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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6301
Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 27.21-27.22


וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן יַעֲמֹד וְשָׁאַל לוֹ בְּמִשְׁפַּט הָאוּרִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־פִּיו יֵצְאוּ וְעַל־פִּיו יָבֹאוּ הוּא וְכָל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִתּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵדָה׃And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the LORD; at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.’


וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֹתוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיַּעֲמִדֵהוּ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃And Moses did as the LORD commanded him; and he took Joshua, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

53 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.9, 4.12 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 3.28, 5.22, 5.27, 13.1, 17.8, 17.12, 17.14-17.20, 20.1, 23.10, 23.15, 30.1, 31.1-31.8, 31.14-31.15, 31.20, 32.48-32.52, 33.4, 33.8, 33.10, 34.5-34.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.28. וְצַו אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְחַזְּקֵהוּ וְאַמְּצֵהוּ כִּי־הוּא יַעֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְהוּא יַנְחִיל אוֹתָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֶה׃ 5.22. וְעַתָּה לָמָּה נָמוּת כִּי תֹאכְלֵנוּ הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת אִם־יֹסְפִים אֲנַחְנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹד וָמָתְנוּ׃ 5.27. לֵךְ אֱמֹר לָהֶם שׁוּבוּ לָכֶם לְאָהֳלֵיכֶם׃ 13.1. אֵת כָּל־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם אֹתוֹ תִשְׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת לֹא־תֹסֵף עָלָיו וְלֹא תִגְרַע מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 13.1. כִּי הָרֹג תַּהַרְגֶנּוּ יָדְךָ תִּהְיֶה־בּוֹ בָרִאשׁוֹנָה לַהֲמִיתוֹ וְיַד כָּל־הָעָם בָּאַחֲרֹנָה׃ 17.8. כִּי יִפָּלֵא מִמְּךָ דָבָר לַמִּשְׁפָּט בֵּין־דָּם לְדָם בֵּין־דִּין לְדִין וּבֵין נֶגַע לָנֶגַע דִּבְרֵי רִיבֹת בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְקַמְתָּ וְעָלִיתָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ׃ 17.12. וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה בְזָדוֹן לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמֹעַ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן הָעֹמֵד לְשָׁרֶת שָׁם אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אוֹ אֶל־הַשֹּׁפֵט וּמֵת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.14. כִּי־תָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּה בָּהּ וְאָמַרְתָּ אָשִׂימָה עָלַי מֶלֶךְ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָי׃ 17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 17.18. וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃ 17.19. וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 20.1. כִּי־תִקְרַב אֶל־עִיר לְהִלָּחֵם עָלֶיהָ וְקָרָאתָ אֵלֶיהָ לְשָׁלוֹם׃ 20.1. כִּי־תֵצֵא לַמִּלְחָמָה עַל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְרָאִיתָ סוּס וָרֶכֶב עַם רַב מִמְּךָ לֹא תִירָא מֵהֶם כִּי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ עִמָּךְ הַמַּעַלְךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 23.15. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּקֶרֶב מַחֲנֶךָ לְהַצִּילְךָ וְלָתֵת אֹיְבֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהָיָה מַחֲנֶיךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹא־יִרְאֶה בְךָ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְשָׁב מֵאַחֲרֶיךָ׃ 30.1. וְהָיָה כִי־יָבֹאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתָ אֶל־לְבָבֶךָ בְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הִדִּיחֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שָׁמָּה׃ 30.1. כִּי תִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו הַכְּתוּבָה בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה כִּי תָשׁוּב אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 31.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.1. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר מִקֵּץ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים בְּמֹעֵד שְׁנַת הַשְּׁמִטָּה בְּחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת׃ 31.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם בֶּן־מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה אָנֹכִי הַיּוֹם לֹא־אוּכַל עוֹד לָצֵאת וְלָבוֹא וַיהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי לֹא תַעֲבֹר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה׃ 31.2. כִּי־אֲבִיאֶנּוּ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לַאֲבֹתָיו זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ וְאָכַל וְשָׂבַע וְדָשֵׁן וּפָנָה אֶל־אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַעֲבָדוּם וְנִאֲצוּנִי וְהֵפֵר אֶת־בְּרִיתִי׃ 31.3. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא עֹבֵר לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא־יַשְׁמִיד אֶת־הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וִירִשְׁתָּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הוּא עֹבֵר לְפָנֶיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה׃ 31.3. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה בְּאָזְנֵי כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עַד תֻּמָּם׃ 31.4. וְעָשָׂה יְהוָה לָהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְסִיחוֹן וּלְעוֹג מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי וּלְאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁמִיד אֹתָם׃ 31.5. וּנְתָנָם יְהוָה לִפְנֵיכֶם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָהֶם כְּכָל־הַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם׃ 31.6. חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תַּעַרְצוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ׃ 31.7. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ כִּי אַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתָם לָתֵת לָהֶם וְאַתָּה תַּנְחִילֶנָּה אוֹתָם׃ 31.8. וַיהוָה הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ לֹא תִירָא וְלֹא תֵחָת׃ 31.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הֵן קָרְבוּ יָמֶיךָ לָמוּת קְרָא אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַאֲצַוֶּנּוּ וַיֵּלֶךְ מֹשֶׁה וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 31.15. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה בָּאֹהֶל בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן עַל־פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל׃ 32.48. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 32.49. עֲלֵה אֶל־הַר הָעֲבָרִים הַזֶּה הַר־נְבוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרֵחוֹ וּרְאֵה אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַאֲחֻזָּה׃ 32.51. עַל אֲשֶׁר מְעַלְתֶּם בִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמֵי־מְרִיבַת קָדֵשׁ מִדְבַּר־צִן עַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קִדַּשְׁתֶּם אוֹתִי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.52. כִּי מִנֶּגֶד תִּרְאֶה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁמָּה לֹא תָבוֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי נֹתֵן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 33.4. תּוֹרָה צִוָּה־לָנוּ מֹשֶׁה מוֹרָשָׁה קְהִלַּת יַעֲקֹב׃ 33.8. וּלְלֵוִי אָמַר תֻּמֶּיךָ וְאוּרֶיךָ לְאִישׁ חֲסִידֶךָ אֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתוֹ בְּמַסָּה תְּרִיבֵהוּ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה׃ 34.5. וַיָּמָת שָׁם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב עַל־פִּי יְהוָה׃ 34.6. וַיִּקְבֹּר אֹתוֹ בַגַּיְ בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מוּל בֵּית פְּעוֹר וְלֹא־יָדַע אִישׁ אֶת־קְבֻרָתוֹ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 34.7. וּמֹשֶׁה בֶּן־מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה בְּמֹתוֹ לֹא־כָהֲתָה עֵינוֹ וְלֹא־נָס לֵחֹה׃ 34.8. וַיִּבְכּוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־מֹשֶׁה בְּעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וַיִּתְּמוּ יְמֵי בְכִי אֵבֶל מֹשֶׁה׃ 34.9. וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן מָלֵא רוּחַ חָכְמָה כִּי־סָמַךְ מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדָיו עָלָיו וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֵלָיו בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 34.11. לְכָל־הָאֹתוֹת וְהַמּוֹפְתִים אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחוֹ יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לְפַרְעֹה וּלְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וּלְכָל־אַרְצוֹ׃ 34.12. וּלְכֹל הַיָּד הַחֲזָקָה וּלְכֹל הַמּוֹרָא הַגָּדוֹל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה לְעֵינֵי כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 3.28. But charge Joshua, and encourage him, and strengthen him; for he shall go over before this people, and he shall cause them to inherit the land which thou shalt see.’" 5.22. Now therefore why should we die? for this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of the LORD our God any more, then we shall die." 5.27. Go say to them: Return ye to your tents." 13.1. All this word which I command you, that shall ye observe to do; thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it." 17.8. If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, even matters of controversy within thy gates; then shalt thou arise, and get thee up unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose." 17.12. And the man that doeth presumptuously, in not hearkening unto the priest that standeth to minister there before the LORD thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die; and thou shalt exterminate the evil from Israel." 17.14. When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein; and shalt say: ‘I will set a king over me, like all the nations that are round about me’;" 17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 17.18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites." 17.19. And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;" 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel." 20.1. When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and seest horses, and chariots, and a people more than thou, thou shalt not be afraid of them; for the LORD thy God is with thee, who brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." 23.10. When thou goest forth in camp against thine enemies, then thou shalt keep thee from every evil thing." 23.15. For the LORD thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall thy camp be holy; that He see no unseemly thing in thee, and turn away from thee." 30.1. And it shall come to pass, when all these things are come upon thee, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before thee, and thou shalt bethink thyself among all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath driven thee," 31.1. And Moses went and spoke these words unto all Israel." 31.2. And he said unto them: ‘I am a hundred and twenty years old this day; I can no more go out and come in; and the LORD hath said unto me: Thou shalt not go over this Jordan." 31.3. The LORD thy God, He will go over before thee; He will destroy these nations from before thee, and thou shalt dispossess them; and Joshua, he shall go over before thee, as the LORD hath spoken." 31.4. And the LORD will do unto them as He did to Sihon and to Og, the kings of the Amorites, and unto their land; whom He destroyed." 31.5. And the LORD will deliver them up before you, and ye shall do unto them according unto all the commandment which I have commanded you." 31.6. Be strong and of good courage, fear not, nor be affrighted at them; for the LORD thy God, He it is that doth go with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.’" 31.7. And Moses called unto Joshua, and said unto him in the sight of all Israel: ‘Be strong and of good courage; for thou shalt go with this people into the land which the LORD hath sworn unto their fathers to give them; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it." 31.8. And the LORD, He it is that doth go before thee; He will be with thee, He will not fail thee, neither forsake thee; fear not, neither be dismayed.’" 31.14. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Behold, thy days approach that thou must die; call Joshua, and present yourselves in the tent of meeting, that I may give him a charge.’ And Moses and Joshua went, and presented themselves in the tent of meeting." 31.15. And the LORD appeared in the Tent in a pillar of cloud; and the pillar of cloud stood over the door of the Tent." 31.20. For when I shall have brought them into the land which I swore unto their fathers, flowing with milk and honey; and they shall have eaten their fill, and waxen fat; and turned unto other gods, and served them, and despised Me, and broken My covet;" 32.48. And the LORD spoke unto Moses that selfsame day, saying:" 32.49. ’Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, unto mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab, that is over against Jericho; and behold the land of Canaan, which I give unto the children of Israel for a possession;" 32.50. and die in the mount whither thou goest up, and be gathered unto thy people; as Aaron thy brother died in mount Hor, and was gathered unto his people." 32.51. Because ye trespassed against Me in the midst of the children of Israel at the waters of Meribath-kadesh, in the wilderness of Zin; because ye sanctified Me not in the midst of the children of Israel." 32.52. For thou shalt see the land afar off; but thou shalt not go thither into the land which I give the children of Israel.’" 33.4. Moses commanded us a law, An inheritance of the congregation of Jacob." 33.8. And of Levi he said: Thy Thummim and Thy Urim be with Thy holy one, Whom Thou didst prove at Massah, With whom Thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;" 33.10. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordices, And Israel Thy law; They shall put incense before Thee, And whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. ." 34.5. So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD." 34.6. And he was buried in the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth-peor; and no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day." 34.7. And Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated." 34.8. And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days; so the days of weeping in the mourning for Moses were ended." 34.9. And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him; and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the LORD commanded Moses." 34.10. And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face;" 34.11. in all the signs and the wonders, which the LORD sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land;" 34.12. and in all the mighty hand, and in all the great terror, which Moses wrought in the sight of all Israel."
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כְּשֹׁךְ חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ זָכַר אֶת־וַשְׁתִּי וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂתָה וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־נִגְזַר עָלֶיהָ׃ 2.1. לֹא־הִגִּידָה אֶסְתֵּר אֶת־עַמָּהּ וְאֶת־מוֹלַדְתָּהּ כִּי מָרְדֳּכַי צִוָּה עָלֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תַגִּיד׃ 2.1. After these things, when the wrath of king Ahasuerus was assuaged, he remembered Vashti, and what she had done, and what was decreed against her."
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 8.18, 12.3, 16.1-16.3, 16.6, 16.9-16.10, 16.22, 17.1, 19.2, 19.8-19.9, 24.1, 24.7, 28.23-28.26, 28.30, 29.7, 29.30, 34.31, 35.1, 35.4, 35.20, 40.12-40.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.18. וְהִפְלֵיתִי בַיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶת־אֶרֶץ גֹּשֶׁן אֲשֶׁר עַמִּי עֹמֵד עָלֶיהָ לְבִלְתִּי הֱיוֹת־שָׁם עָרֹב לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃ 12.3. וַיָּקָם פַּרְעֹה לַיְלָה הוּא וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וְכָל־מִצְרַיִם וַתְּהִי צְעָקָה גְדֹלָה בְּמִצְרָיִם כִּי־אֵין בַּיִת אֲשֶׁר אֵין־שָׁם מֵת׃ 12.3. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בֶּעָשֹׂר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְיִקְחוּ לָהֶם אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית־אָבֹת שֶׂה לַבָּיִת׃ 16.1. וַיִּסְעוּ מֵאֵילִם וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־מִדְבַּר־סִין אֲשֶׁר בֵּין־אֵילִם וּבֵין סִינָי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 16.1. וַיְהִי כְּדַבֵּר אַהֲרֹן אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּפְנוּ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר וְהִנֵּה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה נִרְאָה בֶּעָנָן׃ 16.2. וילינו [וַיִּלּוֹנוּ] כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 16.2. וְלֹא־שָׁמְעוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיּוֹתִרוּ אֲנָשִׁים מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר וַיָּרֻם תּוֹלָעִים וַיִּבְאַשׁ וַיִּקְצֹף עֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה׃ 16.3. וַיִּשְׁבְּתוּ הָעָם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִעִי׃ 16.3. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֲלֵהֶם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִי־יִתֵּן מוּתֵנוּ בְיַד־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בְּשִׁבְתֵּנוּ עַל־סִיר הַבָּשָׂר בְּאָכְלֵנוּ לֶחֶם לָשֹׂבַע כִּי־הוֹצֵאתֶם אֹתָנוּ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית אֶת־כָּל־הַקָּהָל הַזֶּה בָּרָעָב׃ 16.6. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֶל־כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֶרֶב וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי יְהוָה הוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 16.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אֱמֹר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל קִרְבוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי שָׁמַע אֵת תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם׃ 16.22. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לָקְטוּ לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה שְׁנֵי הָעֹמֶר לָאֶחָד וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־נְשִׂיאֵי הָעֵדָה וַיַּגִּידוּ לְמֹשֶׁה׃ 17.1. וַיִּסְעוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּדְבַּר־סִין לְמַסְעֵיהֶם עַל־פִּי יְהוָה וַיַּחֲנוּ בִּרְפִידִים וְאֵין מַיִם לִשְׁתֹּת הָעָם׃ 17.1. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמַר־לוֹ מֹשֶׁה לְהִלָּחֵם בַּעֲמָלֵק וּמֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן וְחוּר עָלוּ רֹאשׁ הַגִּבְעָה׃ 19.2. וַיִּסְעוּ מֵרְפִידִים וַיָּבֹאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינַי וַיַּחֲנוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיִּחַן־שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל נֶגֶד הָהָר׃ 19.2. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי אֶל־רֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה לְמֹשֶׁה אֶל־רֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה׃ 19.8. וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם יַחְדָּו וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וַיָּשֶׁב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 19.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָּא אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַב הֶעָנָן בַּעֲבוּר יִשְׁמַע הָעָם בְּדַבְּרִי עִמָּךְ וְגַם־בְּךָ יַאֲמִינוּ לְעוֹלָם וַיַּגֵּד מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 24.1. וַיִּרְאוּ אֵת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְתַחַת רַגְלָיו כְּמַעֲשֵׂה לִבְנַת הַסַּפִּיר וּכְעֶצֶם הַשָּׁמַיִם לָטֹהַר׃ 24.1. וְאֶל־מֹשֶׁה אָמַר עֲלֵה אֶל־יְהוָה אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא וְשִׁבְעִים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם מֵרָחֹק׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 28.23. וְעָשִׂיתָ עַל־הַחֹשֶׁן שְׁתֵּי טַבְּעוֹת זָהָב וְנָתַתָּ אֶת־שְׁתֵּי הַטַּבָּעוֹת עַל־שְׁנֵי קְצוֹת הַחֹשֶׁן׃ 28.24. וְנָתַתָּה אֶת־שְׁתֵּי עֲבֹתֹת הַזָּהָב עַל־שְׁתֵּי הַטַּבָּעֹת אֶל־קְצוֹת הַחֹשֶׁן׃ 28.25. וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי קְצוֹת שְׁתֵּי הָעֲבֹתֹת תִּתֵּן עַל־שְׁתֵּי הַמִּשְׁבְּצוֹת וְנָתַתָּה עַל־כִּתְפוֹת הָאֵפֹד אֶל־מוּל פָּנָיו׃ 28.26. וְעָשִׂיתָ שְׁתֵּי טַבְּעוֹת זָהָב וְשַׂמְתָּ אֹתָם עַל־שְׁנֵי קְצוֹת הַחֹשֶׁן עַל־שְׂפָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר אֶל־עֵבֶר הָאֵפֹד בָּיְתָה׃ 29.7. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וְיָצַקְתָּ עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתוֹ׃ 34.31. וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם׃ 35.1. וְכָל־חֲכַם־לֵב בָּכֶם יָבֹאוּ וְיַעֲשׂוּ אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 35.1. וַיַּקְהֵל מֹשֶׁה אֶת־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לַעֲשֹׂת אֹתָם׃ 35.4. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 40.12. וְהִקְרַבְתָּ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְרָחַצְתָּ אֹתָם בַּמָּיִם׃ 40.13. וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אֵת בִּגְדֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתוֹ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתוֹ וְכִהֵן לִי׃ 40.14. וְאֶת־בָּנָיו תַּקְרִיב וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם כֻּתֳּנֹת׃ 40.15. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתָם כַּאֲשֶׁר מָשַׁחְתָּ אֶת־אֲבִיהֶם וְכִהֲנוּ לִי וְהָיְתָה לִהְיֹת לָהֶם מָשְׁחָתָם לִכְהֻנַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 8.18. And I will set apart in that day the land of Goshen, in which My people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end that thou mayest know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth." 12.3. Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’houses, a lamb for a household;" 16.1. And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt." 16.2. And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron in the wilderness;" 16.3. and the children of Israel said unto them: ‘Would that we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh-pots, when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger.’" 16.6. And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel: ‘At even, then ye shall know that the LORD hath brought you out from the land of Egypt;" 16.9. And Moses said unto Aaron: ‘Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel: Come near before the LORD; for He hath heard your murmurings.’" 16.10. And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud." 16.22. And it came to pass that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each one; and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses." 17.1. And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, by their stages, according to the commandment of the LORD, and encamped in Rephidim; and there was no water for the people to drink." 19.2. And when they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the wilderness of Sinai, they encamped in the wilderness; and there Israel encamped before the mount." 19.8. And all the people answered together, and said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken we will do.’ And Moses reported the words of the people unto the LORD." 19.9. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and may also believe thee for ever.’ And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD." 24.1. And unto Moses He said: ‘Come up unto the LORD, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship ye afar off;" 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 28.23. And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate." 28.24. And thou shalt put the two wreathen chains of gold on the two rings at the ends of the breastplate." 28.25. And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains thou shalt put on the two settings, and put them on the shoulder-pieces of the ephod, in the forepart thereof." 28.26. And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them upon the two ends of the breastplate, upon the edge thereof, which is toward the side of the ephod inward." 28.30. And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron’s heart, when he goeth in before the LORD; and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually." 29.7. Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him." 29.30. Seven days shall the son that is priest in his stead put them on, even he who cometh into the tent of meeting to minister in the holy place." 34.31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him; and Moses spoke to them." 35.1. And Moses assembled all the congregation of the children of Israel, and said unto them: ‘These are the words which the LORD hath commanded, that ye should do them." 35.4. And Moses spoke unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying: ‘This is the thing which the LORD commanded, saying:" 35.20. And all the congregation of the children of Israel departed from the presence of Moses." 40.12. And thou shalt bring Aaron and his sons unto the door of the tent of meeting, and shalt wash them with water." 40.13. And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments; and thou shalt anoint him, and sanctify him, that he may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 40.14. And thou shalt bring his sons, and put tunics upon them." 40.15. And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office; and their anointing shall be to them for an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 24.37-24.38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.37. וַיַּשְׁבִּעֵנִי אֲדֹנִי לֵאמֹר לֹא־תִקַּח אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי מִבְּנוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי יֹשֵׁב בְּאַרְצוֹ׃ 24.38. אִם־לֹא אֶל־בֵּית־אָבִי תֵּלֵךְ וְאֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתִּי וְלָקַחְתָּ אִשָּׁה לִבְנִי׃ 24.37. And my master made me swear, saying: Thou shalt not take a wife for my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I dwell." 24.38. But thou shalt go unto my father’s house, and to my kindred, and take a wife for my son."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 4.13-4.15, 4.21, 8.4, 8.7-8.8, 10.3, 16.5, 16.17, 16.33, 19.2, 21.12, 24.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. וְאִם כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁגּוּ וְנֶעְלַם דָּבָר מֵעֵינֵי הַקָּהָל וְעָשׂוּ אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְאָשֵׁמוּ׃ 4.14. וְנוֹדְעָה הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר חָטְאוּ עָלֶיהָ וְהִקְרִיבוּ הַקָּהָל פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְהֵבִיאוּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.15. וְסָמְכוּ זִקְנֵי הָעֵדָה אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 4.21. וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־הַפָּר אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׂרַף אֹתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׂרַף אֵת הַפָּר הָרִאשׁוֹן חַטַּאת הַקָּהָל הוּא׃ 8.7. וַיִּתֵּן עָלָיו אֶת־הַכֻּתֹּנֶת וַיַּחְגֹּר אֹתוֹ בָּאַבְנֵט וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ אֶת־הַמְּעִיל וַיִּתֵּן עָלָיו אֶת־הָאֵפֹד וַיַּחְגֹּר אֹתוֹ בְּחֵשֶׁב הָאֵפֹד וַיֶּאְפֹּד לוֹ בּוֹ׃ 8.8. וַיָּשֶׂם עָלָיו אֶת־הַחֹשֶׁן וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־הַחֹשֶׁן אֶת־הָאוּרִים וְאֶת־הַתֻּמִּים׃ 10.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן הוּא אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה לֵאמֹר בִּקְרֹבַי אֶקָּדֵשׁ וְעַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶכָּבֵד וַיִּדֹּם אַהֲרֹן׃ 16.5. וּמֵאֵת עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יִקַּח שְׁנֵי־שְׂעִירֵי עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל אֶחָד לְעֹלָה׃ 16.17. וְכָל־אָדָם לֹא־יִהְיֶה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד בְּבֹאוֹ לְכַפֵּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וּבְעַד כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 16.33. וְכִפֶּר אֶת־מִקְדַּשׁ הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ יְכַפֵּר וְעַל הַכֹּהֲנִים וְעַל־כָּל־עַם הַקָּהָל יְכַפֵּר׃ 19.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃ 21.12. וּמִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא יֵצֵא וְלֹא יְחַלֵּל אֵת מִקְדַּשׁ אֱלֹהָיו כִּי נֵזֶר שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 24.14. הוֹצֵא אֶת־הַמְקַלֵּל אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְסָמְכוּ כָל־הַשֹּׁמְעִים אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וְרָגְמוּ אֹתוֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 4.13. And if the whole congregation of Israel shall err, the thing being hid from the eyes of the assembly, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and are guilty:" 4.14. when the sin wherein they have sinned is known, then the assembly shall offer a young bullock for a sin-offering, and bring it before the tent of meeting." 4.15. And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD; and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD." 4.21. And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bullock; it is the sin-offering for the assembly." 8.7. And he put upon him the tunic, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod upon him, and he girded him with the skilfully woven band of the ephod, and bound it unto him therewith." 8.8. And he placed the breastplate upon him; and in the breastplate he put the Urim and the Thummim." 10.3. Then Moses said unto Aaron: ‘This is it that the LORD spoke, saying: Through them that are nigh unto Me I will be sanctified, and before all the people I will be glorified.’ And Aaron held his peace." 16.5. And he shall take of the congregation of the children of Israel two he-goats for a sin-offering, and one ram for a burnt-offering." 16.17. And there shall be no man in the tent of meeting when he goeth in to make atonement in the holy place, until he come out, and have made atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the assembly of Israel." 16.33. And he shall make atonement for the most holy place, and he shall make atonement for the tent of meeting and for the altar; and he shall make atonement for the priests and for all the people of the assembly." 19.2. Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy." 21.12. neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the consecration of the anointing oil of his God is upon him: I am the LORD." 24.14. ’Bring forth him that hath cursed without the camp; and let all that heard him lay their hands upon his head, and let all the congregation stone him."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 1.16, 1.18, 13.26, 14.2, 14.7, 14.10, 14.27, 14.35-14.36, 15.24-15.26, 15.33, 15.35-15.36, 16.2-16.3, 16.9, 16.19, 16.21-16.22, 16.24, 16.26, 16.33, 19.9, 19.20, 20.1-20.2, 20.4, 20.6, 20.8, 20.10-20.12, 20.22, 22.4, 24.4, 24.24, 25.6-25.7, 26.7, 26.9-26.10, 26.34, 26.59, 26.61, 27.1-27.4, 27.12-27.20, 27.22-27.23, 31.16, 35.33-35.34, 36.1-36.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.16. אֵלֶּה קריאי [קְרוּאֵי] הָעֵדָה נְשִׂיאֵי מַטּוֹת אֲבוֹתָם רָאשֵׁי אַלְפֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵם׃ 1.18. וְאֵת כָּל־הָעֵדָה הִקְהִילוּ בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי וַיִּתְיַלְדוּ עַל־מִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם בְּמִסְפַּר שֵׁמוֹת מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה לְגֻלְגְּלֹתָם׃ 13.26. וַיֵּלְכוּ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־מִדְבַּר פָּארָן קָדֵשָׁה וַיָּשִׁיבוּ אוֹתָם דָּבָר וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעֵדָה וַיַּרְאוּם אֶת־פְּרִי הָאָרֶץ׃ 14.2. וַיִּלֹּנוּ עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן כֹּל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֲלֵהֶם כָּל־הָעֵדָה לוּ־מַתְנוּ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם אוֹ בַּמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה לוּ־מָתְנוּ׃ 14.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה סָלַחְתִּי כִּדְבָרֶךָ׃ 14.7. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר עָבַרְנוּ בָהּ לָתוּר אֹתָהּ טוֹבָה הָאָרֶץ מְאֹד מְאֹד׃ 14.27. עַד־מָתַי לָעֵדָה הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר הֵמָּה מַלִּינִים עָלָי אֶת־תְּלֻנּוֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֵמָּה מַלִּינִים עָלַי שָׁמָעְתִּי׃ 14.35. אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי אִם־לֹא זֹאת אֶעֱשֶׂה לְכָל־הָעֵדָה הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת הַנּוֹעָדִים עָלָי בַּמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה יִתַּמּוּ וְשָׁם יָמֻתוּ׃ 14.36. וְהָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־שָׁלַח מֹשֶׁה לָתוּר אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וילונו [וַיַּלִּינוּ] עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־הָעֵדָה לְהוֹצִיא דִבָּה עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 15.24. וְהָיָה אִם מֵעֵינֵי הָעֵדָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה לִשְׁגָגָה וְעָשׂוּ כָל־הָעֵדָה פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד לְעֹלָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וּמִנְחָתוֹ וְנִסְכּוֹ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּת׃ 15.25. וְכִפֶּר הַכֹּהֵן עַל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִסְלַח לָהֶם כִּי־שְׁגָגָה הִוא וְהֵם הֵבִיאוּ אֶת־קָרְבָּנָם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה וְחַטָּאתָם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־שִׁגְגָתָם׃ 15.26. וְנִסְלַח לְכָל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם כִּי לְכָל־הָעָם בִּשְׁגָגָה׃ 15.33. וַיַּקְרִיבוּ אֹתוֹ הַמֹּצְאִים אֹתוֹ מְקֹשֵׁשׁ עֵצִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 15.35. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה מוֹת יוּמַת הָאִישׁ רָגוֹם אֹתוֹ בָאֲבָנִים כָּל־הָעֵדָה מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 15.36. וַיֹּצִיאוּ אֹתוֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָה אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וַיִּרְגְּמוּ אֹתוֹ בָּאֲבָנִים וַיָּמֹת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 16.2. וַיָּקֻמוּ לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה וַאֲנָשִׁים מִבְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם נְשִׂיאֵי עֵדָה קְרִאֵי מוֹעֵד אַנְשֵׁי־שֵׁם׃ 16.2. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 16.3. וְאִם־בְּרִיאָה יִבְרָא יְהוָה וּפָצְתָה הָאֲדָמָה אֶת־פִּיהָ וּבָלְעָה אֹתָם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר לָהֶם וְיָרְדוּ חַיִּים שְׁאֹלָה וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי נִאֲצוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 16.3. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֲלֵהֶם רַב־לָכֶם כִּי כָל־הָעֵדָה כֻּלָּם קְדֹשִׁים וּבְתוֹכָם יְהוָה וּמַדּוּעַ תִּתְנַשְּׂאוּ עַל־קְהַל יְהוָה׃ 16.9. הַמְעַט מִכֶּם כִּי־הִבְדִּיל אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶתְכֶם מֵעֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַקְרִיב אֶתְכֶם אֵלָיו לַעֲבֹד אֶת־עֲבֹדַת מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה וְלַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי הָעֵדָה לְשָׁרְתָם׃ 16.19. וַיַּקְהֵל עֲלֵיהֶם קֹרַח אֶת־כָּל־הָעֵדָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיֵּרָא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶל־כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 16.21. הִבָּדְלוּ מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַזֹּאת וַאַכַלֶּה אֹתָם כְּרָגַע׃ 16.22. וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵל אֱלֹהֵי הָרוּחֹת לְכָל־בָּשָׂר הָאִישׁ אֶחָד יֶחֱטָא וְעַל כָּל־הָעֵדָה תִּקְצֹף׃ 16.24. דַּבֵּר אֶל־הָעֵדָה לֵאמֹר הֵעָלוּ מִסָּבִיב לְמִשְׁכַּן־קֹרַח דָּתָן וַאֲבִירָם׃ 16.26. וַיְדַבֵּר אֶל־הָעֵדָה לֵאמֹר סוּרוּ נָא מֵעַל אָהֳלֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים הָרְשָׁעִים הָאֵלֶּה וְאַל־תִּגְּעוּ בְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר לָהֶם פֶּן־תִּסָּפוּ בְּכָל־חַטֹּאתָם׃ 16.33. וַיֵּרְדוּ הֵם וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר לָהֶם חַיִּים שְׁאֹלָה וַתְּכַס עֲלֵיהֶם הָאָרֶץ וַיֹּאבְדוּ מִתּוֹךְ הַקָּהָל׃ 19.9. וְאָסַף אִישׁ טָהוֹר אֵת אֵפֶר הַפָּרָה וְהִנִּיחַ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר וְהָיְתָה לַעֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת לְמֵי נִדָּה חַטָּאת הִוא׃ 20.1. וַיַּקְהִלוּ מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַקָּהָל אֶל־פְּנֵי הַסָּלַע וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם שִׁמְעוּ־נָא הַמֹּרִים הֲמִן־הַסֶּלַע הַזֶּה נוֹצִיא לָכֶם מָיִם׃ 20.1. וַיָּבֹאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־הָעֵדָה מִדְבַּר־צִן בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן וַיֵּשֶׁב הָעָם בְּקָדֵשׁ וַתָּמָת שָׁם מִרְיָם וַתִּקָּבֵר שָׁם׃ 20.2. וְלֹא־הָיָה מַיִם לָעֵדָה וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן׃ 20.2. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא תַעֲבֹר וַיֵּצֵא אֱדוֹם לִקְרָאתוֹ בְּעַם כָּבֵד וּבְיָד חֲזָקָה׃ 20.4. וְלָמָה הֲבֵאתֶם אֶת־קְהַל יְהוָה אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה לָמוּת שָׁם אֲנַחְנוּ וּבְעִירֵנוּ׃ 20.6. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן מִפְּנֵי הַקָּהָל אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם וַיֵּרָא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 20.8. קַח אֶת־הַמַּטֶּה וְהַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעֵדָה אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְדִבַּרְתֶּם אֶל־הַסֶּלַע לְעֵינֵיהֶם וְנָתַן מֵימָיו וְהוֹצֵאתָ לָהֶם מַיִם מִן־הַסֶּלַע וְהִשְׁקִיתָ אֶת־הָעֵדָה וְאֶת־בְּעִירָם׃ 20.11. וַיָּרֶם מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיַּךְ אֶת־הַסֶּלַע בְּמַטֵּהוּ פַּעֲמָיִם וַיֵּצְאוּ מַיִם רַבִּים וַתֵּשְׁתְּ הָעֵדָה וּבְעִירָם׃ 20.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן יַעַן לֹא־הֶאֱמַנְתֶּם בִּי לְהַקְדִּישֵׁנִי לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָכֵן לֹא תָבִיאוּ אֶת־הַקָּהָל הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתִּי לָהֶם׃ 22.4. וַיֹּאמֶר מוֹאָב אֶל־זִקְנֵי מִדְיָן עַתָּה יְלַחֲכוּ הַקָּהָל אֶת־כָּל־סְבִיבֹתֵינוּ כִּלְחֹךְ הַשּׁוֹר אֵת יֶרֶק הַשָּׂדֶה וּבָלָק בֶּן־צִפּוֹר מֶלֶךְ לְמוֹאָב בָּעֵת הַהִוא׃ 22.4. וַיִּזְבַּח בָּלָק בָּקָר וָצֹאן וַיְשַׁלַּח לְבִלְעָם וְלַשָּׂרִים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ׃ 24.4. נְאֻם שֹׁמֵעַ אִמְרֵי־אֵל אֲשֶׁר מַחֲזֵה שַׁדַּי יֶחֱזֶה נֹפֵל וּגְלוּי עֵינָיִם׃ 24.24. וְצִים מִיַּד כִּתִּים וְעִנּוּ אַשּׁוּר וְעִנּוּ־עֵבֶר וְגַם־הוּא עֲדֵי אֹבֵד׃ 25.6. וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּא וַיַּקְרֵב אֶל־אֶחָיו אֶת־הַמִּדְיָנִית לְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה וּלְעֵינֵי כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֵמָּה בֹכִים פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 25.7. וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃ 26.7. אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָרֻאוּבֵנִי וַיִּהְיוּ פְקֻדֵיהֶם שְׁלֹשָׁה וְאַרְבָּעִים אֶלֶף וּשְׁבַע מֵאוֹת וּשְׁלֹשִׁים׃ 26.9. וּבְנֵי אֱלִיאָב נְמוּאֵל וְדָתָן וַאֲבִירָם הוּא־דָתָן וַאֲבִירָם קרואי [קְרִיאֵי] הָעֵדָה אֲשֶׁר הִצּוּ עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן בַּעֲדַת־קֹרַח בְּהַצֹּתָם עַל־יְהוָה׃ 26.34. אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת מְנַשֶּׁה וּפְקֻדֵיהֶם שְׁנַיִם וַחֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף וּשְׁבַע מֵאוֹת׃ 26.59. וְשֵׁם אֵשֶׁת עַמְרָם יוֹכֶבֶד בַּת־לֵוִי אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה אֹתָהּ לְלֵוִי בְּמִצְרָיִם וַתֵּלֶד לְעַמְרָם אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֵת מִרְיָם אֲחֹתָם׃ 26.61. וַיָּמָת נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא בְּהַקְרִיבָם אֵשׁ־זָרָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 27.1. וְאִם־אֵין לוֹ אַחִים וּנְתַתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לַאֲחֵי אָבִיו׃ 27.1. וַתִּקְרַבְנָה בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד בֶּן־חֵפֶר בֶּן־גִּלְעָד בֶּן־מָכִיר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה לְמִשְׁפְּחֹת מְנַשֶּׁה בֶן־יוֹסֵף וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת בְּנֹתָיו מַחְלָה נֹעָה וְחָגְלָה וּמִלְכָּה וְתִרְצָה׃ 27.2. וְנָתַתָּה מֵהוֹדְךָ עָלָיו לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 27.2. וַתַּעֲמֹדְנָה לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי הַנְּשִׂיאִם וְכָל־הָעֵדָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר׃ 27.3. אָבִינוּ מֵת בַּמִּדְבָּר וְהוּא לֹא־הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַנּוֹעָדִים עַל־יְהוָה בַּעֲדַת־קֹרַח כִּי־בְחֶטְאוֹ מֵת וּבָנִים לֹא־הָיוּ לוֹ׃ 27.4. לָמָּה יִגָּרַע שֵׁם־אָבִינוּ מִתּוֹךְ מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ כִּי אֵין לוֹ בֵּן תְּנָה־לָּנוּ אֲחֻזָּה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵי אָבִינוּ׃ 27.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵה אֶל־הַר הָעֲבָרִים הַזֶּה וּרְאֵה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 27.13. וְרָאִיתָה אֹתָהּ וְנֶאֱסַפְתָּ אֶל־עַמֶּיךָ גַּם־אָתָּה כַּאֲשֶׁר נֶאֱסַף אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ׃ 27.14. כַּאֲשֶׁר מְרִיתֶם פִּי בְּמִדְבַּר־צִן בִּמְרִיבַת הָעֵדָה לְהַקְדִּישֵׁנִי בַמַּיִם לְעֵינֵיהֶם הֵם מֵי־מְרִיבַת קָדֵשׁ מִדְבַּר־צִן׃ 27.15. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 27.16. יִפְקֹד יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הָרוּחֹת לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אִישׁ עַל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.17. אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יוֹצִיאֵם וַאֲשֶׁר יְבִיאֵם וְלֹא תִהְיֶה עֲדַת יְהוָה כַּצֹּאן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם רֹעֶה׃ 27.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח־לְךָ אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־רוּחַ בּוֹ וְסָמַכְתָּ אֶת־יָדְךָ עָלָיו׃ 27.19. וְהַעֲמַדְתָּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה וְצִוִּיתָה אֹתוֹ לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 27.22. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֹתוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיַּעֲמִדֵהוּ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.23. וַיִּסְמֹךְ אֶת־יָדָיו עָלָיו וַיְצַוֵּהוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 31.16. הֵן הֵנָּה הָיוּ לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּדְבַר בִּלְעָם לִמְסָר־מַעַל בַּיהוָה עַל־דְּבַר־פְּעוֹר וַתְּהִי הַמַּגֵּפָה בַּעֲדַת יְהוָה׃ 35.33. וְלֹא־תַחֲנִיפוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּהּ כִּי הַדָּם הוּא יַחֲנִיף אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְלָאָרֶץ לֹא־יְכֻפַּר לַדָּם אֲשֶׁר שֻׁפַּךְ־בָּהּ כִּי־אִם בְּדַם שֹׁפְכוֹ׃ 35.34. וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹשְׁבִים בָּהּ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָהּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 36.1. כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה כֵּן עָשׂוּ בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד׃ 36.1. וַיִּקְרְבוּ רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת לְמִשְׁפַּחַת בְּנֵי־גִלְעָד בֶּן־מָכִיר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה מִמִּשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵי יוֹסֵף וַיְדַבְּרוּ לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְלִפְנֵי הַנְּשִׂאִים רָאשֵׁי אָבוֹת לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 36.2. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶת־אֲדֹנִי צִוָּה יְהוָה לָתֵת אֶת־הָאָרֶץ בְּנַחֲלָה בְּגוֹרָל לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאדֹנִי צֻוָּה בַיהוָה לָתֵת אֶת־נַחֲלַת צְלָפְחָד אָחִינוּ לִבְנֹתָיו׃ 36.3. וְהָיוּ לְאֶחָד מִבְּנֵי שִׁבְטֵי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְנָשִׁים וְנִגְרְעָה נַחֲלָתָן מִנַּחֲלַת אֲבֹתֵינוּ וְנוֹסַף עַל נַחֲלַת הַמַּטֶּה אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶינָה לָהֶם וּמִגֹּרַל נַחֲלָתֵנוּ יִגָּרֵעַ׃ 36.4. וְאִם־יִהְיֶה הַיֹּבֵל לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנוֹסְפָה נַחֲלָתָן עַל נַחֲלַת הַמַּטֶּה אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶינָה לָהֶם וּמִנַּחֲלַת מַטֵּה אֲבֹתֵינוּ יִגָּרַע נַחֲלָתָן׃ 36.5. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־פִּי יְהוָה לֵאמֹר כֵּן מַטֵּה בְנֵי־יוֹסֵף דֹּבְרִים׃ 36.6. זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לִבְנוֹת צְלָפְחָד לֵאמֹר לַטּוֹב בְּעֵינֵיהֶם תִּהְיֶינָה לְנָשִׁים אַךְ לְמִשְׁפַּחַת מַטֵּה אֲבִיהֶם תִּהְיֶינָה לְנָשִׁים׃ 36.7. וְלֹא־תִסֹּב נַחֲלָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמַּטֶּה אֶל־מַטֶּה כִּי אִישׁ בְּנַחֲלַת מַטֵּה אֲבֹתָיו יִדְבְּקוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 36.8. וְכָל־בַּת יֹרֶשֶׁת נַחֲלָה מִמַּטּוֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאֶחָד מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת מַטֵּה אָבִיהָ תִּהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה לְמַעַן יִירְשׁוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ נַחֲלַת אֲבֹתָיו׃ 36.9. וְלֹא־תִסֹּב נַחֲלָה מִמַּטֶּה לְמַטֶּה אַחֵר כִּי־אִישׁ בְּנַחֲלָתוֹ יִדְבְּקוּ מַטּוֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.16. These were the elect of the congregation, the princes of the tribes of their fathers; they were the heads of the thousands of Israel." 1.18. And they assembled all the congregation together on the first day of the second month, and they declared their pedigrees after their families, by their fathers’houses, according to the number of names, from twenty years old and upward, by their polls." 13.26. And they went and came to Moses, and to Aaron, and to all the congregation of the children of Israel, unto the wilderness of Paran, to Kadesh; and brought back word unto them, and unto all the congregation, and showed them the fruit of the land." 14.2. And all the children of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron; and the whole congregation said unto them: ‘Would that we had died in the land of Egypt! or would we had died in this wilderness!" 14.7. And they spoke unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying: ‘The land, which we passed through to spy it out, is an exceeding good land." 14.10. But all the congregation bade stone them with stones, when the glory of the LORD appeared in the tent of meeting unto all the children of Israel." 14.27. ’How long shall I bear with this evil congregation, that keep murmuring against Me? I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel, which they keep murmuring against Me." 14.35. I the LORD have spoken, surely this will I do unto all this evil congregation, that are gathered together against Me; in this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die.’" 14.36. And the men, whom Moses sent to spy out the land, and who, when they returned, made all the congregation to murmur against him, by bringing up an evil report against the land," 15.24. then it shall be, if it be done in error by the congregation, it being hid from their eyes, that all the congregation shall offer one young bullock for a burnt-offering, for a sweet savour unto the LORD—with the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof, according to the ordice—and one he-goat for a sin-offering." 15.25. And the priest shall make atonement for all the congregation of the children of Israel, and they shall be forgiven; for it was an error, and they have brought their offering, an offering made by fire unto the LORD, and their sin-offering before the LORD, for their error." 15.26. And all the congregation of the children of Israel shall be forgiven, and the stranger that sojourneth among them; for in respect of all the people it was done in error." 15.33. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation." 15.35. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘The man shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp.’" 15.36. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died, as the LORD commanded Moses." 16.2. and they rose up in face of Moses, with certain of the children of Israel, two hundred and fifty men; they were princes of the congregation, the elect men of the assembly, men of renown;" 16.3. and they assembled themselves together against Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them: ‘Ye take too much upon you, seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the LORD is among them; wherefore then lift ye up yourselves above the assembly of the LORD?’" 16.9. is it but a small thing unto you, that the God of Israel hath separated you from the congregation of Israel, to bring you near to Himself, to do the service of the tabernacle of the LORD, and to stand before the congregation to minister unto them;" 16.19. And Korah assembled all the congregation against them unto the door of the tent of meeting; and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the congregation." 16.21. ’Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment.’" 16.22. And they fell upon their faces, and said: ‘O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh, shall one man sin, and wilt Thou be wroth with all the congregation?’" 16.24. ’Speak unto the congregation, saying: Get you up from about the dwelling of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram.’" 16.26. And he spoke unto the congregation, saying: ‘Depart, I pray you, from the tents of these wicked men, and touch nothing of theirs, lest ye be swept away in all their sins.’" 16.33. So they, and all that appertained to them, went down alive into the pit; and the earth closed upon them, and they perished from among the assembly." 19.9. And a man that is clean shall gather up the ashes of the heifer, and lay them up without the camp in a clean place, and it shall be kept for the congregation of the children of Israel for a water of sprinkling; it is a purification from sin." 19.20. But the man that shall be unclean, and shall not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off from the midst of the assembly, because he hath defiled the sanctuary of the LORD; the water of sprinkling hath not been dashed against him: he is unclean." 20.1. And the children of Israel, even the whole congregation, came into the wilderness of Zin in the first month; and the people abode in Kadesh; and Miriam died there, and was buried there." 20.2. And there was no water for the congregation; and they assembled themselves together against Moses and against Aaron." 20.4. And why have ye brought the assembly of the LORD into this wilderness, to die there, we and our cattle?" 20.6. And Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly unto the door of the tent of meeting, and fell upon their faces; and the glory of the LORD appeared unto them." 20.8. ’Take the rod, and assemble the congregation, thou, and Aaron thy brother, and speak ye unto the rock before their eyes, that it give forth its water; and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of the rock; so thou shalt give the congregation and their cattle drink.’" 20.10. And Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together before the rock, and he said unto them: ‘Hear now, ye rebels; are we to bring you forth water out of this rock?’" 20.11. And Moses lifted up his hand, and smote the rock with his rod twice; and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their cattle." 20.12. And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron: ‘Because ye believed not in Me, to sanctify Me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them.’" 22.4. And Moab said unto the elders of Midian: ‘Now will this multitude lick up all that is round about us, as the ox licketh up the grass of the field.’—And Balak the son of Zippor was king of Moab at that time.—" 24.4. The saying of him who heareth the words of God, Who seeth the vision of the Almighty, Fallen down, yet with opened eyes:" 24.24. But ships shall come from the coast of Kittim, And they shall afflict Asshur, and shall afflict Eber, And he also shall come to destruction." 25.6. And, behold, one of the children of Israel came and brought unto his brethren a Midianitish woman in the sight of Moses, and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, while they were weeping at the door of the tent of meeting." 25.7. And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand." 26.7. These are the families of the Reubenites; and they that were numbered of them were forty and three thousand and seven hundred and thirty." 26.9. And the sons of Eliab: Nemuel, and Dathan, and Abiram. These are that Dathan and Abiram, the elect of the congregation, who strove against Moses and against Aaron in the company of Korah, when they strove against the LORD;" 26.10. and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up together with Korah, when that company died; what time the fire devoured two hundred and fifty men, and they became a sign." 26.34. These are the families of Manasseh; and they that were numbered of them were fifty and two thousand and seven hundred.’" 26.59. And the name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, who was born to Levi in Egypt; and she bore unto Amram Aaron and Moses, and Miriam their sister." 26.61. And Nadab and Abihu died, when they offered strange fire before the LORD." 27.1. Then drew near the daughters of Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of Manasseh the son of Joseph; and these are the names of his daughters: Mahlah, Noah, and Hoglah, and Milcah, and Tirzah." 27.2. And they stood before Moses, and before Eleazar the priest, and before the princes and all the congregation, at the door of the tent of meeting, saying:" 27.3. ’Our father died in the wilderness, and he was not among the company of them that gathered themselves together against the LORD in the company of Korah, but he died in his own sin; and he had no sons." 27.4. Why should the name of our father be done away from among his family, because he had no son? Give unto us a possession among the brethren of our father.’" 27.12. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, and behold the land which I have given unto the children of Israel." 27.13. And when thou hast seen it, thou also shalt be gathered unto thy people, as Aaron thy brother was gathered;" 27.14. because ye rebelled against My commandment in the wilderness of Zin, in the strife of the congregation, to sanctify Me at the waters before their eyes.’—These are the waters of Meribath-kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.—" 27.15. And Moses spoke unto the LORD, saying:" 27.16. ’Let the LORD, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation," 27.17. who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd.’" 27.18. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is spirit, and lay thy hand upon him;" 27.19. and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and give him a charge in their sight." 27.20. And thou shalt put of thy honour upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may hearken." 27.22. And Moses did as the LORD commanded him; and he took Joshua, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation." 27.23. And he laid his hands upon him, and gave him a charge, as the LORD spoke by the hand of Moses." 31.16. Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to revolt so as to break faith with the LORD in the matter of Peor, and so the plague was among the congregation of the LORD." 35.33. So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are; for blood, it polluteth the land; and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it." 35.34. And thou shalt not defile the land which ye inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the LORD dwell in the midst of the children of Israel.’" 36.1. And the heads of the fathers’houses of the family of the children of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of the sons of Joseph, came near, and spoke before Moses, and before the princes, the heads of the fathers’houses of the children of Israel;" 36.2. and they said: ‘The LORD commanded my lord to give the land for inheritance by lot to the children of Israel; and my lord was commanded by the LORD to give the inheritance of Zelophehad our brother unto his daughters." 36.3. And if they be married to any of the sons of the other tribes of the children of Israel, then will their inheritance be taken away from the inheritance of our fathers, and will be added to the inheritance of the tribe whereunto they shall belong; so will it be taken away from the lot of our inheritance." 36.4. And when the jubilee of the children of Israel shall be, then will their inheritance be added unto the inheritance of the tribe whereunto they shall belong; so will their inheritance be taken away from the inheritance of the tribe of our fathers.’" 36.5. And Moses commanded the children of Israel according to the word of the LORD, saying: ‘The tribe of the sons of Joseph speaketh right." 36.6. This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded concerning the daughters of Zelophehad, saying: Let them be married to whom they think best; only into the family of the tribe of their father shall they be married." 36.7. So shall no inheritance of the children of Israel remove from tribe to tribe; for the children of Israel shall cleave every one to the inheritance of the tribe of his fathers." 36.8. And every daughter, that possesseth an inheritance in any tribe of the children of Israel, shall be wife unto one of the family of the tribe of her father, that the children of Israel may possess every man the inheritance of his fathers." 36.9. So shall no inheritance remove from one tribe to another tribe; for the tribes of the children of Israel shall cleave each one to its own inheritance.’"
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 5.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.14. כִּמְעַט הָיִיתִי בְכָל־רָע בְּתוֹךְ קָהָל וְעֵדָה׃ 5.14. I was well nigh in all evil In the midst of the congregation and assembly.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2, 7.8, 10.16, 73.2, 110.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 7.8. וַעֲדַת לְאֻמִּים תְּסוֹבְבֶךָּ וְעָלֶיהָ לַמָּרוֹם שׁוּבָה׃ 10.16. יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ עוֹלָם וָעֶד אָבְדוּ גוֹיִם מֵאַרְצוֹ׃ 73.2. כַּחֲלוֹם מֵהָקִיץ אֲדֹנָי בָּעִיר צַלְמָם תִּבְזֶה׃ 73.2. וַאֲנִי כִּמְעַט נטוי [נָטָיוּ] רַגְלָי כְּאַיִן שפכה [שֻׁפְּכוּ] אֲשֻׁרָי׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night." 7.8. And let the congregation of the peoples compass Thee about, And over them return Thou on high." 10.16. The LORD is King for ever and ever; The nations are perished out of His land." 73.2. But as for me, my feet were almost gone; my steps had well nigh slipped." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'"
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.34, 12.20, 19.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.34. וּמָשַׁח אֹתוֹ שָׁם צָדוֹק הַכֹּהֵן וְנָתָן הַנָּבִיא לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וּתְקַעְתֶּם בַּשּׁוֹפָר וַאֲמַרְתֶּם יְחִי הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 19.16. וְאֵת יֵהוּא בֶן־נִמְשִׁי תִּמְשַׁח לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן־שָׁפָט מֵאָבֵל מְחוֹלָה תִּמְשַׁח לְנָבִיא תַּחְתֶּיךָ׃ 1.34. And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel; and blow ye with the horn, and say: Long live king Solomon." 12.20. And it came to pass, when all Israel heard that Jeroboam was returned, that they sent and called him unto the congregation, and made him king over all Israel; there was none that followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only." 19.16. and Jehu the son of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over Israel; and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.1, 2.4-2.7, 5.4, 10.22, 14.3, 14.18, 14.41, 19.10, 23.2, 23.4, 23.9-23.12, 28.3-28.6, 30.7-30.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.1. יְהוָה יֵחַתּוּ מריבו [מְרִיבָיו] עלו [עָלָיו] בַּשָּׁמַיִם יַרְעֵם יְהוָה יָדִין אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ וְיִתֶּן־עֹז לְמַלְכּוֹ וְיָרֵם קֶרֶן מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 2.1. וַתִּתְפַּלֵּל חַנָּה וַתֹּאמַר עָלַץ לִבִּי בַּיהוָה רָמָה קַרְנִי בַּיהוָה רָחַב פִּי עַל־אוֹיְבַי כִּי שָׂמַחְתִּי בִּישׁוּעָתֶךָ׃ 2.4. קֶשֶׁת גִּבֹּרִים חַתִּים וְנִכְשָׁלִים אָזְרוּ חָיִל׃ 2.5. שְׂבֵעִים בַּלֶּחֶם נִשְׂכָּרוּ וּרְעֵבִים חָדֵלּוּ עַד־עֲקָרָה יָלְדָה שִׁבְעָה וְרַבַּת בָּנִים אֻמְלָלָה׃ 2.6. יְהוָה מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל׃ 2.7. יְהוָה מוֹרִישׁ וּמַעֲשִׁיר מַשְׁפִּיל אַף־מְרוֹמֵם׃ 5.4. וַיַּשְׁכִּמוּ בַבֹּקֶר מִמָּחֳרָת וְהִנֵּה דָגוֹן נֹפֵל לְפָנָיו אַרְצָה לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן יְהוָה וְרֹאשׁ דָּגוֹן וּשְׁתֵּי כַּפּוֹת יָדָיו כְּרֻתוֹת אֶל־הַמִּפְתָּן רַק דָּגוֹן נִשְׁאַר עָלָיו׃ 10.22. וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ־עוֹד בַּיהוָה הֲבָא עוֹד הֲלֹם אִישׁ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הִנֵּה־הוּא נֶחְבָּא אֶל־הַכֵּלִים׃ 14.3. וַאֲחִיָּה בֶן־אֲחִטוּב אֲחִי אִיכָבוֹד בֶּן־פִּינְחָס בֶּן־עֵלִי כֹּהֵן יְהוָה בְּשִׁלוֹ נֹשֵׂא אֵפוֹד וְהָעָם לֹא יָדַע כִּי הָלַךְ יוֹנָתָן׃ 14.3. אַף כִּי לוּא אָכֹל אָכַל הַיּוֹם הָעָם מִשְּׁלַל אֹיְבָיו אֲשֶׁר מָצָא כִּי עַתָּה לֹא־רָבְתָה מַכָּה בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים׃ 14.18. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל לַאֲחִיָּה הַגִּישָׁה אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי־הָיָה אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 14.41. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הָבָה תָמִים וַיִּלָּכֵד יוֹנָתָן וְשָׁאוּל וְהָעָם יָצָאוּ׃ 23.2. וְעַתָּה לְכָל־אַוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ לָרֶדֶת רֵד וְלָנוּ הַסְגִּירוֹ בְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 23.2. וַיִּשְׁאַל דָּוִד בַּיהוָה לֵאמֹר הַאֵלֵךְ וְהִכֵּיתִי בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־דָּוִד לֵךְ וְהִכִּיתָ בַפְּלִשְׁתִּים וְהוֹשַׁעְתָּ אֶת־קְעִילָה׃ 23.4. וַיּוֹסֶף עוֹד דָּוִד לִשְׁאֹל בַּיהוָה וַיַּעֲנֵהוּ יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר קוּם רֵד קְעִילָה כִּי־אֲנִי נֹתֵן אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּים בְּיָדֶךָ׃ 23.9. וַיֵּדַע דָּוִד כִּי עָלָיו שָׁאוּל מַחֲרִישׁ הָרָעָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־אֶבְיָתָר הַכֹּהֵן הַגִּישָׁה הָאֵפוֹד׃ 23.11. הֲיַסְגִּרֻנִי בַעֲלֵי קְעִילָה בְיָדוֹ הֲיֵרֵד שָׁאוּל כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע עַבְדֶּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַגֶּד־נָא לְעַבְדֶּךָ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה יֵרֵד׃ 23.12. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד הֲיַסְגִּרוּ בַּעֲלֵי קְעִילָה אֹתִי וְאֶת־אֲנָשַׁי בְּיַד־שָׁאוּל וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה יַסְגִּירוּ׃ 28.3. וּשְׁמוּאֵל מֵת וַיִּסְפְּדוּ־לוֹ כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בָרָמָה וּבְעִירוֹ וְשָׁאוּל הֵסִיר הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת־הַיִּדְּעֹנִים מֵהָאָרֶץ׃ 28.4. וַיִּקָּבְצוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּחֲנוּ בְשׁוּנֵם וַיִּקְבֹּץ שָׁאוּל אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּחֲנוּ בַּגִּלְבֹּעַ׃ 28.5. וַיַּרְא שָׁאוּל אֶת־מַחֲנֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיִּרָא וַיֶּחֱרַד לִבּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 28.6. וַיִּשְׁאַל שָׁאוּל בַּיהוָה וְלֹא עָנָהוּ יְהוָה גַּם בַּחֲלֹמוֹת גַּם בָּאוּרִים גַּם בַּנְּבִיאִם׃ 30.7. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־אֶבְיָתָר הַכֹּהֵן בֶּן־אֲחִימֶלֶךְ הַגִּישָׁה־נָּא לִי הָאֵפֹד וַיַּגֵּשׁ אֶבְיָתָר אֶת־הָאֵפֹד אֶל־דָּוִד׃ 30.8. וַיִּשְׁאַל דָּוִד בַּיהוָה לֵאמֹר אֶרְדֹּף אַחֲרֵי הַגְּדוּד־הַזֶּה הַאַשִּׂגֶנּוּ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ רְדֹף כִּי־הַשֵּׂג תַּשִּׂיג וְהַצֵּל תַּצִּיל׃ 2.1. And Ĥanna prayed, and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord: my mouth is enlarged over my enemies; because I rejoice in Thy salvation." 2.4. The bows of the mighty men are broken, and they that stumbled are girded with strength." 2.5. They that were full have hired out themselves for bread; and they that were hungry have ceased: while the barren has born seven; and she that has many children has become wretched." 2.6. The Lord kills, and gives life: he brings down to the grave, and brings up." 2.7. The Lord makes poor, and makes rich: he brings low, and raises up." 5.4. And they arose early on the next morning, and behold, Dagon was fallen upon his face to the ground before the ark of the Lord and the head of Dagon and both the palms of his hands lay severed on the threshold; only the trunk of Dagon was left to him." 10.22. Therefore they inquired again of the Lord, Did the man come here? And the Lord answered, Behold, he is hidden among the baggage." 14.3. and Aĥiyya, the son of Aĥituv, I-khavod’s brother, the son of Pineĥas, the son of ῾Eli, was the Lord’s priest in Shilo, wearing an efod. And the people knew not that Yonatan was gone." 14.18. And Sha᾽ul said to Aĥiyya, Bring the ark of God here. For the ark of God was at that time with the children of Yisra᾽el." 14.41. Therefore Sha᾽ul said to the Lord God of Yisra᾽el, Give a perfect lot. And Sha᾽ul and Yonatan were picked: but the people escaped." 19.10. And Sha᾽ul sought to smite David even to the wall with the spear; but he slipped away out of Sha᾽ul’s presence, so that he smote the spear into the wall: and David fled, and escaped that night." 23.2. Therefore David inquired of the Lord, saying, Shall I go and smite these Pelishtim? And the Lord said to David, Go, and smite the Pelishtim, and save Qe῾ila." 23.4. Then David inquired of the Lord yet again. And the Lord answered him and said, Arise, go down to Qe῾ila; for I will deliver the Pelishtim into thy hand." 23.9. And David knew that Sha᾽ul devised that mischief against him; and he said to Evyatar the priest, Bring the efod here." 23.10. Then said David, O Lord God of Yisra᾽el, Thy servant has certainly heard that Sha᾽ul seeks to come to Qe῾ila, to destroy the city for my sake." 23.11. Will the men of Qe῾ila deliver me up into his hand? will Sha᾽ul come down, as Thy servant has heard? O Lord God of Yisra᾽el, I beseech Thee, tell Thy servant. And the Lord said, He will come down." 23.12. Then said David, Will the men of Qe῾ila deliver me and my men into the hand of Sha᾽ul? And the Lord said, They will deliver thee up." 28.3. Now Shemu᾽el was dead, and all Yisra᾽el had mourned him, and buried him in Rama in his own city. And Sha᾽ul had put away the mediums and the wizards, out of the land." 28.4. And the Pelishtim gathered themselves together, and came and pitched in Shunem: and Sha᾽ul gathered all Yisra᾽el together, and they pitched on the Gilboa." 28.5. And when Sha᾽ul saw the camp of the Pelishtim, he was afraid, and his heart greatly trembled." 28.6. And when Sha᾽ul inquired of the Lord, the Lord answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by the Urim, nor by prophets." 30.7. And David said to Evyatar, the priest, Aĥimelekh’s son, I pray thee, bring me here the efod. And Evyatar brought the efod of David." 30.8. And David inquired of the Lord, saying, Shall I pursue after this troop? shall I overtake them? And he answered him, Pursue: for thou shalt surely overtake them, and without fail recover all."
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 11.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.12. וַיּוֹצִא אֶת־בֶּן־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּתֵּן עָלָיו אֶת־הַנֵּזֶר וְאֶת־הָעֵדוּת וַיַּמְלִכוּ אֹתוֹ וַיִּמְשָׁחֻהוּ וַיַּכּוּ־כָף וַיֹּאמְרוּ יְחִי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 11.12. Then he brought out the king’s son, and put upon him the crown and the insignia; and they made him king, and anointed him; and they clapped their hands, and said: ‘Long live the king.’"
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 12.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.8. וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־בֵּית אֲדֹנֶיךָ וְאֶת־נְשֵׁי אֲדֹנֶיךָ בְּחֵיקֶךָ וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה וְאִם־מְעָט וְאֹסִפָה לְּךָ כָּהֵנָּה וְכָהֵנָּה׃ 12.8. and I gave thee thy master’s house, and thy master’s wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Yisra᾽el and of Yehuda; and if that had been too little, I would moreover have given thee as much again."
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.26, 34.16, 54.11, 56.8, 61.1, 63.10-63.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.26. וְאָשִׁיבָה שֹׁפְטַיִךְ כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה וְיֹעֲצַיִךְ כְּבַתְּחִלָּה אַחֲרֵי־כֵן יִקָּרֵא לָךְ עִיר הַצֶּדֶק קִרְיָה נֶאֱמָנָה׃ 34.16. דִּרְשׁוּ מֵעַל־סֵפֶר יְהוָה וּקְרָאוּ אַחַת מֵהֵנָּה לֹא נֶעְדָּרָה אִשָּׁה רְעוּתָהּ לֹא פָקָדוּ כִּי־פִי הוּא צִוָּה וְרוּחוֹ הוּא קִבְּצָן׃ 54.11. עֲנִיָּה סֹעֲרָה לֹא נֻחָמָה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מַרְבִּיץ בַּפּוּךְ אֲבָנַיִךְ וִיסַדְתִּיךְ בַּסַּפִּירִים׃ 56.8. נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מְקַבֵּץ נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹד אֲקַבֵּץ עָלָיו לְנִקְבָּצָיו׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 63.11. וַיִּזְכֹּר יְמֵי־עוֹלָם מֹשֶׁה עַמּוֹ אַיֵּה הַמַּעֲלֵם מִיָּם אֵת רֹעֵי צֹאנוֹ אַיֵּה הַשָּׂם בְּקִרְבּוֹ אֶת־רוּחַ קָדְשׁוֹ׃ 63.12. מוֹלִיךְ לִימִין מֹשֶׁה זְרוֹעַ תִּפְאַרְתּוֹ בּוֹקֵעַ מַיִם מִפְּנֵיהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ שֵׁם עוֹלָם׃ 63.13. מוֹלִיכָם בַּתְּהֹמוֹת כַּסּוּס בַּמִּדְבָּר לֹא יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 63.14. כַּבְּהֵמָה בַּבִּקְעָה תֵרֵד רוּחַ יְהוָה תְּנִיחֶנּוּ כֵּן נִהַגְתָּ עַמְּךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת לְךָ שֵׁם תִּפְאָרֶת׃ 1.26. And I will restore thy judges as at the first, And thy counsellors as at the beginning; Afterward thou shalt be called The city of righteousness, The faithful city." 34.16. Seek ye out of the book of the LORD, and read; No one of these shall be missing, None shall want her mate; For My mouth it hath commanded, And the breath thereof it hath gathered them." 54.11. O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will set thy stones in fair colours, And lay thy foundations with sapphires." 56.8. Saith the Lord GOD who gathereth the dispersed of Israel: Yet I will gather others to him, beside those of him that are gathered." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 63.10. But they rebelled, and grieved His holy spirit; therefore He was turned to be their enemy, Himself fought against them." 63.11. Then His people remembered the days of old, the days of Moses: ‘Where is He that brought them up out of the sea With the shepherds of His flock? Where is He that put His holy spirit In the midst of them?" 63.12. That caused His glorious arm to go at the right hand of Moses? That divided the water before them, To make Himself an everlasting name?" 63.13. That led them through the deep, as a horse in the wilderness, without stumbling?" 63.14. As the cattle that go down into the valley, the spirit of the LORD caused them to rest; So didst Thou lead Thy people, To make Thyself a glorious name.’"
15. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 51.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

51.15. עֹשֵׂה אֶרֶץ בְּכֹחוֹ מֵכִין תֵּבֵל בְּחָכְמָתוֹ וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ נָטָה שָׁמָיִם׃ 51.15. He that hath made the earth by His power, That hath established the world by His wisdom, And hath stretched out the heavens by His discernment;"
16. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.8, 20.3, 23.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. לֹא־יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה לְמַעַן תִּשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי־אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאָז תַּשְׂכִּיל׃ 20.3. לָנוּס שָׁמָּה רוֹצֵחַ מַכֵּה־נֶפֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָה בִּבְלִי־דָעַת וְהָיוּ לָכֶם לְמִקְלָט מִגֹּאֵל הַדָּם׃ 23.13. יָדוֹעַ תֵּדְעוּ כִּי לֹא יוֹסִיף יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לְהוֹרִישׁ אֶת־הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה מִלִּפְנֵיכֶם וְהָיוּ לָכֶם לְפַח וּלְמוֹקֵשׁ וּלְשֹׁטֵט בְּצִדֵּיכֶם וְלִצְנִנִים בְּעֵינֵיכֶם עַד־אֲבָדְכֶם מֵעַל הָאֲדָמָה הַטּוֹבָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לָכֶם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 1.8. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein; for then thou shalt make thy ways prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success." 20.3. that the manslayer that killeth any person through error and unawares may flee thither; and they shall be unto you for a refuge from the avenger of blood." 23.13. know for a certainty that the LORD your God will no more drive these nations from out of your sight; but they shall be a snare and a trap unto you, and a scourge in your sides, and pricks in your eyes, until ye perish from off this good land which the LORD your God hath given you."
17. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 1.1-1.2, 20.18, 21.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוּדָה אֶל־הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּחֶבְרוֹן וְשֵׁם־חֶבְרוֹן לְפָנִים קִרְיַת אַרְבַּע וַיַּכּוּ אֶת־שֵׁשַׁי וְאֶת־אֲחִימַן וְאֶת־תַּלְמָי׃ 1.1. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי מוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּיהוָה לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ אֶל־הַכְּנַעֲנִי בַּתְּחִלָּה לְהִלָּחֶם בּוֹ׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה יְהוּדָה יַעֲלֶה הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי אֶת־הָאָרֶץ בְּיָדוֹ׃ 1.2. וַיִּתְּנוּ לְכָלֵב אֶת־חֶבְרוֹן כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר מֹשֶׁה וַיּוֹרֶשׁ מִשָּׁם אֶת־שְׁלֹשָׁה בְּנֵי הָעֲנָק׃ 20.18. וַיָּקֻמוּ וַיַּעֲלוּ בֵית־אֵל וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ בֵאלֹהִים וַיֹּאמְרוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ בַתְּחִלָּה לַמִּלְחָמָה עִם־בְּנֵי בִנְיָמִן וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה יְהוּדָה בַתְּחִלָּה׃ 1.1. Now after the death of Yehoshua it came to pass, that the children of Yisra᾽el asked the Lord, saying, Who shall go up for us against the Kena῾ani first, to fight against them?" 1.2. And the Lord said, Yehuda shall go up: behold, I have delivered the land into his hand." 20.18. And the children of Yisra᾽el arose, and went up to the house of God, and asked counsel of God, and said, which of us shall go up first to the battle against the children of Binyamin? And the Lord said, Yehuda shall go up first." 21.10. And the congregation sent there twelve thousand men of the valiantest, and commanded them, saying, Go and smite the inhabitants of Yavesh-gil῾ad with the edge of the sword, with the women and the children."
18. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.22 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.22. וְאַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה לֹא־יִקְחוּ לָהֶם לְנָשִׁים כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלֹת מִזֶּרַע בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה מִכֹּהֵן יִקָּחוּ׃ 44.22. Neither shall they take for their wives a widow, nor her that is put away; but they shall take virgins of the seed of the house of Israel, or a widow that is the widow of a priest."
19. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 2.63 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.63. וַיֹּאמֶר הַתִּרְשָׁתָא לָהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֹאכְלוּ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים עַד עֲמֹד כֹּהֵן לְאוּרִים וּלְתֻמִּים׃ 2.63. And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and with Thummim. ."
20. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 7.65 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.65. וַיֹּאמֶר הַתִּרְשָׁתָא לָהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֹאכְלוּ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים עַד עֲמֹד הַכֹּהֵן לְאוּרִים וְתוּמִּים׃ 7.65. And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and Thummim."
21. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.9, 4.12 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
22. Anon., Jubilees, 1.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.14. and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there).
23. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q175, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q186, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q216, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 3.14-3.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 3.14-3.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 57.15-57.19, 58.15-58.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 14.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.28. in Asaramel, in the great assembly of the priests and the people and the rulers of the nation and the elders of the country, the following was proclaimed to us:
30. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.30, 24.23, 45.17, 46.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob. 45.17. In his commandments he gave him authority and statutes and judgments,to teach Jacob the testimonies,and to enlighten Israel with his law. 46.14. By the law of the Lord he judged the congregation,and the Lord watched over Jacob.
31. Septuagint, Judith, 8.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

8.2. Her husband Manasseh, who belonged to her tribe and family, had died during the barley harvest.
32. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.30, 10.17, 24.23, 46.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10.17. She gave holy men the reward of their labors;she guided them along a marvelous way,and became a shelter to them by day,and a starry flame through the night.
33. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.564-3.565, 3.575-3.579, 3.626-3.627 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.564. The power of Persia, and most horribly 3.565. 565 Shall the people of Europe and Asia suffer pain. 3.575. 575 With one accord shall Hades bold in charge. 3.576. And Trallis near by Ephesus, and wall 3.577. Well made, and very precious wealth of men 3.578. Shall be dissolved by earthquake; and the land 3.579. Shall burst out with hot water; and the earth 3.626. And lawless life impure which they lived 3.627. Opening a mouth impure, and fearful word
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 59 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

59. For these men no longer obey reason as their ruler, but God, the governor of the universe, by whom they are assisted so as to display their energies in actions rather than in words. For when they hear of others doing such and such things, these men, which is a thing most contrary to what one would expect, say that, from some inspiration of God, they will act first and obey afterwards; in order that they may seem to have advanced to good actions, not in consequence of instruction and admonition, but by their own spontaneous and self-taught mind. And then, when they have accomplished these actions, they say that they will obey in order that they may form an opinion of what they have done, as to whether their actions are consistent with the divine injunctions and the sacred admonitions of scripture. XIV.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.110-1.112 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.110. And besides these commands, he also defined precisely the family of the women who might be married by the high priest, commanding him to marry not merely a woman who was a virgin, but also one who was a priestess, the daughter of a priest, that so both bridegroom and bride might be of one house, and in a manner of one blood, so as to display a most lasting harmony and union of disposition during the whole of their lives. 1.111. The others also were permitted to marry women who were not the daughters of priests, partly because their purificatory sacrifices are of but small importance, and partly because he was not willing entirely to disunite and separate the whole nation from the order of the priesthood; for which reason he did not prevent the other priests from making intermarriages with any of their countrywomen, as that is relationship in the second degree; for sons-in-law are in the place of sons to their fathersin-law, and fathers-in-law instead of fathers to their sons-in-law.XXIII. 1.112. These, then, are the ordices which were established respecting marriage, and respecting what greatly resembles marriage, the procreation of children. But since destruction follows creation, Moses also gave the priests laws relating to death, {12}{#le 23:1.} commanding them not to permit themselves to be defiled in respect of all people whatsoever, who might happen to die, and who might be connected with them through some bond of friendship, or distant relationship: but allowing them to mourn for six classes only, their fathers or their mothers, their sons of their daughters, their brothers or their sisters, provided that these last were virgins;
36. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.163, 3.216-3.218, 3.277, 4.165, 4.214-4.218, 4.223-4.224, 14.41, 17.339, 18.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.163. But in the void place of this garment there was inserted a piece of the bigness of a span, embroidered with gold, and the other colors of the ephod, and was called Essen, [the breastplate,] which in the Greek language signifies the Oracle. 3.216. This has appeared a wonderful thing to such as have not so far indulged themselves in philosophy, as to despise Divine revelation. Yet will I mention what is still more wonderful than this: for God declared beforehand, by those twelve stones which the high priest bare on his breast, and which were inserted into his breastplate, when they should be victorious in battle; 3.217. for so great a splendor shone forth from them before the army began to march, that all the people were sensible of God’s being present for their assistance. Whence it came to pass that those Greeks, who had a veneration for our laws, because they could not possibly contradict this, called that breastplate the Oracle. 3.218. Now this breastplate, and this sardonyx, left off shining two hundred years before I composed this book, God having been displeased at the transgressions of his laws. of which things we shall further discourse on a fitter opportunity; but I will now go on with my proposed narration. 3.277. Nay, he did not think it proper for the high priest to marry even the widow of one that was dead, though he allowed that to the priests; but he permitted him only to marry a virgin, and to retain her. Whence it is that the high priest is not to come near to one that is dead, although the rest are not prohibited from coming near to their brethren, or parents, or children, when they are dead; 4.165. 2. But Moses was now grown old, and appointed Joshua for his successor, both to receive directions from God as a prophet, and for a commander of the army, if they should at any time stand in need of such a one; and this was done by the command of God, that to him the care of the public should be committed. Now Joshua had been instructed in all those kinds of learning which concerned the laws and God himself, and Moses had been his instructor. 4.214. 14. Let there be seven men to judge in every city, and these such as have been before most zealous in the exercise of virtue and righteousness. Let every judge have two officers allotted him out of the tribe of Levi. 4.215. Let those that are chosen to judge in the several cities be had in great honor; and let none be permitted to revile any others when these are present, nor to carry themselves in an insolent manner to them; it being natural that reverence towards those in high offices among men should procure men’s fear and reverence towards God. 4.216. Let those that judge be permitted to determine according as they think to be right, unless any one can show that they have taken bribes, to the perversion of justice, or can allege any other accusation against them, whereby it may appear that they have passed an unjust sentence; for it is not fit that causes should be openly determined out of regard to gain, or to the dignity of the suitors, but that the judges should esteem what is right before all other things 4.217. otherwise God will by that means be despised, and esteemed inferior to those, the dread of whose power has occasioned the unjust sentence; for justice is the power of God. He therefore that gratifies those in great dignity, supposes them more potent than God himself. 4.218. But if these judges be unable to give a just sentence about the causes that come before them, (which case is not unfrequent in human affairs,) let them send the cause undetermined to the holy city, and there let the high priest, the prophet, and the sanhedrim, determine as it shall seem good to them. 4.223. 17. Aristocracy, and the way of living under it, is the best constitution: and may you never have any inclination to any other form of government; and may you always love that form, and have the laws for your governors, and govern all your actions according to them; for you need no supreme governor but God. But if you shall desire a king, let him be one of your own nation; let him be always careful of justice and other virtues perpetually; 4.224. let him submit to the laws, and esteem God’s commands to be his highest wisdom; but let him do nothing without the high priest and the votes of the senators: let him not have a great number of wives, nor pursue after abundance of riches, nor a multitude of horses, whereby he may grow too proud to submit to the laws. And if he affect any such things, let him be restrained, lest he become so potent that his state be inconsistent with your welfare. 14.41. and there it was that he heard the causes of the Jews, and of their governors Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, who were at difference one with another, as also of the nation against them both, which did not desire to be under kingly’ government, because the form of government they received from their forefathers was that of subjection to the priests of that God whom they worshipped; and [they complained], that though these two were the posterity of priests, yet did they seek to change the government of their nation to another form, in order to enslave them. 14.41. However, Herod was not idle in the mean time, for he took ten bands of soldiers, of whom five were of the Romans, and five of the Jews, with some mercenaries among them, and with some few horsemen, and came to Jericho; and as they found the city deserted, but that five hundred of them had settled themselves on the tops of the hills, with their wives and children, those he took and sent away; but the Romans fell upon the city, and plundered it, and found the houses full of all sorts of good things. 17.339. 1. When Archelaus was entered on his ethnarchy, and was come into Judea, he accused Joazar, the son of Boethus, of assisting the seditious, and took away the high priesthood from him, and put Eleazar his brother in his place. 18.3. but the Jews, although at the beginning they took the report of a taxation heinously, yet did they leave off any further opposition to it, by the persuasion of Joazar, who was the son of Beethus, and high priest; so they, being over-persuaded by Joazar’s words, gave an account of their estates, without any dispute about it. 18.3. and because he greatly admired Agrippa’s virtue, in not desiring him at all to augment his own dominions, either with larger revenues, or other authority, but took care of the public tranquillity, of the laws, and of the Divinity itself, he granted him what he had requested. He also wrote thus to Petronius, commending him for his assembling his army, and then consulting him about these affairs. 18.3. When, therefore, those gates were first opened, some of the Samaritans came privately into Jerusalem, and threw about dead men’s bodies, in the cloisters; on which account the Jews afterward excluded them out of the temple, which they had not used to do at such festivals; and on other accounts also they watched the temple more carefully than they had formerly done.
37. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.651, 4.161, 7.267-7.274 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.651. However, Aus’s concern was this, to lay aside, for a while, the preparations for the war, and to persuade the seditious to consult their own interest, and to restrain the madness of those that had the name of zealots; but their violence was too hard for him; and what end he came to we shall relate hereafter. 4.161. for that was the name they went by, as if they were zealous in good undertakings, and were not rather zealous in the worst actions, and extravagant in them beyond the example of others. 7.267. The Idumeans also strove with these men who should be guilty of the greatest madness! for they [all], vile wretches as they were, cut the throats of the high priests, that so no part of a religious regard to God might be preserved; they thence proceeded to destroy utterly the least remains of a political government 7.268. and introduced the most complete scene of iniquity in all instances that were practicable; under which scene that sort of people that were called zealots grew up, and who indeed corresponded to the name; 7.269. for they imitated every wicked work; nor, if their memory suggested any evil thing that had formerly been done, did they avoid zealously to pursue the same; 7.271. Accordingly, they all met with such ends as God deservedly brought upon them in way of punishment; 7.272. for all such miseries have been sent upon them as man’s nature is capable of undergoing, till the utmost period of their lives, and till death came upon them in various ways of torment; 7.273. yet might one say justly that they suffered less than they had done, because it was impossible they could be punished according to their deserving. 7.274. But to make a lamentation according to the deserts of those who fell under these men’s barbarity, this is not a proper place for it;—I therefore now return again to the remaining part of the present narration.
38. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.31, 1.41, 2.165 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. for he who is partaker of the priesthood must propagate of a wife of the same nation, without having any regard to money, or any other dignities; but he is to make a scrutiny, and take his wife’s genealogy from the ancient tables, and procure many witnesses to it; 1.31. that the rest commended what he had said with one consent, and did what they had resolved on, and so travelled over the desert. But that the difficulties of the journey being over, they came to a country inhabited, and that there they abused the men, and plundered and burnt their temples, and then came into that land which is called Judea, and there they built a city, and dwelt therein 1.41. It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time; 2.165. but our legislator had no regard to any of these forms, but he ordained our government to be what, by a strained expression, may be termed a Theocracy, by ascribing the authority and the power to God
39. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. One should not stand up to say Tefillah except in a reverent state of mind. The pious men of old used to wait an hour before praying in order that they might direct their thoughts to God. Even if a king greets him [while praying] he should not answer him: even if a snake is wound round his heel he should not stop."
40. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.5, 2.4-2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. A tribe, a false prophet, or the high priest may not be tried save by the court of seventy-one; They may not send forth the people to wage a battle of free choice save by the decision of the court of one and seventy; They may not add to the City [of Jerusalem], or the Courts of the Temple save by the decision of the court of seventy-one; They may not set up sanhedrins for the several tribes save by the decision of the court of one and seventy. And they may not proclaim [any city to be] an Apostate City (ir ha-niddahat) (Deut. 13:13–19] save by the decision of one and seventy. No city on the frontier may be proclaimed an Apostate City, nor three together, but only one or two." 2.4. He may send forth the people to a battle waged of free choice by the decision of the court of seventy one. He may break through [the private domain of any man] to make himself a road and none may protest him. The king’s road has no limit. Whatsoever the people take in plunder they must place before him, and he may take first. “And he shall not have many wives” (Deut. 17:17) eighteen only. Rabbi Judah says: “He may take many wives provided they don’t turn his heart away [from worshipping God]. Rabbi Shimon says: “Even one that might turn his heart away, he should not marry. Why then does it say, “He shall not have many wives”, even if they are like Avigayil. “He shall not keep many horses” (Deut. 17:16) enough for his chariot only. “Nor shall he amass silver and gold to excess” (Deut. 17:17) enough to pay his soldier’s wages. He must write a Torah scroll for himself; when he goes forth to battle he shall take it with him, and when he returns he shall bring it back with him; when he sits in judgement it shall be with him, and when he sits to eat it shall be with him, as it says, “Let it remain with him and let him read it all his life” (Deut. 17:19)" 2.5. None may ride his horse and none may sit on his throne and none may make use of his scepter. No one may see him when his hair is being cut or when he is naked or when he is in the bath house, for it says, “You shall set a king upon yourself” (Deut. 17:15) that his awe should be over you."
41. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.41 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

42. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.1, 4.5, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 176, 305, 32, 160 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

44. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 140 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

45. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8b. כל תלתין יומין בין א"ל מחמת הלולא ובין לא א"ל מחמת הלולא אסור מכאן ואילך אי א"ל מחמת הלולא אסור ואי לא אמר ליה מחמת הלולא שרי,וכי א"ל מחמת הלולא עד אימת אמר רב פפא עד תריסר ירחי שתא ומעיקרא מאימת אסור אמר רב פפא משמיה דרבא מכי רמו שערי באסינתי,ולבתר תריסר ירחי שתא שרי והא רב יצחק בריה דרב משרשיא איקלע לבי ההוא עובד כוכבים לבתר תריסר ירחי שתא ושמעיה דאודי ופירש ולא אכל שאני רב יצחק בריה דרב משרשיא דאדם חשוב הוא:,וקרטסים וכו': מאי קרטסים אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל יום שתפסה בו רומי מלכות והתניא קרטסים ויום שתפסה בו רומי מלכות אמר רב יוסף שתי תפיסות תפסה רומי אחת בימי קלפטרא מלכתא ואחת שתפסה בימי יונים,דכי אתא רב דימי אמר תלתין ותרין קרבי עבדו רומאי בהדי יונאי ולא יכלו להו עד דשתפינהו לישראל בהדייהו והכי אתנו בהדייהו אי מינן מלכי מנייכו הפרכי אי מנייכו מלכי מינן הפרכי,ושלחו להו רומאי ליונאי עד האידנא עבידנא בקרבא השתא נעביד בדינא מרגלית ואבן טובה איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו שלחו להו מרגלית לאבן טובה,אבן טובה (ואינך) איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו אבן טובה לאינך אינך וספר תורה איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו אינך לספר תורה,שלחו להו [א"כ] אנן ספר תורה גבן וישראל בהדן כפו להו עשרין ושית שנין קמו להו בהימנותייהו בהדי ישראל מכאן ואילך אישתעבדו בהו,מעיקרא מאי דרוש ולבסוף מאי דרוש מעיקרא דרוש (בראשית לג, יב) נסעה ונלכה ואלכה לנגדך ולבסוף דרוש (בראשית לג, יד) יעבר נא אדני לפני עבדו,עשרין ושית שנין דקמו בהימנותייהו בהדי ישראל מנא לן דאמר רב כהנא כשחלה רבי ישמעאל בר יוסי שלחו ליה רבי אמור לנו שנים וג' דברים שאמרת לנו משום אביך,אמר להו מאה ושמנים שנה קודם שנחרב הבית פשטה מלכות הרשעה על ישראל פ' שנה עד לא חרב הבית גזרו טומאה על ארץ העמים ועל כלי זכוכית מ' שנה עד לא חרב הבית גלתה סנהדרין וישבה לה בחנות,למאי הלכתא א"ר יצחק בר אבדימי לומר שלא דנו דיני קנסות דיני קנסות סלקא דעתך והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ברם זכור אותו האיש לטוב ורבי יהודה בן בבא שמו שאלמלא הוא נשתכחו דיני קנסות מישראל נשתכחו לגרסינהו,אלא בטלו דיני קנסות מישראל שגזרה מלכות הרשעה גזרה כל הסומך יהרג וכל הנסמך יהרג ועיר שסומכין בה תחרב ותחום שסומכין בו יעקר,מה עשה רבי יהודה בן בבא הלך וישב בין שני הרים גדולים ובין שתי עיירות גדולות בין ב' תחומי שבת בין אושא לשפרעם וסמך שם חמשה זקנים ר"מ ור' יהודה ור' יוסי ור"ש ורבי אלעזר בן שמוע ורב אויא מוסיף אף רבי נחמיה,כיון שהכירו בהם אויבים אמר להם בני רוצו אמרו לו רבי ואתה מה תהא עליך אמר להם הריני מוטל לפניהם כאבן שאין לה הופכין אמרו לא זזו משם עד שנעצו לגופו ג' מאות לולניאות של ברזל ועשאוהו לגופו ככברה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק לא תימא דיני קנסות אלא שלא דנו דיני נפשות,מ"ט כיון דחזו דנפישי להו רוצחין ולא יכלי למידן אמרו מוטב נגלי ממקום למקום כי היכי דלא ליחייבו,דכתיב (דברים יז, י) ועשית על פי הדבר אשר יגידו לך מן המקום ההוא מלמד שהמקום גורם:,מאה ושמנים ותו לא והתני רבי יוסי ברבי 8b. during ballthe bthirty daysthat follow the wedding celebration, if the gentile invites a Jew to a feast, bwhether he saidto the Jew that the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration or whether he did not say to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bprohibitedto attend, as it is assumed the festivity is part of the wedding celebration. bFrom thispoint bforward, if he said to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bprohibitedto participate, bbut if he did not say to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bpermittedto do so.,The Gemara asks: bAndin a case bwhere he said to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration, until whenis the feast assumed to be connected to idol worship? bRav Pappa said: Until twelve months of the yearhave passed since the wedding. The Gemara asks: bAnd initially,before the wedding, bfrom when is it prohibited? Rav Pappa said in the name of Rava: Fromthe time bwhen they cast barley into the mortars [ iba’asintei /i]to prepare beer for the wedding.,The Gemara asks: bAnd after the twelve months of the yearhave passed since the wedding, is it always bpermittedto participate in a feast? bBut Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, happenedto come bto the house of a certain gentile after twelve months of the yearhad passed since his son’s wedding, band he heardthe gentile bgiving thanksto his idol for the marriage of his son, band he withdrewfrom the feast band did not eatthere. The Gemara answers: bRav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, is different, as he is an important personand therefore his presence caused the gentile to rejoice.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd Kratesis,and the day of the festival of their kings. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the festival of bKratesis? Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:It commemorates bthe day when Rome seizedcontrol of ban empire.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: Two festivals are bKratesis and the day when Rome seizedcontrol of ban empire?This indi-cates that Kratesis and the day when Rome seized control of an empire are two separate festivals. bRav Yosef said:On btwoseparate occasions bRome seizedcontrol of ban empire. Oneoccurred bin the days of Queen Cleopatra,when they conquered Egypt, band onehappened much earlier, bwhenRome bseizedcontrol bin the days of the Greeks. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bAs when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe said: The Romans waged thirty-two battles with the Greeks but were unable todefeat bthem, until they formed a partnership with the Jewish peopleand finally vanquished the Greeks. bAnd this is the condition that they stipulated withthe Jewish people: bIf the kingscome bfrom among us, the governors [ ihiparkhei /i]will come bfrom among you;and bif the kingscome bfrom among you, the governorswill come bfrom among us. /b, bAnd the Romans sentthe following message bto the Greeks: Until now, weattempted to resolve our conflict bthroughfighting bbattles; now, let ussettle the matter bbymeans of bjudgment.In the case of ba pearl and a precious stone, whichone bof them should serve as a base for the other?The Greeks bsent themin response: The bpearlshould serve as the base bforthe bprecious stone,which has a greater value.,The Romans further inquired: If there was ba precious stone and an onyx [ iinnakh /i],a particularly valuable precious stone, bwhichone bof them should serve as a base for the other?The Greeks answered: The bprecious stoneshould serve as the base bforthe bonyx.Once again, the Romans asked: In the case of ban onyx and a Torah scroll, whichone bof them should be serve as a base for the other?The Greeks responded: The bonyxshould serve as the base bfor the Torah scroll. /b,The Romans bsentthis response bto them: Ifthat is bso,then you should submit to us, as bwe havethe bTorah scroll with us, and the Jewish peopleare bwith us.The Romans are akin to the precious stone, and they are allied with the Jewish people who are akin to the onyx, and they possess the Torah scroll. The Romans therefore bforcedthe Greeks to surrender and took over their world domice. For btwenty-six yearsthe Romans bstood faithfully with the Jewish people; from thatpoint bforward, they subjugated them. /b,The Gemara asks: bInitially,when the Romans acted faithfully, bwhatverse bdid they interpret, and ultimately,when they subjugated the Jews, bwhatverse bdid they interpret? Initially, they interpretedthe verse where Esau said to Jacob upon their meeting: b“Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go before you”(Genesis 33:12). In this verse, Esau equates himself to Jacob, prefiguring the initial Roman treatment of the Jews. bAnd ultimately, they interpretedthe verse that recites Jacob’s response to Esau: b“Let my lord, I pray you, pass over before his servant”(Genesis 33:14), demonstrating Jacob’s subjugation to Esau, and by extension that of the Jews to Rome.,The Gemara asks: With regard to the btwenty-six years during whichthe Romans bstood faithfully with the Jewish people, from where do weknow that this was the case? The Gemara cites a proof. bAs Rav Kahana says: When Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, fell ill,the Sages bsentthe following message bto him:Our bteacher, tell us two or three statements that youonce btold us in the name of your father,Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, as we do not remember the statements precisely.,Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaid to themthe following statements that were passed down to him by his father: bOne hundred and eighty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed, the evilRoman bEmpire stretched forth over Israeland ruled over them. bEighty years before the Temple was destroyed,the Sages bdecreed impurity on the land of the nations and on glass vessels. Forty years before the Temple was destroyed, the Sanhedrin was exiledfrom the Chamber of Hewn Stone band sat in the storenear the Temple Mount.,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to what ihalakha /iis it necessary to know where the Sanhedrin would convene? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said:It is necessary in order bto say that they nolonger bjudged cases of fines.The Gemara asks: bDoes it enter your mindthat at this point the Sanhedrin no longer judged bcases of fines? But doesn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bRav says: Indeed [ iberam /i], that man will be remembered favorably, and Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava is his name, as had it not been for him the laws of fines would have been forgotten fromamong bthe Jewish people.The Gemara challenges that assertion: bWouldthe laws of fines actually bhave been forgotten? Letthe scholars bstudy them,so they will not be forgotten., bRather,his intention was to say that bthe laws of fines would have ceasedto be implemented bfromamong bthe Jewish people,as they would not have been able to adjudicate cases involving these ihalakhotdue to a lack of ordained judges. This is bbecauseat one time bthe wicked kingdomof Rome bissued decrees of religious persecution against the Jewish peoplewith the aim of abolishing the chain of ordination and the authority of the Sages. They said that banyone who ordainsjudges bwill be killed, and anyone who is ordained will be killed, and the city in which they ordainthe judges bwill be destroyed, andthe areas around bthe boundaryof the city bin which they ordainjudges bwill be uprooted.These measures were intended to discourage the Sages from performing or receiving ordination due to fear for the welfare of the local population., bWhat didRabbi bYehuda ben Bava do? He went and sat between two large mountains, and between two large cities,and bbetween two Shabbat boundaries: Between Usha and Shefaram,i.e., in a desolate place that was not associated with any particular city so that he would not endanger anyone not directly involved, band there he ordained five Elders,namely: bRabbi Meir, and Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. And Rav Avya addsthat bRabbi Neḥemyawas balsoamong those ordained., bWhentheir benemies discovered them,Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava bsaid tothe newly ordained rabbis: bMy sons, runfor your lives. bThey said to him:Our bteacher, and what will be with you?Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava was elderly and unable to run. He bsaid to them:In any case, bI am cast before them like a stone that cannot be overturned;even if you attempt to assist me I will not be able to escape due to my frailty, but if you do not escape without me you will also be killed. People bsaidabout this incident: The Roman soldiers bdid not move from there until they had inserted three hundred iron spears [ ilulniot /i] into his body, making his bodyappear blike a sievepierced with many holes. It can be inferred from this episode that there were ordained judges who could hear cases of fines for many years after the destruction of the Temple, in contrast to Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi’s statement., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saysin explanation: bDo not saythat after the Sanhedrin was exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone they no longer judged cases of bfines; rather,emend the statement to say bthat they nolonger bjudgedcases of bcapital law,as a court does not have the authority to hear capital cases when the Sanhedrin is not sitting in the Chamber of Hewn Stone.,The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonthat the members of the Sanhedrin ceased to meet in their proper place and thereby ended the adjudication of capital cases? bOnce they saw that the murderers were so numerous and they were not able to judgethem and punish them with death, bthey said:It is bbetter that we should be exiledfrom the Chamber of Hewn Stone and move bfrom place to place, so thatoffenders bwill not bedeemed bliableto receive the death penalty in a time period when the court does not carry out their sentences.,The Gemara explains why a court may not adjudicate capital cases once the Sanhedrin has left the Chamber of Hewn Stone. bAs it is written: “And you shall do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare to you from that place”(Deuteronomy 17:10). This verse bteaches thatit is bthe placewhere the Sanhedrin resides that bcausesthe judgment to take place. In other words, if the Sanhedrin has abandoned its proper place, the Chamber of Hewn Stone, all courts must cease judging capital cases.,The Gemara returns to the earlier comment of Rabbi Yishmael in the name of his father Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, that the Roman Empire ruled over Israel one hundred and eighty years before the second Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: Did Rome rule over Israel for bone hundred and eightyyears before the destruction of the Temple band no more? But didn’t Rabbi Yosei the Great,i.e., Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta himself, bteach: /b
46. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61b. ריאה שואבת כל מיני משקין כבד כועס מרה זורקת בו טפה ומניחתו טחול שוחק קרקבן טוחן קיבה ישנה אף נעור נעור הישן ישן הנעור נמוק והולך לו תנא אם שניהם ישנים או שניהם נעורים מיד מת,תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר צדיקים יצר טוב שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, כב) ולבי חלל בקרבי רשעים יצר רע שופטן שנאמר (תהלים לו, ב) נאם פשע לרשע בקרב לבי אין פחד אלהים לנגד עיניו בינונים זה וזה שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, לא) יעמוד לימין אביון להושיע משופטי נפשו,אמר רבא כגון אנו בינונים אמר ליה אביי לא שביק מר חיי לכל בריה,ואמר רבא לא איברי עלמא אלא לרשיעי גמורי או לצדיקי גמורי אמר רבא לידע אינש בנפשיה אם צדיק גמור הוא אם לאו אמר רב לא איברי עלמא אלא לאחאב בן עמרי ולר' חנינא בן דוסא לאחאב בן עמרי העולם הזה ולרבי חנינא בן דוסא העולם הבא:,ואהבת את י"י אלהיך: תניא ר' אליעזר אומר אם נאמר בכל נפשך למה נאמר בכל מאדך ואם נאמר בכל מאדך למה נאמר בכל נפשך אלא אם יש לך אדם שגופו חביב עליו מממונו לכך נאמר בכל נפשך ואם יש לך אדם שממונו חביב עליו מגופו לכך נאמר בכל מאדך רבי עקיבא אומר בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נפשך,תנו רבנן פעם אחת גזרה מלכות הרשעה שלא יעסקו ישראל בתורה בא פפוס בן יהודה ומצאו לרבי עקיבא שהיה מקהיל קהלות ברבים ועוסק בתורה אמר ליה עקיבא אי אתה מתירא מפני מלכות,אמר לו אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשועל שהיה מהלך על גב הנהר וראה דגים שהיו מתקבצים ממקום למקום אמר להם מפני מה אתם בורחים אמרו לו מפני רשתות שמביאין עלינו בני אדם אמר להם רצונכם שתעלו ליבשה ונדור אני ואתם כשם שדרו אבותי עם אבותיכם אמרו לו אתה הוא שאומרים עליך פקח שבחיות לא פקח אתה אלא טפש אתה ומה במקום חיותנו אנו מתיראין במקום מיתתנו על אחת כמה וכמה אף אנחנו עכשיו שאנו יושבים ועוסקים בתורה שכתוב בה (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כך אם אנו הולכים ומבטלים ממנה עאכ"ו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שתפסוהו לר"ע וחבשוהו בבית האסורים ותפסו לפפוס בן יהודה וחבשוהו אצלו אמר לו פפוס מי הביאך לכאן אמר ליה אשריך רבי עקיבא שנתפסת על דברי תורה אוי לו לפפוס שנתפס על דברים בטלים,בשעה שהוציאו את ר' עקיבא להריגה זמן ק"ש היה והיו סורקים את בשרו במסרקות של ברזל והיה מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו עד כאן אמר להם כל ימי הייתי מצטער על פסוק זה בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נשמתך אמרתי מתי יבא לידי ואקיימנו ועכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו היה מאריך באחד עד שיצתה נשמתו באחד יצתה ב"ק ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שיצאה נשמתך באחד,אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה זו תורה וזו שכרה (תהלים יז, יד) ממתים ידך י"י ממתים וגו' אמר להם חלקם בחיים יצתה בת קול ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שאתה מזומן לחיי העוה"ב:,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים וכו': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה איתמר נמי א"ר אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי יוחנן לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה ובשאין גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה,ת"ר הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל לא יפנה אלא מזרח ומערב ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה ר' יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה ובמקום שאין שם גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה וחכמים אוסרים,חכמים היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו צדדין,תניא אידך הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל צפון ודרום אסור מזרח ומערב מותר ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה רבי יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה רבי יהודה אומר בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אסור בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מותר רבי עקיבא אוסר בכל מקום,רבי עקיבא היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו חוץ לארץ,רבה הוו שדיין ליה לבני מזרח ומערב אזל אביי שדנהו צפון ודרום על רבה תרצנהו אמר מאן האי דקמצער לי אנא כר' עקיבא סבירא לי דאמר בכל מקום אסור: 61b. and the blungs draw all kinds of liquids,the bliver becomes angry,the bgallbladder binjects a dropof gall bintothe liver and ballaysanger, the bspleen laughs,the bmaw grindsthe food, and the bstomachbrings bsleep,the bnose awakens.If they reversed roles such that btheorgan which brings on bsleepwere to bawaken,or btheorgan which bawakenswere to bring on bsleep,the individual bwould gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If bothbring on bsleep or both awaken,the person bimmediately dies. /b,With regard to one’s inclinations, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: “And my heart is dead within me”(Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The bevil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: “Transgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes”(Psalms 36:2). bMiddling people are ruled by boththe good and evil inclinations, bas it is stated: “Because He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul”(Psalms 109:31)., bRabba said:People blike usare bmiddling. Abaye,his student and nephew, bsaid to him:If bthe Masterclaims that he is merely middling, he bdoes not leaveroom for bany creature to live.If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?, bAnd Rava said: The world was created only forthe sake of bthe full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous;others do not live complete lives in either world. bRava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous,as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. bRav said: The world was only created forthe wicked bAhab ben Omri and for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa.The Gemara explains: For bAhab ben Omri, this worldwas created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, bandfor bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, the World-to-Comewas created.,We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: b“And you shall love the Lord your Godwith all your heart and all your soul and all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: “With all your soul,” why does it state: “With all your might”?Conversely, bif it stated: “With all your might,” why does it state: “With all your soul”? Rather,this means that bif one’s body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: “With all your soul”;one must give his soul in sanctification of God. bAnd if one’s money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: “With all your might”;with all your assets. bRabbi Akiva says: “With all your soul”means: bEven ifGod btakes your soul. /b,The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. bThe Sages taught: One time,after the bar Kokheva rebellion, bthe evil empireof Rome bdecreed that Israel may not engage inthe study and practice of bTorah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torahstudy. Pappos bsaid to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire? /b,Rabbi Akiva banswered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared?It is like ba fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gatheringand fleeing bfrom place to place. brThe fox bsaid to them: From what are you fleeing? br bThey said to him:We are fleeing bfrom the nets that people cast upon us. br bHe said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors? brThe fish bsaid to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid inthe water, bournatural bhabitatwhich gives us blife,then bin a habitatthat causes our bdeath, all the more so. brThe moral is: bSo too, weJews, bnow that we sit and engage in Torahstudy, babout which it is written: “For that is your life, and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire bto this extent; if we proceed tosit bidle from itsstudy, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, ball the more sowill we fear the empire.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him.Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: Pappos, who brought you here?Pappos breplied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested onthe charge of engaging in bTorahstudy. bWoe unto Pappos who was seized onthe charge of engaging in bidle matters. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of iShema /i. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he wasreciting iShema /i, thereby baccepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now,as you suffer, you recite iShema /i? bHe said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul,meaning: bEven if God takes your soul. I saidto myself: bWhen will theopportunity bbe afforded me to fulfill thisverse? bNow that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolongedhis uttering of the word: bOne, until his soul lefthis body as he uttered his final word: bOne. A voice descendedfrom heaven band said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul leftyour body basyou uttered: bOne. /b, bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward?As it is stated: b“From death, by Your hand, O Lord, from deathof the world” (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God bsaidthe end of the verse btothe ministering angels: b“Whose portion is in this life.”And then ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come,as your portion is already in eternal life.,We learned in the mishna that bone may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies.Limiting this ihalakha /i, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to irreverent behavior bfromMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i] and within, andspecifically areas from where bone can seethe Temple. bIt is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yoḥa said the following: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to Mount bScopus and within,when bone can see, and when there is no fenceobstructing his view, band when the Divine Presence is restingthere, i.e., when the Temple is standing.,In this context, bthe Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west,for then he is facing Jerusalem; bratherhe should do so bfacing north and south. But in the Galileewhich is north of Jerusalem, bone should only defecatefacing beast and west. Rabbi Yosei permitsdoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple, bwhere there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is restingthere. bAnd the Rabbis prohibitdoing so.,The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the bRabbis,who prohibit this, bisidentical to that of the bfirstanonymous itanna, /iwho also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference bbetween them iswith regard to bthe sides,i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first itanna /i, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted., bIt was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: bOne who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west; rather,he should only do so facing bnorth and south. And in the Galilee,defecating while facing bnorth and south is prohibited,while beast and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitteddoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple. bRabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, it is permitted.The Gemara adds that bRabbi Akiva prohibitsdefecating banywherewhile facing east and west.,The Gemara challenges this: bRabbi Akiva’sposition bis identical tothat of bthe first,anonymous itanna /i,who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to places boutside of EretzYisrael b,as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.,The Gemara relates that in bRabba’sbathroom, bthe bricks were placed east and westin order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. bAbaye wentand bplaced them north and south,to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. bRabba enteredand bfixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva,who bsaid: It is prohibited everywhere. /b
47. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

60b. ופרשת שתויי יין ופרשת נרות ופרשת פרה אדומה,א"ר אלעזר תורה רוב בכתב ומיעוט על פה שנא' (הושע ח, יב) אכתוב לו רובי תורתי כמו זר נחשבו ור' יוחנן אמר רוב על פה ומיעוט בכתב שנא' (שמות לד, כז) כי על פי הדברים האלה,ואידך נמי הכתיב אכתוב לו רובי תורתי ההוא אתמוהי קא מתמה אכתוב לו רובי תורתי הלא כמו זר נחשבו,ואידך נמי הכתיב כי על פי הדברים האלה ההוא משום דתקיפי למיגמרינהו,דרש רבי יהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דרבי שמעון בן לקיש כתיב (שמות לד, כז) כתוב לך את הדברים האלה וכתיב (שמות לד, כז) כי ע"פ הדברים האלה הא כיצד דברים שבכתב אי אתה רשאי לאומרן על פה דברים שבעל פה אי אתה רשאי לאומרן בכתב דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא אלה אלה אתה כותב ואי אתה כותב הלכות,א"ר יוחנן לא כרת הקב"ה ברית עם ישראל אלא בשביל דברים שבעל פה שנאמר (שמות לד, כז) כי על פי הדברים האלה כרתי אתך ברית ואת ישראל:,מערבין בבית ישן מפני דרכי שלום: מאי טעמא אילימא משום כבוד והא ההוא שיפורא דהוה מעיקרא בי רב יהודה ולבסוף בי רבה ולבסוף בי רב יוסף ולבסוף בי אביי ולבסוף בי רבא,אלא משום חשדא:,בור שהוא קרוב לאמה וכו': איתמר בני נהרא רב אמר תתאי שתו מיא ברישא ושמואל אמר עילאי שתו מיא ברישא,בדמיזל כולי עלמא לא פליגי כי פליגי במיסכר ואשקויי שמואל אמר עילאי שתו מיא ברישא דאמרי אנן מקרבינן טפי ורב אמר תתאי שתו מיא ברישא דאמרי נהרא כפשטיה ליזיל,תנן בור הקרוב לאמה מתמלא ראשון מפני דרכי שלום תרגמה שמואל אליבא דרב באמה המתהלכת ע"פ בורו,אי הכי מאי למימרא מהו דתימא מצי אמרי ליה סכר מיסכר ואשקי בהינדזא קמ"ל,אמר רב הונא בר תחליפא השתא דלא איתמר הלכתא לא כמר ולא כמר כל דאלים גבר,רב שימי בר אשי אתא לקמיה דאביי אמר ליה לותבן מר בעידנא אמר ליה אית לי עידנא לדידי ולותבן מר בליליא א"ל אית לי מיא לאשקויי א"ל אנא משקינא ליה למר מיא ביממא ולותבן מר בליליא א"ל לחיי,אזל לעילאי אמר להו תתאי שתו מיא ברישא אזל לתתאי אמר להו עילאי שתו מיא ברישא אדהכי סכר מיסכר ואשקי כי אתא לקמיה דאביי אמר ליה כבי תרי עבדת לי ולא טעמינהו אביי לפירי דההיא שתא,הנהו בני בי חרמך דאזול כרו ברישא דשנוותא ואהדרוה ושדיוה בשילהי נהרא אתו עילאי לקמיה דאביי אמרו ליה קא מתקיל לנהרין אמר להו כרו בהדייהו טפי פורתא אמרו ליה קא יבשי פירין אמר להו זילו סליקו נפשייכו מהתם:,מצודות חיה ועופות ודגי' יש בהן וכו': באוזלי ואוהרי 60b. bthe sectiondealing with priests who have become bintoxicated with wine(Leviticus 10:8–11); bthe section of the lamps(Numbers 8:1–7); band the section of the red heifer(Numbers, chapter 19), as all of these sections are necessary for service in the Tabernacle.,§ The Gemara continues its discussion concerning the writing of the Torah: bRabbi Elazar says: The majority of the Torahwas transmitted bin writing, while the minoritywas transmitted borally, as it is stated: “I wrote for him the greater part of My Torah; they were reckoned a strange thing”(Hosea 8:12), meaning that the majority of the Torah was transmitted in written form. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: The majorityof the Torah was transmitted borally [ ial peh /i], while the minoritywas transmitted bin writing, as it is statedwith regard to the giving of the Torah to Moses on Mount Sinai: b“For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these mattersI have made a covet with you and with Israel” (Exodus 34:27), which indicates that the greater part of the Sinaitic covet was taught orally.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Rabbi Yoḥa, bas well, isn’t it written: “I wrote for him the greater part of My Torah”?How does he understand this verse? The Gemara answers: bThisverse bisnot a statement, but rather a rhetorical question expressing bbewilderment:For did bI write for him the greater part of My Torah?In that case bthey,the Jewish people, bwould be reckoned as strangers,meaning that there would be no difference between them and the nations of the world if everything was written down. Rather, the majority of the Torah must remain an oral tradition.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Rabbi Elazar, bas well, isn’t it written: “For on the basis of these mattersI have made a covet with you and with Israel”? How does he understand this verse? The Gemara answers: bThatverse, which indicates that the covet was based on that which was taught by oral tradition, is stated bdue tothe fact that bit ismore bdifficult to learnmatters transmitted orally, but not because these matters are more numerous than those committed to writing., bRabbi Yehuda bar Naḥmani, the disseminator for Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, expoundedas follows: bIt is written: “Write you these matters”(Exodus 34:27), band it is writtenlater in that same verse: b“For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these matters.” Howcan bthesetexts be reconciled? They mean to teach: bMatters that were written you may not express them orally [ ial peh /i],and bmatters that weretaught borally you may not express them in writing. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:The word b“these”in the mitzva recorded in the verse “Write you these matters” is used here in an emphatic sense: bThesematters, i.e., those recorded in the Written Law, byou may write, but you may not write ihalakhot /i,i.e., the imishnayotand the rest of the Oral Law., bRabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, made a covet with the Jewish people only for the sake of the matters thatwere transmitted borally [ ibe’al peh /i], as it is stated: “For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these matters I have made a covet with you and with Israel”(Exodus 34:27).,§ The mishna teaches that the Sages enacted that ba joiningof courtyards [ ieiruv /i] bis placed in an old housewhere it had regularly been placed bon account of the ways of peace.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bIf we saythat it is btoshow brespectto the owner of that house, bbut wasn’tit related about ba certain charity box,which was fashioned for the benefit of the community and brought honor to the person in whose house it was placed, bthat initially it wasplaced bin Rav Yehuda’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bRabba’s house, and afterwardit was transferred to bRav Yosef’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bAbaye’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bRava’s house.This teaches that there is no issue here of respect, and that such items would ordinarily be moved from place to place., bRather,say instead that the Sages instituted this enactment btoavoid arousing bsuspicion.Since the ieiruvhad regularly been placed in a particular house, were it to be moved, people might think that the residents of the alleyway suspected that the owner of the house was stealing from them, and therefore they put it somewhere else.,§ The mishna teaches that the Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields is filled first on account of the ways of peace. bIt was statedthat the iamora’imdisagree about the following issue: When bpeopleown fields balong a riverand they irrigate their fields with water that is redirected from it, who among them enjoys first rights to irrigate his field? bRav said:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water,i.e., irrigate their fields, bfirst. And Shmuel said:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first. /b,The Gemara explains: bWithregard to a case where the water bflowson its own, beveryone agreesthat whoever wishes to irrigate may do so as he wishes. bWhen they disagree,it is bwithregard to a case bwhere theyneed to bdamthe river band irrigatethrough channels. bShmuel said:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first becausethey can bsay: We are nearerto the river’s headwaters. bAnd Rav said:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water first becausethey can bsay: Let the river go itsnatural bwayand after we take what we need, dam it as you please., bWe learnedin the mishna that the Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields bis filled first on account of the ways of peace.This teaches that the party who is nearest to the water’s source enjoys first rights, and it supports Shmuel’s opinion and is difficult for Rav. bShmuel interpretedthe mishna bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav:The mishna refers here to ban irrigation channel that passes the mouth of the pit,so that the pit fills with water on its own, even without damming.,The Gemara asks: bIf so, whatis the purpose bof statingthis? It is obvious. The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat the owners of the other fields bcan say tothe owner of the pit: bDamyour pit as well so that water not enter it, band irrigateyour fields bin proportion [ ihindeza /i],just like the rest of us. The mishna therefore bteaches usthat the owner of the pit is not required to do this, and consequently his pit is filled first., bRav Huna bar Taḥalifa said: Now that the ihalakhawas stated neither in accordance withthe opinion of bthis Sage,Rav, bnor in accordance withthe opinion of bthat Sage,Shmuel, bwhoever is stronger prevails.Since the ihalakhahas not been decided, the court refuses to judge the case and leaves the claimants to settle the matter themselves, in the hope that the rightful party will exert himself and prevail., bRav Shimi bar Ashi came before Abayeand bsaid to him: Master, set a time for meto study with you. Abaye bsaid to him: I havea set btime for myself,and I cannot devote it to you. Rav Shimi bar Ashi said to him: bMaster, seta time bfor me at night,and we can study then. Abaye bsaid to him: I haveto bring bwaterat night with which bto irrigatemy fields. Rav Shimi bar Ashi bsaid to him: I will irrigate for Master during the day, andthen bMaster can seta time bfor me at nightto study with him. Abaye bsaid to him: Very well;this is an acceptable arrangement.,What did Rav Shimi bar Ashi do? bHefirst bwent tothe owners of bthe uppermostfields, and bsaid to them:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water first,in accordance with the opinion of Rav. bHethen bwent tothe owners of bthe lowermostfields, band said to them:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first,in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. bIn the meantime,while the owners of the upper fields and the lower fields were arguing over who has first rights to the water, Rav Shimi bar Ashi bdammedthe river band irrigatedAbaye’s fields. bWhen he came before Abaye,the latter bsaid to him: You have acted for me in accordance with twoopposing opinions. bAnd Abaye would noteven btaste the produce of that yearbecause he thought that the water had reached his field in an unlawful manner.,It is related that there were bcertain residentsof a place called bBei Ḥarmakh who wentand bduga channel bat the head of the ShanvataRiver in order to divert the water and allow it to circle their fields, band then they returnedthe water to the river further bdownstream.Those who owned fields further bupstream came before Abaye,and bsaid to him: This damages our river,as the water is not flowing as it once had. Abaye bsaid to them: Dig a little deeper with them,and that should solve the problem. bThey said to him:If we do that, bour pits will become dry.Once Abaye heard this bhe said tothe residents of Bei Ḥarmakh: bGo remove yourselves from there,and dam the diversion that you made for the river.,§ The mishna teaches: Taking banimals, birds, or fishthat were caught in btrapsbelonging to another person is considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. And Rabbi Yosei says that this is full-fledged robbery. The Gemara comments: bWith regard to nets [ iuzlei /i] andwoven btraps [ ioharei /i], /b
48. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. מאי דרש אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן (דברים לג, ב) (ואתא) מרבבות קדש אות הוא ברבבה שלו,ורבי אבהו אמר (שיר השירים ה, י) דגול מרבבה דוגמא הוא ברבבה שלו,וריש לקיש אמר (ישעיהו מח, ב) ה' צבאות שמו אדון הוא בצבא שלו,ורבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן (מלכים א יט, יא) לא ברוח ה' ואחר הרוח רעש לא ברעש ה' ואחר הרעש אש לא באש ה' ואחר האש קול דממה דקה והנה ה' עובר,ת"ר ששה דברים נאמרו בשדים שלשה כמלאכי השרת ושלשה כבני אדם שלשה כמלאכי השרת יש להם כנפים כמלאכי השרת וטסין מסוף העולם ועד סופו כמלאכי השרת ויודעין מה שעתיד להיות כמלאכי השרת,יודעין ס"ד אלא שומעין מאחורי הפרגוד כמלאכי השרת,ושלשה כבני אדם אוכלין ושותין כבני אדם פרין ורבין כבני אדם ומתים כבני אדם,ששה דברים נאמרו בבני אדם שלשה כמלאכי השרת שלשה כבהמה שלשה כמלאכי השרת יש להם דעת כמלאכי השרת ומהלכין בקומה זקופה כמלאכי השרת ומספרים בלשון הקדש כמלאכי השרת שלשה כבהמה אוכלין ושותין כבהמה ופרין ורבין כבהמה ומוציאין רעי כבהמה:,כל המסתכל בד' דברים רתוי לו שלא בא לעולם כו': בשלמא מה למעלה מה למטה מה לאחור לחיי אלא לפנים מה דהוה הוה,ר' יוחנן ור"א דאמרי תרוייהו משל למלך ב"ו שאמר לעבדיו בנו לי פלטירין גדולין על האשפה הלכו ובנו לו אין רצונו של מלך להזכיר שם אשפה:,כל שלא חס על כבוד קונו רתוי לו שלא בא לעולם: מאי היא ר' אבא אמר זה המסתכל בקשת רב יוסף אמר זה העובר עבירה בסתר מסתכל בקשת דכתיב (יחזקאל א, כח) כמראה הקשת אשר יהיה בענן ביום הגשם כן מראה הנגה סביב הוא מראה דמות כבוד ה',רב יוסף אמר זה העובר עבירה בסתר כדר' יצחק דאמר רבי יצחק כל העובר עבירה בסתר כאילו דוחק רגלי שכינה שנא' (ישעיהו סו, א) כה אמר ה' השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,איני והאמר ר' אלעא הזקן אם רואה אדם שיצרו מתגבר עליו ילך למקום שאין מכירין אותו וילבש שחורין ויתעטף שחורין ויעשה מה שלבו חפץ ואל יחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא לא קשיא הא דמצי כייף ליה ליצריה הא דלא מצי כייף ליצריה,דרש ר' יהודה ברבי נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש כל המסתכל בג' דברים עיניו כהות בקשת ובנשיא ובכהנים בקשת דכתיב כמראה הקשת אשר יהיה בענן ביום הגשם הוא מראה דמות כבוד ה' בנשיא דכתיב (במדבר כז, כ) ונתת מהודך עליו המסתכל בכהנים בזמן שבהמ"ק קיים שהיו עומדין על דוכנן ומברכין את ישראל בשם המפורש,דרש ר' יהודה ברבי נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (מיכה ז, ה) אל תאמינו ברע אל תבטחו באלוף אם יאמר לך יצר הרע חטוא והקב"ה מוחל אל תאמן (שנא') אל תאמן ברע ואין רע אלא יצר הרע שנאמר (בראשית ח, כא) כי יצר לב האדם רע,ואין אלוף אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (ירמיהו ג, ד) אלוף נעורי אתה שמא תאמר מי מעיד בי אבני ביתו וקורות ביתו של אדם הם מעידין בו שנאמר (חבקוק ב, יא) כי אבן מקיר תזעק וכפיס מעץ יעננה,וחכ"א נשמתו של אדם מעידה בו שנאמר (מיכה ז, ה) משכבת חיקך שמור פתחי פיך אי זו היא דבר ששוכבת בחיקו של אדם הוי אומר זו נשמה ר' זריקא אמר שני מלאכי השרת המלוין אותו הן מעידין בו שנאמר (תהלים צא, יא) כי מלאכיו יצוה לך לשמרך בכל דרכיך (וחכ"א) אבריו של אדם מעידין בו שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, יב) ואתם עדי נאם ה' ואני אל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big (יוסי) בן יועזר אומר שלא לסמוך יוסף בן יוחנן אומר לסמוך יהושע בן פרחיה אומר שלא לסמוך ניתאי הארבלי אומר לסמוך יהודה בן טבאי אומר שלא לסמוך שמעון בן שטח אומר לסמוך שמעיה אומר לסמוך אבטליון אומר שלא לסמוך הלל ומנחם לא נחלקו יצא מנחם נכנס שמאי שמאי אומר שלא לסמוך הלל אומר לסמוך 16a. The Gemara asks: bWhatverse did Rabbi Akiva bexpoundthat prevented him from making the same mistake as iAḥer /i? bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:It was the following: b“And He came [ ive’ata /i] from the holy myriads”(Deuteronomy 33:2), which he explained in this manner: bHe,God, bis unique [ iot /i] among His myriadsof angels. Therefore, he knew that he had merely seen an angel., bAnd Rabbi Abbahu said:Rabbi Akiva expounded the verse: b“Preeminent above a myriad”(Song of Songs 5:10) to indicate that bHe is exemplary among His myriad. /b, bAnd Reish Lakish said:He expounded the verse: b“The Lord of hosts is His name”(Isaiah 48:2); bHe is the Master in His host. /b, bAnd Rav Ḥiyya bar Abbasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:He expounded the verses: b“But the Lord was not in the wind. And after the wind, an earthquake; the Lord was not in the earthquake. And after the earthquake, fire;but bthe Lord was not in the fire. And after the fire, a still, small voice,”and it states in that verse: b“And behold, the Lord passed by”(I Kings 19:11–12). Rabbi Akiva used this verse in order to recognize the place of His presence and refrain from trespassing there.,§ The Gemara returns to discussing the heavenly beings. bThe Sages taught: Sixstatements bwere said with regard to demons:In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels, andin bthreeways they are blike humans.The ibaraitaspecifies: In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels: They have wings like ministering angels; and they fly from one end of the world to the other like ministering angels; and they know what will be in the future like ministering angels. /b,The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: bShould it enter your mind that they knowthis? Not even the angels are privy to the future. bRather, they hear from behind the curtainwhen God reveals something of the future, blike ministering angels. /b, bAndin bthreeways they are similar bto humans: They eat and drink like humans; they multiply like humans; and they die like humans. /b, bSixstatements bwere said with regard to humans:In bthreeways, they are blike ministering angels,and in bthreeways they are blike animals.The ibaraitaexplains: In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels: They have intelligence like ministering angels; and they walk upright like ministering angels; and they speak in the holy tongue like ministering angels.In bthreeways humans are blike animals: They eat and drink like animals; and they multiply like animals; and they emit excrement like animals. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWhoever looks at four things, it would have been better for him had he never entered the world:Anyone who reflects upon that which is above the firmament; that which is below the earth; what was before the creation of the world; and what will be after the end of the world. The Gemara asks: bGranted,it is prohibited to reflect on bwhat is above, what is below,and bwhat is after.This is bfine,since one is examining things that are not part of the world but lie beyond it. bBut beforethe creation of the world, bwhat has happened has happened.Why is it prohibited to reflect upon this?,The Gemara explains: bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say:This can be demonstrated through ba parablewith regard to ba flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Build for me large palaces on a garbage dump. They went and builtthem bfor him.Clearly, in that case, bthe king does not desirethat they bmention the garbage dump.Here too, God does not want people to concern themselves with the chaos that preceded the world.,It is taught in the mishna: bWhoever has no concern for the honor of his Maker deserves to have never come to the world.The Gemara asks: bWhat islack of concern for the honor of one’s Maker? bRabbi Abba said: This isone bwho looks at a rainbow. Rav Yosef said: This isone bwho commits a transgression in private.They proceed to clarify their opinions: bLooking at a rainbowconstitutes an act of disrespect toward the Divine Presence, bas it is written: “As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord”(Ezekiel 1:28), and it is a dishonor to God to stare at His likeness., bRav Yosef said: This isone bwho commits a transgression in private, in accordance with Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Whoever commits a transgression in private, it is as though he pushedaway bthe feet of the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “Thus said the Lord: The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1). If one believes that no one can see what he is doing in private, it is as though he said that God is absent from that place. He is therefore compared to one who attempts to remove God from His footstool.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: And bis that so? But didn’t Rabbi Ela the Elder say: If a person sees that his inclination is overcoming him, he should go to a place where he is unknown, and wear black, and wrap himself in black,in the manner of mourners, because he should be ashamed of his weakness, band dothere bwhat his heart desires, but let him not desecrate the Name of Heaven in public.This shows that sinning in private is sometimes preferable to the public performance of a transgression. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thiscase, where one who commits a transgression in public has no concern for the honor of his Maker, occurs bwhen one is capable of overcoming his inclinationand fails to do so. bThatcase, where it is preferable to sin in private, occurs bwhen one is incapable of overcoming his inclination.He is therefore advised to, at the very least, refrain from desecrating God’s name in public., bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Naḥmani, the disseminatorof bReish Lakish, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whoever looks atthe following bthree things, his eyes will grow dim:One who looks bat a rainbow, at a iNasi /i, and at the priests.He explains: bAt a rainbow, as it is written: “As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain,so was the appearance of the brightness round about, bthis was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord”(Ezekiel 1:28). bAt a iNasi /i, as it is written: “And you shall put of your splendor upon him”(Numbers 27:20), which indicates that the splendor of the Divine Presence rested upon Moses, who was the iNasiof Israel. The third item, looking at priests, is referring to one bwho looks at the priests when the Temple is standing, as they would stand on their platform and bless Israel with the ineffable name,at which point the Divine Presence would rest above the joints of their fingers.,Apropos this Sage, the Gemara cites another statement of his: bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Naḥmani, the disseminatorof bReish Lakish, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Trust not in a companion, do not put your confidence in an intimate friend”(Micah 7:5)? bIf the evil inclination says to you: Sin, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, will forgive, do not trustit, bsince it is stated: “Trust not in a companion [ irei’a /i].” And irei’ais referring to none otherthan bthe evil [ ira /i] inclination, as it is stated: “For the inclination of the heart of man is evil [ ira /i]”(Genesis 8:21)., bAnd “intimate friend” is referring to none otherthan bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “You are the intimate friend of my youth”(Jeremiah 3:4). bLest you say:Since I am acting in private, bwho will testify against me? The stones of the house and the beams of the house ofeach bperson testify against him, as it is stated:“For the stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beam out of the timber shall answer it” (Habakkuk 2:11)., bAnd the Sages say: A person’s soulshall itself btestify against him, as it is stated: “Guard the doors of your mouth from she who lies in your bosom”(Micah 7:5). bWhat thing lies in a person’s bosom? You must say it ishis bsoul. Rabbi Zerika said:The btwo ministering angels who accompany him,i.e., each individual, bthey testify against him, as it is stated: “For He will command his angels over you, to guard you in all your ways”(Psalms 91:11). bAnd the Sages say: A person’s limbs testify against him, as it is stated: “Therefore you are My witnesses, says the Lord, and I am God”(Isaiah 43:12), which indicates that each individual becomes his own witness and testifies against himself on the Day of Judgment., strongMISHNA: /strong bYosei ben Yo’ezer says not to placeone’s hands on offerings before slaughtering them on a Festival because this is considered performing labor with an animal on a Festival. His colleague, bYosef ben Yoḥa, says to placethem; bYehoshua ben Peraḥya says not to placethem; bNitai HaArbeli says to placethem; bYehuda ben Tabbai says not to placethem; bShimon ben Shataḥ says to placethem; bShemaya says to placethem; bAvtalyon says not to placethem. bHillel and Menaḥem did not disagreewith regard to this issue. bMenaḥem departedfrom his post, and bShammai enteredin his stead. bShammai says not to placethem; bHillel says to placethem.
49. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

50b. ואל ישנה אדם מפני המחלוקת כיוצא בו המוליך פירות שביעית ממקום שכלו למקום שלא כלו או ממקום שלא כלו למקום שכלו חייב לבער ר' יהודה אומר צא והבא לך אף אתה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי איריא ערבי פסחים אפילו ערבי שבתות וערבי ימים טובים נמי דתניא העושה מלאכה בערבי שבתות וימים טובים מן המנחה ולמעלה אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם התם מן המנחה ולמעלה הוא דאסור סמוך למנחה לא הכא מחצות אי נמי התם סימן ברכה הוא דלא חזי אבל שמותי לא משמתינן ליה הכא שמותי נמי משמתינן ליה,גופא העושה מלאכה בערבי שבתות ובערבי ימים טובים מן המנחה ולמעלה ובמוצאי שבת ובמוצאי יו"ט ובמוצאי יום הכפורים ובכל מקום שיש שם נידנוד עבירה לאתויי תענית ציבור אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם:,ת"ר יש זריז ונשכר ויש זריז ונפסד יש שפל ונשכר ויש שפל ונפסד זריז ונשכר דעביד כולי שבתא ולא עביד במעלי שבתא זריז ונפסד דעביד כולי שבתא ועביד במעלי שבתא שפל ונשכר דלא עביד כולי שבתא ולא עביד במעלי שבתא שפל ונפסד דלא עביד כולי שבתא ועביד במעלי שבתא אמר רבא הני נשי דמחוזא אע"ג דלא עבדן עבידתא במעלי שבתא משום מפנקותא הוא דהא כל יומא נמי לא קא עבדן אפילו הכי שפל ונשכר קרינן להו,רבא רמי כתיב (תהלים נז, יא) כי גדול עד שמים חסדך וכתיב (תהלים קח, ה) כי גדול מעל שמים חסדך הא כיצד כאן בעושין לשמה וכאן בעושין שלא לשמה וכדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ומצות אף על פי שלא לשמה שמתוך שלא לשמה בא לשמה:,תנו רבנן המצפה לשכר אשתו וריחים אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם שכר אשתו מתקולתא ריחייא אגרתא אבל עבדה ומזבנה אישתבוחי משתבח בה קרא דכתיב (משלי לא, כד) סדין עשתה ותמכור:,ת"ר המשתכר בקנים ובקנקנים אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם מאי טעמא כיון דנפיש אפחזייהו שלטא בהו עינא: תנו רבנן תגרי סימטא ומגדלי בהמה דקה וקוצצי אילנות טובות ונותנין עיניהן בחלק יפה אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם מאי טעמא דתהו ביה אינשי:,ת"ר ד' פרוטות אין בהן סימן ברכה לעולם שכר כותבין ושכר מתורגמנין ושכר יתומים ומעות הבאות ממדינת הים,בשלמא שכר מתורגמנין משום דמיחזי כשכר שבת ומעות יתומים נמי לאו בני מחילה נינהו מעות הבאות ממדינת הים משום דלאו כל יומא מתרחיש ניסא,אלא שכר כותבין מאי טעמא א"ר יהושע בן לוי כ"ד תעניות ישבו אנשי כנסת הגדולה על כותבי ספרים תפילין ומזוזות שלא יתעשרו שאילמלי מתעשרין אין כותבין: ת"ר כותבי ספרים תפילין ומזוזות הן ותגריהן ותגרי תגריהן וכל העוסקין במלאכת שמים לאיתויי מוכרי תכלת אינן רואין סימן ברכה לעולם ואם עוסקין לשמה רואין:,בני ביישן נהוג דלא הוו אזלין מצור לצידון במעלי שבתא אתו בנייהו קמיה דר' יוחנן אמרו לו אבהתין אפשר להו אנן לא אפשר לן אמר להו כבר קיבלו אבותיכם עליהם שנאמר (משלי א, ח) שמע בני מוסר אביך ואל תטוש תורת אמך:,בני חוזאי נהגי דמפרשי חלה מארוזא אתו ואמרו ליה לרב יוסף אמר להו ניכלה זר באפייהו איתיביה אביי דברים המותרים ואחרים נהגו בהן איסור 50b. The Sages stated a principle: bAnd a personmay bnot deviatefrom the local custom, bdue topotential bdispute. Similarly,one bwho transports SabbaticalYear produce bfrom a placewhere a crop bhas ceasedin the fields bto a place where it has notyet bceased or from a place where it has notyet bceased to a place where it hasalready bceased is obligated to removethe produce from his possession, in accordance with the stringencies of both locations. It is permitted for homeowners to eat Sabbatical Year produce in their houses only as long as that species of fruit remains in the field as ownerless property. However, once that particular fruit is no longer available for animals in the fields, one is required to remove what remains of that species from his home. The statement in the mishna is referring to one who transported fruit from a location where it ceased in the fields to one where it did not, and vice versa. bRabbi Yehuda saysthat he need not remove the produce, as he can say to a local resident: bYou, too, go out and bringthis produce from a place where it remains in the field., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWhydiscuss this prohibition bparticularlywith regard to bPassover eves? Itis prohibited to perform labor bevenon bShabbat eves and Festival eves as well, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who performs labor on Shabbat eves and Festival eves from iminḥa /itime bonward never sees a sign of blessingfrom this work. The Gemara answers that there is a difference between the two situations: bThere,in the case of Shabbat and Festivals, performing labor is prohibited bfrom iminḥa /itime bonward;it is bnotprohibited badjacent to iminḥa /itime, i.e., just before it. bHere,in the case of Passover eve, it is prohibited bfrom midday. Alternatively, there,on Shabbat eve and Festival eve, it is ba sign of blessing that he does not see; however,the Sages bdo not excommunicate himfor performing labor. bHere,in the case of Passover eve, the Sages balso excommunicate himfor performing labor, as it is explicitly prohibited.,The Gemara cites the source of the bmatter itselfin its entirety: bOne who performs labor on Shabbat eves or on Festival eves from iminḥa /itime bonward,and similarly one who works immediately upon bthe conclusion of Shabbat,or bthe conclusion of a Festival,or bthe conclusion of Yom Kippur, or on any occasion where there is a trace of sin,which comes bto include a communal fast,e.g., the Ninth of Av or a fast for rain, when it is prohibited to perform labor, bnever sees a sign of blessingfrom this work. If one performs labor just before Shabbat or immediately after Shabbat, the concern is that even a slight miscalculation could lead to performance of labor on Shabbat itself, when it is prohibited.,Apropos reward or lack thereof, the Gemara cites th ie Toseftain which bthe Sages taught: There isone who is bdiligent and rewardedfor his diligence; band there isone who is bdiligent and penalizeddue to his diligence; bthere isone who is blazy and rewarded; and there isone who is blazy and penalized.How so? bDiligent and rewardedis referring to one bwho works the entire week and does not work on Shabbat eve. Diligent and penalizedis one who bworks all week and works on Shabbat eve. Lazy and rewardedis one bwho does not work the entire week and does not work on Shabbat eve. Lazy and penalizedis one who does bnot work the entire week and works on Shabbat eveto complete the work he neglected to perform during the week. bRava said:With regard to bthose women of Meḥoza, even though they do not perform labor on Shabbat eve, it is due toexcessive bpampering, as neither do they work on anyother bday. Even so, we call them lazy and rewarded.Despite the fact that their laziness is not motivated by piety, their inactivity has a positive aspect to it.,On the topic of reward for a mitzva fulfilled without intent, bRava raised a contradiction:It bis written: “For Your mercy is great unto the heavens,and Your truth reaches the skies” (Psalms 57:11); band it is writtenelsewhere: b“For Your mercy is great above the heavens,and Your truth reaches the skies” (Psalms 108:5). bHow so?How can these verses be reconciled? The Gemara explains: bHere,where the verse says that God’s mercy is above the heavens, it is referring to a case where bone performsa mitzva bfor its own sake; and here,where the verse says that God’s mercy reaches the heavens, it is referring to a case where bone performsa mitzva bnot for its own sake.Even a mitzva performed with ulterior motives garners reward, bas Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: A person should always engage in Torahstudy and performance of bmitzvot, even ifhe does so bnot for theirown bsake, as throughthe performance of mitzvot bnot for theirown bsake,one gains understanding and bcomesto perform them bfor theirown bsake. /b, bThe Sages taught: One who anticipatesreceiving bthe earnings of his wife orof ba mill never sees a sign of blessingfrom them. The Gemara explains: bEarnings of his wifeis referring to a case where she spins thread for others and charges by weight on ba scale(Rabbeinu Ḥael). The profit is small and it is demeaning to walk in public to solicit customers. Earnings of the bmillis referring to a hand mill for which people pay brentand grind their grain. In that case too, the profits are meager. bHowever, if a woman works and sellsthe product of her labor, bthe verse praises her, as it is writtenabout a woman of valor: b“She made a cloak and sold it,and delivered a belt to the peddler” (Proverbs 31:24)., bThe Sages taughtwith regard to a sign of blessing: bOne who earnsa living bfromselling brods or jugs will never see a sign of blessingfrom them. bWhat is the reasonfor this? bSince their volumeis great, btheevil beye dominates them.People believe that one is selling more than he is actually selling. Similarly, bthe Sages taught: Merchantswho sell their wares bin an alleyway [ isimta /i]adjacent to a thoroughfare, where they are seen by all; band those who raise small livestock,which tend to damage other people’s fields; band those who chop down goodfruit btrees,even if they were permitted to do so; and bthose who direct their eyes to the fine portionwith the intention of taking that portion for himself when dividing an item with others, will bnever see a sign of blessingfrom them. bWhat is the reasonfor this? It is bthatdue to these actions bpeople wonder about himand pay special attention to his conduct. Due to that attention, his actions will not be blessed.,Similarly bthe Sages taught: In four iperutot /i,payments, bthere is never a sign of blessing: Wages of scribesof sacred books; bwages of disseminators,who repeat and explain the lectures delivered by the Sages on Shabbat; bpayment of orphans,which one receives when engaging in a partnership with the executor of an orphan’s estate; band money that comes from a country overseas. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,one will be unsuccessful when receiving bwages of disseminators, as it appears asif he is receiving bwagesfor work performed on bShabbat,even though what he is doing is not actually prohibited. bAndit is also understandable that one will see no blessing from borphans’ money,as minors bare not capable of relinquishingproperty. Minors do not have the legal right to forgive even negligible losses, which partners typically overlook. Therefore, one who in the course of business takes even the smallest amount of money from them beyond the sum to which he is entitled is considered a thief. One sees no blessing from bmoney that comes from a country overseas,because ba miracle does not transpire every day.Since the risks involved in shipping cargo on long sea voyages are great, one’s merit is diminished each time his merchandise miraculously arrives intact.,However, bwhat is the reasonthat one sees no blessing from bwages of scribes? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The members of the Great Assembly observed twenty-four fasts,corresponding to the twenty-four priestly watches (Maharsha), bfor scribeswho write Torah bscrolls, phylacteries, and imezuzot /i, so that they will not become wealthyfrom their craft, bas were theyto bbecome wealthy, theywould no longer bwritethese sacred items. Similarly, bthe Sages taught: Scribeswho write bscrolls, phylacteries, and imezuzot /i;and btheir merchants,who buy the sacred scrolls from the scribes to sell them; and btheir merchants’ merchants; and all those engaged in the work of Heavenand earn their living from it, a phrase that comes bto include those who sell the sky-bluedye for ritual fringes, bnever see a sign of blessingfrom their labor. bAnd if they engagein these activities bfor their own sake,to ensure that there will be more sacred items available to the public, then btheydo bseeblessing from their labor.,As the mishna discusses the requirement to observe local customs, the Gemara relates: bThe residents of Beit She’an were accustomed not to travel from Tyre tomarket day in bSidon on Shabbat eve.In deference to Shabbat, they adopted a stringency and would not interrupt their Shabbat preparations even for a short sea voyage. bTheir children came before Rabbi Yoḥato request that he repeal this custom. bThey said to him:Due to their wealth, it was possible for bour fathersto earn a living without traveling to the market on Friday; bhowever, it is not possible for usto do so. bHe said to them: Your fathers already acceptedthis virtuous custom bupon themselves,and it remains in effect for you, bas it is stated: “My son, hear your father’s rebuke and do not abandon your mother’s teaching”(Proverbs 1:8). In addition to adhering to one’s father’s rebuke, i.e., ihalakha /i, one is also required to preserve his mother’s teaching, i.e., ancestral customs.,The Gemara relates additional customs: bThe residentsof the city of bḤozai were accustomed to separate iḥallafrom ricedough. bThey came and told Rav Yosefabout this custom. bHe said to them: Let a non-priest eatthis dough bin their presenceto show them unequivocally that this custom has no legal basis. bAbaye raised an objection to him:With regard to bmattersthat are bpermitted, but others were accustomed totreat bthemas a bprohibition, /b
50. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומביאו לחיי העולם הבא,אמר רבי אבהו כגון אבימי ברי קיים מצות כיבוד חמשה בני סמכי הוה ליה לאבימי בחיי אביו וכי הוה אתא רבי אבהו קרי אבבא רהיט ואזיל ופתח ליה ואמר אין אין עד דמטאי התם,יומא חד אמר ליה אשקיין מיא אדאייתי ליה נמנם גחין קאי עליה עד דאיתער איסתייעא מילתיה ודרש אבימי (תהלים עט, א) מזמור לאסף,אמר ליה רב יעקב בר אבוה לאביי כגון אנא דעד דאתינא מבי רב אבא מדלי לי כסא ואמא מזגה לי היכי איעביד א"ל מאמך קביל ומאבוך לא תקבל דכיון דבר תורה הוא חלשה דעתיה,רבי טרפון הוה ליה ההיא אמא דכל אימת דהות בעיא למיסק לפוריא גחין וסליק לה וכל אימת דהות נחית נחתת עלויה אתא וקא משתבח בי מדרשא אמרי ליה עדיין לא הגעת לחצי כיבוד כלום זרקה ארנקי בפניך לים ולא הכלמתה,רב יוסף כי הוה שמע קל כרעא דאמיה אמר איקום מקמי שכינה דאתיא אמר רבי יוחנן אשרי מי שלא חמאן רבי יוחנן כי עברתו אמו מת אביו ילדתו מתה אמו וכן אביי איני והאמר אביי אמרה לי אם ההיא מרבינתיה הואי,רב אסי הוה ליה ההיא אמא זקינה אמרה לי' בעינא תכשיטין עבד לה בעינא גברא נייעין לך בעינא גברא דשפיר כותך שבקה ואזל לארעא דישראל,שמע דקא אזלה אבתריה אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר לי' מהו לצאת מארץ לחוצה לארץ א"ל אסור לקראת אמא מהו א"ל איני יודע [אתרח] פורתא הדר אתא אמר ליה אסי נתרצית לצאת המקום יחזירך לשלום,אתא לקמיה דרבי אלעזר א"ל חס ושלום דלמא מירתח רתח א"ל מאי אמר לך אמר ליה המקום יחזירך לשלום אמר ליה ואם איתא דרתח לא הוה מברך לך אדהכי והכי שמע לארונא דקאתי אמר אי ידעי לא נפקי,ת"ר מכבדו בחייו ומכבדו במותו בחייו כיצד הנשמע בדבר אביו למקום לא יאמר שלחוני בשביל עצמי מהרוני בשביל עצמי פטרוני בשביל עצמי אלא כולהו בשביל אבא,במותו כיצד היה אומר דבר שמועה מפיו לא יאמר כך אמר אבא אלא כך אמר אבא מרי הריני כפרת משכבו והני מילי תוך שנים עשר חדש מכאן ואילך אומר זכרונו לברכה לחיי העולם הבא,תנו רבנן חכם משנה שם אביו ושם רבו תורגמן אינו משנה לא שם אביו ולא שם רבו אבוה דמאן אילימא אבוה דמתורגמן אטו תורגמן לאו בר חיובא הוא,אלא אמר רבא שם אביו של חכם ושם רבו של חכם כי הא דמר בר רב אשי כי הוה דריש בפירקא איהו אמר אבא מרי ואמוריה אמר הכי אמר רב אשי,ת"ר איזהו מורא ואיזהו כיבוד מורא לא עומד במקומו ולא יושב במקומו ולא סותר את דבריו ולא מכריעו כיבוד מאכיל ומשקה מלביש ומכסה מכניס ומוציא,איבעיא להו 31b. and this action bbrings him to the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bRabbi Abbahu said:One bsuch as Avimi, my son,properly bfulfilled the mitzva of honoringhis parents. The Gemara relates: bAvimi had five sons during his father’s lifetimewho were bordainedto issue halakhic rulings, and he too was ordained. bAndyet bwhen Rabbi Abbahu,his father, bcame and called at the gateto enter, Avimi bwouldhimself brun and go to openthe door bfor him. And before he arrived there, hewould already bsay: Yes, yes,so that his father would not think that he was being ignored., bOne dayRabbi Abbahu bsaid toAvimi his son: bGive me water to drink. Before he brought himthe water, Rabbi Abbahu bdozed off.Avimi bbent overand bstood over him untilhis father bawoke.The performance of this mitzva baided him,i.e., as a reward God helped him in his studies, bandAvimi succeeded in homiletically binterpretingthe psalm: b“A song to Asaph”(Psalms 79)., bRav Ya’akov bar Avuh said to Abaye:With regard to one bsuch as I,so beloved by my parents that bbefore I return from the study hall my father brings me a cup and my mother pours for me, how should I act?Is it disrespectful to accept this honor from them? Abaye bsaid to him: Acceptit bfrom your mother, but do not accept it from your father, as, since he is a Torah scholar he will be disheartenedif his son does not show him the proper level of respect.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Tarfon had a certainmanner of treating his bmother, that whenever she wished to ascend intoher bbed he would bend over andhelp bher to ascend, and whenever she wished to descendfrom the bed, bshe would descend onto him. He came and praisedhimself in the bstudy hallfor performing the mitzva of honoring one’s father and mother so thoroughly. bThey said to him: You still have not reached even half ofthe bhonordue to her. bHasit ever happened that bshe threw a purse into the sea in front of you, and you did not embarrass her? /b, bWhen Rav Yosef heard his mother’s footsteps, hewould bsay: I will stand before the arriving Divine Presence. Rabbi Yoḥa said: Fortunate is one who never sawhis father and mother, as it is so difficult to honor them appropriately. The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yoḥahimself never saw his parents. bWhen his mother was pregt with him, his father died;and when bshe gave birth to him, his mother died. And the sameis true of bAbaye.The Gemara asks: bIs that so,that Abaye never saw his mother? bBut didn’t Abaye sayon many occasions: bMy mother told me?The Gemara answers: bThatmother bwasactually bhis foster mother,not his birth mother., bRav Asi had an elderly mother. She said to him: I want jewelry,and bhe madejewelry bfor her.She said to him: bI want a manwhom I can marry, and he said to her: bI will seekone bfor you.She said to him: bI want a husband who is as handsome as you.At this point, he realized that she was senile, and that he would be unable to fulfill all her requests. Therefore, bhe left her and went to Eretz Yisrael. /b,Rav Asi bheard that she was following himto Eretz Yisrael. bHe came before Rabbi Yoḥaand bsaid to him: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to bleaving EretzYisrael to go boutside of EretzYisrael? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him:It is bprohibited.Rav Asi further asked: If one is going bto greethis bmother, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: I do not know.Rav Asi bwaited a littlewhile, and bthen cameback to him. Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Asi, you areevidently bdetermined to leave.May bthe Omnipresent return you in peace,and he said no more.,Rav Asi bcame before Rabbi Elazar,because he did not know how to interpret Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement. bHe said toRabbi Elazar: bGod forbid, perhapshe bis angrywith me that I wished to leave? Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: Whatexactly bdid he say to you?Rav Asi bsaid to him:May bthe Omnipresent return you in peace.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: If it is so that he was angry, he would not have blessed you.Rabbi Yoḥa certainly gave you permission to leave. bIn the meantime,while he was traveling to meet her, Rav Asi bheard that her coffin was coming,i.e., his mother had died and her coffin was being brought to Eretz Yisrael. bHe said: Had I known I would not have left,as after his mother’s death he was not obligated to leave Eretz Yisrael to honor her., bThe Sages taught: One honorshis father bin his life and honors him in his death. Howdoes he honor him bin his life? One who goes to a place on the command of his father should not sayto the people to whom he has been sent, to hurry them along: bSend meon my journey bon my own behalf,or: bHurry up on my own behalf,or: bAllow meto btake leaveof this business bon my own behalf. Rather,he should say ballof the above in the following manner: Act in this manner bon Father’s behalf,as a mark of respect for his father., bHowdoes he honor him bin his death?If bhe says a matter he heard from hisfather’s bmouth, he should not say: So said Father. Rather,he should say: bSo said Father, my teacher, may I be an atonement for his restingsoul. bAnd this ihalakha bapplies within twelve monthsof his death. bFrom thistime bonward he says: May his memory be for a blessing, for the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bThe Sages taught: A Sagewho lectures in public must bchange the name of his father,i.e., when he quotes his father he should not mention him by name. bAndsimilarly, he changes the bname of his teacher. The disseminator,who explains the statements of a Sage to the audience, bchanges neither the name of his father nor the name of his teacher.The Gemara asks: To bwhose fatheris this referring? bIf we sayit is referring to bthe father of the disseminator,whom the Sage mentioned in his lecture, bis that to saythat bthe disseminator is not obligatedto observe the mitzva of honoring one’s father? How can a disseminator mention his own father by name?, bRather, Rava said:This is referring to the bname of the Sage’s father and the name of the Sage’s teacher.This is blike that which Mar bar Rav Ashiwould do, as bwhen he would teachTorah bat his regular lectureand would mention a ihalakhain the name of his father, Rav Ashi, bhe would say:So said bmy father, my teacher; and his disseminatorwould bsay: So said Rav Ashi.Although a son may not mention his father’s name, the disseminator of his lecture may do so., bThe Sages taught: What is fear and what is honor? Fearof one’s father includes the following: bOne may not stand in hisfather’s fixed bplace, and may not sit in his place, and may not contradict his statementsby expressing an opinion contrary to that of his father, band he may not choose sideswhen his father argues with someone else. What is considered bhonor? He giveshis father bfood and drink, dresses and covershim, and bbringshim bin and takeshim boutfor all his household needs., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages:
51. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7b. שנאמר (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים גבורים סביב לה מגבורי ישראל כולם אחוזי חרב מלומדי מלחמה איש חרבו על יריכו מפחד בלילות מפחדה של גיהנם שדומה ללילה,דרש ר' יאשיה ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו כא, יב) בית דוד כה אמר ה' דינו לבקר משפט והצילו גזול מיד עושק וכי בבקר דנין וכל היום אין דנין אלא אם ברור לך הדבר כבקר אמרהו ואם לאו אל תאמרהו ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יונתן מהכא (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את אם ברור לך הדבר כאחותך שהיא אסורה לך אומרהו ואם לאו אל תאמרהו,אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה שיושבין בדין קולר תלוי בצואר כולן פשיטא לא צריכא אלא לתלמיד היושב לפני רבו,רב הונא כי הוה אתי דינא לקמיה מיכניף ומייתי עשרה רבנן מבי רב אמר כי היכי דלימטיי' שיבא מכשורא רב אשי כי הוה אתי טריפתא לקמיה מכניף ומייתי להו לכולהו טבחי דמתא מחסיא אמר כי היכי דלימטיין שיבא מכשורא,כי אתא רב דימי אמר דרש רב נחמן בר כהן מאי דכתיב (משלי כט, ד) מלך במשפט יעמיד ארץ ואיש תרומות יהרסנה אם דיין דומה למלך שאינו צריך לכלום יעמיד ארץ ואם דומה לכהן שמחזר בבית הגרנות יהרסנה,דבי נשיאה אוקמו דיינא דלא הוה גמיר א"ל ליהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש קום עליה באמורא קם גחין עליה ולא א"ל ולא מידי,פתח ואמר (חבקוק ב, יט) הוי אומר לעץ הקיצה עורי לאבן דומם הוא יורה הנה הוא תפוש זהב וכסף וכל רוח אין בקרבו ועתיד הקב"ה ליפרע ממעמידין שנאמר (חבקוק ב, כ) וה' בהיכל קדשו הס מפניו כל הארץ,אמר ריש לקיש כל המעמיד דיין (על הציבור) שאינו הגון כאילו נוטע אשירה בישראל שנאמר (דברים טז, יח) שופטים ושוטרים תתן לך וסמיך ליה (דברים טז, כא) לא תטע לך אשירה כל עץ אמר רב אשי ובמקום שיש תלמידי חכמים כאילו נטעו אצל מזבח שנאמר (דברים טז, כא) אצל מזבח ה' אלהיך,כתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב הוא דלא עבדי הא דעץ שרי אמר רב אשי אלוה הבא בשביל כסף ואלוה הבא בשביל זהב,רב כי הוה אתי לבי דינא אמר הכי ברעות נפשיה לקטלא נפיק וצבי ביתיה לית הוא עביד וריקן לביתיה עייל ולואי שתהא ביאה כיציאה,כי הוי חזי אמבוהא (דספרי) אבתריה אמר (איוב כ, ו) אם יעלה לשמים שיאו [וגו'] כגללו לנצח יאבד (וגו') מר זוטרא חסידא כי הוו מכתפי ליה בשבתא דריגלא אמר הכי (משלי כז, כד) כי לא לעולם חוסן ואם נזר לדור ודור,דרש בר קפרא מנא הא מילתא דאמרו רבנן הוו מתונין בדין דכתיב (שמות כ, כו) לא תעלה במעלות וסמיך ליה (שמות כא, א) ואלה המשפטים אמר ר' אליעזר מניין לדיין שלא יפסע על ראשי עם קודש שנא' לא תעלה במעלות וסמיך ליה ואלה המשפטים,אשר תשים אשר תלמדם מיבעי ליה אמר רבי ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא אלו כלי הדיינין רב הונא כי הוה נפק לדינא אמר הכי אפיקו לי מאני חנותאי מקל ורצועה ושופרא וסנדלא,(דברים א, טז) ואצוה את שופטיכם בעת ההיא אמר רבי יוחנן כנגד מקל ורצועה תהא זריז (דברים א, טז) שמוע בין אחיכם ושפטתם אמר רבי חנינא אזהרה לבית דין שלא ישמע דברי בעל דין קודם שיבא בעל דין חבירו ואזהרה לבעל דין שלא יטעים דבריו לדיין קודם שיבא בעל דין חבירו קרי ביה נמי שמע בין אחיכם,רב כהנא אמר מהכא (שמות כג, א) מלא תשא לא תשיא,(דברים א, טז) ושפטתם צדק אמר ריש לקיש צדק את הדין ואחר כך חתכהו (דברים א, טז) בין איש ובין אחיו (ובין גרו) אמר רב יהודה אפילו בין בית לעלייה,ובין גרו אמר רב יהודה אפילו בין תנור לכירים,(דברים א, יז) לא תכירו פנים במשפט רבי יהודה אומר לא תכירהו רבי אלעזר אומר לא תנכרהו,אושפיזכניה דרב אתא לקמיה לדינא אמר לו לאו אושפיזכני את אמר לו אין אמר ליה דינא אית לי אמר ליה 7b. bas it is stated: “Behold, it is the bed of Solomon; sixty mighty men are around it, of the mighty men of Israel. They all handle the sword, and are expert in war; every man has his sword upon his thigh due to dread in the night”(Song of Songs 3:7–8). The words “due to dread in the night” mean bdue to the dread of Gehenna, which is similar to the night.Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani interprets this verse as referring to judges, who are called: Mighty men of Israel, as they preside in the Temple, which is termed: The bed of God. In this verse, God is referred to as: Solomon [ iShlomo /i], the King to Whom peace [ ishalom /i] belongs., bRabbi Yoshiya, and some say Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, interpreteda verse bhomiletically. Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “House of David, so says the Lord: Execute justice in the morning, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor”(Jeremiah 21:12)? bAndis it bsothat a court bmay judge in the morning, and allthe rest of bthe daya court bmay not judge?Why does the verse specifically relate to judging in the morning? bRather,the meaning is: bIf the matter is as clear to you as the morning, statethe verdict; band if not, do not state it. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yonatansays this principle may be derived bfrom here: “Say to wisdom: You are my sister”(Proverbs 7:4). bIf the matter isas bclear to you asthe fact bthat your sister is forbidden to you, state it, and if not, do not state it. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:If btenjudges bare sitting in judgment,a prisoner’s bcollar [ ikolar /i],referring to responsibility for the consequences of an incorrect verdict, bhangs around all of their necks.The Gemara asks: Isn’t it bobviousthat all of the judges bear joint responsibility for the verdict? The Gemara answers: It bis necessary onlyin order btoinclude ba student who is sitting in front of his teacherin the court, and notices that his teacher erred. Although he is not formally part of the court, he nevertheless bears responsibility if he remains silent.,The Gemara relates concerning bRav Hunathat bwhena case bwould come before himfor bjudgment,he would bgather and bring ten rabbis from Rav’s study hall.He bwould say:I do this bso thatonly a small part of the responsibility, comparable to ba splinter from a beam, will reacheach of bus.The greater the number of judges, the less responsibility each one assumes for the verdict. Similarly, with bRav Ashi, whena person bwould come before himwith meat suspected to be from ban animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [ itereifta /i],he bwould gather and bringtogether ball the butchers of Mata Meḥasyaand consult with them before ruling on the status of the meat. He bwould sayto them: I do this bso thatonly a small part of the responsibility, comparable to ba splinter from a beam, will reacheach of bus. /b, bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael, he bsaid: Rav Naḥman bar Kohen interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The king by justice establishes the land; but he who exacts gifts [ iterumot /i] overthrows it”(Proverbs 29:4)? This teaches that bif the judgeis blike a kingin bthat he does not need anythingand is not dependent on anyone, he bestablishes the land,i.e., he can serve as a judge. bBut if he is like a priest who seeks outhis iterumot bfromvarious bgranaries,as he is dependent on others, he boverthrowsthe land., bIn the house of the iNasi /i, they appointed a judge who was not learned.This judge bsaid to Yehuda bar Naḥmani,who was the binterpreter of Reish Lakishand whose role was to repeat and explain the Sage’s lectures: bStand overme bas an interpreter,and I will lecture. Yehuda bar Naḥmani baroseand bbent over himin the conventional manner, to hear the judge’s words. bAnd,being ignorant, the judge bdid not say anything to him. /b,The interpreter bbegan and said:The verse states: b“Woe to him who says to the wood: Awake, to the dumb stone: Arise. Can this teach? Behold, it is overlaid with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it”(Habakkuk 2:19). So is this judge, appointed to teach the public for gold, i.e., for payment, but no more qualified than wood and stone. bAndin the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will punish those who appointsuch judges, bas it is statedin the next verse: b“But the Lord is in His holy Sanctuary; let all the earth be silent before Him”(Habakkuk 2:20). God, Who is above everything, will judge those responsible for such appointments., bReish Lakish says:With regard to banyone who appoints over the community a judge who is not fit,it is bas thoughhe bplants a treeused as part of idolatrous rites b[ iashera /i] among the Jewish people, as it is stated: “You shall make judges and officers for yourself”(Deuteronomy 16:18), band juxtaposed to it,it is written: b“You shall not plant yourself an iasheraof any kind of tree”(Deuteronomy 16:21). By implication, appointing unfit judges is akin to planting a tree for idolatry. bRav Ashi says: And in a place where there are Torah scholars,it is bas thoughhe bplantedthe tree bnext to the altar, as it is stated:“You shall not plant yourself an iashera /i… bbeside the altar of the Lord your God.” /b,It is bwritten: “You shall not make with Me gods of [ ielohei /i] silver and gods of gold”(Exodus 20:20). The Gemara asks: It is bgods of silver and gods of gold thatyou may bnot make, butare gods bof wood permitted?Rather, bRav Ashi says:This verse discusses ba judge,called ielohim /i, bwho comes,i.e., is appointed, bdue topayment of bsilver, and a judge who comes due topayment of bgold. /b,The Gemara relates that bRav, when he would come to courtto judge a case, bwould say thisabout himself: bBy his own willhe bgoes out todanger of bdeath,as a judge who misjudges a case is liable to receive the punishment of death at the hand of Heaven; band he does not dowhat is necessary to provide for bthe needs of his house, and he enters his home empty-handed,because a judge does not receive a salary. He said: bIf onlyit should be so that his bentryinto his home bwill bethe same bashis bdeparture,without sin or transgression.,In a similar demonstration of humility, bwhenRav bwould see a convoy [ iambuha /i] of scribesfollowing bafter himto honor him, he bwould say: “Though his excellency mount up to the heavensand his head reach the clouds, byet he shall perish forever like his own dung;they who have seen him shall say: Where is he?” (Job 20:6–7). It is said of bMar Zutra the Piousthat bwhenthe people bwould carry himto his lectures bon their shoulders during Shabbat of the Festival,he would bsay thisto avoid becoming arrogant: b“For power is not forever, and does the crown endure for all generations?”(Proverbs 27:24)., bBar Kappara taught,based on a homiletical interpretation of a verse: bFrom where is this matter that the Sages statedderived: bBe temperate in judgment( iAvot1:1)? bAs it is written: “Neither shall you go up by stepsonto My altar” (Exodus 20:23), i.e., do not ascend hurriedly, band juxtaposed to it,it is written: b“Now these are the ordicesthat you shall set before them” (Exodus 21:1). bRabbi Eliezer says: From whereis it derived bthat a judge may not step over the heads of the sacred nation,walking among those assembled for the lecture, who would sit upon the floor, in such a manner that he has the appearance of stepping on them? It is derived from that bwhich is stated: “Neither shall you go up by steps,” and juxtaposed to itis an introduction to civil laws and courtroom regulations: b“Now these are the ordices.”This indicates that the prohibition against ascending upon steps applies to judges.,The Gemara interprets the second part of the verse cited above: “Now these are the ordices bthat you shall setbefore them.” The verse bshould havestated: bThat you shall teach them.What is indicated by the phrase: “Set before them”? bRabbi Yirmeya, and some say Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, says: These are the judges’ tools.To illustrate this, the Gemara relates that bRav Huna, when he would go out to a judgment, would say this: Take out for me tools from my shop: A rod and strap,with which to flog transgressors; band a shofar,necessary in the event that someone must be excommunicated; band a sandal,necessary in the event of iḥalitza /i, the procedure by which a levirate marriage is rejected.,The Gemara interprets other verses related to the topic of adjudicating cases. b“And I charged your judges at that time,saying: Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the stranger who is with him” (Deuteronomy 1:16). Understanding that the word “charged” indicates alacrity, bRabbi Yoḥa says:Moses urged the judges: bWith regard to the rod and the strap, be vigilant.With regard to the clause b“Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge,” Rabbi Ḥanina says:This is ba warning to a court thatit bmay not hear the statement ofone blitigant before the other litigant comes, andit is ba warning to a litigant thathe bmay not explain his statement to the judge before the other litigant comes. Read intothe phrase in the verse: b“Hear the causes between your brethren,”that it is balso concerningthe litigant. Although he is not the judge, he is also required to assure that the case is conducted in the presence of both parties., bRav Kahana saysthe litigant’s responsibility may be derived bfrom here: From “you shall not bear [ itissa /i]a false report” (Exodus 23:1). Although conjugated in this manner the verb would seem to be addressed to the judges, commanding them not to lend credence to a false report, the term may also be read as: bYou shall not deliver [ itassi /i]a false report, conjugated so that it addresses the litigants and the witnesses.,The Gemara returns to the verse in Deuteronomy cited above: “And I charged your judges at that time, saying: Hear the causes between your brethren, band judge righteously.” Reish Lakish says: Verify the judgmentby meticulously examining the particulars of the case, bandonly bafterward, implement it.The verse continues: b“Between a man and his brother, and the stranger who is with him.” Rav Yehuda says:The judge must distinguish beven betweenthe merits of ba house and the upper storywhen dividing a two-floor property among inheriting brothers.,With regard to the clause in the verse: b“And the stranger who is with him [ igero /i],”the word igeroresembles the word: Dwell [ igur /i], and bRav Yehuda says:This word teaches that the judge must distinguish beven betweenthe merits of ban oven and a stove.The judge must carefully weigh how to divide even these domestic items in a case of inheritance, to ensure that the distribution of property is absolutely equitable.,The next verse states: b“You shall not respect [ itakiru /i] people in judgment;you shall hear the small and the great alike; you shall not be afraid before any man, for the judgment is God’s; and the cause that is too hard for you, you shall bring to me, and I will hear it” (Deuteronomy 1:17). bRabbi Yehuda says: Do not recognize him [ itakirehu /i],i.e., do not acknowledge the litigant as a friend in your role as a judge. bRabbi Elazar says:Even if he is your opponent, bdo not estrange him [ itenakerehu /i]in such a way as to prejudge him as liable, but treat him as though you do not know him at all., bRav’s host [ iushpizekhaneih /i],with whom he would stay occasionally, bcame before him for a judgment.Rav bsaid tothe host: bAre you not my host?He bsaid to him: Yes,I am. The host then bsaid to him: I havea dispute with another that needs ba judgment.Rav bsaid to him: /b
52. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

37b. ארבע ארבע וארבע הרי שמונה שמונה ושמונה הרי שש עשרה וכן בסיני וכן בערבות מואב שנא' (דברים כח, סט) אלה דברי הברית אשר צוה ה' את משה וגו' וכתיב (דברים כט, ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת וגו' נמצא מ"ח בריתות על כל מצוה ומצוה,ר"ש מוציא הר גריזים והר עיבל ומכניס אהל מועד שבמדבר,ובפלוגתא דהני תנאי דתניא רבי ישמעאל אומר כללות נאמרו בסיני ופרטות באהל מועד ר' עקיבא אומר כללות ופרטות נאמרו בסיני ונשנו באהל מועד ונשתלשו בערבות מואב,ואין לך כל דבר מצוה ומצוה שכתובה בתורה שלא נכרתו עליה ארבעים ושמנה בריתות,ר' שמעון בן יהודה איש כפר עכו אמר משום רבי שמעון אין לך מצוה ומצוה שכתובה בתורה שלא נכרתו עליה ארבעים ושמנה בריתות של שש מאות אלף ושלשת אלפים וחמש מאות וחמשים,אמר רבי לדברי רבי שמעון בן יהודה איש כפר עכו שאמר משום רבי שמעון אין לך כל מצוה ומצוה שבתורה שלא נכרתו עליה ארבעים ושמנה בריתות של שש מאות אלף ושלשת אלפים וחמש מאות וחמשים נמצא לכל אחד ואחד מישראל שש מאות אלף ושלשת אלפים וחמש מאות וחמשים,מאי בינייהו אמר רב משרשיא ערבא וערבא דערבא איכא בינייהו,דרש רבי יהודה בן נחמני מתורגמניה דרבי שמעון בן לקיש כל הפרשה כולה לא נאמרה אלא בנואף ונואפת,(דברים כז, טו) ארור האיש אשר יעשה פסל ומסכה וגו' בארור סגי ליה אלא זה הבא על הערוה והוליד בן והלך לבין עובדי כוכבים ועבד עבודת כוכבים ארורין אביו ואמו של זה שכך גרמו לו,ת"ר (דברים יא, כט) ונתת את הברכה על הר גריזים ואת הקללה וגו מה תלמוד לומר אם ללמד שתהא ברכה על הר גריזים וקללה על הר עיבל הרי כבר נאמר (דברים כז, יב) אלה יעמדו לברך את העם על הר גריזים וכתיב (דברים כז, יג) ואלה יעמדו על הקללה בהר עיבל אלא להקדים ברכה לקללה,יכול יהיו כל הברכות קודמות לקללות תלמוד לומר ברכה וקללה ברכה אחת קודמת לקללה ואין כל הברכות קודמות לקללות,ולהקיש ברכה לקללה לומר לך מה קללה בלוים אף ברכה בלוים ומה קללה בקול רם אף ברכה בקול רם ומה קללה בלשון הקודש אף ברכה בלה"ק ומה קללה בכלל ופרט אף ברכה בכלל ופרט ומה קללה אלו ואלו עונין ואומרים אמן אף ברכה אלו ואלו עונין ואומרים אמן, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ברכת כהנים כיצד במדינה אומר אותה שלש ברכות ובמקדש ברכה אחת במקדש אומר את השם 37b. every mitzva contains bfouraspects. bFourgeneral aspects band fourspecific aspects add up to beight. Eightblessings band eightcurses add up to bsixteen. And so too atMount bSinai, and so too at the plains of Moab, as it is stated: “These are the words of the covet that the Lord commanded Mosesto make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the covet that He made with them in Horeb” (Deuteronomy 28:69). bAnd it is written: “Observe therefore the words of this covet”(Deuteronomy 29:8). bIt followsthat between the three events where sixteen covets were made, God established bforty-eight covets for each and every mitzva. /b, bRabbi Shimon excludes Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebalfrom this list because only some of the mitzvot were mentioned there, band he includesinstead the covet at bthe Tent of Meeting in the desert. /b,The Gemara explains: bAndit is bin the disputebetween bthese itanna’im /ithat they disagree, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta8:11): bRabbi Yishmael says: General statements were said at Sinai,i.e., Moses received general mitzvot at Sinai, including the Ten Commandments. bAndthe bdetailsof the mitzvot were explained to Moses at a later time bin the Tent of Meeting. Rabbi Akiva says:Both bgeneral statements andthe bdetailsof mitzvot bwere said at Sinai, andlater brepeated in the Tent of Meeting, andreiterated ba third timeby Moses to the Jewish people bin the plains of Moab.Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance with his teacher, Rabbi Akiva, and counts Mount Sinai and the Tent of Meeting Tent as two distinct places where all of the mitzvot were given.,The ibaraitaconcludes: bAnd there is no mitzva written in the Torah for which forty-eight covets were not established. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko said in the name of Rabbi Shimon: There is no mitzva written in the Torah for which forty-eight covets were not established 603,550 times,corresponding to the population of the Jewish people in the desert. This is because each member of the Jewish people received the covet both for himself and as a guarantor for the rest of the Jewish people., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: According to the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko, who spoke in the name of Rabbi Shimon, there is no mitzva in the Torah for which forty-eight covets were not established 603,550 times; it followsthat bfor every one of the Jewish peoplethere were b603,550covets.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthe statements of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? What does the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi add? bRav Mesharshiyya said:The matter of ba guarantor and a guarantor for a guarantoris the difference bbetween them.According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, every Jew is not only rendered a guarantor for every other Jew, but he is also rendered a guarantor for every other Jew’s responsibility as a guarantor. Therefore, according to his calculation, the number of covets is multiplied again by 603,550.,§ bRabbi Yehuda ben Naḥmani, the disseminator of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, taught: The entire passageof the blessings and curses bis stated onlyin reference bto an adulterer and adulteress. /b,This is proved from the verse: b“Cursed is the man who makes a graven or molten image”(Deuteronomy 27:15). bIs a curse a sufficientconsequence bforthe actions of an idol worshipper? He has rebelled against the fundamental tenet of the Torah. bRather, thisis referring to bone who engaged in sexual intercourse with a forbidden relative and boreher a imamzer bson. Andthe son, who is not allowed to marry a Jew of unflawed lineage, bwentto live bamong theother bnations of the world and engaged in idol worship. His father and mother are cursed for causing himto worship idols. Likewise, the rest of the curses refer to sins that are the result of adultery., bThe Sages taught: “And you shall give the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the curseon Mount Ebal” (Deuteronomy 11:29). bWhymust bthe verse statethis? bIfit is bto teach that the blessing must begiven bon Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal, it is already stated: “These shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people”(Deuteronomy 27:12), band it is written: “And these shall stand on Mount Ebal for the curse”(Deuteronomy 27:13). bRather,the verse teaches that the proclamation of the bblessing must precedethe bcurse. /b,One bmighthave thought that ball of the blessingsshould bprecede the curses.Therefore, bthe verse states “blessing” and “curse”in the singular, to teach that bone blessing precedeseach bcurse, but all of the blessings do not precede the curses.The blessings and curses were recited alternately, first one blessing and then one curse., bAndfurthermore, the verse comes bto juxtaposethe bblessing withthe bcurse, to say to youthat bjust asthe bcurseis recited bbythe bLevites, so too,the bblessingis uttered bbythe bLevites; and just asthe bcurseis proclaimed bloudly, so too,the bblessingis proclaimed bloudly; and just asthe bcurseis proclaimed bin the sacred tongue,Hebrew, bso too,the bblessingis proclaimed bin the sacred tongue; and just asthe bcurseis proclaimed both bin general and in detail, so too,the bblessing isproclaimed bin general and in detail. And just asafter the bcurseis uttered, bbothgroups of people on each mountain brespond and say amen, so too,after the bblessingis uttered, bbothgroups brespond and say amen. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bHowis bthe Priestly Benedictionrecited? bIn the country,i.e., outside the Temple, the priest brecitesthe verses as bthree blessings,pausing between each verse while the people respond amen. bAnd in the Temple,the priests recite all three verses as bone blessing,after which the people respond: Blessed be the Lord, God, the God of Israel, from eternity to eternity, as is the customary response to blessings in the Temple. bIn the Temple,the priest butters the nameof God
53. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 96-99, 177

177. as he saw them began to ask them about the books. And when they had taken the rolls out of their coverings and unfolded the pages, the king stood still for a long time and then making obeisance about seven times, he said: 'I thank you, my friends, and I thank him that sent you still more, and


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
ahasuerus Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 275
alexandria, under trajan Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
alexandria, zealots in alexandrian jewish community Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
alexandria Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
alon, g. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 275
amidah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
anointed, anointing Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291
anointed priest Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291
authority Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
balaam Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
beit ha-midrash Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
bible/biblical Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 231
body Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
breastplate (high priests garments) Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 303
canaanites Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 233
capital cases Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 275
charismatic endowment Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10
chiefs, chieftains Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 303
chieftain / prince Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291
christian, conception of the spirit Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
claudius, letter to the alexandrians Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 397
coronation Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
court Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 303
creation, story of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10
cult/cultic Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 231
death Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 25
deuteronomy, and centralization DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 130, 131
divine Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 303, 355
divine answer Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 355
egypt Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 71; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 25
elders/council of elders Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 302
eleazar Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 233
elijah Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
enthronement Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
exodus Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
false prophet Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 355
flesh Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
freewill offering Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291
gezerah shavah Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 275
gibeonites Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291
god, breath/inbreathing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10
god, choosing of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
god, destruction/punishment of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
ground Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
harmonization Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 303, 355
healing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
herod archelaus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
high priest Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 355
high priests, oracle Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
honor Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 325
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10
iconography of Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 250
inadvertent Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 355
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10, 68, 71
interpretation, hellenistic jewish Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
interpretation, targumic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296, 302, 325
isaiah Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
israel, biblical, high-priestly rule of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296, 302
jacob Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 303
jerusalem Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291
jerusalem temple Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 231
joseph Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 303
josephus, on egyptian jews Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
josephus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
joshua' "151.0_68.0@knowledge, god's own" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 71
joshua, as moses successor DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 130, 131
joshua, as prophet like moses DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 131, 222
joshua Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 25, 35
judaea (judea), and egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
judaea (judea) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
judas the galilaean Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
judges Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 303, 355
king Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 303, 355; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296, 302, 325
knowledge, effects of knowledge korah Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296, 302, 325
law, jewish/of moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
laying on of hands Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 261
mann, j. Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 275
meturgeman (interpreter) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151
mezuzot Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 302, 325
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 233; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 25, 35
mysticism Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
nile, river Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
non-jews/jewish Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 231
offerings, sacrifices Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 355
oil Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
oniad authorship Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 231
onias temple Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 231
onqelos, (targum) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151
oracles Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
ordination Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 261
patriarchs Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 325
permitted war Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 355
pesher, pesharim Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 303
pharaoh Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 71
philo judaeus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
prayer Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296, 302, 325
priest Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 303, 355; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
priest / priestly Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 231
priesthood Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296, 325
prophecy, and charisma DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 131
prophecy, and fulfillment DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 131
prophecy/prophetic Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 231
prophecy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
prophet Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 355
prophetic succession DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 130, 131
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
ptolemy ii philadelphus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
purpose-built communal structures Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 250
rabbis Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 275
revelation, law Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10
romans Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 275
rome Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
sacrifices/sacrificial' Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 231
sages, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 302, 325
school/academy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
second commonwealth Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 275
septuagint/lxx Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
septuagint lxx Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 250
shepherd Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
sibylline oracles, third book Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 231
sin Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
sirach (ben sira) Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 355
spirit, characterizations as, life principle/ power of life Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10
spirit, characterizations as, power Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10
spirit, characterizations as, superadditum Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10, 68, 71
spirit, effects of, wisdom Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
spirit, modes of presence, endowment Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10
spirit, modes of presence, possessing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 10
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
spirit DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 130, 131
synagogue Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
synagogues Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 250
syria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296, 302
targum Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
temple Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 303, 355
temple scroll Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 303, 355
tent, of meeting Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
tent of meeting DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 130, 222
thanksgiving offering / sacrifice Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 355
throne Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
tongues of fire Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 303, 355
torah, giving of Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
torah, teaching Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 277
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 296, 302; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151
trajan, jewish revolts under Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
translators, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
universal/-ism Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 295
urim (and thummim) Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 291, 303, 355
urim and thummim Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 231
urim vernnraiim Segal, The Babylonian Esther Midrash: To the end of Esther chapter 1 (1994) 275
voice Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
zealots, in alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357