|1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.27, 27.26, 31.1-31.8, 31.15, 32.48-32.52, 34.5-34.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 5.27. לֵךְ אֱמֹר לָהֶם שׁוּבוּ לָכֶם לְאָהֳלֵיכֶם׃ 27.26. אָרוּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה־הַזֹּאת לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 31.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.1. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר מִקֵּץ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים בְּמֹעֵד שְׁנַת הַשְּׁמִטָּה בְּחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת׃ 31.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם בֶּן־מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה אָנֹכִי הַיּוֹם לֹא־אוּכַל עוֹד לָצֵאת וְלָבוֹא וַיהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי לֹא תַעֲבֹר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה׃ 31.2. כִּי־אֲבִיאֶנּוּ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לַאֲבֹתָיו זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ וְאָכַל וְשָׂבַע וְדָשֵׁן וּפָנָה אֶל־אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַעֲבָדוּם וְנִאֲצוּנִי וְהֵפֵר אֶת־בְּרִיתִי׃ 31.3. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא עֹבֵר לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא־יַשְׁמִיד אֶת־הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וִירִשְׁתָּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הוּא עֹבֵר לְפָנֶיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה׃ 31.3. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה בְּאָזְנֵי כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עַד תֻּמָּם׃ 31.4. וְעָשָׂה יְהוָה לָהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְסִיחוֹן וּלְעוֹג מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי וּלְאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁמִיד אֹתָם׃ 31.5. וּנְתָנָם יְהוָה לִפְנֵיכֶם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָהֶם כְּכָל־הַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם׃ 31.6. חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תַּעַרְצוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ׃ 31.7. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ כִּי אַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתָם לָתֵת לָהֶם וְאַתָּה תַּנְחִילֶנָּה אוֹתָם׃ 31.8. וַיהוָה הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ לֹא תִירָא וְלֹא תֵחָת׃ 31.15. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה בָּאֹהֶל בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן עַל־פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל׃ 32.48. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 32.49. עֲלֵה אֶל־הַר הָעֲבָרִים הַזֶּה הַר־נְבוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרֵחוֹ וּרְאֵה אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַאֲחֻזָּה׃ 32.51. עַל אֲשֶׁר מְעַלְתֶּם בִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמֵי־מְרִיבַת קָדֵשׁ מִדְבַּר־צִן עַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קִדַּשְׁתֶּם אוֹתִי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.52. כִּי מִנֶּגֶד תִּרְאֶה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁמָּה לֹא תָבוֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי נֹתֵן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 34.5. וַיָּמָת שָׁם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב עַל־פִּי יְהוָה׃ 34.6. וַיִּקְבֹּר אֹתוֹ בַגַּיְ בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מוּל בֵּית פְּעוֹר וְלֹא־יָדַע אִישׁ אֶת־קְבֻרָתוֹ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 34.7. וּמֹשֶׁה בֶּן־מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה בְּמֹתוֹ לֹא־כָהֲתָה עֵינוֹ וְלֹא־נָס לֵחֹה׃ 34.8. וַיִּבְכּוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־מֹשֶׁה בְּעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וַיִּתְּמוּ יְמֵי בְכִי אֵבֶל מֹשֶׁה׃ 34.9. וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן מָלֵא רוּחַ חָכְמָה כִּי־סָמַךְ מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדָיו עָלָיו וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֵלָיו בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 34.11. לְכָל־הָאֹתוֹת וְהַמּוֹפְתִים אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחוֹ יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לְפַרְעֹה וּלְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וּלְכָל־אַרְצוֹ׃ 34.12. וּלְכֹל הַיָּד הַחֲזָקָה וּלְכֹל הַמּוֹרָא הַגָּדוֹל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה לְעֵינֵי כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
| 5.27. Go say to them: Return ye to your tents." 27.26. Cursed be he that confirmeth not the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say: Amen.’" 31.1. And Moses went and spoke these words unto all Israel." 31.2. And he said unto them: ‘I am a hundred and twenty years old this day; I can no more go out and come in; and the LORD hath said unto me: Thou shalt not go over this Jordan." 31.3. The LORD thy God, He will go over before thee; He will destroy these nations from before thee, and thou shalt dispossess them; and Joshua, he shall go over before thee, as the LORD hath spoken." 31.4. And the LORD will do unto them as He did to Sihon and to Og, the kings of the Amorites, and unto their land; whom He destroyed." 31.5. And the LORD will deliver them up before you, and ye shall do unto them according unto all the commandment which I have commanded you." 31.6. Be strong and of good courage, fear not, nor be affrighted at them; for the LORD thy God, He it is that doth go with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.’" 31.7. And Moses called unto Joshua, and said unto him in the sight of all Israel: ‘Be strong and of good courage; for thou shalt go with this people into the land which the LORD hath sworn unto their fathers to give them; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it." 31.8. And the LORD, He it is that doth go before thee; He will be with thee, He will not fail thee, neither forsake thee; fear not, neither be dismayed.’" 31.15. And the LORD appeared in the Tent in a pillar of cloud; and the pillar of cloud stood over the door of the Tent." 32.48. And the LORD spoke unto Moses that selfsame day, saying:" 32.49. ’Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, unto mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab, that is over against Jericho; and behold the land of Canaan, which I give unto the children of Israel for a possession;" 32.50. and die in the mount whither thou goest up, and be gathered unto thy people; as Aaron thy brother died in mount Hor, and was gathered unto his people." 32.51. Because ye trespassed against Me in the midst of the children of Israel at the waters of Meribath-kadesh, in the wilderness of Zin; because ye sanctified Me not in the midst of the children of Israel." 32.52. For thou shalt see the land afar off; but thou shalt not go thither into the land which I give the children of Israel.’" 34.5. So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD." 34.6. And he was buried in the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth-peor; and no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day." 34.7. And Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated." 34.8. And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days; so the days of weeping in the mourning for Moses were ended." 34.9. And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him; and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the LORD commanded Moses." 34.10. And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face;" 34.11. in all the signs and the wonders, which the LORD sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land;" 34.12. and in all the mighty hand, and in all the great terror, which Moses wrought in the sight of all Israel."
|2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.6, 24.7, 29.7, 34.29-34.35, 40.12-40.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 12.6. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְשָׁחֲטוּ אֹתוֹ כֹּל קְהַל עֲדַת־יִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 29.7. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וְיָצַקְתָּ עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתוֹ׃ 34.29. וַיְהִי בְּרֶדֶת מֹשֶׁה מֵהַר סִינַי וּשְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה בְּרִדְתּוֹ מִן־הָהָר וּמֹשֶׁה לֹא־יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו בְּדַבְּרוֹ אִתּוֹ׃ 34.31. וַיִּקְרָא אֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו אַהֲרֹן וְכָל־הַנְּשִׂאִים בָּעֵדָה וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם׃ 34.32. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן נִגְּשׁוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְצַוֵּם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 34.33. וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל־פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה׃ 34.34. וּבְבֹא מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ יָסִיר אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַד־צֵאתוֹ וְיָצָא וְדִבֶּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר יְצֻוֶּה׃ 34.35. וְרָאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְהֵשִׁיב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּסְוֶה עַל־פָּנָיו עַד־בֹּאוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ׃ 40.12. וְהִקְרַבְתָּ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְרָחַצְתָּ אֹתָם בַּמָּיִם׃ 40.13. וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אֵת בִּגְדֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתוֹ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתוֹ וְכִהֵן לִי׃ 40.14. וְאֶת־בָּנָיו תַּקְרִיב וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם כֻּתֳּנֹת׃ 40.15. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתָם כַּאֲשֶׁר מָשַׁחְתָּ אֶת־אֲבִיהֶם וְכִהֲנוּ לִי וְהָיְתָה לִהְיֹת לָהֶם מָשְׁחָתָם לִכְהֻנַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתָם׃
| 12.6. and ye shall keep it unto the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at dusk." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 29.7. Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him." 34.29. And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of the testimony in Moses’hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew not that the skin of his face sent forth abeams while He talked with him." 34.30. And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face sent forth beams; and they were afraid to come nigh him." 34.31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him; and Moses spoke to them." 34.32. And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh, and he gave them in commandment all that the LORD had spoken with him in mount Sinai." 34.33. And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face." 34.34. But when Moses went in before the LORD that He might speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out; and spoke unto the children of Israel that which he was commanded." 34.35. And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses’face sent forth beams; and Moses put the veil back upon his face, until he went in to speak with Him." 40.12. And thou shalt bring Aaron and his sons unto the door of the tent of meeting, and shalt wash them with water." 40.13. And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments; and thou shalt anoint him, and sanctify him, that he may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 40.14. And thou shalt bring his sons, and put tunics upon them." 40.15. And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office; and their anointing shall be to them for an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations.’"
|3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 40.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 40.10. Deck thyself now with majesty and excellency, And array thyself with glory and beauty."
|4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 16.21. וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת־שְׁתֵּי ידו [יָדָיו] עַל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר הַחַי וְהִתְוַדָּה עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְנָתַן אֹתָם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשִׁלַּח בְּיַד־אִישׁ עִתִּי הַמִּדְבָּרָה׃
| 16.21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, even all their sins; and he shall put them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of an appointed man into the wilderness."
|5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 8.10, 14.5, 16.21-16.22, 26.7, 26.10, 26.34, 26.59, 26.61, 27.1-27.4, 27.11-27.19, 27.21-27.23, 35.33-35.34, 36.1-36.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 14.5. וַיִּפֹּל מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם לִפְנֵי כָּל־קְהַל עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 16.21. הִבָּדְלוּ מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַזֹּאת וַאַכַלֶּה אֹתָם כְּרָגַע׃ 16.22. וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵל אֱלֹהֵי הָרוּחֹת לְכָל־בָּשָׂר הָאִישׁ אֶחָד יֶחֱטָא וְעַל כָּל־הָעֵדָה תִּקְצֹף׃ 26.7. אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָרֻאוּבֵנִי וַיִּהְיוּ פְקֻדֵיהֶם שְׁלֹשָׁה וְאַרְבָּעִים אֶלֶף וּשְׁבַע מֵאוֹת וּשְׁלֹשִׁים׃ 26.34. אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת מְנַשֶּׁה וּפְקֻדֵיהֶם שְׁנַיִם וַחֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף וּשְׁבַע מֵאוֹת׃ 26.59. וְשֵׁם אֵשֶׁת עַמְרָם יוֹכֶבֶד בַּת־לֵוִי אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה אֹתָהּ לְלֵוִי בְּמִצְרָיִם וַתֵּלֶד לְעַמְרָם אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֵת מִרְיָם אֲחֹתָם׃ 26.61. וַיָּמָת נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא בְּהַקְרִיבָם אֵשׁ־זָרָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 27.1. וְאִם־אֵין לוֹ אַחִים וּנְתַתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לַאֲחֵי אָבִיו׃ 27.1. וַתִּקְרַבְנָה בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד בֶּן־חֵפֶר בֶּן־גִּלְעָד בֶּן־מָכִיר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה לְמִשְׁפְּחֹת מְנַשֶּׁה בֶן־יוֹסֵף וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת בְּנֹתָיו מַחְלָה נֹעָה וְחָגְלָה וּמִלְכָּה וְתִרְצָה׃ 27.2. וְנָתַתָּה מֵהוֹדְךָ עָלָיו לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 27.2. וַתַּעֲמֹדְנָה לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי הַנְּשִׂיאִם וְכָל־הָעֵדָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר׃ 27.3. אָבִינוּ מֵת בַּמִּדְבָּר וְהוּא לֹא־הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַנּוֹעָדִים עַל־יְהוָה בַּעֲדַת־קֹרַח כִּי־בְחֶטְאוֹ מֵת וּבָנִים לֹא־הָיוּ לוֹ׃ 27.4. לָמָּה יִגָּרַע שֵׁם־אָבִינוּ מִתּוֹךְ מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ כִּי אֵין לוֹ בֵּן תְּנָה־לָּנוּ אֲחֻזָּה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵי אָבִינוּ׃ 27.11. וְאִם־אֵין אַחִים לְאָבִיו וּנְתַתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לִשְׁאֵרוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו מִמִּשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְיָרַשׁ אֹתָהּ וְהָיְתָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְחֻקַּת מִשְׁפָּט כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 27.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵה אֶל־הַר הָעֲבָרִים הַזֶּה וּרְאֵה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 27.13. וְרָאִיתָה אֹתָהּ וְנֶאֱסַפְתָּ אֶל־עַמֶּיךָ גַּם־אָתָּה כַּאֲשֶׁר נֶאֱסַף אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ׃ 27.14. כַּאֲשֶׁר מְרִיתֶם פִּי בְּמִדְבַּר־צִן בִּמְרִיבַת הָעֵדָה לְהַקְדִּישֵׁנִי בַמַּיִם לְעֵינֵיהֶם הֵם מֵי־מְרִיבַת קָדֵשׁ מִדְבַּר־צִן׃ 27.15. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 27.16. יִפְקֹד יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הָרוּחֹת לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אִישׁ עַל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.17. אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יוֹצִיאֵם וַאֲשֶׁר יְבִיאֵם וְלֹא תִהְיֶה עֲדַת יְהוָה כַּצֹּאן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם רֹעֶה׃ 27.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח־לְךָ אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־רוּחַ בּוֹ וְסָמַכְתָּ אֶת־יָדְךָ עָלָיו׃ 27.19. וְהַעֲמַדְתָּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה וְצִוִּיתָה אֹתוֹ לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 27.21. וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן יַעֲמֹד וְשָׁאַל לוֹ בְּמִשְׁפַּט הָאוּרִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־פִּיו יֵצְאוּ וְעַל־פִּיו יָבֹאוּ הוּא וְכָל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִתּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.22. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֹתוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיַּעֲמִדֵהוּ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.23. וַיִּסְמֹךְ אֶת־יָדָיו עָלָיו וַיְצַוֵּהוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 35.33. וְלֹא־תַחֲנִיפוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּהּ כִּי הַדָּם הוּא יַחֲנִיף אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְלָאָרֶץ לֹא־יְכֻפַּר לַדָּם אֲשֶׁר שֻׁפַּךְ־בָּהּ כִּי־אִם בְּדַם שֹׁפְכוֹ׃ 35.34. וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹשְׁבִים בָּהּ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָהּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 36.1. כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה כֵּן עָשׂוּ בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד׃ 36.1. וַיִּקְרְבוּ רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת לְמִשְׁפַּחַת בְּנֵי־גִלְעָד בֶּן־מָכִיר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה מִמִּשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵי יוֹסֵף וַיְדַבְּרוּ לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְלִפְנֵי הַנְּשִׂאִים רָאשֵׁי אָבוֹת לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 36.2. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶת־אֲדֹנִי צִוָּה יְהוָה לָתֵת אֶת־הָאָרֶץ בְּנַחֲלָה בְּגוֹרָל לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאדֹנִי צֻוָּה בַיהוָה לָתֵת אֶת־נַחֲלַת צְלָפְחָד אָחִינוּ לִבְנֹתָיו׃ 36.3. וְהָיוּ לְאֶחָד מִבְּנֵי שִׁבְטֵי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְנָשִׁים וְנִגְרְעָה נַחֲלָתָן מִנַּחֲלַת אֲבֹתֵינוּ וְנוֹסַף עַל נַחֲלַת הַמַּטֶּה אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶינָה לָהֶם וּמִגֹּרַל נַחֲלָתֵנוּ יִגָּרֵעַ׃ 36.4. וְאִם־יִהְיֶה הַיֹּבֵל לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנוֹסְפָה נַחֲלָתָן עַל נַחֲלַת הַמַּטֶּה אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶינָה לָהֶם וּמִנַּחֲלַת מַטֵּה אֲבֹתֵינוּ יִגָּרַע נַחֲלָתָן׃ 36.5. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־פִּי יְהוָה לֵאמֹר כֵּן מַטֵּה בְנֵי־יוֹסֵף דֹּבְרִים׃ 36.6. זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לִבְנוֹת צְלָפְחָד לֵאמֹר לַטּוֹב בְּעֵינֵיהֶם תִּהְיֶינָה לְנָשִׁים אַךְ לְמִשְׁפַּחַת מַטֵּה אֲבִיהֶם תִּהְיֶינָה לְנָשִׁים׃ 36.7. וְלֹא־תִסֹּב נַחֲלָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמַּטֶּה אֶל־מַטֶּה כִּי אִישׁ בְּנַחֲלַת מַטֵּה אֲבֹתָיו יִדְבְּקוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 36.8. וְכָל־בַּת יֹרֶשֶׁת נַחֲלָה מִמַּטּוֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאֶחָד מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת מַטֵּה אָבִיהָ תִּהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה לְמַעַן יִירְשׁוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ נַחֲלַת אֲבֹתָיו׃ 36.9. וְלֹא־תִסֹּב נַחֲלָה מִמַּטֶּה לְמַטֶּה אַחֵר כִּי־אִישׁ בְּנַחֲלָתוֹ יִדְבְּקוּ מַטּוֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
| 8.10. And thou shalt present the Levites before the LORD; and the children of Israel shall lay their hands upon the Levites." 14.5. Then Moses and Aaron fell on their faces before all the assembly of the congregation of the children of Israel." 16.21. ’Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment.’" 16.22. And they fell upon their faces, and said: ‘O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh, shall one man sin, and wilt Thou be wroth with all the congregation?’" 26.7. These are the families of the Reubenites; and they that were numbered of them were forty and three thousand and seven hundred and thirty." 26.10. and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up together with Korah, when that company died; what time the fire devoured two hundred and fifty men, and they became a sign." 26.34. These are the families of Manasseh; and they that were numbered of them were fifty and two thousand and seven hundred.’" 26.59. And the name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, who was born to Levi in Egypt; and she bore unto Amram Aaron and Moses, and Miriam their sister." 26.61. And Nadab and Abihu died, when they offered strange fire before the LORD." 27.1. Then drew near the daughters of Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of Manasseh the son of Joseph; and these are the names of his daughters: Mahlah, Noah, and Hoglah, and Milcah, and Tirzah." 27.2. And they stood before Moses, and before Eleazar the priest, and before the princes and all the congregation, at the door of the tent of meeting, saying:" 27.3. ’Our father died in the wilderness, and he was not among the company of them that gathered themselves together against the LORD in the company of Korah, but he died in his own sin; and he had no sons." 27.4. Why should the name of our father be done away from among his family, because he had no son? Give unto us a possession among the brethren of our father.’" 27.11. And if his father have no brethren, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his kinsman that is next to him of his family, and he shall possess it. And it shall be unto the children of Israel a statute of judgment, as the LORD commanded Moses.’" 27.12. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, and behold the land which I have given unto the children of Israel." 27.13. And when thou hast seen it, thou also shalt be gathered unto thy people, as Aaron thy brother was gathered;" 27.14. because ye rebelled against My commandment in the wilderness of Zin, in the strife of the congregation, to sanctify Me at the waters before their eyes.’—These are the waters of Meribath-kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.—" 27.15. And Moses spoke unto the LORD, saying:" 27.16. ’Let the LORD, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation," 27.17. who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd.’" 27.18. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is spirit, and lay thy hand upon him;" 27.19. and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and give him a charge in their sight." 27.21. And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the LORD; at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.’" 27.22. And Moses did as the LORD commanded him; and he took Joshua, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation." 27.23. And he laid his hands upon him, and gave him a charge, as the LORD spoke by the hand of Moses." 35.33. So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are; for blood, it polluteth the land; and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it." 35.34. And thou shalt not defile the land which ye inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the LORD dwell in the midst of the children of Israel.’" 36.1. And the heads of the fathers’houses of the family of the children of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of the sons of Joseph, came near, and spoke before Moses, and before the princes, the heads of the fathers’houses of the children of Israel;" 36.2. and they said: ‘The LORD commanded my lord to give the land for inheritance by lot to the children of Israel; and my lord was commanded by the LORD to give the inheritance of Zelophehad our brother unto his daughters." 36.3. And if they be married to any of the sons of the other tribes of the children of Israel, then will their inheritance be taken away from the inheritance of our fathers, and will be added to the inheritance of the tribe whereunto they shall belong; so will it be taken away from the lot of our inheritance." 36.4. And when the jubilee of the children of Israel shall be, then will their inheritance be added unto the inheritance of the tribe whereunto they shall belong; so will their inheritance be taken away from the inheritance of the tribe of our fathers.’" 36.5. And Moses commanded the children of Israel according to the word of the LORD, saying: ‘The tribe of the sons of Joseph speaketh right." 36.6. This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded concerning the daughters of Zelophehad, saying: Let them be married to whom they think best; only into the family of the tribe of their father shall they be married." 36.7. So shall no inheritance of the children of Israel remove from tribe to tribe; for the children of Israel shall cleave every one to the inheritance of the tribe of his fathers." 36.8. And every daughter, that possesseth an inheritance in any tribe of the children of Israel, shall be wife unto one of the family of the tribe of her father, that the children of Israel may possess every man the inheritance of his fathers." 36.9. So shall no inheritance remove from one tribe to another tribe; for the tribes of the children of Israel shall cleave each one to its own inheritance.’"
|6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 10.16, 96.6, 104.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 10.16. יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ עוֹלָם וָעֶד אָבְדוּ גוֹיִם מֵאַרְצוֹ׃ 96.6. הוֹד־וְהָדָר לְפָנָיו עֹז וְתִפְאֶרֶת בְּמִקְדָּשׁוֹ׃ 104.1. בָּרֲכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ׃ 104.1. הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעְיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים בֵּין הָרִים יְהַלֵּכוּן׃
| 10.16. The LORD is King for ever and ever; The nations are perished out of His land." 96.6. Honour and majesty are before Him; Strength and beauty are in His sanctuary." 104.1. Bless the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, Thou art very great; Thou art clothed with glory and majesty."
|7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.34, 19.16, 19.20-19.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 1.34. וּמָשַׁח אֹתוֹ שָׁם צָדוֹק הַכֹּהֵן וְנָתָן הַנָּבִיא לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וּתְקַעְתֶּם בַּשּׁוֹפָר וַאֲמַרְתֶּם יְחִי הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 19.16. וְאֵת יֵהוּא בֶן־נִמְשִׁי תִּמְשַׁח לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן־שָׁפָט מֵאָבֵל מְחוֹלָה תִּמְשַׁח לְנָבִיא תַּחְתֶּיךָ׃ 19.21. וַיָּשָׁב מֵאַחֲרָיו וַיִּקַּח אֶת־צֶמֶד הַבָּקָר וַיִּזְבָּחֵהוּ וּבִכְלִי הַבָּקָר בִּשְּׁלָם הַבָּשָׂר וַיִּתֵּן לָעָם וַיֹּאכֵלוּ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ וַיְשָׁרְתֵהוּ׃
| 1.34. And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel; and blow ye with the horn, and say: Long live king Solomon." 19.16. and Jehu the son of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over Israel; and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room." 19.20. And he left the oxen, and ran after Elijah, and said: ‘Let me, I pray thee, kiss my father and my mother, and then I will follow thee.’ And he said unto him: ‘Go back; for what have I done to thee?’" 19.21. And he returned from following him, and took the yoke of oxen, and slew them, and boiled their flesh with the instruments of the oxen, and gave unto the people, and they did eat. Then he arose, and went after Elijah, and ministered unto him."
|8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.4-2.7, 5.4, 19.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 2.4. קֶשֶׁת גִּבֹּרִים חַתִּים וְנִכְשָׁלִים אָזְרוּ חָיִל׃ 2.5. שְׂבֵעִים בַּלֶּחֶם נִשְׂכָּרוּ וּרְעֵבִים חָדֵלּוּ עַד־עֲקָרָה יָלְדָה שִׁבְעָה וְרַבַּת בָּנִים אֻמְלָלָה׃ 2.6. יְהוָה מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל׃ 2.7. יְהוָה מוֹרִישׁ וּמַעֲשִׁיר מַשְׁפִּיל אַף־מְרוֹמֵם׃ 5.4. וַיַּשְׁכִּמוּ בַבֹּקֶר מִמָּחֳרָת וְהִנֵּה דָגוֹן נֹפֵל לְפָנָיו אַרְצָה לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן יְהוָה וְרֹאשׁ דָּגוֹן וּשְׁתֵּי כַּפּוֹת יָדָיו כְּרֻתוֹת אֶל־הַמִּפְתָּן רַק דָּגוֹן נִשְׁאַר עָלָיו׃
| 2.4. The bows of the mighty men are broken, and they that stumbled are girded with strength." 2.5. They that were full have hired out themselves for bread; and they that were hungry have ceased: while the barren has born seven; and she that has many children has become wretched." 2.6. The Lord kills, and gives life: he brings down to the grave, and brings up." 2.7. The Lord makes poor, and makes rich: he brings low, and raises up." 5.4. And they arose early on the next morning, and behold, Dagon was fallen upon his face to the ground before the ark of the Lord and the head of Dagon and both the palms of his hands lay severed on the threshold; only the trunk of Dagon was left to him." 19.10. And Sha᾽ul sought to smite David even to the wall with the spear; but he slipped away out of Sha᾽ul’s presence, so that he smote the spear into the wall: and David fled, and escaped that night."
|9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.1-2.12, 2.15-2.18, 11.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 2.1. וַיֹּאמֶר הִקְשִׁיתָ לִשְׁאוֹל אִם־תִּרְאֶה אֹתִי לֻקָּח מֵאִתָּךְ יְהִי־לְךָ כֵן וְאִם־אַיִן לֹא יִהְיֶה׃ 2.1. וַיְהִי בְּהַעֲלוֹת יְהוָה אֶת־אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֵלִיָּהוּ וֶאֱלִישָׁע מִן־הַגִּלְגָּל׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע שֵׁב־נָא פֹה כִּי יְהוָה שְׁלָחַנִי עַד־בֵּית־אֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלִישָׁע חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אִם־אֶעֶזְבֶךָּ וַיֵּרְדוּ בֵּית־אֵל׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר קְחוּ־לִי צְלֹחִית חֲדָשָׁה וְשִׂימוּ שָׁם מֶלַח וַיִּקְחוּ אֵלָיו׃ 2.3. וַיֵּצְאוּ בְנֵי־הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר־בֵּית־אֵל אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו הֲיָדַעְתָּ כִּי הַיּוֹם יְהוָה לֹקֵחַ אֶת־אֲדֹנֶיךָ מֵעַל רֹאשֶׁךָ וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם־אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי הֶחֱשׁוּ׃ 2.4. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אֵלִיָּהוּ אֱלִישָׁע שֵׁב־נָא פֹה כִּי יְהוָה שְׁלָחַנִי יְרִיחוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אִם־אֶעֶזְבֶךָּ וַיָּבֹאוּ יְרִיחוֹ׃ 2.5. וַיִּגְּשׁוּ בְנֵי־הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר־בִּירִיחוֹ אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו הֲיָדַעְתָּ כִּי הַיּוֹם יְהוָה לֹקֵחַ אֶת־אֲדֹנֶיךָ מֵעַל רֹאשֶׁךָ וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם־אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי הֶחֱשׁוּ׃ 2.6. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אֵלִיָּהוּ שֵׁב־נָא פֹה כִּי יְהוָה שְׁלָחַנִי הַיַּרְדֵּנָה וַיֹּאמֶר חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אִם־אֶעֶזְבֶךָּ וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם׃ 2.7. וַחֲמִשִּׁים אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי הַנְּבִיאִים הָלְכוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מִנֶּגֶד מֵרָחוֹק וּשְׁנֵיהֶם עָמְדוּ עַל־הַיַּרְדֵּן׃ 2.8. וַיִּקַּח אֵלִיָּהוּ אֶת־אַדַּרְתּוֹ וַיִּגְלֹם וַיַּכֶּה אֶת־הַמַּיִם וַיֵּחָצוּ הֵנָּה וָהֵנָּה וַיַּעַבְרוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם בֶּחָרָבָה׃ 2.9. וַיְהִי כְעָבְרָם וְאֵלִיָּהוּ אָמַר אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע שְׁאַל מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ בְּטֶרֶם אֶלָּקַח מֵעִמָּךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלִישָׁע וִיהִי־נָא פִּי־שְׁנַיִם בְּרוּחֲךָ אֵלָי׃ 2.11. וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב־אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַל אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 2.12. וֶאֱלִישָׁע רֹאֶה וְהוּא מְצַעֵק אָבִי אָבִי רֶכֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפָרָשָׁיו וְלֹא רָאָהוּ עוֹד וַיַּחֲזֵק בִּבְגָדָיו וַיִּקְרָעֵם לִשְׁנַיִם קְרָעִים׃ 2.15. וַיִּרְאֻהוּ בְנֵי־הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר־בִּירִיחוֹ מִנֶּגֶד וַיֹּאמְרוּ נָחָה רוּחַ אֵלִיָּהוּ עַל־אֱלִישָׁע וַיָּבֹאוּ לִקְרָאתוֹ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ־לוֹ אָרְצָה׃ 2.16. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו הִנֵּה־נָא יֵשׁ־אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ חֲמִשִּׁים אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי־חַיִל יֵלְכוּ נָא וִיבַקְשׁוּ אֶת־אֲדֹנֶיךָ פֶּן־נְשָׂאוֹ רוּחַ יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁלִכֵהוּ בְּאַחַד הֶהָרִים אוֹ בְּאַחַת הגיאות [הַגֵּאָיוֹת] וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא תִשְׁלָחוּ׃ 2.17. וַיִּפְצְרוּ־בוֹ עַד־בֹּשׁ וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁלָחוּ וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ חֲמִשִּׁים אִישׁ וַיְבַקְשׁוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה־יָמִים וְלֹא מְצָאֻהוּ׃ 2.18. וַיָּשֻׁבוּ אֵלָיו וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב בִּירִיחוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם הֲלוֹא־אָמַרְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶם אַל־תֵּלֵכוּ׃ 11.12. וַיּוֹצִא אֶת־בֶּן־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּתֵּן עָלָיו אֶת־הַנֵּזֶר וְאֶת־הָעֵדוּת וַיַּמְלִכוּ אֹתוֹ וַיִּמְשָׁחֻהוּ וַיַּכּוּ־כָף וַיֹּאמְרוּ יְחִי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃
| 2.1. And it came to pass, when the LORD would take up Elijah by a whirlwind into heaven, that Elijah went with Elisha from Gilgal." 2.2. And Elijah said unto Elisha: ‘Tarry here, I pray thee; for the LORD hath sent me as far as Beth-el.’ And Elisha said: ‘As the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee.’ So they went down to Beth-el.—" 2.3. And the sons of the prophets that were at Beth-el came forth to Elisha, and said unto him: ‘Knowest thou that the LORD will take away thy master from thy head to-day?’ And he said: ‘Yea, I know it; hold ye your peace.’—" 2.4. And Elijah said unto him: ‘Elisha, tarry here, I pray thee; for the LORD hath sent me to Jericho.’ And he said: ‘As the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee.’ So they came to Jericho.—" 2.5. And the sons of the prophets that were at Jericho came near to Elisha, and said unto him: ‘Knowest thou that the LORD will take away thy master from thy head to-day?’ And he answered: ‘Yea, I know it; hold ye your peace.’—" 2.6. And Elijah said unto him: ‘Tarry here, I pray thee; for the LORD hath sent me to the Jordan.’ And he said: ‘As the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee.’ And they two went on." 2.7. And fifty men of the sons of the prophets went, and stood over against them afar off; and they two stood by the Jordan." 2.8. And Elijah took his mantle, and wrapped it together, and smote the waters, and they were divided hither and thither, so that they two went over on dry ground." 2.9. And it came to pass, when they were gone over, that Elijah said unto Elisha: ‘Ask what I shall do for thee, before I am taken from thee.’ And Elisha said: ‘I pray thee, let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me.’" 2.10. And he said: ‘Thou hast asked a hard thing; nevertheless, if thou see me when I am taken from thee, it shall be so unto thee; but if not, it shall not be so.’" 2.11. And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both assunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." 2.12. And Elisha saw it, and he cried: ‘My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof! ’ And he saw him no more; and he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces." 2.15. And when the sons of the prophets that were at Jericho some way off saw him, they said: ‘The spirit of Elijah doth rest on Elisha.’ And they came to meet him, and bowed down to the ground before him." 2.16. And they said unto him: ‘Behold now, there are with thy servants fifty strong men; let them go, we pray thee, and seek thy master; lest peradventure the spirit of the LORD hath taken him up, and cast him upon some mountain, or into some valley.’ And he said: ‘Ye shall not send.’" 2.17. And when they urged him till he was ashamed, he said: ‘Send.’ They sent therefore fifty men; and they sought three days, but found him not." 2.18. And they came back to him, while he tarried at Jericho; and he said unto them: ‘Did I not say unto you: Go not?’" 11.12. Then he brought out the king’s son, and put upon him the crown and the insignia; and they made him king, and anointed him; and they clapped their hands, and said: ‘Long live the king.’"
|10. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 3.4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
| 3.4. וְנֹגַהּ כָּאוֹר תִּהְיֶה קַרְנַיִם מִיָּדוֹ לוֹ וְשָׁם חֶבְיוֹן עֻזֹּה׃
| 3.4. And a brightness appeareth as the light; rays hath He at His side; and there is the hiding of His power.
|11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.26, 34.16, 61.1, 63.10-63.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 1.26. וְאָשִׁיבָה שֹׁפְטַיִךְ כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה וְיֹעֲצַיִךְ כְּבַתְּחִלָּה אַחֲרֵי־כֵן יִקָּרֵא לָךְ עִיר הַצֶּדֶק קִרְיָה נֶאֱמָנָה׃ 34.16. דִּרְשׁוּ מֵעַל־סֵפֶר יְהוָה וּקְרָאוּ אַחַת מֵהֵנָּה לֹא נֶעְדָּרָה אִשָּׁה רְעוּתָהּ לֹא פָקָדוּ כִּי־פִי הוּא צִוָּה וְרוּחוֹ הוּא קִבְּצָן׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 63.11. וַיִּזְכֹּר יְמֵי־עוֹלָם מֹשֶׁה עַמּוֹ אַיֵּה הַמַּעֲלֵם מִיָּם אֵת רֹעֵי צֹאנוֹ אַיֵּה הַשָּׂם בְּקִרְבּוֹ אֶת־רוּחַ קָדְשׁוֹ׃ 63.12. מוֹלִיךְ לִימִין מֹשֶׁה זְרוֹעַ תִּפְאַרְתּוֹ בּוֹקֵעַ מַיִם מִפְּנֵיהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ שֵׁם עוֹלָם׃ 63.13. מוֹלִיכָם בַּתְּהֹמוֹת כַּסּוּס בַּמִּדְבָּר לֹא יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 63.14. כַּבְּהֵמָה בַּבִּקְעָה תֵרֵד רוּחַ יְהוָה תְּנִיחֶנּוּ כֵּן נִהַגְתָּ עַמְּךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת לְךָ שֵׁם תִּפְאָרֶת׃
| 1.26. And I will restore thy judges as at the first, And thy counsellors as at the beginning; Afterward thou shalt be called The city of righteousness, The faithful city." 34.16. Seek ye out of the book of the LORD, and read; No one of these shall be missing, None shall want her mate; For My mouth it hath commanded, And the breath thereof it hath gathered them." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 63.10. But they rebelled, and grieved His holy spirit; therefore He was turned to be their enemy, Himself fought against them." 63.11. Then His people remembered the days of old, the days of Moses: ‘Where is He that brought them up out of the sea With the shepherds of His flock? Where is He that put His holy spirit In the midst of them?" 63.12. That caused His glorious arm to go at the right hand of Moses? That divided the water before them, To make Himself an everlasting name?" 63.13. That led them through the deep, as a horse in the wilderness, without stumbling?" 63.14. As the cattle that go down into the valley, the spirit of the LORD caused them to rest; So didst Thou lead Thy people, To make Thyself a glorious name.’"
|12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.3, 11.3, 31.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 10.3. כִּי־חֻקּוֹת הָעַמִּים הֶבֶל הוּא כִּי־עֵץ מִיַּעַר כְּרָתוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי־חָרָשׁ בַּמַּעֲצָד׃ 11.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמַע אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת׃ 31.8. הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ צָפוֹן וְקִבַּצְתִּים מִיַּרְכְּתֵי־אָרֶץ בָּם עִוֵּר וּפִסֵּחַ הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת יַחְדָּו קָהָל גָּדוֹל יָשׁוּבוּ הֵנָּה׃
| 10.3. For the customs of the peoples are vanity; For it is but a tree which one cutteth out of the forest, The work of the hands of the workman with the axe." 11.3. and say thou unto them: Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Cursed be the man that heareth not the words of this covet," 31.8. Behold, I will bring them from the north country, And gather them from the uttermost parts of the earth, And with them the blind and the lame, The woman with child and her that travaileth with child together; A great company shall they return hither."
|13. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
| 64c. Let us then, said he, speak with one another, paying no further attention to them. Do we think there is such a thing as death? Certainly, replied Simmias. We believe, do we not, that death is the separation of the soul from the body, and that the state of being dead is the state in which the body is separated from the soul and exists alone by itself and the soul is separated from the body and exists alone by itself? Is death anything other than this? No, it is this, said he. Now, my friend, see if you agree with me;
|14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.176, 2.288 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
| 2.176. Moses now knew that a great plot was in agitation against him; for he had appointed his brother high priest in accordance with the will of God, which had been declared to him. And now false accusations were brought against him, as if he had falsified the oracles of God, and as if he had done so and made the appointment by reason of his family affection and goodwill towards his brother. 2.288. And some time afterwards, when he was about to depart from hence to heaven, to take up his abode there, and leaving this mortal life to become immortal, having been summoned by the Father, who now changed him, having previously been a double being, composed of soul and body, into the nature of a single body, transforming him wholly and entirely into a most sun-like mind; he then, being wholly possessed by inspiration, does not seem any longer to have prophesied comprehensively to the whole nation altogether, but to have predicted to each tribe separately what would happen to each of them, and to their future generations, some of which things have already come to pass, and some are still expected, because the accomplishment of those predictions which have been fulfilled is the clearest testimony to the future.
|15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.165, 4.223-4.224, 4.303, 4.313-4.314, 10.79, 10.276, 14.41, 17.339, 18.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 4.165. 2. But Moses was now grown old, and appointed Joshua for his successor, both to receive directions from God as a prophet, and for a commander of the army, if they should at any time stand in need of such a one; and this was done by the command of God, that to him the care of the public should be committed. Now Joshua had been instructed in all those kinds of learning which concerned the laws and God himself, and Moses had been his instructor. 4.223. 17. Aristocracy, and the way of living under it, is the best constitution: and may you never have any inclination to any other form of government; and may you always love that form, and have the laws for your governors, and govern all your actions according to them; for you need no supreme governor but God. But if you shall desire a king, let him be one of your own nation; let him be always careful of justice and other virtues perpetually; 4.224. let him submit to the laws, and esteem God’s commands to be his highest wisdom; but let him do nothing without the high priest and the votes of the senators: let him not have a great number of wives, nor pursue after abundance of riches, nor a multitude of horses, whereby he may grow too proud to submit to the laws. And if he affect any such things, let him be restrained, lest he become so potent that his state be inconsistent with your welfare. 4.303. After this, he read to them a poetic song, which was composed in hexameter verse, and left it to them in the holy book: it contained a prediction of what was to come to pass afterward; agreeably whereto all things have happened all along, and do still happen to us; and wherein he has not at all deviated from the truth. 4.313. Their land should be full of weapons of war from their enemies, and their cities should be overthrown, and their temple should be burnt that they should be sold for slaves, to such men as would have no pity on them in their afflictions; that they would then repent, when that repentance would no way profit them under their sufferings. 4.314. “Yet,” said he, “will that God who founded your nation, restore your cities to your citizens, with their temple also; and you shall lose these advantages not once only, but often.” 10.79. Moreover, this prophet denounced beforehand the sad calamities that were coming upon the city. He also left behind him in writing a description of that destruction of our nation which has lately happened in our days, and the taking of Babylon; nor was he the only prophet who delivered such predictions beforehand to the multitude, but so did Ezekiel also, who was the first person that wrote, and left behind him in writing two books concerning these events. 10.276. And indeed it so came to pass, that our nation suffered these things under Antiochus Epiphanes, according to Daniel’s vision, and what he wrote many years before they came to pass. In the very same manner Daniel also wrote concerning the Roman government, and that our country should be made desolate by them. 14.41. and there it was that he heard the causes of the Jews, and of their governors Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, who were at difference one with another, as also of the nation against them both, which did not desire to be under kingly’ government, because the form of government they received from their forefathers was that of subjection to the priests of that God whom they worshipped; and [they complained], that though these two were the posterity of priests, yet did they seek to change the government of their nation to another form, in order to enslave them. 14.41. However, Herod was not idle in the mean time, for he took ten bands of soldiers, of whom five were of the Romans, and five of the Jews, with some mercenaries among them, and with some few horsemen, and came to Jericho; and as they found the city deserted, but that five hundred of them had settled themselves on the tops of the hills, with their wives and children, those he took and sent away; but the Romans fell upon the city, and plundered it, and found the houses full of all sorts of good things. 17.339. 1. When Archelaus was entered on his ethnarchy, and was come into Judea, he accused Joazar, the son of Boethus, of assisting the seditious, and took away the high priesthood from him, and put Eleazar his brother in his place. 18.3. but the Jews, although at the beginning they took the report of a taxation heinously, yet did they leave off any further opposition to it, by the persuasion of Joazar, who was the son of Beethus, and high priest; so they, being over-persuaded by Joazar’s words, gave an account of their estates, without any dispute about it. 18.3. and because he greatly admired Agrippa’s virtue, in not desiring him at all to augment his own dominions, either with larger revenues, or other authority, but took care of the public tranquillity, of the laws, and of the Divinity itself, he granted him what he had requested. He also wrote thus to Petronius, commending him for his assembling his army, and then consulting him about these affairs. 18.3. When, therefore, those gates were first opened, some of the Samaritans came privately into Jerusalem, and threw about dead men’s bodies, in the cloisters; on which account the Jews afterward excluded them out of the temple, which they had not used to do at such festivals; and on other accounts also they watched the temple more carefully than they had formerly done.
|16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.651, 4.161, 7.267-7.274 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 2.651. However, Aus’s concern was this, to lay aside, for a while, the preparations for the war, and to persuade the seditious to consult their own interest, and to restrain the madness of those that had the name of zealots; but their violence was too hard for him; and what end he came to we shall relate hereafter. 4.161. for that was the name they went by, as if they were zealous in good undertakings, and were not rather zealous in the worst actions, and extravagant in them beyond the example of others. 7.267. The Idumeans also strove with these men who should be guilty of the greatest madness! for they [all], vile wretches as they were, cut the throats of the high priests, that so no part of a religious regard to God might be preserved; they thence proceeded to destroy utterly the least remains of a political government 7.268. and introduced the most complete scene of iniquity in all instances that were practicable; under which scene that sort of people that were called zealots grew up, and who indeed corresponded to the name; 7.269. for they imitated every wicked work; nor, if their memory suggested any evil thing that had formerly been done, did they avoid zealously to pursue the same; 7.271. Accordingly, they all met with such ends as God deservedly brought upon them in way of punishment; 7.272. for all such miseries have been sent upon them as man’s nature is capable of undergoing, till the utmost period of their lives, and till death came upon them in various ways of torment; 7.273. yet might one say justly that they suffered less than they had done, because it was impossible they could be punished according to their deserving. 7.274. But to make a lamentation according to the deserts of those who fell under these men’s barbarity, this is not a proper place for it;—I therefore now return again to the remaining part of the present narration.
|17. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.165 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 2.165. but our legislator had no regard to any of these forms, but he ordained our government to be what, by a strained expression, may be termed a Theocracy, by ascribing the authority and the power to God
|18. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
|19. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.41 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
|20. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 305, 176 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
|21. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 140 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
|22. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
| 60b. ופרשת שתויי יין ופרשת נרות ופרשת פרה אדומה,א"ר אלעזר תורה רוב בכתב ומיעוט על פה שנא' (הושע ח, יב) אכתוב לו רובי תורתי כמו זר נחשבו ור' יוחנן אמר רוב על פה ומיעוט בכתב שנא' (שמות לד, כז) כי על פי הדברים האלה,ואידך נמי הכתיב אכתוב לו רובי תורתי ההוא אתמוהי קא מתמה אכתוב לו רובי תורתי הלא כמו זר נחשבו,ואידך נמי הכתיב כי על פי הדברים האלה ההוא משום דתקיפי למיגמרינהו,דרש רבי יהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דרבי שמעון בן לקיש כתיב (שמות לד, כז) כתוב לך את הדברים האלה וכתיב (שמות לד, כז) כי ע"פ הדברים האלה הא כיצד דברים שבכתב אי אתה רשאי לאומרן על פה דברים שבעל פה אי אתה רשאי לאומרן בכתב דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא אלה אלה אתה כותב ואי אתה כותב הלכות,א"ר יוחנן לא כרת הקב"ה ברית עם ישראל אלא בשביל דברים שבעל פה שנאמר (שמות לד, כז) כי על פי הדברים האלה כרתי אתך ברית ואת ישראל:,מערבין בבית ישן מפני דרכי שלום: מאי טעמא אילימא משום כבוד והא ההוא שיפורא דהוה מעיקרא בי רב יהודה ולבסוף בי רבה ולבסוף בי רב יוסף ולבסוף בי אביי ולבסוף בי רבא,אלא משום חשדא:,בור שהוא קרוב לאמה וכו': איתמר בני נהרא רב אמר תתאי שתו מיא ברישא ושמואל אמר עילאי שתו מיא ברישא,בדמיזל כולי עלמא לא פליגי כי פליגי במיסכר ואשקויי שמואל אמר עילאי שתו מיא ברישא דאמרי אנן מקרבינן טפי ורב אמר תתאי שתו מיא ברישא דאמרי נהרא כפשטיה ליזיל,תנן בור הקרוב לאמה מתמלא ראשון מפני דרכי שלום תרגמה שמואל אליבא דרב באמה המתהלכת ע"פ בורו,אי הכי מאי למימרא מהו דתימא מצי אמרי ליה סכר מיסכר ואשקי בהינדזא קמ"ל,אמר רב הונא בר תחליפא השתא דלא איתמר הלכתא לא כמר ולא כמר כל דאלים גבר,רב שימי בר אשי אתא לקמיה דאביי אמר ליה לותבן מר בעידנא אמר ליה אית לי עידנא לדידי ולותבן מר בליליא א"ל אית לי מיא לאשקויי א"ל אנא משקינא ליה למר מיא ביממא ולותבן מר בליליא א"ל לחיי,אזל לעילאי אמר להו תתאי שתו מיא ברישא אזל לתתאי אמר להו עילאי שתו מיא ברישא אדהכי סכר מיסכר ואשקי כי אתא לקמיה דאביי אמר ליה כבי תרי עבדת לי ולא טעמינהו אביי לפירי דההיא שתא,הנהו בני בי חרמך דאזול כרו ברישא דשנוותא ואהדרוה ושדיוה בשילהי נהרא אתו עילאי לקמיה דאביי אמרו ליה קא מתקיל לנהרין אמר להו כרו בהדייהו טפי פורתא אמרו ליה קא יבשי פירין אמר להו זילו סליקו נפשייכו מהתם:,מצודות חיה ועופות ודגי' יש בהן וכו': באוזלי ואוהרי
| 60b. bthe sectiondealing with priests who have become bintoxicated with wine(Leviticus 10:8–11); bthe section of the lamps(Numbers 8:1–7); band the section of the red heifer(Numbers, chapter 19), as all of these sections are necessary for service in the Tabernacle.,§ The Gemara continues its discussion concerning the writing of the Torah: bRabbi Elazar says: The majority of the Torahwas transmitted bin writing, while the minoritywas transmitted borally, as it is stated: “I wrote for him the greater part of My Torah; they were reckoned a strange thing”(Hosea 8:12), meaning that the majority of the Torah was transmitted in written form. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: The majorityof the Torah was transmitted borally [ ial peh /i], while the minoritywas transmitted bin writing, as it is statedwith regard to the giving of the Torah to Moses on Mount Sinai: b“For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these mattersI have made a covet with you and with Israel” (Exodus 34:27), which indicates that the greater part of the Sinaitic covet was taught orally.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Rabbi Yoḥa, bas well, isn’t it written: “I wrote for him the greater part of My Torah”?How does he understand this verse? The Gemara answers: bThisverse bisnot a statement, but rather a rhetorical question expressing bbewilderment:For did bI write for him the greater part of My Torah?In that case bthey,the Jewish people, bwould be reckoned as strangers,meaning that there would be no difference between them and the nations of the world if everything was written down. Rather, the majority of the Torah must remain an oral tradition.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Rabbi Elazar, bas well, isn’t it written: “For on the basis of these mattersI have made a covet with you and with Israel”? How does he understand this verse? The Gemara answers: bThatverse, which indicates that the covet was based on that which was taught by oral tradition, is stated bdue tothe fact that bit ismore bdifficult to learnmatters transmitted orally, but not because these matters are more numerous than those committed to writing., bRabbi Yehuda bar Naḥmani, the disseminator for Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, expoundedas follows: bIt is written: “Write you these matters”(Exodus 34:27), band it is writtenlater in that same verse: b“For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these matters.” Howcan bthesetexts be reconciled? They mean to teach: bMatters that were written you may not express them orally [ ial peh /i],and bmatters that weretaught borally you may not express them in writing. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:The word b“these”in the mitzva recorded in the verse “Write you these matters” is used here in an emphatic sense: bThesematters, i.e., those recorded in the Written Law, byou may write, but you may not write ihalakhot /i,i.e., the imishnayotand the rest of the Oral Law., bRabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, made a covet with the Jewish people only for the sake of the matters thatwere transmitted borally [ ibe’al peh /i], as it is stated: “For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these matters I have made a covet with you and with Israel”(Exodus 34:27).,§ The mishna teaches that the Sages enacted that ba joiningof courtyards [ ieiruv /i] bis placed in an old housewhere it had regularly been placed bon account of the ways of peace.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bIf we saythat it is btoshow brespectto the owner of that house, bbut wasn’tit related about ba certain charity box,which was fashioned for the benefit of the community and brought honor to the person in whose house it was placed, bthat initially it wasplaced bin Rav Yehuda’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bRabba’s house, and afterwardit was transferred to bRav Yosef’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bAbaye’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bRava’s house.This teaches that there is no issue here of respect, and that such items would ordinarily be moved from place to place., bRather,say instead that the Sages instituted this enactment btoavoid arousing bsuspicion.Since the ieiruvhad regularly been placed in a particular house, were it to be moved, people might think that the residents of the alleyway suspected that the owner of the house was stealing from them, and therefore they put it somewhere else.,§ The mishna teaches that the Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields is filled first on account of the ways of peace. bIt was statedthat the iamora’imdisagree about the following issue: When bpeopleown fields balong a riverand they irrigate their fields with water that is redirected from it, who among them enjoys first rights to irrigate his field? bRav said:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water,i.e., irrigate their fields, bfirst. And Shmuel said:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first. /b,The Gemara explains: bWithregard to a case where the water bflowson its own, beveryone agreesthat whoever wishes to irrigate may do so as he wishes. bWhen they disagree,it is bwithregard to a case bwhere theyneed to bdamthe river band irrigatethrough channels. bShmuel said:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first becausethey can bsay: We are nearerto the river’s headwaters. bAnd Rav said:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water first becausethey can bsay: Let the river go itsnatural bwayand after we take what we need, dam it as you please., bWe learnedin the mishna that the Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields bis filled first on account of the ways of peace.This teaches that the party who is nearest to the water’s source enjoys first rights, and it supports Shmuel’s opinion and is difficult for Rav. bShmuel interpretedthe mishna bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav:The mishna refers here to ban irrigation channel that passes the mouth of the pit,so that the pit fills with water on its own, even without damming.,The Gemara asks: bIf so, whatis the purpose bof statingthis? It is obvious. The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat the owners of the other fields bcan say tothe owner of the pit: bDamyour pit as well so that water not enter it, band irrigateyour fields bin proportion [ ihindeza /i],just like the rest of us. The mishna therefore bteaches usthat the owner of the pit is not required to do this, and consequently his pit is filled first., bRav Huna bar Taḥalifa said: Now that the ihalakhawas stated neither in accordance withthe opinion of bthis Sage,Rav, bnor in accordance withthe opinion of bthat Sage,Shmuel, bwhoever is stronger prevails.Since the ihalakhahas not been decided, the court refuses to judge the case and leaves the claimants to settle the matter themselves, in the hope that the rightful party will exert himself and prevail., bRav Shimi bar Ashi came before Abayeand bsaid to him: Master, set a time for meto study with you. Abaye bsaid to him: I havea set btime for myself,and I cannot devote it to you. Rav Shimi bar Ashi said to him: bMaster, seta time bfor me at night,and we can study then. Abaye bsaid to him: I haveto bring bwaterat night with which bto irrigatemy fields. Rav Shimi bar Ashi bsaid to him: I will irrigate for Master during the day, andthen bMaster can seta time bfor me at nightto study with him. Abaye bsaid to him: Very well;this is an acceptable arrangement.,What did Rav Shimi bar Ashi do? bHefirst bwent tothe owners of bthe uppermostfields, and bsaid to them:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water first,in accordance with the opinion of Rav. bHethen bwent tothe owners of bthe lowermostfields, band said to them:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first,in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. bIn the meantime,while the owners of the upper fields and the lower fields were arguing over who has first rights to the water, Rav Shimi bar Ashi bdammedthe river band irrigatedAbaye’s fields. bWhen he came before Abaye,the latter bsaid to him: You have acted for me in accordance with twoopposing opinions. bAnd Abaye would noteven btaste the produce of that yearbecause he thought that the water had reached his field in an unlawful manner.,It is related that there were bcertain residentsof a place called bBei Ḥarmakh who wentand bduga channel bat the head of the ShanvataRiver in order to divert the water and allow it to circle their fields, band then they returnedthe water to the river further bdownstream.Those who owned fields further bupstream came before Abaye,and bsaid to him: This damages our river,as the water is not flowing as it once had. Abaye bsaid to them: Dig a little deeper with them,and that should solve the problem. bThey said to him:If we do that, bour pits will become dry.Once Abaye heard this bhe said tothe residents of Bei Ḥarmakh: bGo remove yourselves from there,and dam the diversion that you made for the river.,§ The mishna teaches: Taking banimals, birds, or fishthat were caught in btrapsbelonging to another person is considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. And Rabbi Yosei says that this is full-fledged robbery. The Gemara comments: bWith regard to nets [ iuzlei /i] andwoven btraps [ ioharei /i], /b
|23. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
| 31b. ומביאו לחיי העולם הבא,אמר רבי אבהו כגון אבימי ברי קיים מצות כיבוד חמשה בני סמכי הוה ליה לאבימי בחיי אביו וכי הוה אתא רבי אבהו קרי אבבא רהיט ואזיל ופתח ליה ואמר אין אין עד דמטאי התם,יומא חד אמר ליה אשקיין מיא אדאייתי ליה נמנם גחין קאי עליה עד דאיתער איסתייעא מילתיה ודרש אבימי (תהלים עט, א) מזמור לאסף,אמר ליה רב יעקב בר אבוה לאביי כגון אנא דעד דאתינא מבי רב אבא מדלי לי כסא ואמא מזגה לי היכי איעביד א"ל מאמך קביל ומאבוך לא תקבל דכיון דבר תורה הוא חלשה דעתיה,רבי טרפון הוה ליה ההיא אמא דכל אימת דהות בעיא למיסק לפוריא גחין וסליק לה וכל אימת דהות נחית נחתת עלויה אתא וקא משתבח בי מדרשא אמרי ליה עדיין לא הגעת לחצי כיבוד כלום זרקה ארנקי בפניך לים ולא הכלמתה,רב יוסף כי הוה שמע קל כרעא דאמיה אמר איקום מקמי שכינה דאתיא אמר רבי יוחנן אשרי מי שלא חמאן רבי יוחנן כי עברתו אמו מת אביו ילדתו מתה אמו וכן אביי איני והאמר אביי אמרה לי אם ההיא מרבינתיה הואי,רב אסי הוה ליה ההיא אמא זקינה אמרה לי' בעינא תכשיטין עבד לה בעינא גברא נייעין לך בעינא גברא דשפיר כותך שבקה ואזל לארעא דישראל,שמע דקא אזלה אבתריה אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר לי' מהו לצאת מארץ לחוצה לארץ א"ל אסור לקראת אמא מהו א"ל איני יודע [אתרח] פורתא הדר אתא אמר ליה אסי נתרצית לצאת המקום יחזירך לשלום,אתא לקמיה דרבי אלעזר א"ל חס ושלום דלמא מירתח רתח א"ל מאי אמר לך אמר ליה המקום יחזירך לשלום אמר ליה ואם איתא דרתח לא הוה מברך לך אדהכי והכי שמע לארונא דקאתי אמר אי ידעי לא נפקי,ת"ר מכבדו בחייו ומכבדו במותו בחייו כיצד הנשמע בדבר אביו למקום לא יאמר שלחוני בשביל עצמי מהרוני בשביל עצמי פטרוני בשביל עצמי אלא כולהו בשביל אבא,במותו כיצד היה אומר דבר שמועה מפיו לא יאמר כך אמר אבא אלא כך אמר אבא מרי הריני כפרת משכבו והני מילי תוך שנים עשר חדש מכאן ואילך אומר זכרונו לברכה לחיי העולם הבא,תנו רבנן חכם משנה שם אביו ושם רבו תורגמן אינו משנה לא שם אביו ולא שם רבו אבוה דמאן אילימא אבוה דמתורגמן אטו תורגמן לאו בר חיובא הוא,אלא אמר רבא שם אביו של חכם ושם רבו של חכם כי הא דמר בר רב אשי כי הוה דריש בפירקא איהו אמר אבא מרי ואמוריה אמר הכי אמר רב אשי,ת"ר איזהו מורא ואיזהו כיבוד מורא לא עומד במקומו ולא יושב במקומו ולא סותר את דבריו ולא מכריעו כיבוד מאכיל ומשקה מלביש ומכסה מכניס ומוציא,איבעיא להו
| 31b. and this action bbrings him to the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bRabbi Abbahu said:One bsuch as Avimi, my son,properly bfulfilled the mitzva of honoringhis parents. The Gemara relates: bAvimi had five sons during his father’s lifetimewho were bordainedto issue halakhic rulings, and he too was ordained. bAndyet bwhen Rabbi Abbahu,his father, bcame and called at the gateto enter, Avimi bwouldhimself brun and go to openthe door bfor him. And before he arrived there, hewould already bsay: Yes, yes,so that his father would not think that he was being ignored., bOne dayRabbi Abbahu bsaid toAvimi his son: bGive me water to drink. Before he brought himthe water, Rabbi Abbahu bdozed off.Avimi bbent overand bstood over him untilhis father bawoke.The performance of this mitzva baided him,i.e., as a reward God helped him in his studies, bandAvimi succeeded in homiletically binterpretingthe psalm: b“A song to Asaph”(Psalms 79)., bRav Ya’akov bar Avuh said to Abaye:With regard to one bsuch as I,so beloved by my parents that bbefore I return from the study hall my father brings me a cup and my mother pours for me, how should I act?Is it disrespectful to accept this honor from them? Abaye bsaid to him: Acceptit bfrom your mother, but do not accept it from your father, as, since he is a Torah scholar he will be disheartenedif his son does not show him the proper level of respect.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Tarfon had a certainmanner of treating his bmother, that whenever she wished to ascend intoher bbed he would bend over andhelp bher to ascend, and whenever she wished to descendfrom the bed, bshe would descend onto him. He came and praisedhimself in the bstudy hallfor performing the mitzva of honoring one’s father and mother so thoroughly. bThey said to him: You still have not reached even half ofthe bhonordue to her. bHasit ever happened that bshe threw a purse into the sea in front of you, and you did not embarrass her? /b, bWhen Rav Yosef heard his mother’s footsteps, hewould bsay: I will stand before the arriving Divine Presence. Rabbi Yoḥa said: Fortunate is one who never sawhis father and mother, as it is so difficult to honor them appropriately. The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yoḥahimself never saw his parents. bWhen his mother was pregt with him, his father died;and when bshe gave birth to him, his mother died. And the sameis true of bAbaye.The Gemara asks: bIs that so,that Abaye never saw his mother? bBut didn’t Abaye sayon many occasions: bMy mother told me?The Gemara answers: bThatmother bwasactually bhis foster mother,not his birth mother., bRav Asi had an elderly mother. She said to him: I want jewelry,and bhe madejewelry bfor her.She said to him: bI want a manwhom I can marry, and he said to her: bI will seekone bfor you.She said to him: bI want a husband who is as handsome as you.At this point, he realized that she was senile, and that he would be unable to fulfill all her requests. Therefore, bhe left her and went to Eretz Yisrael. /b,Rav Asi bheard that she was following himto Eretz Yisrael. bHe came before Rabbi Yoḥaand bsaid to him: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to bleaving EretzYisrael to go boutside of EretzYisrael? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him:It is bprohibited.Rav Asi further asked: If one is going bto greethis bmother, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: I do not know.Rav Asi bwaited a littlewhile, and bthen cameback to him. Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Asi, you areevidently bdetermined to leave.May bthe Omnipresent return you in peace,and he said no more.,Rav Asi bcame before Rabbi Elazar,because he did not know how to interpret Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement. bHe said toRabbi Elazar: bGod forbid, perhapshe bis angrywith me that I wished to leave? Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: Whatexactly bdid he say to you?Rav Asi bsaid to him:May bthe Omnipresent return you in peace.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: If it is so that he was angry, he would not have blessed you.Rabbi Yoḥa certainly gave you permission to leave. bIn the meantime,while he was traveling to meet her, Rav Asi bheard that her coffin was coming,i.e., his mother had died and her coffin was being brought to Eretz Yisrael. bHe said: Had I known I would not have left,as after his mother’s death he was not obligated to leave Eretz Yisrael to honor her., bThe Sages taught: One honorshis father bin his life and honors him in his death. Howdoes he honor him bin his life? One who goes to a place on the command of his father should not sayto the people to whom he has been sent, to hurry them along: bSend meon my journey bon my own behalf,or: bHurry up on my own behalf,or: bAllow meto btake leaveof this business bon my own behalf. Rather,he should say ballof the above in the following manner: Act in this manner bon Father’s behalf,as a mark of respect for his father., bHowdoes he honor him bin his death?If bhe says a matter he heard from hisfather’s bmouth, he should not say: So said Father. Rather,he should say: bSo said Father, my teacher, may I be an atonement for his restingsoul. bAnd this ihalakha bapplies within twelve monthsof his death. bFrom thistime bonward he says: May his memory be for a blessing, for the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bThe Sages taught: A Sagewho lectures in public must bchange the name of his father,i.e., when he quotes his father he should not mention him by name. bAndsimilarly, he changes the bname of his teacher. The disseminator,who explains the statements of a Sage to the audience, bchanges neither the name of his father nor the name of his teacher.The Gemara asks: To bwhose fatheris this referring? bIf we sayit is referring to bthe father of the disseminator,whom the Sage mentioned in his lecture, bis that to saythat bthe disseminator is not obligatedto observe the mitzva of honoring one’s father? How can a disseminator mention his own father by name?, bRather, Rava said:This is referring to the bname of the Sage’s father and the name of the Sage’s teacher.This is blike that which Mar bar Rav Ashiwould do, as bwhen he would teachTorah bat his regular lectureand would mention a ihalakhain the name of his father, Rav Ashi, bhe would say:So said bmy father, my teacher; and his disseminatorwould bsay: So said Rav Ashi.Although a son may not mention his father’s name, the disseminator of his lecture may do so., bThe Sages taught: What is fear and what is honor? Fearof one’s father includes the following: bOne may not stand in hisfather’s fixed bplace, and may not sit in his place, and may not contradict his statementsby expressing an opinion contrary to that of his father, band he may not choose sideswhen his father argues with someone else. What is considered bhonor? He giveshis father bfood and drink, dresses and covershim, and bbringshim bin and takeshim boutfor all his household needs., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages:
|24. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
| 7b. שנאמר (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים גבורים סביב לה מגבורי ישראל כולם אחוזי חרב מלומדי מלחמה איש חרבו על יריכו מפחד בלילות מפחדה של גיהנם שדומה ללילה,דרש ר' יאשיה ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו כא, יב) בית דוד כה אמר ה' דינו לבקר משפט והצילו גזול מיד עושק וכי בבקר דנין וכל היום אין דנין אלא אם ברור לך הדבר כבקר אמרהו ואם לאו אל תאמרהו ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יונתן מהכא (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את אם ברור לך הדבר כאחותך שהיא אסורה לך אומרהו ואם לאו אל תאמרהו,אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה שיושבין בדין קולר תלוי בצואר כולן פשיטא לא צריכא אלא לתלמיד היושב לפני רבו,רב הונא כי הוה אתי דינא לקמיה מיכניף ומייתי עשרה רבנן מבי רב אמר כי היכי דלימטיי' שיבא מכשורא רב אשי כי הוה אתי טריפתא לקמיה מכניף ומייתי להו לכולהו טבחי דמתא מחסיא אמר כי היכי דלימטיין שיבא מכשורא,כי אתא רב דימי אמר דרש רב נחמן בר כהן מאי דכתיב (משלי כט, ד) מלך במשפט יעמיד ארץ ואיש תרומות יהרסנה אם דיין דומה למלך שאינו צריך לכלום יעמיד ארץ ואם דומה לכהן שמחזר בבית הגרנות יהרסנה,דבי נשיאה אוקמו דיינא דלא הוה גמיר א"ל ליהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש קום עליה באמורא קם גחין עליה ולא א"ל ולא מידי,פתח ואמר (חבקוק ב, יט) הוי אומר לעץ הקיצה עורי לאבן דומם הוא יורה הנה הוא תפוש זהב וכסף וכל רוח אין בקרבו ועתיד הקב"ה ליפרע ממעמידין שנאמר (חבקוק ב, כ) וה' בהיכל קדשו הס מפניו כל הארץ,אמר ריש לקיש כל המעמיד דיין (על הציבור) שאינו הגון כאילו נוטע אשירה בישראל שנאמר (דברים טז, יח) שופטים ושוטרים תתן לך וסמיך ליה (דברים טז, כא) לא תטע לך אשירה כל עץ אמר רב אשי ובמקום שיש תלמידי חכמים כאילו נטעו אצל מזבח שנאמר (דברים טז, כא) אצל מזבח ה' אלהיך,כתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב הוא דלא עבדי הא דעץ שרי אמר רב אשי אלוה הבא בשביל כסף ואלוה הבא בשביל זהב,רב כי הוה אתי לבי דינא אמר הכי ברעות נפשיה לקטלא נפיק וצבי ביתיה לית הוא עביד וריקן לביתיה עייל ולואי שתהא ביאה כיציאה,כי הוי חזי אמבוהא (דספרי) אבתריה אמר (איוב כ, ו) אם יעלה לשמים שיאו [וגו'] כגללו לנצח יאבד (וגו') מר זוטרא חסידא כי הוו מכתפי ליה בשבתא דריגלא אמר הכי (משלי כז, כד) כי לא לעולם חוסן ואם נזר לדור ודור,דרש בר קפרא מנא הא מילתא דאמרו רבנן הוו מתונין בדין דכתיב (שמות כ, כו) לא תעלה במעלות וסמיך ליה (שמות כא, א) ואלה המשפטים אמר ר' אליעזר מניין לדיין שלא יפסע על ראשי עם קודש שנא' לא תעלה במעלות וסמיך ליה ואלה המשפטים,אשר תשים אשר תלמדם מיבעי ליה אמר רבי ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא אלו כלי הדיינין רב הונא כי הוה נפק לדינא אמר הכי אפיקו לי מאני חנותאי מקל ורצועה ושופרא וסנדלא,(דברים א, טז) ואצוה את שופטיכם בעת ההיא אמר רבי יוחנן כנגד מקל ורצועה תהא זריז (דברים א, טז) שמוע בין אחיכם ושפטתם אמר רבי חנינא אזהרה לבית דין שלא ישמע דברי בעל דין קודם שיבא בעל דין חבירו ואזהרה לבעל דין שלא יטעים דבריו לדיין קודם שיבא בעל דין חבירו קרי ביה נמי שמע בין אחיכם,רב כהנא אמר מהכא (שמות כג, א) מלא תשא לא תשיא,(דברים א, טז) ושפטתם צדק אמר ריש לקיש צדק את הדין ואחר כך חתכהו (דברים א, טז) בין איש ובין אחיו (ובין גרו) אמר רב יהודה אפילו בין בית לעלייה,ובין גרו אמר רב יהודה אפילו בין תנור לכירים,(דברים א, יז) לא תכירו פנים במשפט רבי יהודה אומר לא תכירהו רבי אלעזר אומר לא תנכרהו,אושפיזכניה דרב אתא לקמיה לדינא אמר לו לאו אושפיזכני את אמר לו אין אמר ליה דינא אית לי אמר ליה
| 7b. bas it is stated: “Behold, it is the bed of Solomon; sixty mighty men are around it, of the mighty men of Israel. They all handle the sword, and are expert in war; every man has his sword upon his thigh due to dread in the night”(Song of Songs 3:7–8). The words “due to dread in the night” mean bdue to the dread of Gehenna, which is similar to the night.Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani interprets this verse as referring to judges, who are called: Mighty men of Israel, as they preside in the Temple, which is termed: The bed of God. In this verse, God is referred to as: Solomon [ iShlomo /i], the King to Whom peace [ ishalom /i] belongs., bRabbi Yoshiya, and some say Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, interpreteda verse bhomiletically. Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “House of David, so says the Lord: Execute justice in the morning, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor”(Jeremiah 21:12)? bAndis it bsothat a court bmay judge in the morning, and allthe rest of bthe daya court bmay not judge?Why does the verse specifically relate to judging in the morning? bRather,the meaning is: bIf the matter is as clear to you as the morning, statethe verdict; band if not, do not state it. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yonatansays this principle may be derived bfrom here: “Say to wisdom: You are my sister”(Proverbs 7:4). bIf the matter isas bclear to you asthe fact bthat your sister is forbidden to you, state it, and if not, do not state it. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:If btenjudges bare sitting in judgment,a prisoner’s bcollar [ ikolar /i],referring to responsibility for the consequences of an incorrect verdict, bhangs around all of their necks.The Gemara asks: Isn’t it bobviousthat all of the judges bear joint responsibility for the verdict? The Gemara answers: It bis necessary onlyin order btoinclude ba student who is sitting in front of his teacherin the court, and notices that his teacher erred. Although he is not formally part of the court, he nevertheless bears responsibility if he remains silent.,The Gemara relates concerning bRav Hunathat bwhena case bwould come before himfor bjudgment,he would bgather and bring ten rabbis from Rav’s study hall.He bwould say:I do this bso thatonly a small part of the responsibility, comparable to ba splinter from a beam, will reacheach of bus.The greater the number of judges, the less responsibility each one assumes for the verdict. Similarly, with bRav Ashi, whena person bwould come before himwith meat suspected to be from ban animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [ itereifta /i],he bwould gather and bringtogether ball the butchers of Mata Meḥasyaand consult with them before ruling on the status of the meat. He bwould sayto them: I do this bso thatonly a small part of the responsibility, comparable to ba splinter from a beam, will reacheach of bus. /b, bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael, he bsaid: Rav Naḥman bar Kohen interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The king by justice establishes the land; but he who exacts gifts [ iterumot /i] overthrows it”(Proverbs 29:4)? This teaches that bif the judgeis blike a kingin bthat he does not need anythingand is not dependent on anyone, he bestablishes the land,i.e., he can serve as a judge. bBut if he is like a priest who seeks outhis iterumot bfromvarious bgranaries,as he is dependent on others, he boverthrowsthe land., bIn the house of the iNasi /i, they appointed a judge who was not learned.This judge bsaid to Yehuda bar Naḥmani,who was the binterpreter of Reish Lakishand whose role was to repeat and explain the Sage’s lectures: bStand overme bas an interpreter,and I will lecture. Yehuda bar Naḥmani baroseand bbent over himin the conventional manner, to hear the judge’s words. bAnd,being ignorant, the judge bdid not say anything to him. /b,The interpreter bbegan and said:The verse states: b“Woe to him who says to the wood: Awake, to the dumb stone: Arise. Can this teach? Behold, it is overlaid with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it”(Habakkuk 2:19). So is this judge, appointed to teach the public for gold, i.e., for payment, but no more qualified than wood and stone. bAndin the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will punish those who appointsuch judges, bas it is statedin the next verse: b“But the Lord is in His holy Sanctuary; let all the earth be silent before Him”(Habakkuk 2:20). God, Who is above everything, will judge those responsible for such appointments., bReish Lakish says:With regard to banyone who appoints over the community a judge who is not fit,it is bas thoughhe bplants a treeused as part of idolatrous rites b[ iashera /i] among the Jewish people, as it is stated: “You shall make judges and officers for yourself”(Deuteronomy 16:18), band juxtaposed to it,it is written: b“You shall not plant yourself an iasheraof any kind of tree”(Deuteronomy 16:21). By implication, appointing unfit judges is akin to planting a tree for idolatry. bRav Ashi says: And in a place where there are Torah scholars,it is bas thoughhe bplantedthe tree bnext to the altar, as it is stated:“You shall not plant yourself an iashera /i… bbeside the altar of the Lord your God.” /b,It is bwritten: “You shall not make with Me gods of [ ielohei /i] silver and gods of gold”(Exodus 20:20). The Gemara asks: It is bgods of silver and gods of gold thatyou may bnot make, butare gods bof wood permitted?Rather, bRav Ashi says:This verse discusses ba judge,called ielohim /i, bwho comes,i.e., is appointed, bdue topayment of bsilver, and a judge who comes due topayment of bgold. /b,The Gemara relates that bRav, when he would come to courtto judge a case, bwould say thisabout himself: bBy his own willhe bgoes out todanger of bdeath,as a judge who misjudges a case is liable to receive the punishment of death at the hand of Heaven; band he does not dowhat is necessary to provide for bthe needs of his house, and he enters his home empty-handed,because a judge does not receive a salary. He said: bIf onlyit should be so that his bentryinto his home bwill bethe same bashis bdeparture,without sin or transgression.,In a similar demonstration of humility, bwhenRav bwould see a convoy [ iambuha /i] of scribesfollowing bafter himto honor him, he bwould say: “Though his excellency mount up to the heavensand his head reach the clouds, byet he shall perish forever like his own dung;they who have seen him shall say: Where is he?” (Job 20:6–7). It is said of bMar Zutra the Piousthat bwhenthe people bwould carry himto his lectures bon their shoulders during Shabbat of the Festival,he would bsay thisto avoid becoming arrogant: b“For power is not forever, and does the crown endure for all generations?”(Proverbs 27:24)., bBar Kappara taught,based on a homiletical interpretation of a verse: bFrom where is this matter that the Sages statedderived: bBe temperate in judgment( iAvot1:1)? bAs it is written: “Neither shall you go up by stepsonto My altar” (Exodus 20:23), i.e., do not ascend hurriedly, band juxtaposed to it,it is written: b“Now these are the ordicesthat you shall set before them” (Exodus 21:1). bRabbi Eliezer says: From whereis it derived bthat a judge may not step over the heads of the sacred nation,walking among those assembled for the lecture, who would sit upon the floor, in such a manner that he has the appearance of stepping on them? It is derived from that bwhich is stated: “Neither shall you go up by steps,” and juxtaposed to itis an introduction to civil laws and courtroom regulations: b“Now these are the ordices.”This indicates that the prohibition against ascending upon steps applies to judges.,The Gemara interprets the second part of the verse cited above: “Now these are the ordices bthat you shall setbefore them.” The verse bshould havestated: bThat you shall teach them.What is indicated by the phrase: “Set before them”? bRabbi Yirmeya, and some say Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, says: These are the judges’ tools.To illustrate this, the Gemara relates that bRav Huna, when he would go out to a judgment, would say this: Take out for me tools from my shop: A rod and strap,with which to flog transgressors; band a shofar,necessary in the event that someone must be excommunicated; band a sandal,necessary in the event of iḥalitza /i, the procedure by which a levirate marriage is rejected.,The Gemara interprets other verses related to the topic of adjudicating cases. b“And I charged your judges at that time,saying: Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the stranger who is with him” (Deuteronomy 1:16). Understanding that the word “charged” indicates alacrity, bRabbi Yoḥa says:Moses urged the judges: bWith regard to the rod and the strap, be vigilant.With regard to the clause b“Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge,” Rabbi Ḥanina says:This is ba warning to a court thatit bmay not hear the statement ofone blitigant before the other litigant comes, andit is ba warning to a litigant thathe bmay not explain his statement to the judge before the other litigant comes. Read intothe phrase in the verse: b“Hear the causes between your brethren,”that it is balso concerningthe litigant. Although he is not the judge, he is also required to assure that the case is conducted in the presence of both parties., bRav Kahana saysthe litigant’s responsibility may be derived bfrom here: From “you shall not bear [ itissa /i]a false report” (Exodus 23:1). Although conjugated in this manner the verb would seem to be addressed to the judges, commanding them not to lend credence to a false report, the term may also be read as: bYou shall not deliver [ itassi /i]a false report, conjugated so that it addresses the litigants and the witnesses.,The Gemara returns to the verse in Deuteronomy cited above: “And I charged your judges at that time, saying: Hear the causes between your brethren, band judge righteously.” Reish Lakish says: Verify the judgmentby meticulously examining the particulars of the case, bandonly bafterward, implement it.The verse continues: b“Between a man and his brother, and the stranger who is with him.” Rav Yehuda says:The judge must distinguish beven betweenthe merits of ba house and the upper storywhen dividing a two-floor property among inheriting brothers.,With regard to the clause in the verse: b“And the stranger who is with him [ igero /i],”the word igeroresembles the word: Dwell [ igur /i], and bRav Yehuda says:This word teaches that the judge must distinguish beven betweenthe merits of ban oven and a stove.The judge must carefully weigh how to divide even these domestic items in a case of inheritance, to ensure that the distribution of property is absolutely equitable.,The next verse states: b“You shall not respect [ itakiru /i] people in judgment;you shall hear the small and the great alike; you shall not be afraid before any man, for the judgment is God’s; and the cause that is too hard for you, you shall bring to me, and I will hear it” (Deuteronomy 1:17). bRabbi Yehuda says: Do not recognize him [ itakirehu /i],i.e., do not acknowledge the litigant as a friend in your role as a judge. bRabbi Elazar says:Even if he is your opponent, bdo not estrange him [ itenakerehu /i]in such a way as to prejudge him as liable, but treat him as though you do not know him at all., bRav’s host [ iushpizekhaneih /i],with whom he would stay occasionally, bcame before him for a judgment.Rav bsaid tothe host: bAre you not my host?He bsaid to him: Yes,I am. The host then bsaid to him: I havea dispute with another that needs ba judgment.Rav bsaid to him: /b
|25. Anon., Sifre Zuta Numbers, 27
|26. Epicurus, Letter To Menoeceus, 132