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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6301
Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 30.15


וְאִם־הַחֲרֵשׁ יַחֲרִישׁ לָהּ אִישָׁהּ מִיּוֹם אֶל־יוֹם וְהֵקִים אֶת־כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ אוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֱסָרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הֵקִים אֹתָם כִּי־הֶחֱרִשׁ לָהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ׃But if her husband altogether hold his peace at her from day to day, then he causeth all her vows to stand, or all her bonds, which are upon her; he hath let them stand, because he held his peace at her in the day that he heard them.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.15, 8.12, 10.16, 19.15-19.21, 22.9-22.11, 24.15, 28.13, 28.30-28.31, 28.33, 28.44, 28.65-28.67 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.15. וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי־עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וַיֹּצִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִשָּׁם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה עַל־כֵּן צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת׃ 8.12. פֶּן־תֹּאכַל וְשָׂבָעְתָּ וּבָתִּים טוֹבִים תִּבְנֶה וְיָשָׁבְתָּ׃ 10.16. וּמַלְתֶּם אֵת עָרְלַת לְבַבְכֶם וְעָרְפְּכֶם לֹא תַקְשׁוּ עוֹד׃ 19.15. לֹא־יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן וּלְכָל־חַטָּאת בְּכָל־חֵטְא אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא עַל־פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אוֹ עַל־פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה־עֵדִים יָקוּם דָּבָר׃ 19.16. כִּי־יָקוּם עֵד־חָמָס בְּאִישׁ לַעֲנוֹת בּוֹ סָרָה׃ 19.17. וְעָמְדוּ שְׁנֵי־הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־לָהֶם הָרִיב לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַשֹּׁפְטִים אֲשֶׁר יִהְיוּ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם׃ 19.18. וְדָרְשׁוּ הַשֹּׁפְטִים הֵיטֵב וְהִנֵּה עֵד־שֶׁקֶר הָעֵד שֶׁקֶר עָנָה בְאָחִיו׃ 19.19. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר זָמַם לַעֲשׂוֹת לְאָחִיו וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 19.21. וְלֹא תָחוֹס עֵינֶךָ נֶפֶשׁ בְּנֶפֶשׁ עַיִן בְּעַיִן שֵׁן בְּשֵׁן יָד בְּיָד רֶגֶל בְּרָגֶל׃ 22.9. לֹא־תִזְרַע כַּרְמְךָ כִּלְאָיִם פֶּן־תִּקְדַּשׁ הַמְלֵאָה הַזֶּרַע אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרָע וּתְבוּאַת הַכָּרֶם׃ 22.11. לֹא תִלְבַּשׁ שַׁעַטְנֵז צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים יַחְדָּו׃ 24.15. בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ וְלֹא־תָבוֹא עָלָיו הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כִּי עָנִי הוּא וְאֵלָיו הוּא נֹשֵׂא אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ וְלֹא־יִקְרָא עָלֶיךָ אֶל־יְהוָה וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵטְא׃ 28.13. וּנְתָנְךָ יְהוָה לְרֹאשׁ וְלֹא לְזָנָב וְהָיִיתָ רַק לְמַעְלָה וְלֹא תִהְיֶה לְמָטָּה כִּי־תִשְׁמַע אֶל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לִשְׁמֹר וְלַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 28.31. שׁוֹרְךָ טָבוּחַ לְעֵינֶיךָ וְלֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ חֲמֹרְךָ גָּזוּל מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וְלֹא יָשׁוּב לָךְ צֹאנְךָ נְתֻנוֹת לְאֹיְבֶיךָ וְאֵין לְךָ מוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 28.33. פְּרִי אַדְמָתְךָ וְכָל־יְגִיעֲךָ יֹאכַל עַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדָעְתָּ וְהָיִיתָ רַק עָשׁוּק וְרָצוּץ כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 28.44. הוּא יַלְוְךָ וְאַתָּה לֹא תַלְוֶנּוּ הוּא יִהְיֶה לְרֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תִּהְיֶה לְזָנָב׃ 28.65. וּבַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם לֹא תַרְגִּיעַ וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה מָנוֹחַ לְכַף־רַגְלֶךָ וְנָתַן יְהוָה לְךָ שָׁם לֵב רַגָּז וְכִלְיוֹן עֵינַיִם וְדַאֲבוֹן נָפֶשׁ׃ 28.66. וְהָיוּ חַיֶּיךָ תְּלֻאִים לְךָ מִנֶּגֶד וּפָחַדְתָּ לַיְלָה וְיוֹמָם וְלֹא תַאֲמִין בְּחַיֶּיךָ׃ 28.67. בַּבֹּקֶר תֹּאמַר מִי־יִתֵּן עֶרֶב וּבָעֶרֶב תֹּאמַר מִי־יִתֵּן בֹּקֶר מִפַּחַד לְבָבְךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּפְחָד וּמִמַּרְאֵה עֵינֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֶה׃ 5.15. And thou shalt remember that thou was a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD thy God brought thee out thence by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day." 8.12. lest when thou hast eaten and art satisfied, and hast built goodly houses, and dwelt therein;" 10.16. Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more stiffnecked." 19.15. One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be establishment" 19.16. If an unrighteous witness rise up against any man to bear perverted witness against him;" 19.17. then both the men, between whom the controversy is, shall stand before the LORD, before the priests and the judges that shall be in those days." 19.18. And the judges shall inquire diligently; and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother;" 19.19. then shall ye do unto him, as he had purposed to do unto his brother; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee." 19.20. And those that remain shall hear, and fear, and shall henceforth commit no more any such evil in the midst of thee." 19.21. And thine eye shall not pity: life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot." 22.9. Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with two kinds of seed; lest the fulness of the seed which thou hast sown be forfeited together with the increase of the vineyard." 22.10. Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together." 22.11. Thou shalt not wear a mingled stuff, wool and linen together. ." 24.15. In the same day thou shalt give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down upon it; for he is poor, and setteth his heart upon it: lest he cry against thee unto the LORD and it be sin in thee." 28.13. And the LORD will make thee the head, and not the tail; and thou shalt be above only, and thou shalt not be beneath; if thou shalt hearken unto the commandments of the LORD thy God, which I command thee this day, to observe and to do them;" 28.30. Thou shalt betroth a wife, and another man shall lie with her; thou shalt build a house, and thou shalt not dwell therein; thou shalt plant a vineyard, and shalt not use the fruit thereof." 28.31. Thine ox shall be slain before thine eyes, and thou shalt not eat thereof; thine ass shall be violently taken away from before thy face, and shall not be restored to thee; thy sheep shall be given unto thine enemies; and thou shalt have none to save thee." 28.33. The fruit of thy land, and all thy labours, shall a nation which thou knowest not eat up; and thou shalt be only oppressed and crushed away:" 28.44. He shall lend to thee, and thou shalt not lend to him; he shall be the head, and thou shalt be the tail." 28.65. And among these nations shalt thou have no repose, and there shall be no rest for the sole of thy foot; but the LORD shall give thee there a trembling heart, and failing of eyes, and languishing of soul." 28.66. And thy life shall hang in doubt before thee; and thou shalt fear night and day, and shalt have no assurance of thy life." 28.67. In the morning thou shalt say: ‘Would it were even! ’ and at even thou shalt say: ‘Would it were morning! ’ for the fear of thy heart which thou shalt fear, and for the sight of thine eyes which thou shalt see."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.12, 28.38, 32.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.12. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 28.38. וְהָיָה עַל־מֵצַח אַהֲרֹן וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־עֲוֺן הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכָל־מַתְּנֹת קָדְשֵׁיהֶם וְהָיָה עַל־מִצְחוֹ תָּמִיד לְרָצוֹן לָהֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 32.16. וְהַלֻּחֹת מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה וְהַמִּכְתָּב מִכְתַּב אֱלֹהִים הוּא חָרוּת עַל־הַלֻּחֹת׃ 20.12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 28.38. And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead, and Aaron shall bear the iniquity committed in the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow, even in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD." 32.16. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.4-3.24, 21.25, 39.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.4. אַךְ אִישׁ אַל־יָרֵב וְאַל־יוֹכַח אִישׁ וְעַמְּךָ כִּמְרִיבֵי כֹהֵן׃ 4.4. Yet let no man strive, neither let any man reprove; For thy people are as they that strive with the priest."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 40.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.2. כִּי־בוּל הָרִים יִשְׂאוּ־לוֹ וְכָל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה יְשַׂחֲקוּ־שָׁם׃ 40.2. הֲרֹב עִם־שַׁדַּי יִסּוֹר מוֹכִיחַ אֱלוֹהַּ יַעֲנֶנָּה׃ 40.2. Shall he that reproveth contend with the Almighty? He that argueth with God, let him answer it."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.1, 5.17, 7.18, 10.17, 16.20-16.22, 17.16, 19.8, 19.17-19.18, 20.17, 20.19-20.20, 22.9, 22.16, 22.28, 24.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.1. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.1. וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.17. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְלֹא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 7.18. וְאִם הֵאָכֹל יֵאָכֵל מִבְּשַׂר־זֶבַח שְׁלָמָיו בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לֹא יֵרָצֶה הַמַּקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לֹא יֵחָשֵׁב לוֹ פִּגּוּל יִהְיֶה וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֹכֶלֶת מִמֶּנּוּ עֲוֺנָהּ תִּשָּׂא׃ 10.17. מַדּוּעַ לֹא־אֲכַלְתֶּם אֶת־הַחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם הַקֹּדֶשׁ כִּי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הִוא וְאֹתָהּ נָתַן לָכֶם לָשֵׂאת אֶת־עֲוֺן הָעֵדָה לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 16.21. וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת־שְׁתֵּי ידו [יָדָיו] עַל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר הַחַי וְהִתְוַדָּה עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְנָתַן אֹתָם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשִׁלַּח בְּיַד־אִישׁ עִתִּי הַמִּדְבָּרָה׃ 16.22. וְנָשָׂא הַשָּׂעִיר עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹתָם אֶל־אֶרֶץ גְּזֵרָה וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַשָּׂעִיר בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 17.16. וְאִם לֹא יְכַבֵּס וּבְשָׂרוֹ לֹא יִרְחָץ וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 19.8. וְאֹכְלָיו עֲוֺנוֹ יִשָּׂא כִּי־אֶת־קֹדֶשׁ יְהוָה חִלֵּל וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃ 19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 20.17. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִקַּח אֶת־אֲחֹתוֹ בַּת־אָבִיו אוֹ בַת־אִמּוֹ וְרָאָה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ וְהִיא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־עֶרְוָתוֹ חֶסֶד הוּא וְנִכְרְתוּ לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי עַמָּם עֶרְוַת אֲחֹתוֹ גִּלָּה עֲוֺנוֹ יִשָּׂא׃ 20.19. וְעֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת אִמְּךָ וַאֲחוֹת אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי אֶת־שְׁאֵרוֹ הֶעֱרָה עֲוֺנָם יִשָּׂאוּ׃ 22.9. וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא וּמֵתוּ בוֹ כִּי יְחַלְּלֻהוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 22.16. וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אוֹתָם עֲוֺן אַשְׁמָה בְּאָכְלָם אֶת־קָדְשֵׁיהֶם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 22.28. וְשׁוֹר אוֹ־שֶׂה אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־בְּנוֹ לֹא תִשְׁחֲטוּ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד׃ 24.15. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־יְקַלֵּל אֱלֹהָיו וְנָשָׂא חֶטְאוֹ׃ 5.1. And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;" 5.17. And if any one sin, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity." 7.18. And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace-offerings be at all eaten on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it; it shall be an abhorred thing, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity." 10.17. ’Wherefore have ye not eaten the sin-offering in the place of the sanctuary, seeing it is most holy, and He hath given it you to bear the iniquity of the congregation, to make atonement for them before the LORD?" 16.20. And when he hath made an end of atoning for the holy place, and the tent of meeting, and the altar, he shall present the live goat." 16.21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, even all their sins; and he shall put them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of an appointed man into the wilderness." 16.22. And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land which is cut off; and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness." 17.16. But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh, then he shall bear his iniquity." 19.8. But every one that eateth it shall bear his iniquity, because he hath profaned the holy thing of the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from his people." 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 20.17. And if a man shall take his sister, his father’s daughter, or his mother’s daughter, and see her nakedness, and she see his nakedness: it is a shameful thing; and they shall be cut off in the sight of the children of their people: he hath uncovered his sister’s nakedness; he shall bear his iniquity." 20.19. And thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister, nor of thy father’s sister; for he hath made naked his near kin; they shall bear their iniquity." 20.20. And if a man shall lie with his uncle’s wife—he hath uncovered his uncle’s nakedness—they shall bear their sin; they shall die childless." 22.9. They shall therefore keep My charge, lest they bear sin for it, and die therein, if they profane it: I am the LORD who sanctify them." 22.16. and so cause them to bear the iniquity that bringeth guilt, when they eat their holy things; for I am the LORD who sanctify them." 22.28. And whether it be cow or ewe, ye shall not kill it and its young both in one day." 24.15. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: Whosoever curseth his God shall bear his sin."
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 6.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.8. הִגִּיד לְךָ אָדָם מַה־טּוֹב וּמָה־יְהוָה דּוֹרֵשׁ מִמְּךָ כִּי אִם־עֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְאַהֲבַת חֶסֶד וְהַצְנֵעַ לֶכֶת עִם־אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 6.8. It hath been told thee, O man, what is good, And what the LORD doth require of thee: Only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God."
8. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. אֵל קַנּוֹא וְנֹקֵם יְהוָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה וּבַעַל חֵמָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה לְצָרָיו וְנוֹטֵר הוּא לְאֹיְבָיו׃ 1.2. The LORD is a jealous and avenging God, The LORD avengeth and is full of wrath; The LORD taketh vengeance on His adversaries, And He reserveth wrath for His enemies."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.5-5.31, 9.13, 12.1, 12.8, 15.39, 18.1, 18.22-18.23, 18.32, 21.5, 21.7, 30.2-30.3, 30.6-30.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.5. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.6. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַעֲשׂוּ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאת הָאָדָם לִמְעֹל מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְאָשְׁמָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא׃ 5.7. וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת־חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִישִׁתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַאֲשֶׁר אָשַׁם לוֹ׃ 5.8. וְאִם־אֵין לָאִישׁ גֹּאֵל לְהָשִׁיב הָאָשָׁם אֵלָיו הָאָשָׁם הַמּוּשָׁב לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן מִלְּבַד אֵיל הַכִּפֻּרִים אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ עָלָיו׃ 5.9. וְכָל־תְּרוּמָה לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 5.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.12. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־תִשְׂטֶה אִשְׁתּוֹ וּמָעֲלָה בוֹ מָעַל׃ 5.13. וְשָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְנֶעְלַם מֵעֵינֵי אִישָׁהּ וְנִסְתְּרָה וְהִיא נִטְמָאָה וְעֵד אֵין בָּהּ וְהִוא לֹא נִתְפָּשָׂה׃ 5.14. וְעָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִוא נִטְמָאָה אוֹ־עָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִיא לֹא נִטְמָאָה׃ 5.15. וְהֵבִיא הָאִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנָהּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵיפָה קֶמַח שְׂעֹרִים לֹא־יִצֹק עָלָיו שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלָיו לְבֹנָה כִּי־מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הוּא מִנְחַת זִכָּרוֹן מַזְכֶּרֶת עָוֺן׃ 5.16. וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶעֱמִדָהּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 5.17. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מַיִם קְדֹשִׁים בִּכְלִי־חָרֶשׂ וּמִן־הֶעָפָר אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בְּקַרְקַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן יִקַּח הַכֹּהֵן וְנָתַן אֶל־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.18. וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּפָרַע אֶת־רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן עַל־כַּפֶּיהָ אֵת מִנְחַת הַזִּכָּרוֹן מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הִוא וּבְיַד הַכֹּהֵן יִהְיוּ מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים׃ 5.19. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אִם־לֹא שָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָךְ וְאִם־לֹא שָׂטִית טֻמְאָה תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ הִנָּקִי מִמֵּי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 5.21. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁבֻעַת הָאָלָה וְאָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לָאִשָּׁה יִתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת־בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה׃ 5.22. וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃ 5.23. וְכָתַב אֶת־הָאָלֹת הָאֵלֶּה הַכֹּהֵן בַּסֵּפֶר וּמָחָה אֶל־מֵי הַמָּרִים׃ 5.24. וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים׃ 5.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה אֵת מִנְחַת הַקְּנָאֹת וְהֵנִיף אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 5.26. וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְאַחַר יַשְׁקֶה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.27. וְהִשְׁקָהּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם וְהָיְתָה אִם־נִטְמְאָה וַתִּמְעֹל מַעַל בְּאִישָׁהּ וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים וְצָבְתָה בִטְנָהּ וְנָפְלָה יְרֵכָהּ וְהָיְתָה הָאִשָּׁה לְאָלָה בְּקֶרֶב עַמָּהּ׃ 5.28. וְאִם־לֹא נִטְמְאָה הָאִשָּׁה וּטְהֹרָה הִוא וְנִקְּתָה וְנִזְרְעָה זָרַע׃ 5.29. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַקְּנָאֹת אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׂטֶה אִשָּׁה תַּחַת אִישָׁהּ וְנִטְמָאָה׃ 5.31. וְנִקָּה הָאִישׁ מֵעָוֺן וְהָאִשָּׁה הַהִוא תִּשָּׂא אֶת־עֲוֺנָהּ׃ 9.13. וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־הוּא טָהוֹר וּבְדֶרֶךְ לֹא־הָיָה וְחָדַל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַפֶּסַח וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ כִּי קָרְבַּן יְהוָה לֹא הִקְרִיב בְּמֹעֲדוֹ חֶטְאוֹ יִשָּׂא הָאִישׁ הַהוּא׃ 12.1. וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מִרְיָם וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת׃ 12.1. וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל־אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח כִּי־אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח׃ 12.8. פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃ 15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבֵית־אָבִיךָ אִתָּךְ תִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־עֲוֺן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ תִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־עֲוֺן כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם׃ 18.1. בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים תֹּאכֲלֶנּוּ כָּל־זָכָר יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ׃ 18.22. וְלֹא־יִקְרְבוּ עוֹד בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לָשֵׂאת חֵטְא לָמוּת׃ 18.23. וְעָבַד הַלֵּוִי הוּא אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהֵם יִשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וּבְתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃ 18.32. וְלֹא־תִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְאֶת־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תְחַלְּלוּ וְלֹא תָמוּתוּ׃ 21.5. וַיְדַבֵּר הָעָם בֵּאלֹהִים וּבְמֹשֶׁה לָמָה הֶעֱלִיתֻנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָמוּת בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי אֵין לֶחֶם וְאֵין מַיִם וְנַפְשֵׁנוּ קָצָה בַּלֶּחֶם הַקְּלֹקֵל׃ 21.7. וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי־דִבַּרְנוּ בַיהוָה וָבָךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וְיָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה בְּעַד הָעָם׃ 30.2. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־רָאשֵׁי הַמַּטּוֹת לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 30.3. אִישׁ כִּי־יִדֹּר נֶדֶר לַיהוָה אוֹ־הִשָּׁבַע שְׁבֻעָה לֶאְסֹר אִסָּר עַל־נַפְשׁוֹ לֹא יַחֵל דְּבָרוֹ כְּכָל־הַיֹּצֵא מִפִּיו יַעֲשֶׂה׃ 30.6. וְאִם־הֵנִיא אָבִיהָ אֹתָהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ וֶאֱסָרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר־אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ לֹא יָקוּם וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ כִּי־הֵנִיא אָבִיהָ אֹתָהּ׃ 30.7. וְאִם־הָיוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ וּנְדָרֶיהָ עָלֶיהָ אוֹ מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ׃ 30.8. וְשָׁמַע אִישָׁהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ וְהֶחֱרִישׁ לָהּ וְקָמוּ נְדָרֶיהָ וֶאֱסָרֶהָ אֲשֶׁר־אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ יָקֻמוּ׃ 30.9. וְאִם בְּיוֹם שְׁמֹעַ אִישָׁהּ יָנִיא אוֹתָהּ וְהֵפֵר אֶת־נִדְרָהּ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃ 30.11. וְאִם־בֵּית אִישָׁהּ נָדָרָה אוֹ־אָסְרָה אִסָּר עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ בִּשְׁבֻעָה׃ 30.12. וְשָׁמַע אִישָׁהּ וְהֶחֱרִשׁ לָהּ לֹא הֵנִיא אֹתָהּ וְקָמוּ כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ וְכָל־אִסָּר אֲשֶׁר־אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ יָקוּם׃ 30.13. וְאִם־הָפֵר יָפֵר אֹתָם אִישָׁהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ כָּל־מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ לִנְדָרֶיהָ וּלְאִסַּר נַפְשָׁהּ לֹא יָקוּם אִישָׁהּ הֲפֵרָם וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃ 30.14. כָּל־נֵדֶר וְכָל־שְׁבֻעַת אִסָּר לְעַנֹּת נָפֶשׁ אִישָׁהּ יְקִימֶנּוּ וְאִישָׁהּ יְפֵרֶנּוּ׃ 5.5. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.6. Speak unto the children of Israel: When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to commit a trespass against the LORD, and that soul be guilty;" 5.7. then they shall confess their sin which they have done; and he shall make restitution for his guilt in full, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him in respect of whom he hath been guilty." 5.8. But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution may be made for the guilt, the restitution for guilt which is made shall be the LORD’S, even the priest’s; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby atonement shall be made for him." 5.9. And every heave-offering of all the holy things of the children of Israel, which they present unto the priest, shall be his." 5.10. And every man’s hallowed things shall be his: whatsoever any man giveth the priest, it shall be his." 5.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.12. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: If any man’s wife go aside, and act unfaithfully against him," 5.13. and a man lie with her carnally, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, and there be no witness against her, neither she be taken in the act;" 5.14. and the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be defiled; or if the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be not defiled;" 5.15. then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is a meal-offering of jealousy, a meal-offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance." 5.16. And the priest shall bring her near, and set her before the LORD." 5.17. And the priest shall take holy water in an earthen vessel; and of the dust that is on the floor of the tabernacle the priest shall take, and put it into the water." 5.18. And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and put the meal-offering of memorial in her hands, which is the meal-offering of jealousy; and the priest shall have in his hand the water of bitterness that causeth the curse." 5.19. And the priest shall cause her to swear, and shall say unto the woman: ‘If no man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness, being under thy husband, be thou free from this water of bitterness that causeth the curse;" 5.20. but if thou hast gone aside, being under thy husband, and if thou be defiled, and some man have lain with thee besides thy husband—" 5.21. then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman—the LORD make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the LORD doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell;" 5.22. and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’" 5.23. And the priest shall write these curses in a scroll, and he shall blot them out into the water of bitterness." 5.24. And he shall make the woman drink the water of bitterness that causeth the curse; and the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter." 5.25. And the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy out of the woman’s hand, and shall wave the meal-offering before the LORD, and bring it unto the altar." 5.26. And the priest shall take a handful of the meal-offering, as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke upon the altar, and afterward shall make the woman drink the water." 5.27. And when he hath made her drink the water, then it shall come to pass, if she be defiled, and have acted unfaithfully against her husband, that the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter, and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall fall away; and the woman shall be a curse among her people." 5.28. And if the woman be not defiled, but be clean; then she shall be cleared, and shall conceive seed." 5.29. This is the law of jealousy, when a wife, being under her husband, goeth aside, and is defiled;" 5.30. or when the spirit of jealousy cometh upon a man, and he be jealous over his wife; then shall he set the woman before the LORD, and the priest shall execute upon her all this law." 5.31. And the man shall be clear from iniquity, and that woman shall bear her iniquity." 9.13. But the man that is clean, and is not on a journey, and forbeareth to keep the passover, that soul shall be cut off from his people; because he brought not the offering of the LORD in its appointed season, that man shall bear his sin." 12.1. And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman." 12.8. with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’" 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 18.1. And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou and thy sons and thy fathers’ house with thee shall bear the iniquity of the sanctuary; and thou and thy sons with thee shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood." 18.22. And henceforth the children of Israel shall not come nigh the tent of meeting, lest they bear sin, and die." 18.23. But the Levites alone shall do the service of the tent of meeting, and they shall bear their iniquity; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, and among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance." 18.32. And ye shall bear no sin by reason of it, seeing that ye have set apart from it the best thereof; and ye shall not profane the holy things of the children of Israel, that ye die not.’" 21.5. And the people spoke against God, and against Moses: ‘Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, and there is no water; and our soul loatheth this light bread.’" 21.7. And the people came to Moses, and said: ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that He take away the serpents from us.’ And Moses prayed for the people." 30.2. And Moses spoke unto the heads of the tribes of the children of Israel, saying: This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded." 30.3. When a man voweth a vow unto the LORD, or sweareth an oath to bind his soul with a bond, he shall not break his word; he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth." 30.6. But if her father disallow her in the day that he heareth, none of her vows, or of her bonds wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand; and the LORD will forgive her, because her father disallowed her." 30.7. And if she be married to a husband, while her vows are upon her, or the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul;" 30.8. and her husband hear it, whatsoever day it be that he heareth it, and hold his peace at her; then her vows shall stand, and her bonds wherewith she hath bound her soul shall stand." 30.9. But if her husband disallow her in the day that he heareth it, then he shall make void her vow which is upon her, and the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul; and the LORD will forgive her." 30.10. But the vow of a widow, or of her that is divorced, even every thing wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand against her." 30.11. And if a woman vowed in her husband’s house, or bound her soul by a bond with an oath," 30.12. and her husband heard it, and held his peace at her, and disallowed her not, then all her vows shall stand, and every bond wherewith she bound her soul shall stand." 30.13. But if her husband make them null and void in the day that he heareth them, then whatsoever proceeded out of her lips, whether it were her vows, or the bond of her soul, shall not stand: her husband hath made them void; and the LORD will forgive her." 30.14. Every vow, and every binding oath to afflict the soul, her husband may let it stand, or her husband may make it void."
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 60.9, 78.19, 94.2, 95.7, 96.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

60.9. לִי גִלְעָד וְלִי מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם מָעוֹז רֹאשִׁי יְהוּדָה מְחֹקְקִי׃ 78.19. וַיְדַבְּרוּ בֵּאלֹהִים אָמְרוּ הֲיוּכַל אֵל לַעֲרֹךְ שֻׁלְחָן בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 94.2. הַיְחָבְרְךָ כִּסֵּא הַוּוֹת יֹצֵר עָמָל עֲלֵי־חֹק׃ 94.2. הִנָּשֵׂא שֹׁפֵט הָאָרֶץ הָשֵׁב גְּמוּל עַל־גֵּאִים׃ 95.7. כִּי הוּא אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַאֲנַחְנוּ עַם מַרְעִיתוֹ וְצֹאן יָדוֹ הַיּוֹם אִם־בְּקֹלוֹ תִשְׁמָעוּ׃ 96.2. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה בָּרֲכוּ שְׁמוֹ בַּשְּׂרוּ מִיּוֹם־לְיוֹם יְשׁוּעָתוֹ׃ 60.9. Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is mine; Ephraim also is the defence of my head; Judah is my sceptre." 78.19. Yea, they spoke against God; They said 'Can God prepare a table in the wilderness?" 94.2. Lift up Thyself, Thou Judge of the earth; Render to the proud their recompense." 95.7. For He is our God, And we are the people of His pasture, and the flock of His hand. To-day, if ye would but hearken to His voice!" 96.2. Sing unto the LORD, bless His name; Proclaim His salvation from day to day."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 25.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.26. וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנִי חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אֲשֶׁר מְנָעֲךָ יְהוָה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהוֹשֵׁעַ יָדְךָ לָךְ וְעַתָּה יִהְיוּ כְנָבָל אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהַמְבַקְשִׁים אֶל־אֲדֹנִי רָעָה׃ 25.26. Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord lives, and as thy soul lives, seeing the Lord has prevented thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thy own hand, now let thy enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Naval."
12. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.10 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.10. They hate him that reproveth in the gate, And they abhor him that speaketh uprightly."
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 19.15, 29.21, 58.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.15. וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה לְמִצְרַיִם מַעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה רֹאשׁ וְזָנָב כִּפָּה וְאַגְמוֹן׃ 29.21. מַחֲטִיאֵי אָדָם בְּדָבָר וְלַמּוֹכִיחַ בַּשַּׁעַר יְקֹשׁוּן וַיַּטּוּ בַתֹּהוּ צַדִּיק׃ 58.2. וְאוֹתִי יוֹם יוֹם יִדְרֹשׁוּן וְדַעַת דְּרָכַי יֶחְפָּצוּן כְּגוֹי אֲשֶׁר־צְדָקָה עָשָׂה וּמִשְׁפַּט אֱלֹהָיו לֹא עָזָב יִשְׁאָלוּנִי מִשְׁפְּטֵי־צֶדֶק קִרְבַת אֱלֹהִים יֶחְפָּצוּן׃ 19.15. Neither shall there be for Egypt any work, Which head or tail, palm-branch or rush, may do." 29.21. That make a man an offender by words, and lay a snare for him that reproveth in the gate, And turn aside the just with a thing of nought." 58.2. Yet they seek Me daily, And delight to know My ways; As a nation that did righteousness, And forsook not the ordice of their God, They ask of Me righteous ordices, They delight to draw near unto God."
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.2, 4.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.2. הָלֹךְ וְקָרָאתָ בְאָזְנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה זָכַרְתִּי לָךְ חֶסֶד נְעוּרַיִךְ אַהֲבַת כְּלוּלֹתָיִךְ לֶכְתֵּךְ אַחֲרַי בַּמִּדְבָּר בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא זְרוּעָה׃ 2.2. כִּי מֵעוֹלָם שָׁבַרְתִּי עֻלֵּךְ נִתַּקְתִּי מוֹסְרֹתַיִךְ וַתֹּאמְרִי לֹא אעבד [אֶעֱבוֹר] כִּי עַל־כָּל־גִּבְעָה גְּבֹהָה וְתַחַת כָּל־עֵץ רַעֲנָן אַתְּ צֹעָה זֹנָה׃ 4.4. הִמֹּלוּ לַיהֹוָה וְהָסִרוּ עָרְלוֹת לְבַבְכֶם אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם פֶּן־תֵּצֵא כָאֵשׁ חֲמָתִי וּבָעֲרָה וְאֵין מְכַבֶּה מִפְּנֵי רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם׃ 2.2. Go, and cry in the ears of Jerusalem, saying: Thus saith the LORD: I remember for thee the affection of thy youth, the love of thine espousals; how thou wentest after Me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown." 4.4. Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem; lest My fury go forth like fire, and burn that none can quench it, Because of the evil of your doings."
15. Anon., 1 Enoch, 103.1, 103.9, 103.11-103.13, 103.15 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

103.1. Now, therefore, I swear to you, the righteous, by the glory of the Great and Honoured and 103.1. And we have been destroyed and have not found any to help us even with a word: We have been tortured [and destroyed], and not hoped to see life from day to day. 103.9. Say not in regard to the righteous and good who are in life: ' In our troubled days we have toiled laboriously and experienced every trouble, And met with much evil and been consumed, And have become few and our spirit small. 103.11. We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us. 103.12. They have had dominion over us that hated us and smote us; And to those that hated us we have bowed our necks But they pitied us not. 103.13. We desired to get away from them that we might escape and be at rest, But found no place whereunto we should flee and be safe from them. 103.15. And they helped those who robbed us and devoured us and those who made us few; and they concealed their oppression, and they did not remove from us the yoke of those that devoured us and dispersed us and murdered us, and they concealed their murder, and remembered not that they had lifted up their hands against us.
16. Anon., Testament of Gad, 6.3-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.3. Love ye one another from the heart; and if a man sin against thee, speak peaceably to him, and in thy soul hold not guile; and if he repent and confess, forgive him. 6.4. But if he deny it, do not get into a passion with him, lest catching the poison from thee he take to swearing and so thou sin doubly. 6.5. Let not another man hear thy secrets when engaged in legal strife, lest he come to hate thee and become thy enemy, and commit a great sin against thee; for ofttimes he addresseth thee guilefully or busieth himself about thee with wicked intent. 6.6. And though he deny it and yet have a sense of shame when reproved, give over reproving him. For be who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and fear and be at peace with thee. 6.7. And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.
17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.2-7.3, 9.2-9.10, 9.13-9.23, 16.10-16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 11.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.2-7.3, 9.2-9.8, 9.13-9.23, 16.10-16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 7.8-7.9, 9.16-9.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 15.11-15.14, 15.17, 19.13-19.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.11. Do not say, "Because of the Lord I left the right way";for he will not do what he hates. 15.12. Do not say, "It was he who led me astray";for he had no need of a sinful man. 15.13. The Lord hates all abominations,and they are not loved by those who fear him. 15.14. It was he who created man in the beginning,and he left him in the power of his own inclination. 15.17. Before a man are life and death,and whichever he chooses will be given to him. 19.13. Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it;but if he did anything, so that he may do it no more. 19.14. Question a neighbor, perhaps he did not say it;but if he said it, so that he may not say it again. 19.15. Question a friend, for often it is slander;so do not believe everything you hear. 19.16. A person may make a slip without intending it. Who has never sinned with his tongue? 19.17. Question your neighbor before you threaten him;and let the law of the Most High take its course.
23. Mishnah, Avot, 3.4, 3.7-3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. Rabbi Haiah ben Hakinai said: one who wakes up at night, or walks on the way alone and turns his heart to idle matters, behold, this man is mortally guilty." 3.7. Rabbi Elazar of Bartotha said: give to Him of that which is His, for you and that which is yours is His; and thus it says with regards to David: “for everything comes from You, and from Your own hand have we given you” (I Chronicles 29:14). Rabbi Jacob said: if one is studying while walking on the road and interrupts his study and says, “how fine is this tree!” [or] “how fine is this newly ploughed field!” scripture accounts it to him as if he was mortally guilty." 3.8. Rabbi Dostai ben Rabbi Yannai said in the name of Rabbi Meir: whoever forgets one word of his study, scripture accounts it to him as if he were mortally guilty, as it is said, “But take utmost care and watch yourselves scrupulously, so that you do not forget the things that you saw with your own eyes” (Deuteronomy 4:9). One could [have inferred that this is the case] even when his study proved [too] hard for him, therefore scripture says, “that they do not fade from your mind as long as you live” (ibid.). Thus, he is not mortally guilty unless he deliberately removes them from his heart."
24. Mishnah, Makkot, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6. Perjuring witnesses are not to be put to death until [after] the end of the trial. Because the Sadducees say: “[Perjurers were put to death] only after the accused had [actually] been executed, as it says, “ A life for a life” (Deuteronomy 19:21). The [Pharisaic] Sages said to them: “But has not it already been said “You shall do to him as he schemed to do to his fellow” (Deuteronomy 19:19) which implies when his brother is still alive? If so, why does it say “A life for life”? For it might have been that perjurers are liable to be put to death from the moment their testimony had been taken, therefore the Torah states “A life for a life” that is to say that they are not executed until [after] the termination of the trial."
25. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The mitzvah of the aravah how was it [performed]?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah [long blast], a teru’ah [staccato blast] and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: [they would say,] “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”"
26. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.15. Don't count him as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother.
27. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.26. Be angry, and don't sin." Don't let the sun go down on your wrath
28. New Testament, Galatians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Brothers, even if a man is caught in some fault, you who arespiritual must restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; looking toyourself so that you also aren't tempted.
29. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. but exhort one another day by day, so long as it is called "today;" lest any one of you be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin.
30. Palestinian Talmud, Demai, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

31. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

2b. וטמא מת תולדותיהן לאו כיוצא בהן דאילו אב מטמא אדם וכלים ואילו תולדות אוכלין ומשקין מטמא אדם וכלים לא מטמא,הכא מאי אמר רב פפא יש מהן כיוצא בהן ויש מהן לאו כיוצא בהן,ת"ר ג' אבות נאמרו בשור הקרן והשן והרגל,קרן מנלן דת"ר (שמות כא, כח) כי יגח אין נגיחה אלא בקרן שנאמר (מלכים א כב, יא) ויעש לו צדקיה בן כנענה קרני ברזל ויאמר כה אמר ה' באלה תנגח את ארם וגו' ואומר (דברים לג, יז) בכור שורו הדר לו וקרני ראם קרניו בהם עמים ינגח,מאי ואומר וכי תימא דברי תורה מדברי קבלה לא ילפינן ת"ש בכור שורו הדר לו,והאי מילף הוא גילוי מילתא בעלמא הוא דנגיחה בקרן הוא,אלא מהו דתימא כי פליג רחמנא בין תם למועד ה"מ בתלושה אבל במחוברת אימא כולה מועדת היא,ת"ש בכור שורו הדר לו וגו',תולדה דקרן מאי היא נגיפה נשיכה רביצה ובעיטה,מאי שנא נגיחה דקרי לה אב דכתיב כי יגח נגיפה נמי כתיב (שמות כא, לה) כי יגוף האי נגיפה נגיחה היא דתניא פתח בנגיפה וסיים בנגיחה לומר לך זו היא נגיפה זו היא נגיחה,מאי שנא גבי אדם דכתיב כי יגח ומאי שנא גבי בהמה דכתיב כי יגוף,אדם דאית ליה מזלא כתיב כי יגח בהמה דלית לה מזלא כתיב כי יגוף,ומלתא אגב אורחיה קמ"ל דמועד לאדם הוי מועד לבהמה ומועד לבהמה לא הוי מועד לאדם,נשיכה תולדה דשן היא לא שן יש הנאה להזיקה הא אין הנאה להזיקה,רביצה ובעיטה תולדה דרגל היא לא רגל הזיקה מצוי הני אין הזיקן מצוי,אלא תולדותיהן לאו כיוצא בהן דאמר רב פפא אהייא,אילימא אהני מאי שנא קרן דכוונתו להזיק וממונך ושמירתו עליך הני נמי כוונתן להזיק וממונך ושמירתן עליך,אלא תולדה דקרן כקרן וכי קאמר רב פפא אשן ורגל,שן ורגל היכא כתיבי דתניא (שמות כב, ד) ושלח זה הרגל וכן הוא אומר (ישעיהו לב, כ) משלחי רגל השור והחמור,ובער זו השן וכן הוא אומר (מלכים א יד, י) כאשר יבער 2b. band one who is impurewith impurity imparted by a human bcorpse.A person, a vessel, or food that is rendered impure through contact with an item classified as a primary category of ritual impurity is characterized as a subcategory. In that domain, btheir subcategories are dissimilar to them, asany person or item classified as ba primary categoryof ritual impurity bimpurifies a person andimpurifies any bvesselswith which it comes into contact, bwhilea person or item classified as ba subcategory of ritual impurity impurifies food or drink, but does not impurify a person or vessels. /b,After determining that there are instances where the legal status of subcategories is like that of primary categories, e.g., Shabbat, and there are instances where the legal status of subcategories is dissimilar to that of primary categories, e.g., ritual impurity, the Gemara asks: bHere,with regard to the laws of damages, bwhatis the relationship between the primary categories and their subcategories? bRav Pappa said: There are, amongthe primary categories of damage, some whose subcategories bare similar to them, and there are, among them,some whose subcategories bare dissimilar to them. /b,§ Seeking to clarify Rav Pappa’s statement, the Gemara cites a ibaraitathat delineates the primary categories of damage. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThree primary categoriesof damage bwere statedin the Torah bwith regard to an ox.An ox causes damage in three ways, and each is classified as a distinct primary category of damage represented by a part of the body of the ox: There is bthecategory of bGoring [ ikeren /i],literally, horn. This is referring to an ox goring a person or an animal and causing damage. bAndthere is bthecategory of bEating [ ishen /i],literally, tooth. This is referring to one’s ox causing damage by consuming another person’s produce. bAndthere is bthecategory of bTrampling [ iregel /i],literally, foot. This is referring to an ox trampling another person’s belongings and causing damage. These are classified as primary categories because they are mentioned explicitly in the Torah.,The Gemara elaborates: bFrom where do wederive the primary category of bGoring?The source is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: “And bifan ox bgoresa man or a woman” (Exodus 21:28); and bgoring isperformed bonlywith ba horn, as it is stated: “And Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, made himself horns of iron, and said: So says the Lord: With these shall you gore the Arameans,until they are consumed” (I Kings 22:11). bAndthe verse also bstates: “His firstborn bull, majesty is his, and his horns are the horns of the wild ox; with them he shall gore the nations”(Deuteronomy 33:17).,The Gemara interrupts its citation of the ibaraitaand asks: bWhatis the purpose of citing the additional verse introduced with the term: bAndthe verse also bstates?The Gemara answers: bAnd if you would saythat the first verse cited is not a legitimate source as it is a verse from the Prophets, and bwe do not derive Torah matters from the texts of the tradition,i.e., Prophets and Writings, bcomeand bhearproof from the Torah: b“His firstborn bull, majesty is his.” /b,The Gemara rejects the possibility that the reason a second verse was cited is that the primary category of Goring cannot be derived from a verse in the Prophets: bBut is thisa halakhic bderivation? It is a mere disclosure of the matter, that goring isperformed bwith a horn.A verse in the Prophets can certainly serve as a source for that disclosure., bRather,the reason the ibaraitacites a second verse is blest you say,based on the first verse, that bwhen the Merciful One distinguishes betweenliability for damage caused by ban innocuousox, for which the owner is liable to pay half of the damages for the first three times that it gores, bandliability for damage caused by ba forewarnedox, which already gored three times and whose owner was cautioned to prevent the ox from goring, for which he is liable to pay the full damages, bthat statementapplies only to damage caused bwith a detachedhorn, like the horn of Zedekiah described in the verse, e.g., if an animal held a detached horn in its mouth and caused damage with it; bbutfor damage that an ox caused bwitha horn battachedto its head, bsaythat in ballcases the legal status of the ox bisthat of ba forewarnedox and its owner is liable to pay for all of the damage.,Therefore, the ibaraitasays: bComeand bheara proof from another verse: b“His firstborn bull, majesty is his,and his horns are the horns of the wild ox; with them he shall gore the nations,” where the reference is to a horn attached to the ox’s head. Evidently, when an ox gores with its own horns there is a distinction between an innocuous ox and a forewarned ox.,The Gemara resumes its citation of the ibaraita /i: bWhat is a subcategory of Goring?It includes any action that an ox performs with its body with the objective of inflicting damage: bPushing [ inegifa /i], biting, crouchingupon items with the objective of inflicting damage, band kicking. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bgoring that it is characterizedas ba primary categoryof damage, bas it is writtenexplicitly in the verse: “And bifan ox bgoresa man or a woman” (Exodus 21:28); accordingly, inegifa /ishould balsobe characterized as a primary category, bas it is written: “Ifone man’s ox bhurts [ iyiggof]the ox of another” (Exodus 21:35)? The Gemara answers: bThis inegifa /imentioned in the verse, bisactually a reference to bgoring, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat the verses states: “And if one man’s ox hurts [ iyiggof] the ox of another…or if it is known that the ox was a goring ox in time past” (Exodus 21:35–36). The verse bbeganits description of the case bwiththe term inegifaandit bconcluded withthe term bgoring to say to youthat in this context the two terms describe the same action: bThisaction bis inegifa /iand bthissame action bis goring. /b,The Gemara asks: If the two terms are interchangeable, bwhat is different with regard toan ox goring ba person that it is written:“And bifan ox bgoresa man or a woman” (Exodus 21:28), band what is different with regard toan ox goring ban animal that it is written: “Ifone man’s ox bhurts [ iyiggof]the ox of another” (Exodus 21:35)?,The Gemara explains: With regard to ba person, who hasthe bingenuityto defend himself and is not easily injured, bit is written: “Ifan ox bgores,”a term indicating an attack of greater force. With regard to ban animal, which does not havethe bingenuityto defend itself and is more easily injured, bit is written: “Ifan ox bhurts [ iyiggof],”a term indicating an attack of lesser force. The term iyiggofis related to the term imagefa /i, meaning plague. The Torah employs that term with regard to the goring of an animal to indicate that when an animal is gored, regardless of the force of the blow, it will likely result in its death., bAndthe Torah’s use of these terms bteaches us a matter in passing:Because the effort required for the ox to gore a person to death is greater than the effort required for the ox to gore an animal to death, the ihalakhais bthatan ox that is bforewarned with regard togoring ba person isalso bforewarned with regard to an animal. Butan ox that is bforewarned with regard to an animal is not forewarned with regard to a person. /b,The Gemara questions the classification in the ibaraitaof biting, crouching, and kicking as subcategories of Goring: Isn’t bbiting a subcategory of Eating,as the animal both eats and bites with its teeth? The Gemara answers: bNo,in cases included in the primary category of bEating, there is pleasurefor the animal binthe course of bitscausing bdamage.In bthiscase of damage caused by biting, bthere is nointrinsic bpleasurefor the animal binthe course of the bdamagethat bitcauses, as when the ox bites forcefully, the exclusive objective of the action is to cause damage.,The Gemara asks: Aren’t bcrouchingupon items band kickingitems in order to damage them each ba subcategory of Trampling,as the animal crouches by bending its legs and kicks with its feet? The Gemara answers: bNo,in cases included in the primary category of Trampling, the bdamage is commonplace,as it is caused in the course of the animal’s walking; in bthesecases of crouching and kicking, the bdamage is not commonplace,as animals do not typically kick or crouch upon utensils.,After citing the subcategories listed in the ibaraita /i, the Gemara resumes its analysis of the statement of Rav Pappa: bButwith regard to the statement bthat Rav Pappa said: There are among themsome whose subcategories bare dissimilar to them, to whichprimary category was Rav Pappa referring?, bIf we saythat his reference was bto thesesubcategories of Goring, bwhat is differentabout bGoringthat defines it as a unique primary category? What is different is bthatthe bobjectiveof the ox’s action bis to cause damage, andthe ox is byour property, andresponsibility for bits safeguarding,to prevent it from causing damage, is incumbent bupon you,its owner. In bthesesubcategories of Goring, i.e., pushing [ inegifa /i], biting, crouching, and kicking, bas well,the bobjectiveof the oxen’s actions bis to cause damage, andthe oxen are byour property, andresponsibility for btheir safeguarding,to prevent your oxen from causing damage, is incumbent bupon you. /b, bRather,it is apparent that the status of ba subcategory of Goring is likethat of the primary category of bGoring, and when Rav Pappa says:There are among them some whose subcategories are dissimilar to them, he was referring bto Eating and Trampling. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhere are Eating and Trampling writtenin the Torah that led them to be classified as primary categories? The Gemara answers: The source is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: “If a man causes a field or vineyard to be eaten, and he sends forth his animal, and it consumed in the field of another” (Exodus 22:4). The two parts of the verse are referring to different categories: b“And he sends forth,” this isa reference to btheprimary category of bTrampling,as sending forth results in the animal trampling another’s produce and damaging it, band likewise it states:“Happy are you that sow beside all waters bthat send forth the feet of the ox and the donkey”(Isaiah 32:20). Clearly the term “send forth” is a reference to trampling by the feet of the animal., b“And it consumed,” this isa reference to btheprimary category of bEating, and likewise it states:“And I will utterly sweep away the house of Jeroboam, bas one consumes with /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר אע"פ שאמרו המשמש מטתו לאור הנר הרי זה מגונה בש"א צריכה שני עדים על כל תשמיש או תשמש לאור הנר ובה"א דיה בשני עדים כל הלילה,תניא אמרו להם ב"ש לב"ה לדבריכם ליחוש שמא תראה טיפת דם כחרדל בביאה ראשונה ותחפנה שכבת זרע בביאה שניה,א"ל ב"ה אף לדבריכם ליחוש עד שהרוק בתוך הפה שמא נימוק והולך לו,אמרו להם לפי שאינו דומה נימוק פעם אחת לנימוק שתי פעמים,תניא א"ר יהושע רואה אני את דברי ב"ש אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי כמה הארכת עלינו אמר להם מוטב שאאריך עליכם בעוה"ז כדי שיאריכו ימיכם לעוה"ב,אמר ר' זירא מדברי כולם נלמד בעל נפש לא יבעול וישנה,רבא אמר בועל ושונה כי תניא ההיא לטהרות,תניא נמי הכי בד"א לטהרות אבל לבעלה מותרת ובד"א שהניחה בחזקת טהרה אבל הניחה בחזקת טמאה לעולם היא בחזקתה עד שתאמר לו טהורה אני,א"ר אבא א"ר חייא בר אשי אמר רב בדקה בעד ואבד אסורה לשמש עד שתבדוק מתקיף לה ר' אילא אילו איתא מי לא משמשה ואע"ג דלא ידעה השתא נמי תשמש,א"ל רבא זו מוכיחה קיים וזו אין מוכיחה קיים,א"ר יוחנן אסור לאדם שישמש מטתו ביום אמר רב המנונא מאי קרא שנאמר (איוב ג, ג) יאבד יום אולד בו והלילה אמר הורה גבר לילה ניתן להריון ויום לא ניתן להריון ריש לקיש אמר מהכא (משלי יט, טז) בוזה דרכיו ימות,ור"ל האי קרא דר' יוחנן מאי דריש ביה מבעי ליה לכדדריש רבי חנינא בר פפא דדריש ר' חנינא בר פפא אותו מלאך הממונה על ההריון לילה שמו ונוטל טפה ומעמידה לפני הקב"ה ואומר לפניו רבש"ע טפה זו מה תהא עליה גבור או חלש חכם או טיפש עשיר או עני,ואילו רשע או צדיק לא קאמר כדר' חנינא דא"ר חנינא הכל בידי שמים חוץ מיראת שמים שנאמר (דברים י, יב) ועתה ישראל מה ה' אלהיך שואל מעמך כי אם ליראה וגו',ור' יוחנן א"כ נכתוב קרא גבר הורה מאי הורה גבר לילה ניתן להריון ויום לא ניתן להריון,ור' יוחנן האי קרא דר"ל מאי דריש ביה מבעי לי' לכדכתיב בספר בן סירא שלשה שנאתי וארבעה לא אהבתי שר הנרגל בבית המשתאות ואמרי לה שר הנרגן ואמרי לה שר הנרגז,והמושיב שבת במרומי קרת והאוחז באמה ומשתין מים והנכנס לבית חבירו פתאום אמר רבי יוחנן ואפילו לביתו,אמר רבי שמעון בן יוחאי ארבעה דברים הקב"ה שונאן ואני איני אוהבן הנכנס לביתו פתאום ואצ"ל לבית חבירו והאוחז באמה ומשתין מים 16b. strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that according to Beit Shammai it is permitted to engage in intercourse by the light of a lamp. In this regard, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bEven thoughthe Sages bsaidwith regard to bone who engages in intercourse by the light of a lamp,that bthis is disgraceful, Beit Shammai say: A woman is requiredto examine herself with btwo cloths,once before and once after beachact of bintercourse, orshe must bengage in intercourse by the light of a lamp. And Beit Hillel say:It is bsufficientfor her to examine herself bwith two cloths throughout the night,once before the first act of intercourse and once after the final act of intercourse.,It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bBeit Shammai said to Beit Hillel: According to your statementthat a woman may engage in intercourse several times in one night without an examination between each act of intercourse, blet us be concerned lest she will see,i.e., emit, ba drop of blood the size of a mustardseed bduring the firstact of bintercourse,and will thereby become impure, band semen from the secondact of bintercourse will cover it.Since the examination after the last act of intercourse will not reveal the drop of blood, the woman will erroneously think she is pure., bBeit Hillel said to themin response: bEven according to your statement, let us be concernedthat bwhile the salivawas still bin the mouth,i.e., while the blood was in her vagina, bperhaps it was squashed and disappeared.Even if she examines herself after each act of intercourse, as mandated by Beit Shammai, it is possible that the semen of that act covered the blood, and it will not be revealed by the examination.,Beit Shammai bsaid toBeit Hillel: One cannot compare the two situations, bas a squasheddrop of blood after the woman has engaged in intercourse bonce is not similar to a squasheddrop of blood after the woman has engaged in intercourse btwice,and therefore our concern is more reasonable.,It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehoshua said: I seeas correct bthe statement of Beit Shammaiin this case. bHis students said to him:Our bteacher, how you have weighed [ ihe’erakhta /i] us downwith this stringent ruling. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: It is preferable that I weigh you down in this world, so thatyou do not sin by engaging in prohibited intercourse, i.e., so that byour days in the World-to-Come will be lengthened [ isheya’arikhu /i]. /b,§ bRabbi Zeira says: From the statements of all of them,i.e., both Beit Shammai, who permit engaging in intercourse a second time only after an examination, and Beit Hillel, who rule that the second examination must be performed only after the final act of intercourse of the night, bwe can learnthat their dispute relates only to that which is permitted after the fact. But ba pious person [ iba’al nefesh /i] should not engage in intercourse and repeathis act without an examination between each act., bRava says:Even a pious person bmay engage in intercourse and repeatthe act without an examination in between, as bwhen that ibaraita bis taught,it is referring btoa woman who handles bpure items.But with regard to intercourse with her husband, there is no cause for concern., bThisopinion bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIn whatcase bis this statement said,i.e., that a woman must examine herself before and after every act of intercourse according to Beit Shammai, or before the first act and after the last act, according to Beit Hillel? It was said bwith regard toa woman who handles bpure items; buta woman bis permitted to her husbandeven without any examination, and he is not required to ask her if she is pure. bBut in whatcase bis thislenient bstatement said? Whenher husband traveled and bleft her with the presumptive status of ritual purity. Butif he bleft her with the presumptive status of ritual impurity,she remains bforever in her presumptive statusof impurity buntil she says to him: I am pure. /b,§ bRabbi Abba saysthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi saysthat bRav says:If a woman bexaminedherself at night bwith a cloth, andthe cloth bwasthen immediately blost, it is prohibited for her to engage in intercourseagain buntil she examinesherself with another cloth, as perhaps there was blood on the cloth that was lost. bRabbi Ila objects to this: Ifthis cloth bwere intact,i.e., if it were not lost, bcouldn’tthis woman bengage in intercoursewith her husband that night, on the basis that she will examine the cloth only the following day, bandisn’t this the ihalakha beven though she does not knowat the time of intercourse whether there is blood on the cloth? bNow too,although the cloth is lost, blet her engage in intercoursewith her husband., bRava said to him:There is a difference between the two cases, as when the cloth is intact, bthiswoman’s bproof exists,and if she discovers on the following day that she was impure they will be obligated to bring sin offerings for engaging in intercourse in a state of ritual impurity. bButwith regard to bthatwoman who lost her cloth, bher proof does not exist,and therefore they will never know if they require atonement.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says: It is prohibited for a person to engage in intercourse by day. Rav Hamnuna says: What is the versefrom which this is derived? bAs it is stated: “Let the day perish on which I was born, and the night on which it was said: Conceived is a man-child”(Job 3:3). It is derived from here that bnighttime is meant for conception, but daytime is not meant for conception. Reish Lakish saysthat the proof is bfrom here: “But he who despises his ways shall die”(Proverbs 19:16). One might see something unpleasing in his wife in the daylight and come to despise her.,The Gemara asks: bAnd how does Reish Lakish interpret this versecited bby Rabbi Yoḥa?The Gemara answers that bhe requiresthat verse bfor that which Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught. As Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa interpretedthat verse in the following manner: bThat angel that is appointed over conception is called: Night. Andthat angel btakesthe bdropof semen from which a person will be formed band presents it before the Holy One, Blessed be He, and says before Him: Master of the Universe, what will be of this drop?Will the person fashioned from it be bmighty or weak?Will he be bclever or stupid?Will he be bwealthy or poor? /b,The Gemara notes: bButthis angel bdoes not say:Will he be bwicked or righteous?This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Ḥanina, as Rabbi Ḥanina said: Everything is in the hand of Heaven, except for fear of Heaven.People have free will to serve God or not, bas it is stated: “And now, Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fearthe Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 10:12). The fact that God asks of the Jewish people to fear Him indicates that it is a person’s choice to do so.,The Gemara explains: bAnd Rabbi Yoḥaderives two ihalakhotfrom the verse “and the night on which it was said: Conceived is a man-child,” as he holds as follows: bIf so,i.e., if it is referring only to the statement of the angel, blet the verse write:And the night that said: bA man-child is conceived. Whatis the meaning of: b“Conceived is a man-child”?It is derived from the juxtaposition of the word “night” and the word “conceived” that bnighttime is meant for conception but daytime is not meant for conception. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa, how does he interpret that versecited bby Reish Lakish?The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yoḥa brequiresthat verse: “But he who despises his ways shall die,” btoteach bthat which is written in the book of ben Sira: Threepeople bI have hated, and a fourth I have not loved: A minister who frequents [ ihanirgal /i] drinking houses,as he disgraces himself and leads himself to ruin and death; band some saya different version of the text: bA minister who chats [ ihanirgan /i]in drinking houses; band some saya third version: bA minister who is short-tempered [ ihanirgaz /i]when in drinking houses.,That is the first that he hated. bAndthe others are bone who dwells at the highest point of the city,where everyone sees him; band one who holdshis bpenis and urinates. Andthe fourth, whom he has not loved, is bone who enters the house of another suddenly,without warning. bRabbi Yoḥa says: Andthis includes bevenone who comes binto hisown bhousewithout prior warning, as the members of his household might be engaged in private activities.,The Gemara cites a similar saying. bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Four matters the Holy One, Blessed be He, hates, and I do not love them,and they are: bOne who enters his house suddenly, and needless to sayone who suddenly enters bthe house of another; and one who holdshis bpenis and urinates; /b
33. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

113a. גזייתא נינהו דשמטי סוסיא ואתו דברי להו,(וא"ל) רב לרב אסי לא תדור במתא דלא צניף בה סוסיא ולא נבח בה כלבא ואל תדור בעיר דריש מתא אסיא ולא תנסיב תרתי אי נסבת תרתי נסיב תלת,א"ל רב לרב כהנא הפוך בנבילתא ולא תיפוך במילי פשוט נבילתא בשוקא ושקיל אגרא ולא תימא כהנא אנא וגברא רבא אנא וסניא בי מלתא סלקת לאיגרא שירותך בהדך מאה קרי במתא בזוזא תותי כנפיך ניהוו,א"ל רב לחייא בריה לא תשתי סמא ולא תשוור ניגרא ולא תעקר ככא ולא תקנא בחיויא ולא תקנא בארמאה,תנו רבנן ג' אין מתקנאין בהן ואלו הן נכרי קטן ונחש קטן ותלמיד קטן מ"ט דמלכותייהו אחורי אודנייהו קאי,א"ל רב לאיבו בריה טרחי בך בשמעתא ולא מסתייע מילתא תא אגמרך מילי דעלמא אדחלא אכרעיך זבינך זבין כל מילי זבין ותחרט בר מחמרא דזבין ולא תחרט,שרי כיסיך פתח שקיך קבא מארעא ולא כורא מאיגרא,תמרא בחלוזך לבית סודנא רהיט ועד כמה אמר רבא עד תלתא סאה אמר רב פפא אי לא דרמאי שכרא לא איעתרי א"ד אמר רב חסדא אי לא דרמאי שכרא לא איעתרי מאי סודנא אמר רב חסדא סוד נאה וגמילות חסדים,אמר רב פפא כל אגב גביא בעי כל אשראי ספק אתי ספק לא אתי ודאתי מעות רעות נינהו,ג' דברים א"ר יוחנן משום אנשי ירושלים כשאתה יוצא למלחמה אל תצא בראשונה אלא תצא באחרונה כדי שתכנס בראשונה ועשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות והוי משתדל עם מי שהשעה משחקת לו,(א"ר) שלשה דברים א"ר יהושע בן לוי משום אנשי ירושלים אל תרבה בגנות משום מעשה שהיה בתך בגרה שחרר עבדך ותן לה והוי זהיר באשתך מחתנה הראשון מ"ט רב חסדא אמר משום ערוה רב כהנא אמר משום ממון הא והא איתנהו,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה מנוחלי העוה"ב אלו הן הדר בא"י והמגדל בניו לתלמוד תורה והמבדיל על היין במוצאי שבתות מאי היא דמשייר מקידושא לאבדלתא,א"ר יוחנן שלשה מכריז עליהן הקב"ה בכל יום על רווק הדר בכרך ואינו חוטא ועל עני המחזיר אבידה לבעליה ועל עשיר המעשר פירותיו בצינעה רב ספרא רווק הדר בכרך הוה 113a. barefound bon the paths [ igazyata /i]near the city, bas horsesbelonging to the demons bfleealong those paths, bandthe demons bcome to lead themaway. Generally, however, demons do not enter inhabited places., bAndRav bsaid to Rav Asi: Do not live in a city where horses do not neigh and where dogs do not bark,as these animals provide security and protection. bAnd do not live in a city where the mayor is a doctor,as he will be too busy working to govern properly. bAnd do not marry twowomen, as they will likely join forces against you. And bif youdo bmarry two, marry a thirdas well. If two of your wives plot against you, the third will inform you of their plans., bRav said to Rav Kahana:It is better for one bto turn over a carcass than to turn over his word,i.e., to break his promise. Rav further said: bSkin a carcass in the market and take payment, but do not say: I am a priest, or: I am a great man, and this matter disgusts me.It is preferable for one to work, even in menial labor, than to be dependent on others. Rav also advised Rav Kahana: If byou ascend to the roof,carry byour food with you.One should always carry his sustece with him, even if he goes only on a short trip. If bone hundred pumpkins in the citycost ba izuz /i, placethem carefully under bthe cornersof your clothes. Treat food respectfully even if it is inexpensive., bRav said to Ḥiyya, his son: Do notget into the habit of bdrinking medications,lest you develop an addiction. bAnd do not leap over a ditch,as you might hurt yourself in the process. bAnd do not pull out a tooth,but try to heal it if possible. bAnd do not provoke a snakein your house to try to kill it or chase it away. bAnd do not provoke a gentile,as this too is dangerous.,Similarly, bthe Sages taught:There are bthreebeings boneshould bnot provoke: A small gentile, and a small snake, and a smallTorah bscholar. What is the reason? Because their authority stands behind their ears.They will eventually grow up, assume power, each in his own way, and avenge those who have harassed them., bRav said to Ayvu, his son: I struggledto teach byou ihalakhabutmy efforts bdid not succeed,as you did not become a great scholar. bComeand bI will teach youabout bmundane matters: Sell your merchandise while the dustfrom the road is still bon your feet.As soon you return from your travels, sell your wares, lest the prices fall in the meantime. Furthermore, it is possible that banything you sellmight later cause you to bregretthe sale, bexcept for wine, which youcan bsell without regret.Since wine might go bad and be entirely lost, its sale is always advisable.,Rav further advised his son: bOpen your purseto accept payment, and only then bopen your sackto deliver the goods, to ensure you will receive payment for your merchandise. It is better to earn ba ikavfrom the ground than a ikorfrom the roof.A ikoris one hundred and eighty times larger than a ikav /i. This proverb means that it is preferable to earn a small amount from a local, safe transaction than to attempt to earn more through a distant, risky venture.,Rav continued: If there are bdates in your storeroom, run to the breweryto sell them. If you wait, there is a good chance the dates will go bad. The Gemara asks: bAnd how manydates should one keep for himself? bRava said: Up to three ise’a /i. Rav Pappa said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy. Some saythat it was bRav Ḥisda who said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the word isudana /i,the Aramaic term for a brewer? bRav Ḥisda said: A pleasant secret [ isod na’e /i] and acts of loving kindness,as brewing is a good way to make money and also enables one to perform good deeds.,The Gemara continues to offer advice about mundane matters. bRav Pappa said: Anythingyou acquire with a document bby meansof which ownership is transferred, i.e., a bill of acquisition or obligation, brequires collection,despite the fact that you are the legal owner. bAny sale on credit is uncertain whether or notit bwill cometo fruition. bAndeven bif itdoes bcometo fruition, bthe money is bad.These funds are difficult to collect, and they are generally not paid on time., bRabbi Yoḥa said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: When you go to war do not go out first, but go out last.The reason is bso thatif your side is defeated and you need to flee for your life, byou will enterthe refuge of the city bfirst. Andit is better to bmake your Shabbatlike an ordinary bweekday and do not be beholden toother bbeings. And exert yourselfto join together bwith one upon whom the hour smiles. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: Do not indulge in a shameful actin public, bbecause of the incident that occurredinvolving David and Bathsheba (see II Samuel 11–12). If byour daughter has grown up,it is better to bfree yourCanaanite bslave and givehim bto herthan to leave her to find a husband on her own. bAnd be careful with your wife with regard to her first son-in-law,as she is especially fond of him. bWhat is the reasonfor this warning? bRav Ḥisda said: Due tothe possibility of blicentiousness. Rav Kahana said: Due tothe fact that she might give him all your bmoneyand leave you impoverished. The Gemara comments: Since beither of thesecould bhappen,it is best to be prudent., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Threepeople are bamong those who inherit the World-to-Come: One who lives in Eretz Yisrael; one who raises his sons toengage bin Torah study; and one who recites ihavdalaover wine at the conclusion of Shabbat.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe special importance of bthatmitzva, to recite ihavdalaover wine? The Gemara answers: This is referring to an individual with only a small amount of wine, bwhonevertheless bleaves some ofhis kiddush wine bfor ihavdala /i. /b, bRabbi Yoḥafurther bsaid: The Holy One, Blessed be He, proclaims aboutthe goodness of bthreekinds bof people every day,as exceptional and noteworthy individuals: bAbout a bachelor who lives in a city and does not sinwith women; babout a poor person who returns a lost object to its ownersdespite his poverty; band about a wealthy person who tithes his produce in private,without publicizing his behavior. The Gemara reports: bRav Safra was a bachelor living in a city. /b
34. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

104a. עלויי קא מעלי ליה דאמר רב חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין אלא סתום ועשאו פתוח גרועי קא מגרע ליה דאמר ר' ירמיה ואיתימא ר' חייא בר אבא מנצפך צופים אמרום,ותיסברא והכתיב (ויקרא כז, לד) אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא מיהוה הואי מידע לא הוה ידעין הי באמצע תיבה הי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים תקנינהו ואכתי אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,גופא א"ר חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין ואמר רב חסדא כתב שבלוחות נקרא מבפנים ונקרא מבחוץ כגון נבוב בובן (רהב בהר) סרו ורס:,אמרי ליה רבנן לריב"ל אתו דרדקי האידנא לבי מדרשא ואמרו מילי דאפילו בימי יהושע בן נו"ן לא איתמר כוותייהו אל"ף בי"ת אלף בינה גימ"ל דל"ת גמול דלים מ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דגימ"ל לגבי דל"ת שכן דרכו של גומל חסדים לרוץ אחר דלים ומ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דדל"ת לגבי גימ"ל דלימציה ליה נפשיה ומ"ט מהדר אפיה דדל"ת מגימ"ל דליתן ליה בצינעה כי היכי דלא ליכסיף מיניה,ה"ו זה שמו של הקב"ה ז"ח ט"י כ"ל ואם אתה עושה כן הקב"ה זן אותך וחן אותך ומטיב לך ונותן לך ירושה וקושר לך כתר לעוה"ב מ"ם פתוחה מ"ם סתומה מאמר פתוח מאמר סתום נו"ן כפופה נו"ן פשוטה נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט,ס"ע סמוך עניים ל"א סימנין עשה בתורה וקנה אותה פ' כפופה פ' פשוטה פה פתוח פה סתום צד"י כפופה וצד"י פשוטה צדיק כפוף צדיק פשוט היינו נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט הוסיף לך הכתוב כפיפה על כפיפתו מכאן שנתנה התורה במנוד ראש,קו"ף קדוש רי"ש רשע מאי טעמא מהדר אפיה דקו"ף מרי"ש אמר הקב"ה אין אני יכול להסתכל ברשע ומאי טעמא מהדרה תגיה דקו"ף לגבי רי"ש אמר הקב"ה אם חוזר בו אני קושר לו כתר כמותי ומ"ט כרעיה דקו"ף תלויה דאי הדר ביה ליעייל,וליעול בהך מסייע ליה לריש לקיש) דאמר ר"ל מ"ד (משלי ג, לד) אם ללצים הוא יליץ ולענוים יתן חן בא ליטמא פותחין לו בא ליטהר מסייעים אותו,שי"ן שקר תי"ו אמת מאי טעמא שקר מקרבן מיליה אמת מרחקא מיליה שיקרא שכיח קושטא לא שכיח ומ"ט שיקרא אחדא כרעיה קאי ואמת מלבן לבוניה קושטא קאי שיקרא לא קאי,א"ת ב"ש אותי תעב אתאוה לו ב"ש בי לא חשק שמי יחול עליו ג"ר גופו טימא ארחם עליו ד"ק דלתותי נעל קרניו לא אגדע עד כאן מדת רשעים,אבל מדת צדיקים א"ת ב"ש אם אתה בוש ג"ר ד"ק אם אתה עושה כן גור בדוק ה"ץ ו"ף חציצה הוי בינך לאף ז"ע ח"ס ט"ן ואין אתה מזדעזע מן השטן י"ם כ"ל אמר [שר של] גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לים כל,אמר הקב"ה אח"ס בט"ע גי"ף אני חס עליהם מפני שבעטו בגי"ף דכ"ץ דכים הם כנים הם צדיקים הם הל"ק אין לך חלק בהן ומרז"ן ש"ת אמר גיהנם לפניו רבונו של עולם מרי זניני מזרעו של שת,א"ל א"ל ב"ם ג"ן ד"ס להיכן אוליכן לגן הדס ה"ע ו"ף אמר גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם עיף אנכי ז"ץ ח"ק הללו זרעו של יצחק ט"ר י"ש כ"ת טר יש לי כיתות כיתות של עובדי כוכבים שאני נותן לך: 104a. bhe elevates itsstatus, as bRav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously.Each letter was chiseled all the way through the tablets. In that case, the segment of the tablets at the center of the isamekhand final imem /i, letters that are completely closed, should have fallen. Miraculously, they remained in place. Consequently, rendering an open imemclosed elevates its status. bHowever,if bone rendered a closedletter bopen, he diminishes itsstatus, as bRabbi Yirmeya said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho said: bThe prophets institutedthe difference between the open and closed forms of the letters imem /i, inun /i, itzadi /i, ipeh /i, ikaf /i.Since the closed letters date back to the Ten Commandments, apparently the prophets introduced the open versions of the letters, which are therefore less significant.,The Gemara rejects this: bAnd is that reasonable? Isn’t it written: “These are the commandmentsthat the Lord commanded Moses to tell the children of Israel at Mount Sinai” (Leviticus 27:34). The word “these” underscores bthat a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belementrelated to the Torah and its mitzvot bfrom here on. Rather,the prophets did not innovate these forms. Both the open and closed versions bexistedbefore then. However, people bdid not know whichform appeared bin the middle of a wordand bwhichform bat the end of a word. And the prophets cameand binstituted theirset positions. The Gemara asks: bAnd stillthe question remains: Didn’t the Sages derive from the verse: b“These are the commandments,” that a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belement from here on?How could they institute the position of the letters? bRather,over the course of time, the people bforgot theirpositions in the words bandthe prophets bthen reestablished theirpositions. Apparently, closed letters are no more significant than the open ones.,The Gemara returns to discuss bthe matter itself. Rav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously. Andfurthermore, bRav Ḥisda said:The bwriting on the tablets was read from the inside,from one side of the tablets, band read from the outside,the other side of the tablets, in reverse order. The Gemara cites words that appear elsewhere in the Bible: iNevuv /iwas read as ibet /i, ivav /i, ibet /i, inun /i; irahav /ias ibeit /i, iheh /i, ireish /i;and isaru /ias ivav /i, ireish /i, isamekh /i. /b, bThe Sages said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Young students cametoday bto the study hall and said thingsthe likes of bwhich were not saideven bin the days of Joshua bin Nun.These children who only knew the Hebrew alphabet interpreted the letters homiletically. briAlef beit /imeans blearn[ielaf/b] the bwisdom[ibina/b] of the Torah. briGimmel dalet /imeans bgive to the poor[igemol dalim/b]. bWhy is the leg of the igimmelextended towardthe idalet /i? Because it is the manner of one who bestows loving-kindness to pursue the poor. And whyis the bleg ofthe idaletextended towardthe igimmel /i?It is so bthata poor person bwill make himself available to himwho wants to give him charity. bAnd why does the idaletface away fromthe igimmel /i?It is to teach bthat one should givecharity bdiscreetly so thatthe poor person bwill not be embarrassed by him. /b,The children continued to interpret the letters. briHeh vav /i: That isthe principal bname of the Holy One, Blessed be He.briZayin ḥet /i, itet yod /i, ikaf lamed /i: And if you do so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds [ izan /i] you, and shows you favor [ iḥan /i], and bestows goodness [ imeitiv /i] upon you, and gives you an inheritance [ iyerusha /i], and ties a crown [ iketer /i] for you in the World to Come [ ila’olam haba /i].brThe bopen imemand closed imem /iindicate that the Torah contains ban open statement,understood by all, and ban esoteric statement.brThe bbent inun /iand the bstraight inun /iat the end of a word refer to ba faithful person who is bent [ ine’eman kafuf /i]and is modest now, who will ultimately become a bwell-known faithful person [ ine’eman pashut /i]. /b,iSamekh ayin /i: Support the poor [ isemokh aniyyim /i]to prevent them from falling further. bAnother version: Make mnemonicsigns b[ isimanim aseh /i]to remember bthe Torah and acquire it.brThe bbent ipeh /iand the bstraight ipeh /i:Sometimes one needs to have ban open mouth [ ipeh patuaḥ /i]and speak, and sometimes one needs to have ba closed mouth [ ipeh satum /i].brThe bbent itzadi /iand the bstraight itzadi /iindicate that ba righteousperson who is bbentand humble b[ itzaddik kafuf /i]now will ultimately become ba well-known righteousperson b[ itzaddik pashut /i]whose righteousness is apparent to all. The Gemara asks: bThat is identicalto the interpretation of the bent and straight inun /i: iNe’eman kafuf /i, ine’eman pashut /i.The Gemara explains: bThe verse addedthe bbendingof the righteous person bto the bending ofthe faithful person. bFrom hereit is derived bthat the Torah was given inan atmosphere of bgravity.One must receive the Torah with a sense of awe and extreme humility.,The children continued: briKuf /i: Holy [ ikadosh /i],referring to God. briReish /i: A wicked person [ irasha /i]. Why is the ikuffacing away fromthe ireish /i?This question was phrased euphemistically, as it is the ireishthat is facing away from the ikuf /i. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am unable look at a wicked person,i.e., the wicked person does not want to look toward God. bAnd why is the crown ofthe letter ikufturned towardthe ireish /i? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Ifthe wicked person brepentshis evil ways bI will tie a crown for him like My own. And why is the leg ofthe ikufsuspendedand not connected to the roof of the letter? bBecause ifthe wicked person brepents he can enterthrough this opening if he so desires.,The Gemara asks: bLet him enter through thatopening, as the ikufis open on both sides at the bottom. The Gemara answers: This bsupportsthe statement of bReish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “If it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, and unto the humble He gives grace”(Proverbs 3:34)? One who bcomesin order bto become impure,i.e., to sin, bthey,in Heaven, bprovide him with an openingto do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. However, if he bcomesin order bto become purified,not only is he allowed to do so, but bthey,in Heaven, bassist him. /b,They further taught: briShin /i: Falsehood [ isheker /i]. iTav /i: Truth [ iemet /i].br bWhy are the letters ofthe word ishekeradjacentto one another in the alphabet, while bthe letters of iemetare distantfrom one another? That is because while bfalsehood iseasily bfound, truth is foundonly with great difficulty. bAnd why dothe letters that comprise the word isheker /iall bstand on one foot, andthe letters that comprise the word iemet /istand on bases that are wide like bbricks?Because the btruth standseternal and bfalsehood does not standeternal.,The Gemara cites another midrash that also deals with the letters of the alphabet. This one uses a code in which the first letter is paired with the last letter, the second letter with the penultimate one, and so on b[ ialef tav /i, ibeit shin /i]. iAlef tav /i, God said: If bhe despised Me [ ioti ti’ev /i]would bI desire [ ietaveh /i] him? iBeit shin /i:If bhe does not desireto worship bMe [ ibi /i],shall bMy name [ ishemi /i] rest upon him? iGimmel reish /i:He bdefiled his body [ igufo /i];shall bI have mercy [ iaraḥem /i] on him?The word comprised of the letters igimmeland ireishin Aramaic means licentiousness. iDalet kuf /i:He blocked My doors [ idaltotai /i],shall bI not cut off his horns [ ikarnav /i]? To this point,the Gemara interpreted the letters as referring to bthe attribute of the wicked. /b, bHowever,with regard to bthe attribute of the righteousit is taught differently. iAlef tav /i, ibeit shin /i: If you have shame [ iata bosh /i], igimmel reish /i, idalet kuf /i: If you do so,you will breside [ igur /i] inthe bheavens [ ibedok /i],as the verse says: “Who stretches out the Heavens like a curtain [ idok /i]” (Isaiah 40:22). iHeh tzadi /i, ivav peh /i: There is a partition [ iḥatzitza havei /i] between you and anger [ iaf /i]. iZayin ayin /i, iḥet samekh /i, itet nun /i: And you will not be shaken [ imizdaze’a /i] by the Satan. iYod mem /i, ikaf lamed /i: The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,send the righteous as well into the bseato which ballgo b[ iyam kol /i],Gehenna.,The interpretation of the alphabet continues with other combinations of letters. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: iAlef ḥet samekh /i, ibet tet ayin /i, igimmel yod peh /i: I have mercy on them [ iAni ḥas aleihem /i] because they spurned [ iba’atu /i] adultery [ igif /i].The Gemara continues with this combination of the letters: iDalet kaf tzadi /i: They are pure [ idakkim /i], they are honest [ ikenim /i], they are righteous [ itzaddikim /i]. iHeh lamed kuf /i: You have no portion [ iḥelek /i] with them,based on the interchange of the letters iḥetand iheh /i. iVav mem reish zayin nun /i, ishin tav /i:The minister of bGehenna said [ iamar /i],based on ivav mem reish /i, bbefore Him: Master of the Universe, my Master [ iMari /i], sustain me [ izaneini /i] with the seed of Seth [ iShet /i],which refers to all humankind, including the Jewish people.,The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to himusing another configuration of the alphabet: iAlef lamed /i, ibeit mem /i: Not with them [ ial bam /i],i.e., you will have no portion of them. iGimmel nun /i, idalet samekh /i: To where will I lead them?I will lead them bto the garden of myrtle [ igan hadas /i],i.e., the Garden of Eden. iHeh ayin /i, ivav peh /i:The minister of bGehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I am tired [ iayef anokhi /i]and thirsty and need people to care for me. The Holy One, Blessed be He, responded: iZayin tzadi /i, iḥet kuf /i: These are the descendants [ izaro /i] of Isaac [ iYitzḥak /i]. iTet reish /i, iyod shin /i, ikaf tav /i: Wait [ itar /i], I have groupsupon bgroups [ iyesh li kittot kittot /i] ofother bnations that I will give youinstead.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron ben elijah of nicomedia Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
accusation Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 101, 112
adam,authority of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 560
adjuration Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
adultery Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
agriculture Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
amoraim,amoraic period Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94, 101, 103
anger,bringing a charge in Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 94
animals,loss of to the disobedient Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
aramaic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
atonement,as bearing others sins nan
atonement,as slaughter of the sacrificial victim nan
atonement,as substance of his heavenly offering nan
atonement,in the levitical cult nan
authority,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 560
authority,lack of Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
bible Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101, 105
cairo genizah Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
capital matters Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
chain of lameds Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
christianity Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
circumcision,metaphor of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 107
complaint Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
conviction Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
court Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94, 105
covenant,disobedience to Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
covenant,obedience/faithfulness/loyalty Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
covenant Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 107
deception/deceit Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
elder Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94
execution Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91
exegesis,karaite Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
exegesis,midrash Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103, 112
exegesis,pesher Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
exegesis,sectarian Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 94, 112
exegesis,tannaitic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91
exercises,student Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 222
eyes Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
ezra Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
fear Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
flagellation,flogging (malqut) Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
genre Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 17
god Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101, 103
guilt Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 112
halakhah/halakhot,and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156
head Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
hebrew,biblical Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101, 103, 107
hebrew,qumran Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105, 107, 112
hebrew,rabbinic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 107
hebrew Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
hermeneutics,sectarian Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 112
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also,interpretation Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156
high priest,levitical nan
honour Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
hope/hopelessness Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
incense Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 560
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156
iron yoke Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
israel Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 560
jerusalem Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94
karaites Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 105
labour Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
law,biblical/rabbinic—see also,halakhah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156
law,derivation of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91
law,sectarian Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 94, 112
life / afterlife,earthly Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
love,spirit of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94
manual of discipline Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94
masoretic text Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156
messiah,purification/sin nan
midrash/midrashim Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156
moses Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 17
moshav ha-rabbim Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94
nahal hever Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
neck Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
nehemiah Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
non-pentateuchal scripture,appeal to Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 221
oath,eve,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 560
oath Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 560; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
oaths Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 221
obedience,covenant Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
offenses,recording of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
offenses,repetition of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
orthography,masoretic,qumran Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 107
orthography,masoretic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
paraphrase Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 221
pharisees Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
prayer Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156
priests,aaronide Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
prooftexts,non-pentateuchal Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 221
property,restitution of lost or stolen Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
property,stolen Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
prophets Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156
punishment,penalty Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 112
qumran/qumran community Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156
rabbi joshua ben levi Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
rabbi yohanan Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
rabbis,rabbinic literature Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
rav papa Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
records,written Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
reproof,time limit on Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 94
reproof Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 94, 101, 103, 105, 107, 112
sabbath,code of zadokite fragments Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 107
saduccees Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 105
safety Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
samaritan pentateuch Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
scribal error,traditions and practices,qumran Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 107
scribal error Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
second commonwealth period Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
sim shalom prayer Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
spirit Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 560
tannaim,tannaitic law,judaism,period Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 103
temple,cult Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
testimony,combination of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
testimony,contradictory Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
testimony Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
tetragrammaton Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
theft Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
torah Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 17; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 560
torah focus Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 222
vengeance Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
vows,annulment of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 103, 112
vows,fulfillment of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91
wadi murabaat Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
water,of bitterness Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
wisdom,and torah Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 17
wisdom literature,distinctive function in education' Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 222
witnesses,(crime commited with) no Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
witnesses,conspiring Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 105
witnesses,single (one) Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 103
witnesses,two Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
witnesses Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94, 112
yoke Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 554
zadokite fragments Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94, 101