for. If bit did not turn white they would be sad.When the Sages saw that people were overly distressed on Yom Kippur, bthey instituted that they should tiethe strip of crimson wool bto the opening of the Entrance Hall on the inside,where only a few could enter to see it., bButpeople bwould still peek and seeit, and once again, if bit turned white they would rejoice,and if bit did not turn white they would be sad.Therefore, the Sages binstituted that they should tie half ofthe strip bto a rocknear the place where the one who sent the scapegoat stood band half of it between the horns of the scapegoat,so that the people would not know what happened to the strip until after the conclusion of Yom Kippur. This ordice was instituted by Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai.,The Gemara explains this dispute: bWhat is the reasonthat bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak did not statehis opinion with regard to the ordice bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Pappa? Hecould have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkairescinded the ordice of the fruit of fourth-year grapevines, bwas heone of bRabbi Eliezer’s colleagues,that the students would have referred to him in this manner? bHe was his teacher.Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa cannot be the one who instituted this ordice. bAnd the other,Rav Pappa, what would he respond to this? He would say that bsince they wereRabbi Eliezer’s bstudentsit is bnot proper conductfor one bto say to his teacher: Your teacher.Therefore, they referred to Rabbi Yoḥa as Rabbi Eliezer’s colleague.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat bRav Pappa did not statehis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak?Rav Pappa could have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that this ordice for Yom Kippur was instituted by bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, in the days of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was therein fact ba strip of crimsonwool? bIsn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll the years of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’slife were b120 years: Forty years he was involved in businessso that he could achieve ficial independence and study Torah, bforty years he studiedTorah, and bforty years he taughtTorah., bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe forty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed the strip of crimsonwool bwould not turn white; rather,it would bturna deeper shade of bred. And we learnedin the mishna: bWhen the Temple was destroyed Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedhis ordices. This shows that Rabban Yoḥa lived and taught Torah after the destruction. Therefore the ordice of the crimson wool must have been made while Rabban Yoḥa was still studying Torah, before he instituted any ordices. The Gemara asks: bAnd the otherSage, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, what would he answer? According to him, that ordice was instituted during bthose forty years that he studiedTorah. He bwasthen ba student sitting before his teacher, and he said a matter,i.e., he suggested this ordice, band his reasoning made senseto the Sages
53. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

118b. נחלת יעקב אביך וגו' לא כאברהם שכתוב בו (בראשית יג, יז) קום התהלך בארץ לארכה וגו' ולא כיצחק שכתוב בו (בראשית כו, ג) כי לך ולזרעך אתן את כל הארצות האל אלא כיעקב שכתוב בו (בראשית כח, יד) ופרצת ימה וקדמה וצפונה ונגבה,ר"נ בר יצחק אמר ניצול משעבוד גליות כתיב הכא והרכבתיך על במתי ארץ וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כט) ואתה על במותימו תדרוך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המענג את השבת נותנין לו משאלות לבו שנאמר (תהלים לז, ד) והתענג על ה' ויתן לך משאלות לבך עונג זה איני יודע מהו כשהוא אומר וקראת לשבת עונג הוי אומר זה עונג שבת במה מענגו רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמי' דרב אמר בתבשיל של תרדין ודגים גדולים וראשי שומין רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב אפי' דבר מועט ולכבוד שבת עשאו הרי זה עונג מאי היא א"ר פפא כסא דהרסנא,אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל המשמר שבת כהלכתו אפי' עובד ע"ז [כדור] אנוש מוחלין לו שנאמר (ישעיהו נו, ב) אשרי אנוש יעשה זאת וגו' מחללו אל תקרי מחללו אלא מחול לו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אלמלי שמרו ישראל שבת ראשונה לא שלטה בהן אומה ולשון שנאמר (שמות טז, כז) ויהי ביום השביעי יצאו מן העם ללקוט וכתיב בתריה ויבא עמלק אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי אלמלי משמרין ישראל שתי שבתות כהלכתן מיד נגאלים שנא' (ישעיהו נו, ד) כה אמר ה' לסריסים אשר ישמרו את שבתותי וכתיב בתריה והביאותים אל הר קדשי וגו',אמר ר' יוסי יהא חלקי מאוכלי שלש סעודות בשבת א"ר יוסי יהא חלקי מגומרי הלל בכל יום איני והאמר מר הקורא הלל בכל יום הרי זה מחרף ומגדף כי קאמרינן בפסוקי דזמרא,א"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממתפללים עם דמדומי חמה א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מצוה להתפלל עם דמדומי חמה א"ר זירא מאי קרא (תהלים עב, ה) ייראוך עם שמש ולפני ירח דור דורים,וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממתי בחולי מעיים דאמר מר רובן של צדיקים מתים בחולי מעיים וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממתי בדרך מצוה וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממכניסי שבת בטבריא וממוציאי שבת בצפורי וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממושיבי בהמ"ד ולא ממעמידי בהמ"ד,וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי מגבאי צדקה ולא ממחלקי צדקה וא"ר יוסי יהא חלקי ממי שחושדין אותו ואין בו אמר רב פפא לדידי חשדן ולא הוה בי,א"ר יוסי חמש בעילות בעלתי ונטעתי חמשה ארזים בישראל ומאן אינון ר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי ור' אלעזר בר"י ור' חלפתא בר"י ור' אבטילס בר"י ורבי מנחם בר' יוסי והאיכא ורדימס היינו ורדימס היינו מנחם ואמאי קרי ליה ורדימס שפניו דומין לורד למימרא דרבי יוסי מצות עונה לא קיים אלא אימא חמש בעילות בעלתי ושניתי,אמר רבי יוסי מימי לא קריתי לאשתי אשתי ולשורי שורי אלא לאשתי ביתי ולשורי שדי,אמר ר' יוסי מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי איני והאמרו ליה לרבי מאי טעמא קראו לך רבינו הקדוש אמר להו מימי לא נסתכלתי במילה שלי ברבי מילתא אחריתי הוה ביה שלא הכניס ידו תחת אבנטו וא"ר יוסי מימי לא ראו קורות ביתי אימרי חלוקי,וא"ר יוסי מימי לא עברתי על דברי חברי יודע אני בעצמי שאיני כהן אם אומרים לי חבירי עלה לדוכן אני עולה וא"ר יוסי מימי לא אמרתי דבר וחזרתי לאחורי,אמר רב נחמן) תיתי לי דקיימית ג' סעודות בשבת אמר רב יהודה תיתי לי דקיימית עיון תפלה אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע תיתי לי דלא סגינא ד' אמות בגילוי הראש אמר רב ששת תיתי לי דקיימית מצות תפילין ואמר ר"נ תיתי לי דקיימית מצות ציצית,אמר ליה רב יוסף לרב יוסף בריה דרבה אבוך במאי זהיר טפי אמר ליה בציצית יומא חד הוה קא סליק בדרגא איפסיק ליה חוטא ולא נחית ואתא כמה דלא רמיה ואמר אביי תיתי לי דכי חזינא צורבא מרבנן דשלים מסכתיה 118b. bon the inheritance of Jacob your father,as the mouth of God has spoken” (Isaiah 58:13–14). The reward for delighting in Shabbat is specifically the portion of Jacob. bNot that of Abraham, about whom it is written, “Rise, walk through the land through its lengthand its width because I have given it to you” (Genesis 13:17), i.e., only this land alone in its borders. bAnd not that of Isaac, about whom it is written,“Dwell in this land and I will be with you and I will bless you bbecause I will give all of these lands to you and your offspring”(Genesis 26:3), meaning these lands and no others. bRather, that of Jacob, about whom it is written,“And your offspring will be like the dust of the earth, band you will spread out to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south,and all of the families of the land will be blessed through you and your offspring” (Genesis 28:14). There are no boundaries for Jacob’s portion., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:One who delights in Shabbat bis rescued from the oppression of exile.He derives it by means of a verbal analogy. bIt is written here,with regard to Shabbat: b“And I will cause you to ride on the heights [ ibamotei /i] of the world”(Isaiah 58:14), band it is written there:“You are fortunate Israel, who is like you? A nation redeemed by God, the shield that aids you and the sword of your triumph. Your enemies will try to defeat you band you will trample their high places [ ibamoteimo /i]”(Deuteronomy 33:29). bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:With regard to banyone who delights in the Shabbat,God bgrants him his heart’s desires,as bit is stated: “And you shall delight in God and He will grant you your heart’s desires”(Psalms 37:4). bThis delightin God, which is mentioned in the verse, bI do not know what it is. When it says: “And you shall call the Shabbat delight,”one bmust say: It is the delight of Shabbat.The Gemara asks: bWith what does one delightin the day of Shabbat? bRav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: With a dish of beets, and large fish, and heads of garlic. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashisaid that bRav said: Evenwith regard to ba small item and one prepared it in deference to Shabbat, it isa bdelight.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe small item mentioned? bRav Pappa said: Small fried fish. /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to banyone who observes Shabbat in accordance with its ihalakhot /i, evenif he bworships idolatry asin bthe generation of Enosh,God bforgives himhis sins, bas it is stated: “Fortunate is the man [enosh] who does thisand the person who holds strong to it, one who guards the Shabbat bfrom desecrating it [ imeḥallelo /i],and guards his hand from doing any evil” (Isaiah 56:2). bDo not readit as: bFrom desecrating it [ imeḥallelo /i], but rather: He is forgiven [ imaḥul lo /i].With regard to the generation of Enosh it is written: “And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh. Then they began [ ihuḥal /i] to call upon the Name of God” (Genesis 4:26), meaning to desecrate [ ileḥallel /i] His name., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Had the Jewish peopleproperly bobservedthe bfirst Shabbatthat was commanded them, bno nation or tongue would haveever bruled them, as it is stated: “And it happened on the seventh day, some people went out from the nation to collectand they did not find” (Exodus 16:27). bAnd it is written afterthey went out to collect manna: b“And Amalek cameand fought with Israel in Refidim” (Exodus 17:8). bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: If only the Jewish people would keep two iShabbatotin accordance with their ihalakhot /i,they would be bimmediately redeemed,as bit is stated: “So said God to the eunuchs who will keep My Shabbatot”(Isaiah 56:4), band it is written afterthat: b“And I will bring them to My holy mountainand will let them rejoice in My house of prayer” (Isaiah 56:7)., bRabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who eat three meals on Shabbat.Apropos this statement of Rabbi Yosei, the Gemara cites additional declarations. bRabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who complete hallel every day.The Gemara is surprised at this: bIs that so? Didn’t the Master say: One who reads ihallelevery day istantamount to bone who curses and blasphemesGod. He displays contempt for ihallelby not reserving it for days on which miracles occurred. The Gemara answers: bWhen we saythis statement of Rabbi Yosei, we are referring to bthe verses of praise [ ipesukei dezimra /i],recited during the morning service, not to ihallel(Psalms 113–118) recited on special days.,And furthermore, bRabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who praythe morning and afternoon prayers bwith the reddening of the sun,i.e., the morning prayer at sunrise and the afternoon prayer adjacent to nightfall. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is a mitzva to pray with the reddening of the sun. Rabbi Zeira said: What versealludes to this? b“They will fear You with the sun and before the moon, generation upon generation”(Psalms 72:5). Fear of God, prayer, should be with the sun and before the moon., bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who die from intestinal disease, as the Master said: Most righteous people die of intestinal disease.It is a very harsh disease through which the sins of righteous people are cleansed before their death and also, as a result, they die with a clean body. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who die on the path toperform ba mitzva. And Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who accept Shabbat in Tiberias,which is in a valley where day turns to evening earlier, band among those who see Shabbat out in Tzippori,which is located on a mountain top where the sun is visible for longer, and Shabbat ends later. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among those who seatothers bin the study hall,i.e., who cause others to come sit and study, band not among those who causeothers bto stand in the study hall,i.e., who announce that it is time to leave the study hall and go to eat., bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be among the collectors of charity and not the distributors of charity.One who collects charity collects fixed amounts, whereas distributors may inadvertently fail to give the poor person enough to cover his needs. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: May my portion be with one whomothers bsuspectof sin band there is nobasis for suspecting bhim. Rav Pappa said: They suspected me, and there was nobasis for suspecting bme. /b,Furthermore, bRabbi Yosei said: I engaged in relations five times, and I planted five cedars in Eretz Yisrael. And who arethese cedars? The sons of Rabbi Yosei, who were great Sages of Israel: bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Ḥalafta, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Avtilas, son of Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Menaḥem, son of Rabbi Yosei.The Gemara asks: bIsn’t there Vardimas,who was also Rabbi Yosei’s son? The Gemara answers: bVardimas is the same as Menaḥem. And why did they call him Vardimas?Because bhis face was asbeautiful as ba rose [ ivered /i].The Gemara asks: bIs that to saybased on this statement that bRabbi Yosei did not fulfill the mitzva ofhis wife’s bconjugal rights,but only had relations with her five times? bRather, sayit this way: bI engaged in relations five times and I did so again,and the Sages said that one who seeks to father male offspring should engage in relations and do so again.,Furthermore, bRabbi Yosei saidthat he always spoke euphemistically: bIn all my days, I did not call my wife, my wife, nor my ox, my ox. Rather,I called bmy wife, my home,because she is the essence of the home, band my ox, my field,because it is the primary force in the fields., bRabbi Yosei said: In all my days,due to modesty, bI never looked at my circumcision.The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t they say to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bWhy did they call you our holy Rabbi? He said to them:It is because bin all my days I never looked at my circumcision.If so, why wasn’t Rabbi Yosei also called our holy Rabbi? The Gemara replies: bInthe case of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, banother matterof modesty bwaspresent bin him, as he did not insert his hand below his beltdue to his great modesty. bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days, the walls of my house never saw the seams of my robedue to modesty, as he would only undress under his bed sheets., bAnd Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days I never violated the words of my friends. I know about myself that I am not a priest,and nevertheless, bif my friends say to me: Go up to the platformwith the priests, bI go up. And Rabbi Yosei said: In all my days I never said something and then retreatedfrom it. Rabbi Yosei never said something positive or negative about a specific person and then denied it., bRav Naḥman said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilledthe obligation to eat bthree meals on Shabbatmagnificently. bRav Yehuda said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilledthe obligation of bconsiderationduring bprayer. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: May I receivemy reward because bI never walked four cubits with my head uncovered. Rav Sheshet said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilled the mitzva of phylacteriesmagnificently. bAnd Rav Naḥman said: May I receivemy reward bbecause I fulfilled the mitzva of ritual fringesmagnificently., bRav Yosef said to Rav Yosef, son of Rabba: In whatarea bwas your father,Rabba, bespecially vigilant?He bsaid to him:It was binthe mitzva of britual fringes.The Gemara relates: bOne day he was climbing the stairswhen a bstringfrom his ritual fringes bwas severed, and he would not descend until he placeda new string bonthe garment. bAnd Abaye said: May I receivemy reward because bwhen I see a young Torah scholar who has completed a tractatethat bhestudied
54. Anon., Soferim, 18.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
2 chronicles, psalms, liturgical use of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
aaron Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 94
abraham (patriarch) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 247
acrostic Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
alexandria Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
alleluia Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 279
altar Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
amram gaon Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
angel (angelos) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
antiochus iii (seleucid ruler) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
apion Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 298
ar-raḥmān Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 763
aramaic, targumim Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
ashkenaz Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
astrology Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 23
babylonia Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
bel and the dragon Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
ben sira Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
berkovitz, a.j. Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
berthe of blois, queen of france, hebrew Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
bouleuterion Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
cairo geniza Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
cardo (maximus) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
cento Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224, 227
chairemon Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 298
chancel screen Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
chora Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
christian monastics Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
conch (shell-shaped motif ) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
conybeare, f. c. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
covenant Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
creation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
cultic texts in hebrew bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
daemons (daimonia) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
daughters of jerusalem Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 142
david/davidic Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
de musica, augustine Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
deacon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
dead, death Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
deity, cult statues of Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21, 23
deity, deities Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21, 23
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
diakonoi Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
easter, date of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 494
egypt, egyptians Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 298
elbogen, ismar Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 94
elders Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
ephrata cloister, lancaster county Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
epistle of jeremiah Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
ethrog Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
eucharist, connection with hymnody Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
exedra Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
exodus, as paradigm of redemption Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213
ezekiel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
facades Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
feast of taberoacles Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
flute Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
form, of psalms Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217
frescoes Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
gamaliel of yavneh, rabban, on passover Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69
genre Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
gentiles (ethnē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 23
geonim Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
gerousia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
gihon, river or spring Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
god, as mare that distracts pharaohs stallion Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213
god of Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 23
ground Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
halakhah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
hallel, sung during the exodus Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
hallel Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9, 224, 227; Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69; Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
hallel psalms Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
hannah (mother of samuel) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 247
hanukka Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
hasidism Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
heavenly bodies Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21, 23
hebrew language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
hellenistic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
holy spirit, and liturgy Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 456
holy week Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 456
homer Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
house of wine as sinai Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
hymn Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 129
hymn of creation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
hymns, early christian Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
hymns, in new testament Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
idolatry Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21; Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 142
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
israel/israelite, land of Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
israel Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 23
jan assmann Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 298
jeremiah Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), jerusalem temple, scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), liturgy and scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), second temple period Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
jesus, as lamb of god Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
jesus (of nazareth) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 247
jesus christ, in the fourth gospel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
jewish scribe x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
john, fourth gospel' "151.0_375.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
josephus Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
josephus (flavius josephus), on jerusalem temple and scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
judaism Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
karaim, language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
karaism Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
karaite Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
knowledge, historical Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217
kraft, r. a. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
langer, ruth Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
last supper Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
leadership, synagogue, leadership, town, communal Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
lectionary manuscripts, in jewish liturgies Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
lectionary manuscripts, readings, liturgical Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 825
lent Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 456
letter of aristeas Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
libation Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 212
life, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
literary history of hebrew bible, cultic texts Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
literary history of hebrew bible, genres and text types, development of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
literary history of hebrew bible, major literary complexes Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
literary history of hebrew bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
literary structure of surahs Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 763
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
liturgy Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9, 227; Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217; Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 763
liturgy and scripture, cultic texts in hebrew bible/old testament Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
liturgy and scripture, in jerusalem temple Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
liturgy and scripture, psalms, liturgical use of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
liturgy and scripture, synagogues, readings in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 825
liturgy and scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 825
lords supper Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 129
lucius, e. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
lysimachus Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 298
maftir Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
mahzor/mahzorim Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
maimonides Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
mare, impersonated by god Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213
mareotic community Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
meals, festive Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 212
memory, communal Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217
mesopotamia Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
meturgeman Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
middle ages Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
midrash/midrashim/midrashic Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
miqveh (ritual bath, stepped cistern) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
misanthropy Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 298
mishnah, on temple liturgy Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340
monotheism Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 298
music, early christian Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
music, early hymnody and psalmody Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
music, liberal art of music (musica) Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 781
music Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 212
mussaf (additional amidah), sabbath and holidays Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
name of jesus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 456
nations of the world' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 142
ner tamid (eternal light) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
niche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
numerological exegesis Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
nymphaeum Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
opus latericium Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
opus listatum Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
opus reticulatum Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
opus sectile Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
opus vittatum Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
oral tradition Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
passion narratives Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
passover, hallel Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
passover, leaven and Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69
passover, psalms recited during Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213
passover Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 212; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 442
passover haggadah, its polarities reflected in yannais qedushta shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
passover haggadah Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69
passover seder, in yannais qedushta shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
paul, on ta stoicheia tou kosmou Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
paul Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
performance Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
pesaḥ, passover Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
pesuqe de-zimra Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
philo Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69
philo of alexandria, debates on writings of Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
philo of alexandria Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
polytheism Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 298
prayer, communal, public Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
prayer, monastic Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 494
prayer Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
prayers, daily Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 456
priest Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
procession Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
prokeimena Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 456
prophetic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
prophetologion, arabic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 456
prophetologion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 456
prophets (books of) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
psalm/psalmist Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
psalm Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 279, 280
psalms, as cultic texts Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
psalms, five books of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
psalms, hallel psalms Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
psalms, in jewish liturgies Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 340, 825
psalms, yahwistic and elohistic Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 126
psalms Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 763; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
psalter, formation Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 257
pseudo-philo Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
qedushta shir ha-shirim (yannai), passover emphasized in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
qedushta shir ha-shirim (yannai) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 213, 253
qumran Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217
qumran psalms scroll Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 257
r. elazar (son of r.yosi the galilean) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
r. yohanan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
r.yosi Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
reading, lectionary Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 456
recitation, oral Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 217
reclining Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 129
reif, stefan Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
rite/rites, medieval Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
rite/rites, of the land of israel Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
roman period Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
rome, romans Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 298
rosh hashanah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
runia, d.t. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
sabbath/shabbat/shabbatot Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
sanctity of, lintels Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
sarah (matriarch) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 247
schürer, e. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 63
seat, cathedra, of moses Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
sefer shimmush tehillim Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
serpent (of paradise) Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 763
shavuot Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
shavuot (pentecost) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
sheliah tzibbur, prayer leader Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
shema, reciting antiphonally Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
shofar Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
siloam Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
singing Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 129, 212
soferim Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
song of the sea Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
soup kitchen, nave Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375
stemberger, günter Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
sukkot, shofar, lulav, ethrog Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554, 642
symposium Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 69
symposium (plato), synagogues, liturgical readings in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 825
synagogue architecture, aisles Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 642
talabardon, susanne Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
teacher Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 554
teaching/teachings Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
temple Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 375; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
theognis Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 6
torah, as wine Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
torah, oral Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
torah Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 9
trakai Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 334
vice and virtue lists Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 189
willow Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
willow procession Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 157
wine, symbol of torah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 253
wisdom of solomon Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 21
yehi khavod Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 227
yehoshua ben levi Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224
yosi, rabbi Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 224, 227