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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6301
Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 8.14


וְהִבְדַּלְתָּ אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָיוּ לִי הַלְוִיִּם׃Thus shalt thou separate the Levites from among the children of Israel; and the Levites shall be Mine.


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17 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.2, 17.18-17.20, 31.9-31.13, 31.24-31.29, 33.8-33.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.2. לְבִלְתִּי רוּם־לְבָבוֹ מֵאֶחָיו וּלְבִלְתִּי סוּר מִן־הַמִּצְוָה יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיךְ יָמִים עַל־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ הוּא וּבָנָיו בְּקֶרֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.2. כִּי־יִמָּצֵא בְקִרְבְּךָ בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֶת־הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲבֹר בְּרִיתוֹ׃ 17.18. וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃ 17.19. וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 31.9. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.11. בְּבוֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם׃ 31.12. הַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ וּלְמַעַן יִלְמְדוּ וְיָרְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְשָׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 31.13. וּבְנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ וְלָמְדוּ לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 31.24. וַיְהִי כְּכַלּוֹת מֹשֶׁה לִכְתֹּב אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה־הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר עַד תֻּמָּם׃ 31.25. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 31.26. לָקֹחַ אֵת סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֹתוֹ מִצַּד אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהָיָה־שָׁם בְּךָ לְעֵד׃ 31.27. כִּי אָנֹכִי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת־מֶרְיְךָ וְאֶת־עָרְפְּךָ הַקָּשֶׁה הֵן בְּעוֹדֶנִּי חַי עִמָּכֶם הַיּוֹם מַמְרִים הֱיִתֶם עִם־יְהֹוָה וְאַף כִּי־אַחֲרֵי מוֹתִי׃ 31.28. הַקְהִילוּ אֵלַי אֶת־כָּל־זִקְנֵי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְשֹׁטְרֵיכֶם וַאֲדַבְּרָה בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֵת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְאָעִידָה בָּם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 31.29. כִּי יָדַעְתִּי אַחֲרֵי מוֹתִי כִּי־הַשְׁחֵת תַּשְׁחִתוּן וְסַרְתֶּם מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם וְקָרָאת אֶתְכֶם הָרָעָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים כִּי־תַעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לְהַכְעִיסוֹ בְּמַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵיכֶם׃ 33.8. וּלְלֵוִי אָמַר תֻּמֶּיךָ וְאוּרֶיךָ לְאִישׁ חֲסִידֶךָ אֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתוֹ בְּמַסָּה תְּרִיבֵהוּ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה׃ 33.9. הָאֹמֵר לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא רְאִיתִיו וְאֶת־אֶחָיו לֹא הִכִּיר וְאֶת־בנו [בָּנָיו] לֹא יָדָע כִּי שָׁמְרוּ אִמְרָתֶךָ וּבְרִיתְךָ יִנְצֹרוּ׃ 33.11. בָּרֵךְ יְהוָה חֵילוֹ וּפֹעַל יָדָיו תִּרְצֶה מְחַץ מָתְנַיִם קָמָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו מִן־יְקוּמוּן׃ 17.2. If there be found in the midst of thee, within any of thy gates which the LORD thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that doeth that which is evil in the sight of the LORD thy God, in transgressing His covet," 17.18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites." 17.19. And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;" 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel." 31.9. And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel." 31.10. And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles," 31.11. when all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing." 31.12. Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law;" 31.13. and that their children, who have not known, may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’" 31.24. And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end of writing the words of this law in a book, until they were finished," 31.25. that Moses commanded the Levites, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, saying:" 31.26. ’Take this book of the law, and put it by the side of the ark of the covet of the LORD your God, that it may be there for a witness against thee." 31.27. For I know thy rebellion, and thy stiff neck; behold, while I am yet alive with you this day, ye have been rebellious against the LORD; and how much more after my death?" 31.28. Assemble unto me all the elders of your tribes, and your officers, that I may speak these words in their ears, and call heaven and earth to witness against them." 31.29. For I know that after my death ye will in any wise deal corruptly, and turn aside from the way which I have commanded you; and evil will befall you in the end of days; because ye will do that which is evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him through the work of your hands.’" 33.8. And of Levi he said: Thy Thummim and Thy Urim be with Thy holy one, Whom Thou didst prove at Massah, With whom Thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;" 33.9. Who said of his father, and of his mother: ‘I have not seen him’; Neither did he acknowledge his brethren, Nor knew he his own children; For they have observed Thy word, And keep Thy covet." 33.10. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordices, And Israel Thy law; They shall put incense before Thee, And whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. ." 33.11. Bless, LORD, his substance, And accept the work of his hands; Smite through the loins of them that rise up against him, And of them that hate him, that they rise not again."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.21, 19.4, 19.6, 19.12-19.13, 19.15, 19.22, 24.5-24.6, 24.8, 25.8, 27.3, 28.41, 30.31, 32.25-32.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.21. וַיְהִי כִּי־יָרְאוּ הַמְיַלְּדֹת אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיַּעַשׂ לָהֶם בָּתִּים׃ 19.4. אַתֶּם רְאִיתֶם אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי לְמִצְרָיִם וָאֶשָּׂא אֶתְכֶם עַל־כַּנְפֵי נְשָׁרִים וָאָבִא אֶתְכֶם אֵלָי׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.12. וְהִגְבַּלְתָּ אֶת־הָעָם סָבִיב לֵאמֹר הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם עֲלוֹת בָּהָר וּנְגֹעַ בְּקָצֵהוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהָר מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 19.13. לֹא־תִגַּע בּוֹ יָד כִּי־סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל אוֹ־יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה אִם־בְּהֵמָה אִם־אִישׁ לֹא יִחְיֶה בִּמְשֹׁךְ הַיֹּבֵל הֵמָּה יַעֲלוּ בָהָר׃ 19.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעָם הֱיוּ נְכֹנִים לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אַל־תִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־אִשָּׁה׃ 19.22. וְגַם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַנִּגָּשִׁים אֶל־יְהוָה יִתְקַדָּשׁוּ פֶּן־יִפְרֹץ בָּהֶם יְהוָה׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.6. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 25.8. וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם׃ 27.3. וְעָשִׂיתָ סִּירֹתָיו לְדַשְּׁנוֹ וְיָעָיו וּמִזְרְקֹתָיו וּמִזְלְגֹתָיו וּמַחְתֹּתָיו לְכָל־כֵּלָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה נְחֹשֶׁת׃ 28.41. וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתָם וּמִלֵּאתָ אֶת־יָדָם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם וְכִהֲנוּ לִי׃ 30.31. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה זֶה לִי לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 32.25. וַיַּרְא מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם כִּי פָרֻעַ הוּא כִּי־פְרָעֹה אַהֲרֹן לְשִׁמְצָה בְּקָמֵיהֶם׃ 32.26. וַיַּעֲמֹד מֹשֶׁה בְּשַׁעַר הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיֹּאמֶר מִי לַיהוָה אֵלָי וַיֵּאָסְפוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־בְּנֵי לֵוִי׃ 32.27. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂימוּ אִישׁ־חַרְבּוֹ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ עִבְרוּ וָשׁוּבוּ מִשַּׁעַר לָשַׁעַר בַּמַּחֲנֶה וְהִרְגוּ אִישׁ־אֶת־אָחִיו וְאִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־קְרֹבוֹ׃ 32.28. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי־לֵוִי כִּדְבַר מֹשֶׁה וַיִּפֹּל מִן־הָעָם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אַלְפֵי אִישׁ׃ 32.29. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה מִלְאוּ יֶדְכֶם הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה כִּי אִישׁ בִּבְנוֹ וּבְאָחִיו וְלָתֵת עֲלֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם בְּרָכָה׃ 1.21. And it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that He made them houses." 19.4. Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles’wings, and brought you unto Myself." 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’" 19.12. And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying: Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it; whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death;" 19.13. no hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live; when the ram’s horn soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.’" 19.15. And he said unto the people: ‘Be ready against the third day; come not near a woman.’" 19.22. And let the priests also, that come near to the LORD, sanctify themselves, lest the LORD break forth upon them.’" 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.6. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar." 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’" 25.8. And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them." 27.3. And thou shalt make its pots to take away its ashes, and its shovels, and its basins, and its flesh-hooks, and its fire-pans; all the vessels thereof thou shalt make of brass." 28.41. And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and upon his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 30.31. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: This shall be a holy anointing oil unto Me throughout your generations." 32.25. And when Moses saw that the people were broken loose—for Aaron had let them loose for a derision among their enemies—" 32.26. then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said: ‘Whoso is on the LORD’S side, let him come unto me.’ And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him." 32.27. And he said unto them: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Put ye every man his sword upon his thigh, and go to and fro from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbour.’" 32.28. And the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses; and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men." 32.29. And Moses said: ‘Consecrate yourselves to-day to the LORD, for every man hath been against his son and against his brother; that He may also bestow upon you a blessing this day.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 21.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.23. וְעַתָּה הִשָּׁבְעָה לִּי בֵאלֹהִים הֵנָּה אִם־תִּשְׁקֹר לִי וּלְנִינִי וּלְנֶכְדִּי כַּחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי עִמְּךָ תַּעֲשֶׂה עִמָּדִי וְעִם־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־גַּרְתָּה בָּהּ׃ 21.23. Now therefore swear unto me here by God that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, nor with my son, nor with my son’s son; but according to the kindness that I have done unto thee, thou shalt do unto me, and to the land wherein thou hast sojourned.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.1, 5.4, 25.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.1. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.1. וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.4. אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תִשָּׁבַע לְבַטֵּא בִשְׂפָתַיִם לְהָרַע אוֹ לְהֵיטִיב לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יְבַטֵּא הָאָדָם בִּשְׁבֻעָה וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה׃ 25.23. וְהָאָרֶץ לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת כִּי־לִי הָאָרֶץ כִּי־גֵרִים וְתוֹשָׁבִים אַתֶּם עִמָּדִי׃ 5.1. And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;" 5.4. or if any one swear clearly with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall utter clearly with an oath, and it be hid from him; and, when he knoweth of it, be guilty in one of these things;" 25.23. And the land shall not be sold in perpetuity; for the land is Mine; for ye are strangers and settlers with Me."
5. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.4-2.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.4. וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי שִׁלַּחְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶם אֵת הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת לִהְיוֹת בְּרִיתִי אֶת־לֵוִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 2.5. בְּרִיתִי הָיְתָה אִתּוֹ הַחַיִּים וְהַשָּׁלוֹם וָאֶתְּנֵם־לוֹ מוֹרָא וַיִּירָאֵנִי וּמִפְּנֵי שְׁמִי נִחַת הוּא׃ 2.6. תּוֹרַת אֱמֶת הָיְתָה בְּפִיהוּ וְעַוְלָה לֹא־נִמְצָא בִשְׂפָתָיו בְּשָׁלוֹם וּבְמִישׁוֹר הָלַךְ אִתִּי וְרַבִּים הֵשִׁיב מֵעָוֺן׃ 2.7. כִּי־שִׂפְתֵי כֹהֵן יִשְׁמְרוּ־דַעַת וְתוֹרָה יְבַקְשׁוּ מִפִּיהוּ כִּי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה־צְבָאוֹת הוּא׃ 2.8. וְאַתֶּם סַרְתֶּם מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ הִכְשַׁלְתֶּם רַבִּים בַּתּוֹרָה שִׁחַתֶּם בְּרִית הַלֵּוִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 2.9. וְגַם־אֲנִי נָתַתִּי אֶתְכֶם נִבְזִים וּשְׁפָלִים לְכָל־הָעָם כְּפִי אֲשֶׁר אֵינְכֶם שֹׁמְרִים אֶת־דְּרָכַי וְנֹשְׂאִים פָּנִים בַּתּוֹרָה׃ 2.4. Know then that I have sent This commandment unto you, That My covet might be with Levi, Saith the LORD of hosts." 2.5. My covet was with him of life and peace, and I gave them to him, And of fear, and he feared Me, And was afraid of My name." 2.6. The law of truth was in his mouth, And unrighteousness was not found in his lips; He walked with Me in peace and uprightness, And did turn many away from iniquity." 2.7. For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, And they should seek the law at his mouth; For he is the messenger of the LORD of hosts." 2.8. But ye are turned aside out of the way; Ye have caused many to stumble in the law; Ye have corrupted the covet of Levi, Saith the LORD of hosts." 2.9. Therefore have I also made you Contemptible and base before all the people, According as ye have not kept My ways, But have had respect of persons in the law."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 3.11-3.13, 4.14, 8.15-8.19, 16.9, 18.2, 25.12, 28.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 3.12. וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה לָקַחְתִּי אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תַּחַת כָּל־בְּכוֹר פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָיוּ לִי הַלְוִיִּם׃ 3.13. כִּי לִי כָּל־בְּכוֹר בְּיוֹם הַכֹּתִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי לִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה לִי יִהְיוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 4.14. וְנָתְנוּ עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו אֲשֶׁר יְשָׁרְתוּ עָלָיו בָּהֶם אֶת־הַמַּחְתֹּת אֶת־הַמִּזְלָגֹת וְאֶת־הַיָּעִים וְאֶת־הַמִּזְרָקֹת כֹּל כְּלֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּפָרְשׂוּ עָלָיו כְּסוּי עוֹר תַּחַשׁ וְשָׂמוּ בַדָּיו׃ 8.15. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יָבֹאוּ הַלְוִיִּם לַעֲבֹד אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְטִהַרְתָּ אֹתָם וְהֵנַפְתָּ אֹתָם תְּנוּפָה׃ 8.16. כִּי נְתֻנִים נְתֻנִים הֵמָּה לִי מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תַּחַת פִּטְרַת כָּל־רֶחֶם בְּכוֹר כֹּל מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָקַחְתִּי אֹתָם לִי׃ 8.17. כִּי לִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה בְּיוֹם הַכֹּתִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי אֹתָם לִי׃ 8.18. וָאֶקַּח אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם תַּחַת כָּל־בְּכוֹר בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.19. וָאֶתְּנָה אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם נְתֻנִים לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲבֹד אֶת־עֲבֹדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּלְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא יִהְיֶה בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל נֶגֶף בְּגֶשֶׁת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 16.9. הַמְעַט מִכֶּם כִּי־הִבְדִּיל אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶתְכֶם מֵעֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַקְרִיב אֶתְכֶם אֵלָיו לַעֲבֹד אֶת־עֲבֹדַת מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה וְלַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי הָעֵדָה לְשָׁרְתָם׃ 18.2. וְגַם אֶת־אַחֶיךָ מַטֵּה לֵוִי שֵׁבֶט אָבִיךָ הַקְרֵב אִתָּךְ וְיִלָּווּ עָלֶיךָ וִישָׁרְתוּךָ וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל הָעֵדֻת׃ 18.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן בְּאַרְצָם לֹא תִנְחָל וְחֵלֶק לֹא־יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּתוֹכָם אֲנִי חֶלְקְךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.12. לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃ 28.2. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 3.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 3.12. ’And I, behold, I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel instead of every first-born that openeth the womb among the children of Israel; and the Levites shall be Mine;" 3.13. for all the first-born are Mine: on the day that I smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt I hallowed unto Me all the first-born in Israel, both man and beast, Mine they shall be: I am the LORD.’ ." 4.14. And they shall put upon it all the vessels thereof, wherewith they minister about it, the fire-pans, the flesh-hooks, and the shovels, and the basins, all the vessels of the altar; and they shall spread upon it a covering of sealskin, and set the staves thereof." 8.15. And after that shall the Levites go in to do the service of the tent of meeting; and thou shalt cleanse them, and offer them for a wave-offering." 8.16. For they are wholly given unto Me from among the children of Israel; instead of all that openeth the womb, even the first-born of all the children of Israel, have I taken them unto Me." 8.17. For all the first-born among the children of Israel are Mine, both man and beast; on the day that I smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt I sanctified them for Myself." 8.18. And I have taken the Levites instead of all the first-born among the children of Israel." 8.19. And I have given the Levites— they are given to Aaron and to his sons from among the children of Israel, to do the service of the children of Israel in the tent of meeting, and to make atonement for the children of Israel, that there be no plague among the children of Israel, through the children of Israel coming nigh unto the sanctuary.’" 16.9. is it but a small thing unto you, that the God of Israel hath separated you from the congregation of Israel, to bring you near to Himself, to do the service of the tabernacle of the LORD, and to stand before the congregation to minister unto them;" 18.2. And thy brethren also, the tribe of Levi, the tribe of thy father, bring thou near with thee, that they may be joined unto thee, and minister unto thee, thou and thy sons with thee being before the tent of the testimony." 25.12. Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;" 28.2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 89.3, 132.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

89.3. כִּי־אָמַרְתִּי עוֹלָם חֶסֶד יִבָּנֶה שָׁמַיִם תָּכִן אֱמוּנָתְךָ בָהֶם׃ 89.3. וְשַׂמְתִּי לָעַד זַרְעוֹ וְכִסְאוֹ כִּימֵי שָׁמָיִם׃ 132.11. נִשְׁבַּע־יְהוָה לְדָוִד אֱמֶת לֹא־יָשׁוּב מִמֶּנָּה מִפְּרִי בִטְנְךָ אָשִׁית לְכִסֵּא־לָךְ׃ 89.3. For I have said: 'For ever is mercy built; In the very heavens Thou dost establish Thy faithfulness." 132.11. The LORD swore unto David in truth; He will not turn back from it: 'of the fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 16.1, 21.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל עַד־מָתַי אַתָּה מִתְאַבֵּל אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַאֲנִי מְאַסְתִּיו מִמְּלֹךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל מַלֵּא קַרְנְךָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֵךְ אֶשְׁלָחֲךָ אֶל־יִשַׁי בֵּית־הַלַּחְמִי כִּי־רָאִיתִי בְּבָנָיו לִי מֶלֶךְ׃ 16.1. וַיַּעֲבֵר יִשַׁי שִׁבְעַת בָּנָיו לִפְנֵי שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יִשַׁי לֹא־בָחַר יְהוָה בָּאֵלֶּה׃ 21.6. וַיַּעַן דָּוִד אֶת־הַכֹּהֵן וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כִּי אִם־אִשָּׁה עֲצֻרָה־לָנוּ כִּתְמוֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם בְּצֵאתִי וַיִּהְיוּ כְלֵי־הַנְּעָרִים קֹדֶשׁ וְהוּא דֶּרֶךְ חֹל וְאַף כִּי הַיּוֹם יִקְדַּשׁ בַּכֶּלִי׃ 16.1. And the Lord said to Shemu᾽el, How long wilt thou mourn for Sha᾽ul, seeing I have rejected him from reigning over Yisra᾽el? fill thy horn with oil, and go, I will send thee to Yishay, the Bet-hallaĥmite: for I have provided for me a king among his sons," 21.6. And David answered the priest, and said to him, of a truth women have been kept from us as always when I am on a journey, and the vessels of the young men are holy, (although it is a common journey,) how much more today when there will be hallowed bread in their vessel."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23, 22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.12. כִּי יִמְלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ וְשָׁכַבְתָּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִי אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ׃ 7.12. And when the days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall issue from thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 17.7-17.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.7. וּבִשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְמָלְכוֹ שָׁלַח לְשָׂרָיו לְבֶן־חַיִל וּלְעֹבַדְיָה וְלִזְכַרְיָה וְלִנְתַנְאֵל וּלְמִיכָיָהוּ לְלַמֵּד בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה׃ 17.8. וְעִמָּהֶם הַלְוִיִּם שְׁמַעְיָהוּ וּנְתַנְיָהוּ וּזְבַדְיָהוּ וַעֲשָׂהאֵל ושמרימות [וּשְׁמִירָמוֹת] וִיהוֹנָתָן וַאֲדֹנִיָּהוּ וְטוֹבִיָּהוּ וְטוֹב אֲדוֹנִיָּה הַלְוִיִּם וְעִמָּהֶם אֱלִישָׁמָע וִיהוֹרָם הַכֹּהֲנִים׃ 17.9. וַיְלַמְּדוּ בִּיהוּדָה וְעִמָּהֶם סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת יְהוָה וַיָּסֹבּוּ בְּכָל־עָרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיְלַמְּדוּ בָּעָם׃ 17.7. Also in the third year of his reign he sent his princes, even Ben-hail, and Obadiah, and Zechariah, and Nethanel, and Micaiah, to teach in the cities of Judah;" 17.8. and with them the Levites, even Shemaiah, and Nethaniah, and Zebadiah, and Asahel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehonathan, and Adonijah, and Tobijah, and Tob-adonijah, the Levites; and with them Elishama and Jehoram, the priests." 17.9. And they taught in Judah, having the book of the Law of the LORD with them; and they went about throughout all the cities of Judah, and taught among the people."
12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 14.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 14.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Mishnah, Zevahim, 14.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

14.4. Before the Tabernacle was set up bamot (local altars) were permitted and the service was performed by the firstborn. After the Tabernacle was set up bamot were forbidden and the service was performed by priests. Most holy sacrifices were [then] eaten within the curtains, and lesser sacrifices [were eaten] anywhere in the camp of the Israelites."
15. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

90a. והלכתא מותרת לשניהם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בית שמאי אומרים לא יגרש אדם את אשתו אלא אם כן מצא בה דבר ערוה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ובית הלל אומרים אפילו הקדיחה תבשילו שנאמר כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ר' עקיבא אומר אפי' מצא אחרת נאה הימנה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא אמרו בית הלל לבית שמאי והלא כבר נאמר דבר אמרו להם ב"ש והלא כבר נאמר ערות,אמרו להם ב"ה אם נאמר ערות ולא נאמר דבר הייתי אומר משום ערוה תצא משום דבר לא תצא לכך נאמר דבר ואילו נאמר דבר ולא נאמר ערות הייתי אומר משום דבר תנשא לאחר ומשום ערוה לא תנשא לאחר לכך נאמר ערות,וב"ש האי דבר מאי עבדי ליה נאמר כאן דבר ונאמר להלן דבר (דברים יט, טו) על פי שני עדים או על פי שלשה עדים יקום דבר מה להלן בשני עדים אף כאן בשני עדים,וב"ה מי כתיב ערוה בדבר וב"ש מי כתיב או ערוה או דבר,וב"ה להכי כתיב ערות דבר דמשמע הכי ומשמע הכי:,ר"ע אומר אפי' מצא אחרת: במאי קא מיפלגי בדר"ל דאמר ריש לקיש כי משמש בד' לשונות אי דלמא אלא דהא,ב"ש סברי [והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו] כי מצא בה ערות דבר דהא מצא בה ערות דבר ור"ע סבר כי מצא בה ערות דבר אי נמי מצא בה ערות דבר,אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא לא מצא בה לא ערוה ולא דבר מהו,א"ל מדגלי רחמנא גבי אונס (דברים כב, יט) לא יוכל לשלחה כל ימיו כל ימיו בעמוד והחזיר קאי התם הוא דגלי רחמנא אבל הכא מאי דעבד עבד,א"ל רב משרשיא לרבא אם לבו לגרשה והיא יושבת תחתיו ומשמשתו מהו קרי עליה (משלי ג, כט) אל תחרש על רעך רעה והוא יושב לבטח אתך,תניא היה רבי מאיר אומר כשם שהדעות במאכל כך דעות בנשים יש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ואינו שותהו וזו היא מדת פפוס בן יהודה שהיה נועל בפני אשתו ויוצא,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ושותהו וזו היא מדת כל אדם שמדברת עם אחיה וקרוביה ומניחה,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך תמחוי מוצצו ואוכלו זו היא מדת אדם רע שרואה את אשתו יוצאה וראשה פרוע וטווה בשוק 90a. bAnd the ihalakha /iis that bshe is permitted to both of them. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bBeit Shammai say: A man may not divorce his wife unless he findsout babout herhaving engaged in ba matter of forbidden sexual intercourse [ idevar erva /i],i.e., she committed adultery or is suspected of doing so, bas it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i] in her,and he writes her a scroll of severance” (Deuteronomy 24:1)., bAnd Beit Hillel say:He may divorce her bevendue to a minor issue, e.g., because bshe burnedor over-salted bhis dish, as it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter in her,”meaning that he found any type of shortcoming in her., bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is bbetter looking than herand wishes to marry her, bas it is statedin that verse: b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes”(Deuteronomy 24:1)., strongGEMARA: /strong It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bBeit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: But isn’tthe word b“matter” already statedin the verse, indicating that any disadvantageous matter is a legitimate reason for divorce? bBeit Shammai said to them: But isn’tthe word b“unseemly [ iervat /i]” already stated? /b, bBeit Hillel said to them: Ifthe word b“unseemly” had been stated andthe word b“matter” had not been stated, I would have saidthat a wife bshould leaveher husband bdue to forbidden sexual intercourse,but bshe should nothave to bleavehim bdue toany other bmatter. Therefore,the word b“matter” is stated. And ifthe word b“matter” had been stated andthe word b“unseemly” had not been stated, I would have saidthat if he divorced her merely bdue toa disadvantageous bmatter she may marry anotherman, as the Torah continues: “And she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another man’s wife” (Deuteronomy 24:2). bButif she was divorced bdue toher engaging in bforbidden sexual intercourse, she may not marry anotherman, as she is prohibited from remarrying. bTherefore,the word b“unseemly” is stated,indicating that even a wife who is divorced due to adultery is permitted to remarry.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what do Beit Shammai do with thisword b“matter”?How do they interpret it? It seems superfluous, as in their opinion the verse refers specifically to a wife who engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse. The Gemara answers: The word b“matter” is stated here,with regard to divorce, bandthe word b“matter” is stated there,with regard to testimony: b“At the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, a matter shall be established”(Deuteronomy 19:15). bJust as there,it is stated that a matter is established only bthrough two witnesses, so too here,a matter of forbidden sexual intercourse justifies divorce only if it is established bthrough two witnesses. /b, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond to this analogy in the following manner: bIs it written:Because he has found something bunseemly in a matter [ ierva bedavar /i],indicating that it was established through the testimony of two witnesses that she engaged in adultery? bAnd Beit Shammaiwould respond to Beit Hillel’s interpretation as follows: bIs it written:Because he has found beithersomething bunseemly oranother bmatter i[o erva o davar /i],in accordance with Beit Hillel’s understanding?, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond that bfor thisreason the expression b“some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i]” is written, as it indicates thatinterpretation, i.e., that a husband is not obligated to divorce his wife unless there are two witnesses to her having engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse, band italso bindicates thisinterpretation, i.e., that he may divorce her due to any deficiency, be it adultery or any other shortcoming.,§ It is stated in the mishna that bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is better looking than her. bWith regard to what do they disagree?They disagree bwith regard tothe application of bReish Lakish’sstatement, bas Reish Lakish saidthat the term iki /iactually bhasat least bfourdistinct bmeanings: If, perhaps, rather,and bbecause. /b, bBeit Shammai holdthat the verse b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes, because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means that she did not find favor in his eyes bdue tothe fact that bhe has found some unseemly matter in her. And Rabbi Akiva holdsthat the phrase b“because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means: bOr if he has found some unseemly matter in her. /b,§ bRav Pappa said to Rava:According to Beit Hillel, if the husband bfound about her neither forbidden sexual intercourse norany other bmatter,but divorced her anyway, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? Is the divorce valid?,Rava bsaid to himthat the answer can be derived bfrom what the Merciful One revealsin the Torah bwith regard to a rapist: “He may not send her away all his days”(Deuteronomy 22:29), indicating that even if he divorces the woman whom he raped and was subsequently commanded to marry, ball his days he standscommanded bto arise and remarryher as his wife. Evidently, bspecifically therethe husband is obligated to remarry his divorcée, bas the Merciful One revealsas much. bBut here, what he did, he did. /b, bRav Mesharshiyya said to Rava: If he intends to divorce her and she is living with him and serving him, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rava breadthe following verse baboutsuch a person: b“Devise not evil against your neighbor, seeing he dwells securely by you”(Proverbs 3:29).,§ It bis taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iSota5:9) that bRabbi Meir would say: Just as there aredifferent battitudes with regard to food, so too, there aredifferent battitudes with regard to women.With regard to food, byou have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe wine with the fly band does not drink it. And this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of Pappos ben Yehudawith regard to his wife, bas he would lockthe door bbefore his wife and leaveso that she would not see any other man., bAnd you have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe fly band drinksthe wine. bAnd this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of anycommon bman, whosewife bspeaks with her siblings and relatives, and he lets herdo so., bAnd you have a man who,when ba fly falls intohis bserving bowl, he sucksthe fly band eatsthe food. bThis is the demeanor of a bad man, who sees his wife going outinto the street bwith her head uncovered, and spinning in the marketplaceimmodestly
16. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

9a. (דברים יד, כב) עשר תעשר עשר בשביל שתתעשר,אשכחיה ר' יוחנן לינוקא דריש לקיש אמר ליה אימא לי פסוקיך א"ל עשר תעשר א"ל ומאי עשר תעשר א"ל עשר בשביל שתתעשר אמר ליה מנא לך א"ל זיל נסי,אמר ליה ומי שרי לנסוייה להקב"ה והכתיב (דברים ו, טז) לא תנסו את ה' א"ל הכי אמר רבי הושעיא חוץ מזו שנאמר (מלאכי ג, י) הביאו את כל המעשר אל בית האוצר ויהי טרף בביתי ובחנוני נא בזאת אמר ה' צבאות אם לא אפתח לכם את ארובות השמים והריקותי לכם ברכה עד בלי די,מאי עד בלי די אמר רמי בר חמא אמר רב עד שיבלו שפתותיכם מלומר די א"ל אי הות מטי התם להאי פסוקא לא הוית צריכנא לך ולהושעיא רבך,ותו אשכחיה ר' יוחנן לינוקיה דריש לקיש דיתיב ואמר (משלי יט, ג) אולת אדם תסלף דרכו ועל ה' יזעף לבו,יתיב רבי יוחנן וקא מתמה אמר מי איכא מידי דכתיבי בכתובי דלא רמיזי באורייתא א"ל אטו הא מי לא רמיזי והכתיב (בראשית מב, כח) ויצא לבם ויחרדו איש אל אחיו לאמר מה זאת עשה אלהים לנו,דל עיניה וחזא ביה אתיא אימיה אפיקתיה אמרה ליה תא מקמיה דלא ליעבד לך כדעבד לאבוך,(א"ר יוחנן מטר בשביל יחיד פרנסה בשביל רבים מטר בשביל יחיד דכתיב (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב לתת מטר ארצך פרנסה בשביל רבים דכתיב (שמות טז, ד) הנני ממטיר לכם לחם,מיתיבי ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר שלשה פרנסים טובים עמדו לישראל אלו הן משה ואהרן ומרים וג' מתנות טובות ניתנו על ידם ואלו הן באר וענן ומן באר בזכות מרים עמוד ענן בזכות אהרן מן בזכות משה מתה מרים נסתלק הבאר שנאמר (במדבר כ, א) ותמת שם מרים וכתיב בתריה ולא היה מים לעדה וחזרה בזכות שניהן,מת אהרן נסתלקו ענני כבוד שנאמר (במדבר כא, א) וישמע הכנעני מלך ערד מה שמועה שמע שמע שמת אהרן ונסתלקו ענני כבוד וכסבור ניתנה לו רשות להלחם בישראל והיינו דכתיב (במדבר כ, כט) ויראו כל העדה כי גוע אהרן,אמר ר' אבהו אל תקרי ויראו אלא וייראו כדדריש ר"ל דאר"ל כי משמש בארבע לשונות אי דלמא אלא דהא,חזרו שניהם בזכות משה מת משה נסתלקו כולן שנאמר (זכריה יא, ח) ואכחיד את שלשת הרועים בירח אחד וכי בירח אחד מתו והלא מרים מתה בניסן ואהרן באב ומשה באדר אלא מלמד שנתבטלו ג' מתנות טובות שנתנו על ידן ונסתלקו כולן בירח אחד,אלמא אשכחן פרנסה בשביל יחיד שאני משה כיון דלרבים הוא בעי כרבים דמי,רב הונא בר מנוח ורב שמואל בר אידי ורב חייא מווסתניא הוו שכיחי קמיה דרבא כי נח נפשיה דרבא אתו לקמיה דרב פפא כל אימת דהוה אמר להו שמעתא ולא הוה מסתברא להו הוו מרמזי אהדדי חלש דעתיה 9a. b“A tithe shall you tithe [ ite’aser /i]”(Deuteronomy 14:22)? This phrase can be interpreted homiletically: bTake a tithe [ iasser /i] so that you will become wealthy [ ititasher /i],in the merit of the mitzva., bRabbi Yoḥa foundthe byoung son of Reish Lakish. He said tothe boy: bRecite to me your verse,i.e., the verse you studied today in school. The boy bsaid to him: “A tithe shall you tithe.”The boy further bsaid toRabbi Yoḥa: bButwhat is the meaning of this phrase: b“A tithe shall you tithe”?Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him:The verse means: bTake a tithe so that you will become wealthy.The boy bsaid toRabbi Yoḥa: bFrom where do youderive that this is so? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Goand btestit.,The boy bsaid to him: And is it permitted to test the Holy One, Blessed be He? But isn’t it written: “You shall not test the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 6:16)? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid tothe boy that bRabbi Hoshaya said as follows:It is prohibited to test God in any way, bexcept in thiscase of tithes, bas it is stated: “Bring the whole tithe into the storeroom, that there may be food in My house, and test Me now by this, said the Lord of hosts, if I will not open for you the windows of heaven, and pour out for you a blessing that there shall be more than sufficiency”(Malachi 3:10).,In relation to the above verse, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“That there shall be more than sufficiency [ iad beli dai /i]”? Rami bar Ḥama saidthat bRav said:It means that the abundance will be so great bthat your lips will be worn out [ iyivlu /i],similar to the word ibeli /i, bfrom saying enough [ idai /i].Returning to the above incident, the Gemara adds that the boy bsaid toRabbi Yoḥa: Your claim appears explicitly in a verse. bIf I had arrived there,at this verse, bI would not have needed you or Hoshaya your teacher,as I could have understood it on my own.,The Gemara relates another story about the precociousness of this child. bAnd furthermore,on a different occasion bRabbi Yoḥa foundthe byoung son of Reish Lakish, when he was sittingand studying bandhe was brecitingthe verse: b“The foolishness of man perverts his way, and his heart frets against the Lord”(Proverbs 19:3). This verse means that when someone sins and every manner of mishap befalls him, he complains and wonders why these things are happening to him., bRabbi Yoḥa sat down and wonderedaloud about this verse, bsaying: Is there anything that is written in the Writings that is not alluded to in the Torahat all? I cannot think of any hint of this idea in the Torah itself. The child bsaid to him: Is that to saythat bthisidea is really bnot alluded toin the Torah? bBut isn’t it written,with regard to Joseph’s brothers: b“And their heart failed them and they turned trembling to one to another, saying: What is this that God has done to us?”(Genesis 42:28). This verse exemplifies the notion that when one sins and encounters troubles, he wonders why it is happening to him.,Impressed by the youth’s wisdom, Rabbi Yoḥa braised his eyes and stared at the boy.At this point, the boy’s bmother came and took him away, saying to him: Come away fromRabbi Yoḥa, bso that he does not do to you as he did to your father.Reish Lakish, the boy’s father, died during a heated dispute with Rabbi Yoḥa over a Torah matter. The argument ended with an offended look from Rabbi Yoḥa which caused Reish Lakish’s death, and the boy’s mother was afraid that her son might suffer the same fate.,§ After this brief digression, the Gemara turns to the fifth in the series of statements by Rabbi Yoḥa concerning rain. bRabbi Yoḥa said: Rainfalls even bfor the sake of an individual,in response to the petition of a single person in need of rain, whereas a blessing of bsustececomes only bfor the sake of many. Rainfalls even bfor the sake of an individual, as it is written: “The Lord will open for you His good treasure,the heavens, bto give the rain of your land”(Deuteronomy 28:12). The fact that this verse is written in the second person singular demonstrates that rain can fall even for the sake of an individual. Rabbi Yoḥa further proves that bsustececomes bfor the sake of many, as it is written: “Behold I will cause to rain bread from the heavens for you”(Exodus 16:4). Here, God is referring to the people in the plural form.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Three good sustainers rose up for the Jewish peopleduring the exodus from Egypt, and bthey are: Moses, Aaron and Miriam. And three good gifts were givenfrom Heaven bthrough their agency, and these are they:The bwellof water, the pillar of bcloud, andthe bmanna.He elaborates: The bwellwas given to the Jewish people bin the merit of Miriam;the bpillar of cloudwas bin the merit of Aaron;and the bmanna in the merit of Moses.When bMiriam diedthe bwell disappeared, as it is stated: “And Miriam died there”(Numbers 20:1), band it says thereafterin the next verse: b“And there was no water for the congregation”(Numbers 20:2). bButthe well breturned in the merit of bothMoses and Aaron.,When bAaron diedthe bclouds of glory disappeared, as it is stated: “And the Canaanite, the king of Arad heard”(Numbers 33:40). bWhat report did he hear? He heard that Aaron had died and the clouds of glory had disappeared, and he thought thatthe Jewish people were no longer protected by Heaven and therefore bhe had been given permission to go to war against the Jewish people. And thisdisappearance of the clouds bisthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “And all the congregation saw that [ iki /i] Aaron was dead”(Numbers 20:29)., bRabbi Abbahu said: Do not readthe verse as: b“And they saw [ iva’yiru /i]”; rather,read it as: bAnd they were seen [ iva’yera’u /i],as the clouds which had concealed the Jewish people were temporarily removed. This is bas Reish Lakish taught. As Reish Lakish said:The term iki /iactually bhasat least bfourdistinct bmeanings: If; perhaps; but; because,or that. According to this interpretation, the verse would be rendered: And all the congregation was seen, because [ iki /i] Aaron was dead.,The ibaraitacontinues: bBoththe well and the clouds of glory breturned in the merit of Moses.However, when bMoses died all of them disappeared. As it is stated: “And I cut off the three shepherds in one month”(Zechariah 11:8). bBut didthe three shepherds really bdie in one month? Didn’t Miriam die inthe month of bNisan, and Aaron in Av and Moses in Adar? Rather,this verse bteachesus bthatwith the death of Moses the bthree good gifts that were given through their agency were annulled, andall three gifts bdisappeared in one month,which made it seem as though all three leaders had died at the same time.,The Gemara explains the difficulty from this ibaraita /i. bApparently, we findthat bsustececan come bfor the sake of an individual,as the ibaraitastates that sustece in the form of manna came for the sake of Moses. The Gemara answers: bMoses is different, since he requestedthe manna bfor many,and therefore he was considered blike many,not as an individual.,The Gemara relates a story concerning the aforementioned verse from Zechariah. bRav Huna bar Manoaḥ, Rav Shmuel bar Idi, and Rav Ḥiyya from Vastanya wereoften bfound before Rava,as they were among his most distinguished students. bWhen Rava died, they came before Rav Pappato learn from him. However, as also they were great Sages, bwhenever Rav Pappa would say a ihalakhathat did notsound breasonable to them, they would gesture to each otherthat Rav Pappa was not equal in stature to Rava. Rav Pappa bwas offendedby their behavior.
17. Babylonian Talmud, Zevahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

115b. כדרב הונא אמר רב דאמר רב הונא אמר רב אשם שניתק לרעיה ושחטו סתם כשר לעולה:,המעלה מבשר חטאת [וכו']: ת"ר מנין למעלה מבשר חטאת ומבשר אשם ומבשר קדשי קדשים ומבשר קדשים קלים וממותר העומר ושתי הלחם ולחם הפנים ושירי מנחות שפטור,ת"ל עולה מה עולה שהיא ראויה להעלאה אף כל שראויה להעלאה,מנין שאף היוצק והבולל והפותת והמולח והמניף והמגיש והמסדר השלחן והמטיב את הנרות והקומץ והמקבל בחוץ שפטור,ת"ל (ויקרא טז, ט) אשר יעלה עולה או זבח מה העלאה שהיא גמר עבודה אף כל שהוא גמר עבודה:,עד שלא הוקם המשכן [וכו']: יתיב רב הונא בר רב קטינא קמיה דרב חסדא וקא קרי (שמות כד, ה) וישלח את נערי בני ישראל א"ל הכי אמר ר' אסי (קרבו) ופסקו,סבר לאותוביה ממתניתין שמעיה דקאמר משמיה דרב אדא בר אהבה עולה שהקריבו ישראל במדבר אינה טעונה הפשט וניתוח אותביה ברייתא דשויא בכולהו,דתני' עד שלא הוקם המשכן הבמות מותרות ועבודה בבכורות והכל כשירין להקריב בהמה חיה ועוף זכרים ונקבות תמימין ובעלי מומין טהורין אבל לא טמאין,והכל קרבו עולות ועולה שהקריבו ישראל במדבר טעונה הפשט וניתוח ונכרים בזמן הזה רשאין לעשות כן,תנאי היא דתניא (שמות יט, כב) וגם הכהנים הנגשים אל ה' יתקדשו ר' יהושע בן קרחה אומר זו פרישות בכורות רבי אומר זו פרישות נדב ואביהוא,בשלמא למ"ד זו פרישות נדב ואביהוא היינו דכתיב (ויקרא י, ג) הוא אשר דבר ה' לאמר בקרובי אקדש,אלא למ"ד זו פרישות בכורות היכא רמיזא דכתיב (שמות כט, מג) ונועדתי שמה לבני ישראל ונקדש בכבודי אל תקרי בכבודי אלא במכובדיי,דבר זה אמר הקב"ה למשה ולא ידעו עד שמתו בני אהרן כיון שמתו בני אהרן אמר לו אהרן אחי לא מתו בניך אלא להקדיש שמו של הקב"ה כיון שידע אהרן שבניו ידועי מקום הן שתק וקבל שכר שנאמר (ויקרא י, ג) וידום אהרן,וכן בדוד הוא אומר (תהלים לז, ז) דום לה' והתחולל לו אע"פ שמפיל לך חללים חללים את שתוק וכן בשלמה הוא אומר (קהלת ג, ז) עת לחשות ועת לדבר פעמים ששותק ומקבל שכר על השתיקה פעמים מדבר ומקבל שכר על הדבור,והיינו דא"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים סח, לו) נורא אלהים ממקדשך אל תיקרי ממקדשך אלא ממקודשיך בשעה שעושה הקב"ה דין בקדושיו מתיירא ומתעלה ומתהלל,אלא קשיא עולה תרי תנאי היא דתניא ר' ישמעאל אומר כללות נאמרו בסיני ופרטות באהל מועד,ר"ע אומר כללות ופרטות נאמרו בסיני ונשנו באהל מועד ונשתלשו בערבות מואב,אמר מר הכל כשירין להקריב מנא הני מילי אמר רב הונא דאמר קרא (בראשית ח, כ) ויבן נח מזבח לה' ויקח מכל הבהמה הטהורה ומכל עוף הטהור בהמה כמשמעו חיה בכלל בהמה 115b. This is bin accordance withthe statement that bRav Hunasays that bRav says. As Rav Huna saysthat bRav says:With regard to ba guilt offeringwhose owner died or achieved atonement through a different guilt offering and which bwas consigned to grazingin the field until it develops a blemish, bandprior to its being consigned one bslaughtered it without specificationof its purpose, it is bfit as a burnt offering. /b,§ The mishna teaches: bOne who offers upoutside the Temple courtyard a portion bof the meat of a sin offeringthat is eaten, or who offers up a portion of several other items, is exempt. With regard to the reasoning behind this ihalakha /i, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFrom whereis it derived bthat one who offers upoutside the Temple courtyard a portion bof the meat of a sin offering, ora portion bof the meat of a guilt offering, ora portion bof the meat of offerings of the most sacred order, ora portion bof the meat of offerings of lesser sanctity, ora portion bof the surplus of the iomeroffering, or the two loaves, or the shewbread, or the remainder of meal offeringsis bexempt,as all these are eaten by the priests and not sacrificed on the altar?, bThe verse stateswith regard to the prohibition against sacrificing outside the Temple courtyard: “Whatever man…that sacrifices ba burnt offeringor sacrifice, and brings it not to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, to sacrifice it to the Lord, that man shall be cut off from his people” (Leviticus 17:8–9). The term “burnt offering” teaches: bJust as a burnt offering is fit for offering upupon the altar, bso too, anything that is fit for offering upis included in the prohibition. All of the offerings listed in the ibaraitaare not sacrificed upon the altar but given to the priests., bFrom whereis it derived bthat evenwith regard to bone who poursoil onto the meal offering, band one who mixesthe oil into the flour of the meal offering, band one who breaksthe loaves of the meal offering into pieces, band one who saltsthe meal offering or other offerings, band one who wavesthe meal offering, band one who bringsthe meal offering to the corner of an altar that he constructs outside the courtyard, band one who arrangesthe shewbread on bthe tableoutside the Sanctuary, band one who removes the ashesfrom bthe lampsof the Candelabrum, band one who removes a handfulfrom a meal offering, band one who collects the bloodof an offering in a vessel, if he did so boutsidethe Temple courtyard he is bexempt. /b, bThe verse states: “That sacrifices a burnt offering or sacrifice”(Leviticus 17:8). bJust as sacrificing is the conclusion ofthe sacri-ficial bservice, so too, anyrite bthat is the conclusion ofa sacrificial bserviceis included. All of these are excluded from the prohibition, as there are rites that follow them.,§ The mishna teaches: bUntil the Tabernacle was established,private altars were permitted and the sacrificial service was performed by the firstborn. The Gemara relates that bRav Huna bar Rav Ketina was sitting before Rav Ḥisda and was readingthis verse with regard to the revelation at Sinai: b“And he sent the young men of the children of Israel,who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the Lord” (Exodus 24:5). The young men referred to in the verse were the firstborn of the Jewish people. Rav Ḥisda bsaid to him: Thisis what bRabbi Asi said: They sacrificedthe offerings bandthen bceasedto serve; after that day, the firstborn no longer performed the sacrificial service.,Rav Huna bthought to raise a contradiction from the mishna,which states that the firstborn performed not only the sacrificial service on that day, but also did so until the Tabernacle was established the following year. In the meanwhile, bhe heardRav Ḥisda bsay in the name of Rav Adda bar Ahavathat the bburnt offering that thechildren of bIsrael sacrificed in the wildernessbefore the establishment of the Tabernacle bdid not require flayingof the skin band cuttinginto pieces; it was sacrificed as it was. He therefore braised the contradictionfrom ba ibaraitathat is equal with regard to both of them,i.e., from which Rav Huna could raise a contradiction to both of Rav Ḥisda’s statements., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bUntil the Tabernacle was established,private baltarswere bpermitted, thesacrificial bservicewas performed bby the firstborn, and allanimals were bfit to be sacrificed: A domesticated animal, an undomesticated animal, or a bird; males and females; unblemished and blemishedanimals. All animal sacrifices were brought from animals and birds that were bkosher, but notfrom bnon-kosherspecies., bAnd allofferings brought before the construction of the Tabernacle were bsacrificedas bburnt offerings. Andthe bburnt offering that the Jewish people sacrificed in the wildernessbefore the Tabernacle was established brequired flayingof the skin band cuttinginto pieces. bAnd today, gentiles are permitted tosacrifice offerings on private altars. The ibaraitastates explicitly that until the Tabernacle was constructed, the sacrificial service was performed by the firstborn, and the burnt offering required flaying and cutting.,Rav Ḥisda replied that with regard to the firstborn, it bisa dispute between itanna’im /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: God said to Moses on Mount Sinai: b“And let the priests also that come near to the Lord sanctify themselves,lest the Lord break forth upon them” (Exodus 19:22). In other words, they should separate themselves and not approach the mountain. This command was given one day after the burnt offerings and peace offerings were sacrificed in anticipation of the revelation at Sinai. With regard to this command, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: Thiscommand is a reference to bthe separation ofthe bfirstborn,as they functioned as priests. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Thiscommand is a reference to bthe separation of Nadav and Avihu,who were priests.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat the command for the priests to sanctify themselves is referring to bthe separation of Nadav and Avihu, this isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenafter their death on the eighth day of the inauguration of the Tabernacle: “Then Moses said to Aaron: bThis is it that the Lord spoke, saying: Through them that are near to Me I will be sanctified… /band Aaron held his peace” (Leviticus 10:3). Nadav and Avihu had already been warned not to draw too close: “Lest the Lord break forth upon them.”, bBut according to the one who saysthat the command for the priests to sanctify themselves is referring to bthe separation ofthe bfirstborn, where is the allusionto the fact that God would be sanctified through Nadav and Avihu? The Gemara replies: bAs it is written: “And there I will meet with the children of Israel; and it shall be sanctified by My glory”(Exodus 29:43). bDo not readit as b“by My glory [ ibikhvodi /i]”; rather,read it as: bBy My honored ones [ ibimekhubadai /i].God will be sanctified by those considered honored by God when He reveals Himself in the Tabernacle., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said this statement to Moses, butMoses bdid not knowits meaning buntil the sons of Aaron died. Once the sons of Aaron died,Moses bsaid to him: Aaron, my brother, your sons died only to sanctify the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He. When Aaron knew that his sons were beloved by the Omnipresent, he was silent and received a reward, as it is stated: “And Aaron held his peace [ ivayidom /i].” /b, bAnd likewise ina verse written by bDavidit bstates: “Resign yourself [ idom /i] to the Lord, and wait patiently [ ivehitḥolel /i] for Him”(Psalms 37:7). bAlthough He strikes down many corpses [ iḥalalim /i]around byou, you be silentand do not complain. bAnd likewise ina verse written by bSolomonit bstates: “A time to keep silence, and a time to speak”(Ecclesiastes 3:7). There are btimes thatone bis silent and receives reward for the silence,and at btimesone bspeaks and receives reward for the speech. /b, bAnd this is what Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Awesome is God out of your holy places”(Psalms 68:36)? bDo not readit as: b“From your holy places [ imimikdashekha /i]”; rather,read it as: bFrom your holy ones [ imimekudashekha /i]. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, carries out judgment upon His holy ones, He is feared, and exalted, and praisedby all. In any event, there is no contradiction from the ibaraitawhich teaches that the first-born performed the sacrificial service before the Tabernacle was established, as this matter is the subject of a dispute between itanna’im /i., bButthere is still ba difficultywith regard to the bburnt offering,as it was stated in the name of Rav Adda bar Ahava that the burnt offering that the Jewish people sacrificed in the wilderness did not require flaying of the skin or cutting into pieces, while the ibaraitastates that it did. The Gemara replies: This bisa dispute between the opinions of btwo itanna’im /i. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael says:The bgeneral statements,i.e., the principles of the Torah, bwere said at Sinai, andthe bdetailsof the mitzvot that are explicated in Leviticus were said to Moses bin the Tent of Meeting.This includes the ihalakhathat the burnt offering must be flayed and cut into pieces. Consequently, it could not have been in effect before the construction of the Tabernacle., bRabbi Akiva says:Both bgeneral statements andthe bdetailsof mitzvot bwere said at Sinai andlater btaught again in the Tent of Meeting, andtaught ba third timeby Moses to the Jewish people bin the plains of Moab,when he taught the Torah to the people (see Deuteronomy 1:1). According to Rabbi Akiva’s opinion, the ihalakhaof flaying and cutting into pieces was in effect when the Torah was given, even before the construction of the Tabernacle.,§ bThe Master saidin the ibaraita /i: Before the Tabernacle was established, ballanimals were bfit to be sacrificed:A domesticated animal, an undomesticated animal, or a bird. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRav Huna said: As the verse stateswith regard to the offering that was sacrificed after the flood: b“And Noah built an altar to the Lord, and took of every pure animal, and of every pure fowl,and offered burnt offerings on the altar” (Genesis 8:20). The Gemara explains: b“Animal [ ibehema /i],”is understood bin accordance with its plain meaning,a domesticated animal, and the same is true of fowl; ban undomesticated animal [ iḥayya /i]is bincluded inthe term b“ ibehema /i”that is stated in the verse.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
4q instruction Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 190
agriculture Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
amoraim,amoraic period Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
arabic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
atonement Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 200
bible Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
destruction Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23
exile Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23
exodus Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
ezekiel,vision of divine chariot,vision of future temple Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 200
father,fatherhood Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 147
hebrew,biblical Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
hebrew,masoretic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
hebrew,qumran Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
hebrew,rabbinic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
inspiration,divine Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23
inspiration Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23
interpretation,targumic Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
kinship,marriage Marcar (2022), Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation, 127
klinzing,georg Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 200
language,secret Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 190
law Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23
levi,levites Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 147
moses,art Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
moses Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271; Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23
motifs,priestly Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 190
offenses Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
orthography,masoretic,qumran Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
penal code of the manual of discipline Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
pharaoh Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 147
prayer (jewish/rabbinic) Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 200
preexilic Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23
priesthood,priests,angelic Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
priesthood,priests,service Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
priesthood,priests Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
prophetic Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23
qumran,headquarters of sect,population Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
qumran Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 190
rabbi simeon ben lakish (resh lakish) Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
revelation,law Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
revelation Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271; Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23
sacrifice,at end of days Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 200
sacrifice Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
sacrificial service Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
sect,expulsion from Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
sectarianism' Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 190
sinai Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
synonymous variants Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 176
targum Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
targumim Albrecht (2014), The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity, 147
temple,third/new temple Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 200
temple Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
torah,giving of Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
torah,observance as sacrificial service Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
torah,teaching Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 271
writing,authoritative Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23
writing,inspired Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23
writing,sacred Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 23