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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6301
Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 27.15-27.17


וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃And Moses spoke unto the LORD, saying:


יִפְקֹד יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הָרוּחֹת לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אִישׁ עַל־הָעֵדָה׃’Let the LORD, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation


אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יוֹצִיאֵם וַאֲשֶׁר יְבִיאֵם וְלֹא תִהְיֶה עֲדַת יְהוָה כַּצֹּאן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם רֹעֶה׃who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd.’


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 8.6-8.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.6. שִׂימֵנִי כַחוֹתָם עַל־לִבֶּךָ כַּחוֹתָם עַל־זְרוֹעֶךָ כִּי־עַזָּה כַמָּוֶת אַהֲבָה קָשָׁה כִשְׁאוֹל קִנְאָה רְשָׁפֶיהָ רִשְׁפֵּי אֵשׁ שַׁלְהֶבֶתְיָה׃ 8.7. מַיִם רַבִּים לֹא יוּכְלוּ לְכַבּוֹת אֶת־הָאַהֲבָה וּנְהָרוֹת לֹא יִשְׁטְפוּהָ אִם־יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶת־כָּל־הוֹן בֵּיתוֹ בָּאַהֲבָה בּוֹז יָבוּזוּ לוֹ׃ 8.8. אָחוֹת לָנוּ קְטַנָּה וְשָׁדַיִם אֵין לָהּ מַה־נַּעֲשֶׂה לַאֲחֹתֵנוּ בַּיּוֹם שֶׁיְּדֻבַּר־בָּהּ׃ 8.6. Set me as a seal upon thy heart, As a seal upon thine arm; For love is strong as death, Jealousy is cruel as the grave; The flashes thereof are flashes of fire, A very flame of the LORD. 8.7. Many waters cannot quench love, Neither can the floods drown it; If a man would give all the substance of his house for love, He would utterly be contemned. 8.8. We have a little sister, And she hath no breasts; What shall we do for our sister In the day when she shall be spoken for?
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.27, 31.1-31.8, 31.14-31.15, 32.48-32.52, 34.5-34.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.27. לֵךְ אֱמֹר לָהֶם שׁוּבוּ לָכֶם לְאָהֳלֵיכֶם׃ 31.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.1. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר מִקֵּץ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים בְּמֹעֵד שְׁנַת הַשְּׁמִטָּה בְּחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת׃ 31.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם בֶּן־מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה אָנֹכִי הַיּוֹם לֹא־אוּכַל עוֹד לָצֵאת וְלָבוֹא וַיהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי לֹא תַעֲבֹר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה׃ 31.2. כִּי־אֲבִיאֶנּוּ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לַאֲבֹתָיו זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ וְאָכַל וְשָׂבַע וְדָשֵׁן וּפָנָה אֶל־אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַעֲבָדוּם וְנִאֲצוּנִי וְהֵפֵר אֶת־בְּרִיתִי׃ 31.3. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא עֹבֵר לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא־יַשְׁמִיד אֶת־הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וִירִשְׁתָּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הוּא עֹבֵר לְפָנֶיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה׃ 31.3. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה בְּאָזְנֵי כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עַד תֻּמָּם׃ 31.4. וְעָשָׂה יְהוָה לָהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְסִיחוֹן וּלְעוֹג מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי וּלְאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁמִיד אֹתָם׃ 31.5. וּנְתָנָם יְהוָה לִפְנֵיכֶם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָהֶם כְּכָל־הַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם׃ 31.6. חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תַּעַרְצוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ׃ 31.7. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ כִּי אַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתָם לָתֵת לָהֶם וְאַתָּה תַּנְחִילֶנָּה אוֹתָם׃ 31.8. וַיהוָה הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ לֹא תִירָא וְלֹא תֵחָת׃ 31.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הֵן קָרְבוּ יָמֶיךָ לָמוּת קְרָא אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַאֲצַוֶּנּוּ וַיֵּלֶךְ מֹשֶׁה וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 31.15. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה בָּאֹהֶל בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן עַל־פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל׃ 32.48. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 32.49. עֲלֵה אֶל־הַר הָעֲבָרִים הַזֶּה הַר־נְבוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרֵחוֹ וּרְאֵה אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַאֲחֻזָּה׃ 32.51. עַל אֲשֶׁר מְעַלְתֶּם בִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמֵי־מְרִיבַת קָדֵשׁ מִדְבַּר־צִן עַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קִדַּשְׁתֶּם אוֹתִי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.52. כִּי מִנֶּגֶד תִּרְאֶה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁמָּה לֹא תָבוֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי נֹתֵן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 34.5. וַיָּמָת שָׁם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב עַל־פִּי יְהוָה׃ 34.6. וַיִּקְבֹּר אֹתוֹ בַגַּיְ בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מוּל בֵּית פְּעוֹר וְלֹא־יָדַע אִישׁ אֶת־קְבֻרָתוֹ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 34.7. וּמֹשֶׁה בֶּן־מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה בְּמֹתוֹ לֹא־כָהֲתָה עֵינוֹ וְלֹא־נָס לֵחֹה׃ 34.8. וַיִּבְכּוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־מֹשֶׁה בְּעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וַיִּתְּמוּ יְמֵי בְכִי אֵבֶל מֹשֶׁה׃ 34.9. וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן מָלֵא רוּחַ חָכְמָה כִּי־סָמַךְ מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדָיו עָלָיו וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֵלָיו בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 34.11. לְכָל־הָאֹתוֹת וְהַמּוֹפְתִים אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחוֹ יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לְפַרְעֹה וּלְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וּלְכָל־אַרְצוֹ׃ 34.12. וּלְכֹל הַיָּד הַחֲזָקָה וּלְכֹל הַמּוֹרָא הַגָּדוֹל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה לְעֵינֵי כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.27. Go say to them: Return ye to your tents." 31.1. And Moses went and spoke these words unto all Israel." 31.2. And he said unto them: ‘I am a hundred and twenty years old this day; I can no more go out and come in; and the LORD hath said unto me: Thou shalt not go over this Jordan." 31.3. The LORD thy God, He will go over before thee; He will destroy these nations from before thee, and thou shalt dispossess them; and Joshua, he shall go over before thee, as the LORD hath spoken." 31.4. And the LORD will do unto them as He did to Sihon and to Og, the kings of the Amorites, and unto their land; whom He destroyed." 31.5. And the LORD will deliver them up before you, and ye shall do unto them according unto all the commandment which I have commanded you." 31.6. Be strong and of good courage, fear not, nor be affrighted at them; for the LORD thy God, He it is that doth go with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.’" 31.7. And Moses called unto Joshua, and said unto him in the sight of all Israel: ‘Be strong and of good courage; for thou shalt go with this people into the land which the LORD hath sworn unto their fathers to give them; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it." 31.8. And the LORD, He it is that doth go before thee; He will be with thee, He will not fail thee, neither forsake thee; fear not, neither be dismayed.’" 31.14. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Behold, thy days approach that thou must die; call Joshua, and present yourselves in the tent of meeting, that I may give him a charge.’ And Moses and Joshua went, and presented themselves in the tent of meeting." 31.15. And the LORD appeared in the Tent in a pillar of cloud; and the pillar of cloud stood over the door of the Tent." 32.48. And the LORD spoke unto Moses that selfsame day, saying:" 32.49. ’Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, unto mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab, that is over against Jericho; and behold the land of Canaan, which I give unto the children of Israel for a possession;" 32.50. and die in the mount whither thou goest up, and be gathered unto thy people; as Aaron thy brother died in mount Hor, and was gathered unto his people." 32.51. Because ye trespassed against Me in the midst of the children of Israel at the waters of Meribath-kadesh, in the wilderness of Zin; because ye sanctified Me not in the midst of the children of Israel." 32.52. For thou shalt see the land afar off; but thou shalt not go thither into the land which I give the children of Israel.’" 34.5. So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD." 34.6. And he was buried in the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth-peor; and no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day." 34.7. And Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated." 34.8. And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days; so the days of weeping in the mourning for Moses were ended." 34.9. And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him; and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the LORD commanded Moses." 34.10. And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face;" 34.11. in all the signs and the wonders, which the LORD sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land;" 34.12. and in all the mighty hand, and in all the great terror, which Moses wrought in the sight of all Israel."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 24.7, 29.7, 40.12-40.15, 40.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 29.7. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וְיָצַקְתָּ עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתוֹ׃ 40.12. וְהִקְרַבְתָּ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְרָחַצְתָּ אֹתָם בַּמָּיִם׃ 40.13. וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אֵת בִּגְדֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתוֹ וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתוֹ וְכִהֵן לִי׃ 40.14. וְאֶת־בָּנָיו תַּקְרִיב וְהִלְבַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם כֻּתֳּנֹת׃ 40.15. וּמָשַׁחְתָּ אֹתָם כַּאֲשֶׁר מָשַׁחְתָּ אֶת־אֲבִיהֶם וְכִהֲנוּ לִי וְהָיְתָה לִהְיֹת לָהֶם מָשְׁחָתָם לִכְהֻנַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 40.34. וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 29.7. Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him." 40.12. And thou shalt bring Aaron and his sons unto the door of the tent of meeting, and shalt wash them with water." 40.13. And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments; and thou shalt anoint him, and sanctify him, that he may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 40.14. And thou shalt bring his sons, and put tunics upon them." 40.15. And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office; and their anointing shall be to them for an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations.’" 40.34. Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 23.1-23.20, 24.67, 25.7-25.11, 25.17-25.18, 35.8, 35.16-35.20, 35.27-35.29, 50.22-50.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.1. וַיִּהְיוּ חַיֵּי שָׂרָה מֵאָה שָׁנָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי שָׂרָה׃ 23.1. וְעֶפְרוֹן יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי־חֵת וַיַּעַן עֶפְרוֹן הַחִתִּי אֶת־אַבְרָהָם בְּאָזְנֵי בְנֵי־חֵת לְכֹל בָּאֵי שַׁעַר־עִירוֹ לֵאמֹר׃ 23.2. וַיָּקָם הַשָּׂדֶה וְהַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם לַאֲחֻזַּת־קָבֶר מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־חֵת׃ 23.2. וַתָּמָת שָׂרָה בְּקִרְיַת אַרְבַּע הִוא חֶבְרוֹן בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַיָּבֹא אַבְרָהָם לִסְפֹּד לְשָׂרָה וְלִבְכֹּתָהּ׃ 23.3. וַיָּקָם אַבְרָהָם מֵעַל פְּנֵי מֵתוֹ וַיְדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי־חֵת לֵאמֹר׃ 23.4. גֵּר־וְתוֹשָׁב אָנֹכִי עִמָּכֶם תְּנוּ לִי אֲחֻזַּת־קֶבֶר עִמָּכֶם וְאֶקְבְּרָה מֵתִי מִלְּפָנָי׃ 23.5. וַיַּעֲנוּ בְנֵי־חֵת אֶת־אַבְרָהָם לֵאמֹר לוֹ׃ 23.6. שְׁמָעֵנוּ אֲדֹנִי נְשִׂיא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה בְּתוֹכֵנוּ בְּמִבְחַר קְבָרֵינוּ קְבֹר אֶת־מֵתֶךָ אִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־קִבְרוֹ לֹא־יִכְלֶה מִמְּךָ מִקְּבֹר מֵתֶךָ׃ 23.7. וַיָּקָם אַבְרָהָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לְעַם־הָאָרֶץ לִבְנֵי־חֵת׃ 23.8. וַיְדַבֵּר אִתָּם לֵאמֹר אִם־יֵשׁ אֶת־נַפְשְׁכֶם לִקְבֹּר אֶת־מֵתִי מִלְּפָנַי שְׁמָעוּנִי וּפִגְעוּ־לִי בְּעֶפְרוֹן בֶּן־צֹחַר׃ 23.9. וְיִתֶּן־לִי אֶת־מְעָרַת הַמַּכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אֲשֶׁר בִּקְצֵה שָׂדֵהוּ בְּכֶסֶף מָלֵא יִתְּנֶנָּה לִי בְּתוֹכְכֶם לַאֲחֻזַּת־קָבֶר׃ 23.11. לֹא־אֲדֹנִי שְׁמָעֵנִי הַשָּׂדֶה נָתַתִּי לָךְ וְהַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ לְךָ נְתַתִּיהָ לְעֵינֵי בְנֵי־עַמִּי נְתַתִּיהָ לָּךְ קְבֹר מֵתֶךָ׃ 23.12. וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אַבְרָהָם לִפְנֵי עַם הָאָרֶץ׃ 23.13. וַיְדַבֵּר אֶל־עֶפְרוֹן בְּאָזְנֵי עַם־הָאָרֶץ לֵאמֹר אַךְ אִם־אַתָּה לוּ שְׁמָעֵנִי נָתַתִּי כֶּסֶף הַשָּׂדֶה קַח מִמֶּנִּי וְאֶקְבְּרָה אֶת־מֵתִי שָׁמָּה׃ 23.14. וַיַּעַן עֶפְרוֹן אֶת־אַבְרָהָם לֵאמֹר לוֹ׃ 23.15. אֲדֹנִי שְׁמָעֵנִי אֶרֶץ אַרְבַּע מֵאֹת שֶׁקֶל־כֶּסֶף בֵּינִי וּבֵינְךָ מַה־הִוא וְאֶת־מֵתְךָ קְבֹר׃ 23.16. וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָהָם אֶל־עֶפְרוֹן וַיִּשְׁקֹל אַבְרָהָם לְעֶפְרֹן אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּאָזְנֵי בְנֵי־חֵת אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שֶׁקֶל כֶּסֶף עֹבֵר לַסֹּחֵר׃ 23.17. וַיָּקָם שְׂדֵה עֶפְרוֹן אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי מַמְרֵא הַשָּׂדֶה וְהַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־גְּבֻלוֹ סָבִיב׃ 23.18. לְאַבְרָהָם לְמִקְנָה לְעֵינֵי בְנֵי־חֵת בְּכֹל בָּאֵי שַׁעַר־עִירוֹ׃ 23.19. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן קָבַר אַבְרָהָם אֶת־שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־מְעָרַת שְׂדֵה הַמַּכְפֵּלָה עַל־פְּנֵי מַמְרֵא הִוא חֶבְרוֹן בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן׃ 24.67. וַיְבִאֶהָ יִצְחָק הָאֹהֱלָה שָׂרָה אִמּוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־רִבְקָה וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וַיֶּאֱהָבֶהָ וַיִּנָּחֵם יִצְחָק אַחֲרֵי אִמּוֹ׃ 25.7. וְאֵלֶּה יְמֵי שְׁנֵי־חַיֵּי אַבְרָהָם אֲשֶׁר־חָי מְאַת שָׁנָה וְשִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה וְחָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים׃ 25.8. וַיִּגְוַע וַיָּמָת אַבְרָהָם בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה זָקֵן וְשָׂבֵעַ וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל־עַמָּיו׃ 25.9. וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֹתוֹ יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל בָּנָיו אֶל־מְעָרַת הַמַּכְפֵּלָה אֶל־שְׂדֵה עֶפְרֹן בֶּן־צֹחַר הַחִתִּי אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי מַמְרֵא׃ 25.11. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי מוֹת אַבְרָהָם וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיֵּשֶׁב יִצְחָק עִם־בְּאֵר לַחַי רֹאִי׃ 25.17. וְאֵלֶּה שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל מְאַת שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנִים וַיִּגְוַע וַיָּמָת וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל־עַמָּיו׃ 25.18. וַיִּשְׁכְּנוּ מֵחֲוִילָה עַד־שׁוּר אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי מִצְרַיִם בֹּאֲכָה אַשּׁוּרָה עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־אֶחָיו נָפָל׃ 35.8. וַתָּמָת דְּבֹרָה מֵינֶקֶת רִבְקָה וַתִּקָּבֵר מִתַּחַת לְבֵית־אֵל תַּחַת הָאַלּוֹן וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אַלּוֹן בָּכוּת׃ 35.16. וַיִּסְעוּ מִבֵּית אֵל וַיְהִי־עוֹד כִּבְרַת־הָאָרֶץ לָבוֹא אֶפְרָתָה וַתֵּלֶד רָחֵל וַתְּקַשׁ בְּלִדְתָּהּ׃ 35.17. וַיְהִי בְהַקְשֹׁתָהּ בְּלִדְתָּהּ וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמְיַלֶּדֶת אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־גַם־זֶה לָךְ בֵּן׃ 35.18. וַיְהִי בְּצֵאת נַפְשָׁהּ כִּי מֵתָה וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֶּן־אוֹנִי וְאָבִיו קָרָא־לוֹ בִנְיָמִין׃ 35.19. וַתָּמָת רָחֵל וַתִּקָּבֵר בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶפְרָתָה הִוא בֵּית לָחֶם׃ 35.27. וַיָּבֹא יַעֲקֹב אֶל־יִצְחָק אָבִיו מַמְרֵא קִרְיַת הָאַרְבַּע הִוא חֶבְרוֹן אֲשֶׁר־גָּר־שָׁם אַבְרָהָם וְיִצְחָק׃ 35.28. וַיִּהְיוּ יְמֵי יִצְחָק מְאַת שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנִים שָׁנָה׃ 35.29. וַיִּגְוַע יִצְחָק וַיָּמָת וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל־עַמָּיו זָקֵן וּשְׂבַע יָמִים וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֹתוֹ עֵשָׂו וְיַעֲקֹב בָּנָיו׃ 50.22. וַיֵּשֶׁב יוֹסֵף בְּמִצְרַיִם הוּא וּבֵית אָבִיו וַיְחִי יוֹסֵף מֵאָה וָעֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים׃ 50.23. וַיַּרְא יוֹסֵף לְאֶפְרַיִם בְּנֵי שִׁלֵּשִׁים גַּם בְּנֵי מָכִיר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה יֻלְּדוּ עַל־בִּרְכֵּי יוֹסֵף׃ 50.24. וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹסֵף אֶל־אֶחָיו אָנֹכִי מֵת וֵאלֹהִים פָּקֹד יִפְקֹד אֶתְכֶם וְהֶעֱלָה אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב׃ 50.25. וַיַּשְׁבַּע יוֹסֵף אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר פָּקֹד יִפְקֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶתְכֶם וְהַעֲלִתֶם אֶת־עַצְמֹתַי מִזֶּה׃ 50.26. וַיָּמָת יוֹסֵף בֶּן־מֵאָה וָעֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים וַיַּחַנְטוּ אֹתוֹ וַיִּישֶׂם בָּאָרוֹן בְּמִצְרָיִם׃ 23.1. And the life of Sarah was a hundred and seven and twenty years; these were the years of the life of Sarah." 23.2. And Sarah died in Kiriatharba—the same is Hebron—in the land of Canaan; and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her." 23.3. And Abraham rose up from before his dead, and spoke unto the children of Heth, saying:" 23.4. ’I am a stranger and a sojourner with you: give me a possession of a burying-place with you, that I may bury my dead out of my sight.’" 23.5. And the children of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him:" 23.6. ’Hear us, my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us; in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead.’" 23.7. And Abraham rose up, and bowed down to the people of the land, even to the children of Heth." 23.8. And he spoke with them, saying: ‘If it be your mind that I should bury my dead out of my sight, hear me, and entreat for me to Ephron the son of Zohar," 23.9. that he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath, which is in the end of his field; for the full price let him give it to me in the midst of you for a possession of a burying-place.’" 23.10. Now Ephron was sitting in the midst of the children of Heth; and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the hearing of the children of Heth, even of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying:" 23.11. ’Nay, my lord, hear me: the field give I thee, and the cave that is therein, I give it thee; in the presence of the sons of my people give I it thee; bury thy dead.’" 23.12. And Abraham bowed down before the people of the land." 23.13. And he spoke unto Ephron in the hearing of the people of the land, saying: ‘But if thou wilt, I pray thee, hear me: I will give the price of the field; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there.’" 23.14. And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him:" 23.15. ’My lord, hearken unto me: a piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver, what is that betwixt me and thee? bury therefore thy dead.’" 23.16. And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver, which he had named in the hearing of the children of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant." 23.17. So the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all the border thereof round about, were made sure" 23.18. unto Abraham for a possession in the presence of the children of Heth, before all that went in at the gate of his city." 23.19. And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre—the same is Hebron—in the land of Canaan." 23.20. And the field, and the cave that is therein, were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a burying-place by the children of Heth." 24.67. And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah’s tent, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her. And Isaac was comforted for his mother." 25.7. And these are the days of the years of Abraham’s life which he lived, a hundred threescore and fifteen years." 25.8. And Abraham expired, and died in a good old age, an old man, and full of years; and was gathered to his people." 25.9. And Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre;" 25.10. the field which Abraham purchased of the children of Heth; there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife." 25.11. And it came to pass after the death of Abraham, that God blessed Isaac his son; and Isaac dwelt by Beer-lahai-roi." 25.17. And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, a hundred and thirty and seven years; and he expired and died; and was gathered unto his people." 25.18. And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Asshur: over against all his brethren he did settle." 35.8. And Deborah Rebekah’s nurse died, and she was buried below Beth-el under the oak; and the name of it was called Allon-bacuth." 35.16. And they journeyed from Beth-el; and there was still some way to come to Ephrath; and Rachel travailed, and she had hard labour." 35.17. And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the mid-wife said unto her: ‘Fear not; for this also is a son for thee.’" 35.18. And it came to pass, as her soul was in departing—for she died—that she called his name Ben-oni; but his father called him Benjamin." 35.19. And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath—the same is Beth-lehem." 35.20. And Jacob set up a pillar upon her grave; the same is the pillar of Rachel’s grave unto this day." 35.27. And Jacob came unto Isaac his father to Mamre, to Kiriatharba—the same is Hebron—where Abraham and Isaac sojourned." 35.28. And the days of Isaac were a hundred and fourscore years." 35.29. And Isaac expired, and died, and was gathered unto his people, old and full of days; and Esau and Jacob his sons buried him." 50.22. And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, and his father’s house; and Joseph lived a hundred and ten years." 50.23. And Joseph saw Ephraim’s children of the third generation; the children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were born upon Joseph’s knees." 50.24. And Joseph said unto his brethren: ‘I die; but God will surely remember you, and bring you up out of this land unto the land which He swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.’" 50.25. And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying: ‘God will surely remember you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence.’" 50.26. So Joseph died, being a hundred and ten years old. And they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 9.15, 16.21-16.22, 27.12-27.14, 27.16-27.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.15. וּבְיוֹם הָקִים אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן כִּסָּה הֶעָנָן אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן לְאֹהֶל הָעֵדֻת וּבָעֶרֶב יִהְיֶה עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 16.21. הִבָּדְלוּ מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַזֹּאת וַאַכַלֶּה אֹתָם כְּרָגַע׃ 16.22. וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵל אֱלֹהֵי הָרוּחֹת לְכָל־בָּשָׂר הָאִישׁ אֶחָד יֶחֱטָא וְעַל כָּל־הָעֵדָה תִּקְצֹף׃ 27.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵה אֶל־הַר הָעֲבָרִים הַזֶּה וּרְאֵה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 27.13. וְרָאִיתָה אֹתָהּ וְנֶאֱסַפְתָּ אֶל־עַמֶּיךָ גַּם־אָתָּה כַּאֲשֶׁר נֶאֱסַף אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ׃ 27.14. כַּאֲשֶׁר מְרִיתֶם פִּי בְּמִדְבַּר־צִן בִּמְרִיבַת הָעֵדָה לְהַקְדִּישֵׁנִי בַמַּיִם לְעֵינֵיהֶם הֵם מֵי־מְרִיבַת קָדֵשׁ מִדְבַּר־צִן׃ 27.16. יִפְקֹד יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הָרוּחֹת לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אִישׁ עַל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.17. אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יוֹצִיאֵם וַאֲשֶׁר יְבִיאֵם וְלֹא תִהְיֶה עֲדַת יְהוָה כַּצֹּאן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם רֹעֶה׃ 27.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח־לְךָ אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־רוּחַ בּוֹ וְסָמַכְתָּ אֶת־יָדְךָ עָלָיו׃ 27.19. וְהַעֲמַדְתָּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה וְצִוִּיתָה אֹתוֹ לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 27.21. וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן יַעֲמֹד וְשָׁאַל לוֹ בְּמִשְׁפַּט הָאוּרִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־פִּיו יֵצְאוּ וְעַל־פִּיו יָבֹאוּ הוּא וְכָל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִתּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.22. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֹתוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיַּעֲמִדֵהוּ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.23. וַיִּסְמֹךְ אֶת־יָדָיו עָלָיו וַיְצַוֵּהוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 9.15. And on the day that the tabernacle was reared up the cloud covered the tabernacle, even the tent of the testimony; and at even there was upon the tabernacle as it were the appearance of fire, until morning." 16.21. ’Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment.’" 16.22. And they fell upon their faces, and said: ‘O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh, shall one man sin, and wilt Thou be wroth with all the congregation?’" 27.12. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, and behold the land which I have given unto the children of Israel." 27.13. And when thou hast seen it, thou also shalt be gathered unto thy people, as Aaron thy brother was gathered;" 27.14. because ye rebelled against My commandment in the wilderness of Zin, in the strife of the congregation, to sanctify Me at the waters before their eyes.’—These are the waters of Meribath-kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.—" 27.16. ’Let the LORD, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation," 27.17. who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd.’" 27.18. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is spirit, and lay thy hand upon him;" 27.19. and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and give him a charge in their sight." 27.20. And thou shalt put of thy honour upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may hearken." 27.21. And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the LORD; at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.’" 27.22. And Moses did as the LORD commanded him; and he took Joshua, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation." 27.23. And he laid his hands upon him, and gave him a charge, as the LORD spoke by the hand of Moses."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 10.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.16. יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ עוֹלָם וָעֶד אָבְדוּ גוֹיִם מֵאַרְצוֹ׃ 10.16. The LORD is King for ever and ever; The nations are perished out of His land."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.34, 19.16, 22.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.34. וּמָשַׁח אֹתוֹ שָׁם צָדוֹק הַכֹּהֵן וְנָתָן הַנָּבִיא לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וּתְקַעְתֶּם בַּשּׁוֹפָר וַאֲמַרְתֶּם יְחִי הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 19.16. וְאֵת יֵהוּא בֶן־נִמְשִׁי תִּמְשַׁח לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן־שָׁפָט מֵאָבֵל מְחוֹלָה תִּמְשַׁח לְנָבִיא תַּחְתֶּיךָ׃ 22.17. וַיֹּאמֶר רָאִיתִי אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל נְפֹצִים אֶל־הֶהָרִים כַּצֹּאן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם רֹעֶה וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־אֲדֹנִים לָאֵלֶּה יָשׁוּבוּ אִישׁ־לְבֵיתוֹ בְּשָׁלוֹם׃ 1.34. And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel; and blow ye with the horn, and say: Long live king Solomon." 19.16. and Jehu the son of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over Israel; and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room." 22.17. And he said: ‘I saw all Israel scattered upon the mountains, as sheep that have no shepherd; and the LORD said: These have no master; let them return every man to his house in peace.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.4-2.7, 5.4, 19.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.4. קֶשֶׁת גִּבֹּרִים חַתִּים וְנִכְשָׁלִים אָזְרוּ חָיִל׃ 2.5. שְׂבֵעִים בַּלֶּחֶם נִשְׂכָּרוּ וּרְעֵבִים חָדֵלּוּ עַד־עֲקָרָה יָלְדָה שִׁבְעָה וְרַבַּת בָּנִים אֻמְלָלָה׃ 2.6. יְהוָה מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל׃ 2.7. יְהוָה מוֹרִישׁ וּמַעֲשִׁיר מַשְׁפִּיל אַף־מְרוֹמֵם׃ 5.4. וַיַּשְׁכִּמוּ בַבֹּקֶר מִמָּחֳרָת וְהִנֵּה דָגוֹן נֹפֵל לְפָנָיו אַרְצָה לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן יְהוָה וְרֹאשׁ דָּגוֹן וּשְׁתֵּי כַּפּוֹת יָדָיו כְּרֻתוֹת אֶל־הַמִּפְתָּן רַק דָּגוֹן נִשְׁאַר עָלָיו׃ 2.4. The bows of the mighty men are broken, and they that stumbled are girded with strength." 2.5. They that were full have hired out themselves for bread; and they that were hungry have ceased: while the barren has born seven; and she that has many children has become wretched." 2.6. The Lord kills, and gives life: he brings down to the grave, and brings up." 2.7. The Lord makes poor, and makes rich: he brings low, and raises up." 5.4. And they arose early on the next morning, and behold, Dagon was fallen upon his face to the ground before the ark of the Lord and the head of Dagon and both the palms of his hands lay severed on the threshold; only the trunk of Dagon was left to him." 19.10. And Sha᾽ul sought to smite David even to the wall with the spear; but he slipped away out of Sha᾽ul’s presence, so that he smote the spear into the wall: and David fled, and escaped that night."
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.12, 11.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.12. וֶאֱלִישָׁע רֹאֶה וְהוּא מְצַעֵק אָבִי אָבִי רֶכֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפָרָשָׁיו וְלֹא רָאָהוּ עוֹד וַיַּחֲזֵק בִּבְגָדָיו וַיִּקְרָעֵם לִשְׁנַיִם קְרָעִים׃ 11.12. וַיּוֹצִא אֶת־בֶּן־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּתֵּן עָלָיו אֶת־הַנֵּזֶר וְאֶת־הָעֵדוּת וַיַּמְלִכוּ אֹתוֹ וַיִּמְשָׁחֻהוּ וַיַּכּוּ־כָף וַיֹּאמְרוּ יְחִי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 2.12. And Elisha saw it, and he cried: ‘My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof! ’ And he saw him no more; and he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces." 11.12. Then he brought out the king’s son, and put upon him the crown and the insignia; and they made him king, and anointed him; and they clapped their hands, and said: ‘Long live the king.’"
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.26, 61.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.26. וְאָשִׁיבָה שֹׁפְטַיִךְ כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה וְיֹעֲצַיִךְ כְּבַתְּחִלָּה אַחֲרֵי־כֵן יִקָּרֵא לָךְ עִיר הַצֶּדֶק קִרְיָה נֶאֱמָנָה׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 1.26. And I will restore thy judges as at the first, And thy counsellors as at the beginning; Afterward thou shalt be called The city of righteousness, The faithful city." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;"
12. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.2. מֹשֶׁה עַבְדִּי מֵת וְעַתָּה קוּם עֲבֹר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה אַתָּה וְכָל־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי נֹתֵן לָהֶם לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.2. ’Moses My servant is dead; now therefore arise, go over this Jordan, thou, and all this people, unto the land which I do give to them, even to the children of Israel."
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 2.63 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.63. וַיֹּאמֶר הַתִּרְשָׁתָא לָהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֹאכְלוּ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים עַד עֲמֹד כֹּהֵן לְאוּרִים וּלְתֻמִּים׃ 2.63. And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and with Thummim. ."
14. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 7.65 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.65. וַיֹּאמֶר הַתִּרְשָׁתָא לָהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֹאכְלוּ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים עַד עֲמֹד הַכֹּהֵן לְאוּרִים וְתוּמִּים׃ 7.65. And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and Thummim."
15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 58.15-58.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 3.49 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.49. They also brought the garments of the priesthood and the first fruits and the tithes, and they stirred up the Nazirites who had completed their days;
18. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 45.7-45.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

45.7. He made an everlasting covet with him,and gave him the priesthood of the people. He blessed him with splendid vestments,and put a glorious robe upon him. 45.8. He clothed him with superb perfection,and strengthened him with the symbols of authority,the linen breeches, the long robe, and the ephod. 45.9. And he encircled him with pomegranates,with very many golden bells round about,to send forth a sound as he walked,to make their ringing heard in the temple as a reminder to the sons of his people; 45.11. with twisted scarlet, the work of a craftsman;with precious stones engraved like signets,in a setting of gold, the work of a jeweler,for a reminder, in engraved letters,according to the number of the tribes of Israel; 45.12. with a gold crown upon his turban,inscribed like a signet with "Holiness," a distinction to be prized, the work of an expert,the delight of the eyes, richly adorned. 45.13. Before his time there never were such beautiful things. No outsider ever put them on,but only his sons and his descendants perpetually.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.170 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.170. And it becomes a man who has been thought worthy of the supreme and greatest authority to appoint successors who may govern with him and judge with him, and, in concert with him, may ordain everything which is for the common advantage; for one person would not be sufficient, even if he were ever so willing, and if he were the most powerful man in the world, both in body and soul, to support the weight and number of affairs which would come upon him, as he would faint under the pressure and rapidity of all kinds of business coming in upon him continually every day from all quarters, unless he had a number of persons selected with reference to their excellence who might co-operate with him by their prudence, and power, and justice, and godly piety, men who not only avoid arrogance, but even detest it as an enemy and as the very greatest of evils.
20. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.215-3.218, 4.223-4.224, 14.41, 17.339, 18.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.215. For as to those stones, which we told you before, the high priest bare on his shoulders, which were sardonyxes, (and I think it needless to describe their nature, they being known to every body,) the one of them shined out when God was present at their sacrifices; I mean that which was in the nature of a button on his right shoulder, bright rays darting out thence, and being seen even by those that were most remote; which splendor yet was not before natural to the stone. 3.216. This has appeared a wonderful thing to such as have not so far indulged themselves in philosophy, as to despise Divine revelation. Yet will I mention what is still more wonderful than this: for God declared beforehand, by those twelve stones which the high priest bare on his breast, and which were inserted into his breastplate, when they should be victorious in battle; 3.217. for so great a splendor shone forth from them before the army began to march, that all the people were sensible of God’s being present for their assistance. Whence it came to pass that those Greeks, who had a veneration for our laws, because they could not possibly contradict this, called that breastplate the Oracle. 3.218. Now this breastplate, and this sardonyx, left off shining two hundred years before I composed this book, God having been displeased at the transgressions of his laws. of which things we shall further discourse on a fitter opportunity; but I will now go on with my proposed narration. 4.223. 17. Aristocracy, and the way of living under it, is the best constitution: and may you never have any inclination to any other form of government; and may you always love that form, and have the laws for your governors, and govern all your actions according to them; for you need no supreme governor but God. But if you shall desire a king, let him be one of your own nation; let him be always careful of justice and other virtues perpetually; 4.224. let him submit to the laws, and esteem God’s commands to be his highest wisdom; but let him do nothing without the high priest and the votes of the senators: let him not have a great number of wives, nor pursue after abundance of riches, nor a multitude of horses, whereby he may grow too proud to submit to the laws. And if he affect any such things, let him be restrained, lest he become so potent that his state be inconsistent with your welfare. 14.41. and there it was that he heard the causes of the Jews, and of their governors Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, who were at difference one with another, as also of the nation against them both, which did not desire to be under kingly’ government, because the form of government they received from their forefathers was that of subjection to the priests of that God whom they worshipped; and [they complained], that though these two were the posterity of priests, yet did they seek to change the government of their nation to another form, in order to enslave them. 14.41. However, Herod was not idle in the mean time, for he took ten bands of soldiers, of whom five were of the Romans, and five of the Jews, with some mercenaries among them, and with some few horsemen, and came to Jericho; and as they found the city deserted, but that five hundred of them had settled themselves on the tops of the hills, with their wives and children, those he took and sent away; but the Romans fell upon the city, and plundered it, and found the houses full of all sorts of good things. 17.339. 1. When Archelaus was entered on his ethnarchy, and was come into Judea, he accused Joazar, the son of Boethus, of assisting the seditious, and took away the high priesthood from him, and put Eleazar his brother in his place. 18.3. but the Jews, although at the beginning they took the report of a taxation heinously, yet did they leave off any further opposition to it, by the persuasion of Joazar, who was the son of Beethus, and high priest; so they, being over-persuaded by Joazar’s words, gave an account of their estates, without any dispute about it. 18.3. and because he greatly admired Agrippa’s virtue, in not desiring him at all to augment his own dominions, either with larger revenues, or other authority, but took care of the public tranquillity, of the laws, and of the Divinity itself, he granted him what he had requested. He also wrote thus to Petronius, commending him for his assembling his army, and then consulting him about these affairs. 18.3. When, therefore, those gates were first opened, some of the Samaritans came privately into Jerusalem, and threw about dead men’s bodies, in the cloisters; on which account the Jews afterward excluded them out of the temple, which they had not used to do at such festivals; and on other accounts also they watched the temple more carefully than they had formerly done.
22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.651, 4.161, 7.267-7.274 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.651. However, Aus’s concern was this, to lay aside, for a while, the preparations for the war, and to persuade the seditious to consult their own interest, and to restrain the madness of those that had the name of zealots; but their violence was too hard for him; and what end he came to we shall relate hereafter. 4.161. for that was the name they went by, as if they were zealous in good undertakings, and were not rather zealous in the worst actions, and extravagant in them beyond the example of others. 7.267. The Idumeans also strove with these men who should be guilty of the greatest madness! for they [all], vile wretches as they were, cut the throats of the high priests, that so no part of a religious regard to God might be preserved; they thence proceeded to destroy utterly the least remains of a political government 7.268. and introduced the most complete scene of iniquity in all instances that were practicable; under which scene that sort of people that were called zealots grew up, and who indeed corresponded to the name; 7.269. for they imitated every wicked work; nor, if their memory suggested any evil thing that had formerly been done, did they avoid zealously to pursue the same; 7.271. Accordingly, they all met with such ends as God deservedly brought upon them in way of punishment; 7.272. for all such miseries have been sent upon them as man’s nature is capable of undergoing, till the utmost period of their lives, and till death came upon them in various ways of torment; 7.273. yet might one say justly that they suffered less than they had done, because it was impossible they could be punished according to their deserving. 7.274. But to make a lamentation according to the deserts of those who fell under these men’s barbarity, this is not a proper place for it;—I therefore now return again to the remaining part of the present narration.
23. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.165 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.165. but our legislator had no regard to any of these forms, but he ordained our government to be what, by a strained expression, may be termed a Theocracy, by ascribing the authority and the power to God
24. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.41 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 305, 176 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

26. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 140 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

27. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

60b. ופרשת שתויי יין ופרשת נרות ופרשת פרה אדומה,א"ר אלעזר תורה רוב בכתב ומיעוט על פה שנא' (הושע ח, יב) אכתוב לו רובי תורתי כמו זר נחשבו ור' יוחנן אמר רוב על פה ומיעוט בכתב שנא' (שמות לד, כז) כי על פי הדברים האלה,ואידך נמי הכתיב אכתוב לו רובי תורתי ההוא אתמוהי קא מתמה אכתוב לו רובי תורתי הלא כמו זר נחשבו,ואידך נמי הכתיב כי על פי הדברים האלה ההוא משום דתקיפי למיגמרינהו,דרש רבי יהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דרבי שמעון בן לקיש כתיב (שמות לד, כז) כתוב לך את הדברים האלה וכתיב (שמות לד, כז) כי ע"פ הדברים האלה הא כיצד דברים שבכתב אי אתה רשאי לאומרן על פה דברים שבעל פה אי אתה רשאי לאומרן בכתב דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא אלה אלה אתה כותב ואי אתה כותב הלכות,א"ר יוחנן לא כרת הקב"ה ברית עם ישראל אלא בשביל דברים שבעל פה שנאמר (שמות לד, כז) כי על פי הדברים האלה כרתי אתך ברית ואת ישראל:,מערבין בבית ישן מפני דרכי שלום: מאי טעמא אילימא משום כבוד והא ההוא שיפורא דהוה מעיקרא בי רב יהודה ולבסוף בי רבה ולבסוף בי רב יוסף ולבסוף בי אביי ולבסוף בי רבא,אלא משום חשדא:,בור שהוא קרוב לאמה וכו': איתמר בני נהרא רב אמר תתאי שתו מיא ברישא ושמואל אמר עילאי שתו מיא ברישא,בדמיזל כולי עלמא לא פליגי כי פליגי במיסכר ואשקויי שמואל אמר עילאי שתו מיא ברישא דאמרי אנן מקרבינן טפי ורב אמר תתאי שתו מיא ברישא דאמרי נהרא כפשטיה ליזיל,תנן בור הקרוב לאמה מתמלא ראשון מפני דרכי שלום תרגמה שמואל אליבא דרב באמה המתהלכת ע"פ בורו,אי הכי מאי למימרא מהו דתימא מצי אמרי ליה סכר מיסכר ואשקי בהינדזא קמ"ל,אמר רב הונא בר תחליפא השתא דלא איתמר הלכתא לא כמר ולא כמר כל דאלים גבר,רב שימי בר אשי אתא לקמיה דאביי אמר ליה לותבן מר בעידנא אמר ליה אית לי עידנא לדידי ולותבן מר בליליא א"ל אית לי מיא לאשקויי א"ל אנא משקינא ליה למר מיא ביממא ולותבן מר בליליא א"ל לחיי,אזל לעילאי אמר להו תתאי שתו מיא ברישא אזל לתתאי אמר להו עילאי שתו מיא ברישא אדהכי סכר מיסכר ואשקי כי אתא לקמיה דאביי אמר ליה כבי תרי עבדת לי ולא טעמינהו אביי לפירי דההיא שתא,הנהו בני בי חרמך דאזול כרו ברישא דשנוותא ואהדרוה ושדיוה בשילהי נהרא אתו עילאי לקמיה דאביי אמרו ליה קא מתקיל לנהרין אמר להו כרו בהדייהו טפי פורתא אמרו ליה קא יבשי פירין אמר להו זילו סליקו נפשייכו מהתם:,מצודות חיה ועופות ודגי' יש בהן וכו': באוזלי ואוהרי 60b. bthe sectiondealing with priests who have become bintoxicated with wine(Leviticus 10:8–11); bthe section of the lamps(Numbers 8:1–7); band the section of the red heifer(Numbers, chapter 19), as all of these sections are necessary for service in the Tabernacle.,§ The Gemara continues its discussion concerning the writing of the Torah: bRabbi Elazar says: The majority of the Torahwas transmitted bin writing, while the minoritywas transmitted borally, as it is stated: “I wrote for him the greater part of My Torah; they were reckoned a strange thing”(Hosea 8:12), meaning that the majority of the Torah was transmitted in written form. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: The majorityof the Torah was transmitted borally [ ial peh /i], while the minoritywas transmitted bin writing, as it is statedwith regard to the giving of the Torah to Moses on Mount Sinai: b“For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these mattersI have made a covet with you and with Israel” (Exodus 34:27), which indicates that the greater part of the Sinaitic covet was taught orally.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Rabbi Yoḥa, bas well, isn’t it written: “I wrote for him the greater part of My Torah”?How does he understand this verse? The Gemara answers: bThisverse bisnot a statement, but rather a rhetorical question expressing bbewilderment:For did bI write for him the greater part of My Torah?In that case bthey,the Jewish people, bwould be reckoned as strangers,meaning that there would be no difference between them and the nations of the world if everything was written down. Rather, the majority of the Torah must remain an oral tradition.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Rabbi Elazar, bas well, isn’t it written: “For on the basis of these mattersI have made a covet with you and with Israel”? How does he understand this verse? The Gemara answers: bThatverse, which indicates that the covet was based on that which was taught by oral tradition, is stated bdue tothe fact that bit ismore bdifficult to learnmatters transmitted orally, but not because these matters are more numerous than those committed to writing., bRabbi Yehuda bar Naḥmani, the disseminator for Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, expoundedas follows: bIt is written: “Write you these matters”(Exodus 34:27), band it is writtenlater in that same verse: b“For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these matters.” Howcan bthesetexts be reconciled? They mean to teach: bMatters that were written you may not express them orally [ ial peh /i],and bmatters that weretaught borally you may not express them in writing. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:The word b“these”in the mitzva recorded in the verse “Write you these matters” is used here in an emphatic sense: bThesematters, i.e., those recorded in the Written Law, byou may write, but you may not write ihalakhot /i,i.e., the imishnayotand the rest of the Oral Law., bRabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, made a covet with the Jewish people only for the sake of the matters thatwere transmitted borally [ ibe’al peh /i], as it is stated: “For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these matters I have made a covet with you and with Israel”(Exodus 34:27).,§ The mishna teaches that the Sages enacted that ba joiningof courtyards [ ieiruv /i] bis placed in an old housewhere it had regularly been placed bon account of the ways of peace.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bIf we saythat it is btoshow brespectto the owner of that house, bbut wasn’tit related about ba certain charity box,which was fashioned for the benefit of the community and brought honor to the person in whose house it was placed, bthat initially it wasplaced bin Rav Yehuda’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bRabba’s house, and afterwardit was transferred to bRav Yosef’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bAbaye’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bRava’s house.This teaches that there is no issue here of respect, and that such items would ordinarily be moved from place to place., bRather,say instead that the Sages instituted this enactment btoavoid arousing bsuspicion.Since the ieiruvhad regularly been placed in a particular house, were it to be moved, people might think that the residents of the alleyway suspected that the owner of the house was stealing from them, and therefore they put it somewhere else.,§ The mishna teaches that the Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields is filled first on account of the ways of peace. bIt was statedthat the iamora’imdisagree about the following issue: When bpeopleown fields balong a riverand they irrigate their fields with water that is redirected from it, who among them enjoys first rights to irrigate his field? bRav said:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water,i.e., irrigate their fields, bfirst. And Shmuel said:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first. /b,The Gemara explains: bWithregard to a case where the water bflowson its own, beveryone agreesthat whoever wishes to irrigate may do so as he wishes. bWhen they disagree,it is bwithregard to a case bwhere theyneed to bdamthe river band irrigatethrough channels. bShmuel said:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first becausethey can bsay: We are nearerto the river’s headwaters. bAnd Rav said:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water first becausethey can bsay: Let the river go itsnatural bwayand after we take what we need, dam it as you please., bWe learnedin the mishna that the Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields bis filled first on account of the ways of peace.This teaches that the party who is nearest to the water’s source enjoys first rights, and it supports Shmuel’s opinion and is difficult for Rav. bShmuel interpretedthe mishna bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav:The mishna refers here to ban irrigation channel that passes the mouth of the pit,so that the pit fills with water on its own, even without damming.,The Gemara asks: bIf so, whatis the purpose bof statingthis? It is obvious. The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat the owners of the other fields bcan say tothe owner of the pit: bDamyour pit as well so that water not enter it, band irrigateyour fields bin proportion [ ihindeza /i],just like the rest of us. The mishna therefore bteaches usthat the owner of the pit is not required to do this, and consequently his pit is filled first., bRav Huna bar Taḥalifa said: Now that the ihalakhawas stated neither in accordance withthe opinion of bthis Sage,Rav, bnor in accordance withthe opinion of bthat Sage,Shmuel, bwhoever is stronger prevails.Since the ihalakhahas not been decided, the court refuses to judge the case and leaves the claimants to settle the matter themselves, in the hope that the rightful party will exert himself and prevail., bRav Shimi bar Ashi came before Abayeand bsaid to him: Master, set a time for meto study with you. Abaye bsaid to him: I havea set btime for myself,and I cannot devote it to you. Rav Shimi bar Ashi said to him: bMaster, seta time bfor me at night,and we can study then. Abaye bsaid to him: I haveto bring bwaterat night with which bto irrigatemy fields. Rav Shimi bar Ashi bsaid to him: I will irrigate for Master during the day, andthen bMaster can seta time bfor me at nightto study with him. Abaye bsaid to him: Very well;this is an acceptable arrangement.,What did Rav Shimi bar Ashi do? bHefirst bwent tothe owners of bthe uppermostfields, and bsaid to them:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water first,in accordance with the opinion of Rav. bHethen bwent tothe owners of bthe lowermostfields, band said to them:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first,in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. bIn the meantime,while the owners of the upper fields and the lower fields were arguing over who has first rights to the water, Rav Shimi bar Ashi bdammedthe river band irrigatedAbaye’s fields. bWhen he came before Abaye,the latter bsaid to him: You have acted for me in accordance with twoopposing opinions. bAnd Abaye would noteven btaste the produce of that yearbecause he thought that the water had reached his field in an unlawful manner.,It is related that there were bcertain residentsof a place called bBei Ḥarmakh who wentand bduga channel bat the head of the ShanvataRiver in order to divert the water and allow it to circle their fields, band then they returnedthe water to the river further bdownstream.Those who owned fields further bupstream came before Abaye,and bsaid to him: This damages our river,as the water is not flowing as it once had. Abaye bsaid to them: Dig a little deeper with them,and that should solve the problem. bThey said to him:If we do that, bour pits will become dry.Once Abaye heard this bhe said tothe residents of Bei Ḥarmakh: bGo remove yourselves from there,and dam the diversion that you made for the river.,§ The mishna teaches: Taking banimals, birds, or fishthat were caught in btrapsbelonging to another person is considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. And Rabbi Yosei says that this is full-fledged robbery. The Gemara comments: bWith regard to nets [ iuzlei /i] andwoven btraps [ ioharei /i], /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. מאי דרש אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן (דברים לג, ב) (ואתא) מרבבות קדש אות הוא ברבבה שלו,ורבי אבהו אמר (שיר השירים ה, י) דגול מרבבה דוגמא הוא ברבבה שלו,וריש לקיש אמר (ישעיהו מח, ב) ה' צבאות שמו אדון הוא בצבא שלו,ורבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן (מלכים א יט, יא) לא ברוח ה' ואחר הרוח רעש לא ברעש ה' ואחר הרעש אש לא באש ה' ואחר האש קול דממה דקה והנה ה' עובר,ת"ר ששה דברים נאמרו בשדים שלשה כמלאכי השרת ושלשה כבני אדם שלשה כמלאכי השרת יש להם כנפים כמלאכי השרת וטסין מסוף העולם ועד סופו כמלאכי השרת ויודעין מה שעתיד להיות כמלאכי השרת,יודעין ס"ד אלא שומעין מאחורי הפרגוד כמלאכי השרת,ושלשה כבני אדם אוכלין ושותין כבני אדם פרין ורבין כבני אדם ומתים כבני אדם,ששה דברים נאמרו בבני אדם שלשה כמלאכי השרת שלשה כבהמה שלשה כמלאכי השרת יש להם דעת כמלאכי השרת ומהלכין בקומה זקופה כמלאכי השרת ומספרים בלשון הקדש כמלאכי השרת שלשה כבהמה אוכלין ושותין כבהמה ופרין ורבין כבהמה ומוציאין רעי כבהמה:,כל המסתכל בד' דברים רתוי לו שלא בא לעולם כו': בשלמא מה למעלה מה למטה מה לאחור לחיי אלא לפנים מה דהוה הוה,ר' יוחנן ור"א דאמרי תרוייהו משל למלך ב"ו שאמר לעבדיו בנו לי פלטירין גדולין על האשפה הלכו ובנו לו אין רצונו של מלך להזכיר שם אשפה:,כל שלא חס על כבוד קונו רתוי לו שלא בא לעולם: מאי היא ר' אבא אמר זה המסתכל בקשת רב יוסף אמר זה העובר עבירה בסתר מסתכל בקשת דכתיב (יחזקאל א, כח) כמראה הקשת אשר יהיה בענן ביום הגשם כן מראה הנגה סביב הוא מראה דמות כבוד ה',רב יוסף אמר זה העובר עבירה בסתר כדר' יצחק דאמר רבי יצחק כל העובר עבירה בסתר כאילו דוחק רגלי שכינה שנא' (ישעיהו סו, א) כה אמר ה' השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,איני והאמר ר' אלעא הזקן אם רואה אדם שיצרו מתגבר עליו ילך למקום שאין מכירין אותו וילבש שחורין ויתעטף שחורין ויעשה מה שלבו חפץ ואל יחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא לא קשיא הא דמצי כייף ליה ליצריה הא דלא מצי כייף ליצריה,דרש ר' יהודה ברבי נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש כל המסתכל בג' דברים עיניו כהות בקשת ובנשיא ובכהנים בקשת דכתיב כמראה הקשת אשר יהיה בענן ביום הגשם הוא מראה דמות כבוד ה' בנשיא דכתיב (במדבר כז, כ) ונתת מהודך עליו המסתכל בכהנים בזמן שבהמ"ק קיים שהיו עומדין על דוכנן ומברכין את ישראל בשם המפורש,דרש ר' יהודה ברבי נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (מיכה ז, ה) אל תאמינו ברע אל תבטחו באלוף אם יאמר לך יצר הרע חטוא והקב"ה מוחל אל תאמן (שנא') אל תאמן ברע ואין רע אלא יצר הרע שנאמר (בראשית ח, כא) כי יצר לב האדם רע,ואין אלוף אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (ירמיהו ג, ד) אלוף נעורי אתה שמא תאמר מי מעיד בי אבני ביתו וקורות ביתו של אדם הם מעידין בו שנאמר (חבקוק ב, יא) כי אבן מקיר תזעק וכפיס מעץ יעננה,וחכ"א נשמתו של אדם מעידה בו שנאמר (מיכה ז, ה) משכבת חיקך שמור פתחי פיך אי זו היא דבר ששוכבת בחיקו של אדם הוי אומר זו נשמה ר' זריקא אמר שני מלאכי השרת המלוין אותו הן מעידין בו שנאמר (תהלים צא, יא) כי מלאכיו יצוה לך לשמרך בכל דרכיך (וחכ"א) אבריו של אדם מעידין בו שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, יב) ואתם עדי נאם ה' ואני אל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big (יוסי) בן יועזר אומר שלא לסמוך יוסף בן יוחנן אומר לסמוך יהושע בן פרחיה אומר שלא לסמוך ניתאי הארבלי אומר לסמוך יהודה בן טבאי אומר שלא לסמוך שמעון בן שטח אומר לסמוך שמעיה אומר לסמוך אבטליון אומר שלא לסמוך הלל ומנחם לא נחלקו יצא מנחם נכנס שמאי שמאי אומר שלא לסמוך הלל אומר לסמוך 16a. The Gemara asks: bWhatverse did Rabbi Akiva bexpoundthat prevented him from making the same mistake as iAḥer /i? bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:It was the following: b“And He came [ ive’ata /i] from the holy myriads”(Deuteronomy 33:2), which he explained in this manner: bHe,God, bis unique [ iot /i] among His myriadsof angels. Therefore, he knew that he had merely seen an angel., bAnd Rabbi Abbahu said:Rabbi Akiva expounded the verse: b“Preeminent above a myriad”(Song of Songs 5:10) to indicate that bHe is exemplary among His myriad. /b, bAnd Reish Lakish said:He expounded the verse: b“The Lord of hosts is His name”(Isaiah 48:2); bHe is the Master in His host. /b, bAnd Rav Ḥiyya bar Abbasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:He expounded the verses: b“But the Lord was not in the wind. And after the wind, an earthquake; the Lord was not in the earthquake. And after the earthquake, fire;but bthe Lord was not in the fire. And after the fire, a still, small voice,”and it states in that verse: b“And behold, the Lord passed by”(I Kings 19:11–12). Rabbi Akiva used this verse in order to recognize the place of His presence and refrain from trespassing there.,§ The Gemara returns to discussing the heavenly beings. bThe Sages taught: Sixstatements bwere said with regard to demons:In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels, andin bthreeways they are blike humans.The ibaraitaspecifies: In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels: They have wings like ministering angels; and they fly from one end of the world to the other like ministering angels; and they know what will be in the future like ministering angels. /b,The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: bShould it enter your mind that they knowthis? Not even the angels are privy to the future. bRather, they hear from behind the curtainwhen God reveals something of the future, blike ministering angels. /b, bAndin bthreeways they are similar bto humans: They eat and drink like humans; they multiply like humans; and they die like humans. /b, bSixstatements bwere said with regard to humans:In bthreeways, they are blike ministering angels,and in bthreeways they are blike animals.The ibaraitaexplains: In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels: They have intelligence like ministering angels; and they walk upright like ministering angels; and they speak in the holy tongue like ministering angels.In bthreeways humans are blike animals: They eat and drink like animals; and they multiply like animals; and they emit excrement like animals. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWhoever looks at four things, it would have been better for him had he never entered the world:Anyone who reflects upon that which is above the firmament; that which is below the earth; what was before the creation of the world; and what will be after the end of the world. The Gemara asks: bGranted,it is prohibited to reflect on bwhat is above, what is below,and bwhat is after.This is bfine,since one is examining things that are not part of the world but lie beyond it. bBut beforethe creation of the world, bwhat has happened has happened.Why is it prohibited to reflect upon this?,The Gemara explains: bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say:This can be demonstrated through ba parablewith regard to ba flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Build for me large palaces on a garbage dump. They went and builtthem bfor him.Clearly, in that case, bthe king does not desirethat they bmention the garbage dump.Here too, God does not want people to concern themselves with the chaos that preceded the world.,It is taught in the mishna: bWhoever has no concern for the honor of his Maker deserves to have never come to the world.The Gemara asks: bWhat islack of concern for the honor of one’s Maker? bRabbi Abba said: This isone bwho looks at a rainbow. Rav Yosef said: This isone bwho commits a transgression in private.They proceed to clarify their opinions: bLooking at a rainbowconstitutes an act of disrespect toward the Divine Presence, bas it is written: “As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord”(Ezekiel 1:28), and it is a dishonor to God to stare at His likeness., bRav Yosef said: This isone bwho commits a transgression in private, in accordance with Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Whoever commits a transgression in private, it is as though he pushedaway bthe feet of the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “Thus said the Lord: The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1). If one believes that no one can see what he is doing in private, it is as though he said that God is absent from that place. He is therefore compared to one who attempts to remove God from His footstool.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: And bis that so? But didn’t Rabbi Ela the Elder say: If a person sees that his inclination is overcoming him, he should go to a place where he is unknown, and wear black, and wrap himself in black,in the manner of mourners, because he should be ashamed of his weakness, band dothere bwhat his heart desires, but let him not desecrate the Name of Heaven in public.This shows that sinning in private is sometimes preferable to the public performance of a transgression. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thiscase, where one who commits a transgression in public has no concern for the honor of his Maker, occurs bwhen one is capable of overcoming his inclinationand fails to do so. bThatcase, where it is preferable to sin in private, occurs bwhen one is incapable of overcoming his inclination.He is therefore advised to, at the very least, refrain from desecrating God’s name in public., bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Naḥmani, the disseminatorof bReish Lakish, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whoever looks atthe following bthree things, his eyes will grow dim:One who looks bat a rainbow, at a iNasi /i, and at the priests.He explains: bAt a rainbow, as it is written: “As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain,so was the appearance of the brightness round about, bthis was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord”(Ezekiel 1:28). bAt a iNasi /i, as it is written: “And you shall put of your splendor upon him”(Numbers 27:20), which indicates that the splendor of the Divine Presence rested upon Moses, who was the iNasiof Israel. The third item, looking at priests, is referring to one bwho looks at the priests when the Temple is standing, as they would stand on their platform and bless Israel with the ineffable name,at which point the Divine Presence would rest above the joints of their fingers.,Apropos this Sage, the Gemara cites another statement of his: bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Naḥmani, the disseminatorof bReish Lakish, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Trust not in a companion, do not put your confidence in an intimate friend”(Micah 7:5)? bIf the evil inclination says to you: Sin, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, will forgive, do not trustit, bsince it is stated: “Trust not in a companion [ irei’a /i].” And irei’ais referring to none otherthan bthe evil [ ira /i] inclination, as it is stated: “For the inclination of the heart of man is evil [ ira /i]”(Genesis 8:21)., bAnd “intimate friend” is referring to none otherthan bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “You are the intimate friend of my youth”(Jeremiah 3:4). bLest you say:Since I am acting in private, bwho will testify against me? The stones of the house and the beams of the house ofeach bperson testify against him, as it is stated:“For the stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beam out of the timber shall answer it” (Habakkuk 2:11)., bAnd the Sages say: A person’s soulshall itself btestify against him, as it is stated: “Guard the doors of your mouth from she who lies in your bosom”(Micah 7:5). bWhat thing lies in a person’s bosom? You must say it ishis bsoul. Rabbi Zerika said:The btwo ministering angels who accompany him,i.e., each individual, bthey testify against him, as it is stated: “For He will command his angels over you, to guard you in all your ways”(Psalms 91:11). bAnd the Sages say: A person’s limbs testify against him, as it is stated: “Therefore you are My witnesses, says the Lord, and I am God”(Isaiah 43:12), which indicates that each individual becomes his own witness and testifies against himself on the Day of Judgment., strongMISHNA: /strong bYosei ben Yo’ezer says not to placeone’s hands on offerings before slaughtering them on a Festival because this is considered performing labor with an animal on a Festival. His colleague, bYosef ben Yoḥa, says to placethem; bYehoshua ben Peraḥya says not to placethem; bNitai HaArbeli says to placethem; bYehuda ben Tabbai says not to placethem; bShimon ben Shataḥ says to placethem; bShemaya says to placethem; bAvtalyon says not to placethem. bHillel and Menaḥem did not disagreewith regard to this issue. bMenaḥem departedfrom his post, and bShammai enteredin his stead. bShammai says not to placethem; bHillel says to placethem.
29. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

50b. ואל ישנה אדם מפני המחלוקת כיוצא בו המוליך פירות שביעית ממקום שכלו למקום שלא כלו או ממקום שלא כלו למקום שכלו חייב לבער ר' יהודה אומר צא והבא לך אף אתה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי איריא ערבי פסחים אפילו ערבי שבתות וערבי ימים טובים נמי דתניא העושה מלאכה בערבי שבתות וימים טובים מן המנחה ולמעלה אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם התם מן המנחה ולמעלה הוא דאסור סמוך למנחה לא הכא מחצות אי נמי התם סימן ברכה הוא דלא חזי אבל שמותי לא משמתינן ליה הכא שמותי נמי משמתינן ליה,גופא העושה מלאכה בערבי שבתות ובערבי ימים טובים מן המנחה ולמעלה ובמוצאי שבת ובמוצאי יו"ט ובמוצאי יום הכפורים ובכל מקום שיש שם נידנוד עבירה לאתויי תענית ציבור אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם:,ת"ר יש זריז ונשכר ויש זריז ונפסד יש שפל ונשכר ויש שפל ונפסד זריז ונשכר דעביד כולי שבתא ולא עביד במעלי שבתא זריז ונפסד דעביד כולי שבתא ועביד במעלי שבתא שפל ונשכר דלא עביד כולי שבתא ולא עביד במעלי שבתא שפל ונפסד דלא עביד כולי שבתא ועביד במעלי שבתא אמר רבא הני נשי דמחוזא אע"ג דלא עבדן עבידתא במעלי שבתא משום מפנקותא הוא דהא כל יומא נמי לא קא עבדן אפילו הכי שפל ונשכר קרינן להו,רבא רמי כתיב (תהלים נז, יא) כי גדול עד שמים חסדך וכתיב (תהלים קח, ה) כי גדול מעל שמים חסדך הא כיצד כאן בעושין לשמה וכאן בעושין שלא לשמה וכדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ומצות אף על פי שלא לשמה שמתוך שלא לשמה בא לשמה:,תנו רבנן המצפה לשכר אשתו וריחים אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם שכר אשתו מתקולתא ריחייא אגרתא אבל עבדה ומזבנה אישתבוחי משתבח בה קרא דכתיב (משלי לא, כד) סדין עשתה ותמכור:,ת"ר המשתכר בקנים ובקנקנים אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם מאי טעמא כיון דנפיש אפחזייהו שלטא בהו עינא: תנו רבנן תגרי סימטא ומגדלי בהמה דקה וקוצצי אילנות טובות ונותנין עיניהן בחלק יפה אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם מאי טעמא דתהו ביה אינשי:,ת"ר ד' פרוטות אין בהן סימן ברכה לעולם שכר כותבין ושכר מתורגמנין ושכר יתומים ומעות הבאות ממדינת הים,בשלמא שכר מתורגמנין משום דמיחזי כשכר שבת ומעות יתומים נמי לאו בני מחילה נינהו מעות הבאות ממדינת הים משום דלאו כל יומא מתרחיש ניסא,אלא שכר כותבין מאי טעמא א"ר יהושע בן לוי כ"ד תעניות ישבו אנשי כנסת הגדולה על כותבי ספרים תפילין ומזוזות שלא יתעשרו שאילמלי מתעשרין אין כותבין: ת"ר כותבי ספרים תפילין ומזוזות הן ותגריהן ותגרי תגריהן וכל העוסקין במלאכת שמים לאיתויי מוכרי תכלת אינן רואין סימן ברכה לעולם ואם עוסקין לשמה רואין:,בני ביישן נהוג דלא הוו אזלין מצור לצידון במעלי שבתא אתו בנייהו קמיה דר' יוחנן אמרו לו אבהתין אפשר להו אנן לא אפשר לן אמר להו כבר קיבלו אבותיכם עליהם שנאמר (משלי א, ח) שמע בני מוסר אביך ואל תטוש תורת אמך:,בני חוזאי נהגי דמפרשי חלה מארוזא אתו ואמרו ליה לרב יוסף אמר להו ניכלה זר באפייהו איתיביה אביי דברים המותרים ואחרים נהגו בהן איסור 50b. The Sages stated a principle: bAnd a personmay bnot deviatefrom the local custom, bdue topotential bdispute. Similarly,one bwho transports SabbaticalYear produce bfrom a placewhere a crop bhas ceasedin the fields bto a place where it has notyet bceased or from a place where it has notyet bceased to a place where it hasalready bceased is obligated to removethe produce from his possession, in accordance with the stringencies of both locations. It is permitted for homeowners to eat Sabbatical Year produce in their houses only as long as that species of fruit remains in the field as ownerless property. However, once that particular fruit is no longer available for animals in the fields, one is required to remove what remains of that species from his home. The statement in the mishna is referring to one who transported fruit from a location where it ceased in the fields to one where it did not, and vice versa. bRabbi Yehuda saysthat he need not remove the produce, as he can say to a local resident: bYou, too, go out and bringthis produce from a place where it remains in the field., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWhydiscuss this prohibition bparticularlywith regard to bPassover eves? Itis prohibited to perform labor bevenon bShabbat eves and Festival eves as well, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who performs labor on Shabbat eves and Festival eves from iminḥa /itime bonward never sees a sign of blessingfrom this work. The Gemara answers that there is a difference between the two situations: bThere,in the case of Shabbat and Festivals, performing labor is prohibited bfrom iminḥa /itime bonward;it is bnotprohibited badjacent to iminḥa /itime, i.e., just before it. bHere,in the case of Passover eve, it is prohibited bfrom midday. Alternatively, there,on Shabbat eve and Festival eve, it is ba sign of blessing that he does not see; however,the Sages bdo not excommunicate himfor performing labor. bHere,in the case of Passover eve, the Sages balso excommunicate himfor performing labor, as it is explicitly prohibited.,The Gemara cites the source of the bmatter itselfin its entirety: bOne who performs labor on Shabbat eves or on Festival eves from iminḥa /itime bonward,and similarly one who works immediately upon bthe conclusion of Shabbat,or bthe conclusion of a Festival,or bthe conclusion of Yom Kippur, or on any occasion where there is a trace of sin,which comes bto include a communal fast,e.g., the Ninth of Av or a fast for rain, when it is prohibited to perform labor, bnever sees a sign of blessingfrom this work. If one performs labor just before Shabbat or immediately after Shabbat, the concern is that even a slight miscalculation could lead to performance of labor on Shabbat itself, when it is prohibited.,Apropos reward or lack thereof, the Gemara cites th ie Toseftain which bthe Sages taught: There isone who is bdiligent and rewardedfor his diligence; band there isone who is bdiligent and penalizeddue to his diligence; bthere isone who is blazy and rewarded; and there isone who is blazy and penalized.How so? bDiligent and rewardedis referring to one bwho works the entire week and does not work on Shabbat eve. Diligent and penalizedis one who bworks all week and works on Shabbat eve. Lazy and rewardedis one bwho does not work the entire week and does not work on Shabbat eve. Lazy and penalizedis one who does bnot work the entire week and works on Shabbat eveto complete the work he neglected to perform during the week. bRava said:With regard to bthose women of Meḥoza, even though they do not perform labor on Shabbat eve, it is due toexcessive bpampering, as neither do they work on anyother bday. Even so, we call them lazy and rewarded.Despite the fact that their laziness is not motivated by piety, their inactivity has a positive aspect to it.,On the topic of reward for a mitzva fulfilled without intent, bRava raised a contradiction:It bis written: “For Your mercy is great unto the heavens,and Your truth reaches the skies” (Psalms 57:11); band it is writtenelsewhere: b“For Your mercy is great above the heavens,and Your truth reaches the skies” (Psalms 108:5). bHow so?How can these verses be reconciled? The Gemara explains: bHere,where the verse says that God’s mercy is above the heavens, it is referring to a case where bone performsa mitzva bfor its own sake; and here,where the verse says that God’s mercy reaches the heavens, it is referring to a case where bone performsa mitzva bnot for its own sake.Even a mitzva performed with ulterior motives garners reward, bas Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: A person should always engage in Torahstudy and performance of bmitzvot, even ifhe does so bnot for theirown bsake, as throughthe performance of mitzvot bnot for theirown bsake,one gains understanding and bcomesto perform them bfor theirown bsake. /b, bThe Sages taught: One who anticipatesreceiving bthe earnings of his wife orof ba mill never sees a sign of blessingfrom them. The Gemara explains: bEarnings of his wifeis referring to a case where she spins thread for others and charges by weight on ba scale(Rabbeinu Ḥael). The profit is small and it is demeaning to walk in public to solicit customers. Earnings of the bmillis referring to a hand mill for which people pay brentand grind their grain. In that case too, the profits are meager. bHowever, if a woman works and sellsthe product of her labor, bthe verse praises her, as it is writtenabout a woman of valor: b“She made a cloak and sold it,and delivered a belt to the peddler” (Proverbs 31:24)., bThe Sages taughtwith regard to a sign of blessing: bOne who earnsa living bfromselling brods or jugs will never see a sign of blessingfrom them. bWhat is the reasonfor this? bSince their volumeis great, btheevil beye dominates them.People believe that one is selling more than he is actually selling. Similarly, bthe Sages taught: Merchantswho sell their wares bin an alleyway [ isimta /i]adjacent to a thoroughfare, where they are seen by all; band those who raise small livestock,which tend to damage other people’s fields; band those who chop down goodfruit btrees,even if they were permitted to do so; and bthose who direct their eyes to the fine portionwith the intention of taking that portion for himself when dividing an item with others, will bnever see a sign of blessingfrom them. bWhat is the reasonfor this? It is bthatdue to these actions bpeople wonder about himand pay special attention to his conduct. Due to that attention, his actions will not be blessed.,Similarly bthe Sages taught: In four iperutot /i,payments, bthere is never a sign of blessing: Wages of scribesof sacred books; bwages of disseminators,who repeat and explain the lectures delivered by the Sages on Shabbat; bpayment of orphans,which one receives when engaging in a partnership with the executor of an orphan’s estate; band money that comes from a country overseas. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,one will be unsuccessful when receiving bwages of disseminators, as it appears asif he is receiving bwagesfor work performed on bShabbat,even though what he is doing is not actually prohibited. bAndit is also understandable that one will see no blessing from borphans’ money,as minors bare not capable of relinquishingproperty. Minors do not have the legal right to forgive even negligible losses, which partners typically overlook. Therefore, one who in the course of business takes even the smallest amount of money from them beyond the sum to which he is entitled is considered a thief. One sees no blessing from bmoney that comes from a country overseas,because ba miracle does not transpire every day.Since the risks involved in shipping cargo on long sea voyages are great, one’s merit is diminished each time his merchandise miraculously arrives intact.,However, bwhat is the reasonthat one sees no blessing from bwages of scribes? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The members of the Great Assembly observed twenty-four fasts,corresponding to the twenty-four priestly watches (Maharsha), bfor scribeswho write Torah bscrolls, phylacteries, and imezuzot /i, so that they will not become wealthyfrom their craft, bas were theyto bbecome wealthy, theywould no longer bwritethese sacred items. Similarly, bthe Sages taught: Scribeswho write bscrolls, phylacteries, and imezuzot /i;and btheir merchants,who buy the sacred scrolls from the scribes to sell them; and btheir merchants’ merchants; and all those engaged in the work of Heavenand earn their living from it, a phrase that comes bto include those who sell the sky-bluedye for ritual fringes, bnever see a sign of blessingfrom their labor. bAnd if they engagein these activities bfor their own sake,to ensure that there will be more sacred items available to the public, then btheydo bseeblessing from their labor.,As the mishna discusses the requirement to observe local customs, the Gemara relates: bThe residents of Beit She’an were accustomed not to travel from Tyre tomarket day in bSidon on Shabbat eve.In deference to Shabbat, they adopted a stringency and would not interrupt their Shabbat preparations even for a short sea voyage. bTheir children came before Rabbi Yoḥato request that he repeal this custom. bThey said to him:Due to their wealth, it was possible for bour fathersto earn a living without traveling to the market on Friday; bhowever, it is not possible for usto do so. bHe said to them: Your fathers already acceptedthis virtuous custom bupon themselves,and it remains in effect for you, bas it is stated: “My son, hear your father’s rebuke and do not abandon your mother’s teaching”(Proverbs 1:8). In addition to adhering to one’s father’s rebuke, i.e., ihalakha /i, one is also required to preserve his mother’s teaching, i.e., ancestral customs.,The Gemara relates additional customs: bThe residentsof the city of bḤozai were accustomed to separate iḥallafrom ricedough. bThey came and told Rav Yosefabout this custom. bHe said to them: Let a non-priest eatthis dough bin their presenceto show them unequivocally that this custom has no legal basis. bAbaye raised an objection to him:With regard to bmattersthat are bpermitted, but others were accustomed totreat bthemas a bprohibition, /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומביאו לחיי העולם הבא,אמר רבי אבהו כגון אבימי ברי קיים מצות כיבוד חמשה בני סמכי הוה ליה לאבימי בחיי אביו וכי הוה אתא רבי אבהו קרי אבבא רהיט ואזיל ופתח ליה ואמר אין אין עד דמטאי התם,יומא חד אמר ליה אשקיין מיא אדאייתי ליה נמנם גחין קאי עליה עד דאיתער איסתייעא מילתיה ודרש אבימי (תהלים עט, א) מזמור לאסף,אמר ליה רב יעקב בר אבוה לאביי כגון אנא דעד דאתינא מבי רב אבא מדלי לי כסא ואמא מזגה לי היכי איעביד א"ל מאמך קביל ומאבוך לא תקבל דכיון דבר תורה הוא חלשה דעתיה,רבי טרפון הוה ליה ההיא אמא דכל אימת דהות בעיא למיסק לפוריא גחין וסליק לה וכל אימת דהות נחית נחתת עלויה אתא וקא משתבח בי מדרשא אמרי ליה עדיין לא הגעת לחצי כיבוד כלום זרקה ארנקי בפניך לים ולא הכלמתה,רב יוסף כי הוה שמע קל כרעא דאמיה אמר איקום מקמי שכינה דאתיא אמר רבי יוחנן אשרי מי שלא חמאן רבי יוחנן כי עברתו אמו מת אביו ילדתו מתה אמו וכן אביי איני והאמר אביי אמרה לי אם ההיא מרבינתיה הואי,רב אסי הוה ליה ההיא אמא זקינה אמרה לי' בעינא תכשיטין עבד לה בעינא גברא נייעין לך בעינא גברא דשפיר כותך שבקה ואזל לארעא דישראל,שמע דקא אזלה אבתריה אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר לי' מהו לצאת מארץ לחוצה לארץ א"ל אסור לקראת אמא מהו א"ל איני יודע [אתרח] פורתא הדר אתא אמר ליה אסי נתרצית לצאת המקום יחזירך לשלום,אתא לקמיה דרבי אלעזר א"ל חס ושלום דלמא מירתח רתח א"ל מאי אמר לך אמר ליה המקום יחזירך לשלום אמר ליה ואם איתא דרתח לא הוה מברך לך אדהכי והכי שמע לארונא דקאתי אמר אי ידעי לא נפקי,ת"ר מכבדו בחייו ומכבדו במותו בחייו כיצד הנשמע בדבר אביו למקום לא יאמר שלחוני בשביל עצמי מהרוני בשביל עצמי פטרוני בשביל עצמי אלא כולהו בשביל אבא,במותו כיצד היה אומר דבר שמועה מפיו לא יאמר כך אמר אבא אלא כך אמר אבא מרי הריני כפרת משכבו והני מילי תוך שנים עשר חדש מכאן ואילך אומר זכרונו לברכה לחיי העולם הבא,תנו רבנן חכם משנה שם אביו ושם רבו תורגמן אינו משנה לא שם אביו ולא שם רבו אבוה דמאן אילימא אבוה דמתורגמן אטו תורגמן לאו בר חיובא הוא,אלא אמר רבא שם אביו של חכם ושם רבו של חכם כי הא דמר בר רב אשי כי הוה דריש בפירקא איהו אמר אבא מרי ואמוריה אמר הכי אמר רב אשי,ת"ר איזהו מורא ואיזהו כיבוד מורא לא עומד במקומו ולא יושב במקומו ולא סותר את דבריו ולא מכריעו כיבוד מאכיל ומשקה מלביש ומכסה מכניס ומוציא,איבעיא להו 31b. and this action bbrings him to the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bRabbi Abbahu said:One bsuch as Avimi, my son,properly bfulfilled the mitzva of honoringhis parents. The Gemara relates: bAvimi had five sons during his father’s lifetimewho were bordainedto issue halakhic rulings, and he too was ordained. bAndyet bwhen Rabbi Abbahu,his father, bcame and called at the gateto enter, Avimi bwouldhimself brun and go to openthe door bfor him. And before he arrived there, hewould already bsay: Yes, yes,so that his father would not think that he was being ignored., bOne dayRabbi Abbahu bsaid toAvimi his son: bGive me water to drink. Before he brought himthe water, Rabbi Abbahu bdozed off.Avimi bbent overand bstood over him untilhis father bawoke.The performance of this mitzva baided him,i.e., as a reward God helped him in his studies, bandAvimi succeeded in homiletically binterpretingthe psalm: b“A song to Asaph”(Psalms 79)., bRav Ya’akov bar Avuh said to Abaye:With regard to one bsuch as I,so beloved by my parents that bbefore I return from the study hall my father brings me a cup and my mother pours for me, how should I act?Is it disrespectful to accept this honor from them? Abaye bsaid to him: Acceptit bfrom your mother, but do not accept it from your father, as, since he is a Torah scholar he will be disheartenedif his son does not show him the proper level of respect.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Tarfon had a certainmanner of treating his bmother, that whenever she wished to ascend intoher bbed he would bend over andhelp bher to ascend, and whenever she wished to descendfrom the bed, bshe would descend onto him. He came and praisedhimself in the bstudy hallfor performing the mitzva of honoring one’s father and mother so thoroughly. bThey said to him: You still have not reached even half ofthe bhonordue to her. bHasit ever happened that bshe threw a purse into the sea in front of you, and you did not embarrass her? /b, bWhen Rav Yosef heard his mother’s footsteps, hewould bsay: I will stand before the arriving Divine Presence. Rabbi Yoḥa said: Fortunate is one who never sawhis father and mother, as it is so difficult to honor them appropriately. The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yoḥahimself never saw his parents. bWhen his mother was pregt with him, his father died;and when bshe gave birth to him, his mother died. And the sameis true of bAbaye.The Gemara asks: bIs that so,that Abaye never saw his mother? bBut didn’t Abaye sayon many occasions: bMy mother told me?The Gemara answers: bThatmother bwasactually bhis foster mother,not his birth mother., bRav Asi had an elderly mother. She said to him: I want jewelry,and bhe madejewelry bfor her.She said to him: bI want a manwhom I can marry, and he said to her: bI will seekone bfor you.She said to him: bI want a husband who is as handsome as you.At this point, he realized that she was senile, and that he would be unable to fulfill all her requests. Therefore, bhe left her and went to Eretz Yisrael. /b,Rav Asi bheard that she was following himto Eretz Yisrael. bHe came before Rabbi Yoḥaand bsaid to him: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to bleaving EretzYisrael to go boutside of EretzYisrael? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him:It is bprohibited.Rav Asi further asked: If one is going bto greethis bmother, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: I do not know.Rav Asi bwaited a littlewhile, and bthen cameback to him. Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Asi, you areevidently bdetermined to leave.May bthe Omnipresent return you in peace,and he said no more.,Rav Asi bcame before Rabbi Elazar,because he did not know how to interpret Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement. bHe said toRabbi Elazar: bGod forbid, perhapshe bis angrywith me that I wished to leave? Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: Whatexactly bdid he say to you?Rav Asi bsaid to him:May bthe Omnipresent return you in peace.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: If it is so that he was angry, he would not have blessed you.Rabbi Yoḥa certainly gave you permission to leave. bIn the meantime,while he was traveling to meet her, Rav Asi bheard that her coffin was coming,i.e., his mother had died and her coffin was being brought to Eretz Yisrael. bHe said: Had I known I would not have left,as after his mother’s death he was not obligated to leave Eretz Yisrael to honor her., bThe Sages taught: One honorshis father bin his life and honors him in his death. Howdoes he honor him bin his life? One who goes to a place on the command of his father should not sayto the people to whom he has been sent, to hurry them along: bSend meon my journey bon my own behalf,or: bHurry up on my own behalf,or: bAllow meto btake leaveof this business bon my own behalf. Rather,he should say ballof the above in the following manner: Act in this manner bon Father’s behalf,as a mark of respect for his father., bHowdoes he honor him bin his death?If bhe says a matter he heard from hisfather’s bmouth, he should not say: So said Father. Rather,he should say: bSo said Father, my teacher, may I be an atonement for his restingsoul. bAnd this ihalakha bapplies within twelve monthsof his death. bFrom thistime bonward he says: May his memory be for a blessing, for the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bThe Sages taught: A Sagewho lectures in public must bchange the name of his father,i.e., when he quotes his father he should not mention him by name. bAndsimilarly, he changes the bname of his teacher. The disseminator,who explains the statements of a Sage to the audience, bchanges neither the name of his father nor the name of his teacher.The Gemara asks: To bwhose fatheris this referring? bIf we sayit is referring to bthe father of the disseminator,whom the Sage mentioned in his lecture, bis that to saythat bthe disseminator is not obligatedto observe the mitzva of honoring one’s father? How can a disseminator mention his own father by name?, bRather, Rava said:This is referring to the bname of the Sage’s father and the name of the Sage’s teacher.This is blike that which Mar bar Rav Ashiwould do, as bwhen he would teachTorah bat his regular lectureand would mention a ihalakhain the name of his father, Rav Ashi, bhe would say:So said bmy father, my teacher; and his disseminatorwould bsay: So said Rav Ashi.Although a son may not mention his father’s name, the disseminator of his lecture may do so., bThe Sages taught: What is fear and what is honor? Fearof one’s father includes the following: bOne may not stand in hisfather’s fixed bplace, and may not sit in his place, and may not contradict his statementsby expressing an opinion contrary to that of his father, band he may not choose sideswhen his father argues with someone else. What is considered bhonor? He giveshis father bfood and drink, dresses and covershim, and bbringshim bin and takeshim boutfor all his household needs., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages:
31. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7b. שנאמר (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים גבורים סביב לה מגבורי ישראל כולם אחוזי חרב מלומדי מלחמה איש חרבו על יריכו מפחד בלילות מפחדה של גיהנם שדומה ללילה,דרש ר' יאשיה ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו כא, יב) בית דוד כה אמר ה' דינו לבקר משפט והצילו גזול מיד עושק וכי בבקר דנין וכל היום אין דנין אלא אם ברור לך הדבר כבקר אמרהו ואם לאו אל תאמרהו ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יונתן מהכא (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את אם ברור לך הדבר כאחותך שהיא אסורה לך אומרהו ואם לאו אל תאמרהו,אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה שיושבין בדין קולר תלוי בצואר כולן פשיטא לא צריכא אלא לתלמיד היושב לפני רבו,רב הונא כי הוה אתי דינא לקמיה מיכניף ומייתי עשרה רבנן מבי רב אמר כי היכי דלימטיי' שיבא מכשורא רב אשי כי הוה אתי טריפתא לקמיה מכניף ומייתי להו לכולהו טבחי דמתא מחסיא אמר כי היכי דלימטיין שיבא מכשורא,כי אתא רב דימי אמר דרש רב נחמן בר כהן מאי דכתיב (משלי כט, ד) מלך במשפט יעמיד ארץ ואיש תרומות יהרסנה אם דיין דומה למלך שאינו צריך לכלום יעמיד ארץ ואם דומה לכהן שמחזר בבית הגרנות יהרסנה,דבי נשיאה אוקמו דיינא דלא הוה גמיר א"ל ליהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש קום עליה באמורא קם גחין עליה ולא א"ל ולא מידי,פתח ואמר (חבקוק ב, יט) הוי אומר לעץ הקיצה עורי לאבן דומם הוא יורה הנה הוא תפוש זהב וכסף וכל רוח אין בקרבו ועתיד הקב"ה ליפרע ממעמידין שנאמר (חבקוק ב, כ) וה' בהיכל קדשו הס מפניו כל הארץ,אמר ריש לקיש כל המעמיד דיין (על הציבור) שאינו הגון כאילו נוטע אשירה בישראל שנאמר (דברים טז, יח) שופטים ושוטרים תתן לך וסמיך ליה (דברים טז, כא) לא תטע לך אשירה כל עץ אמר רב אשי ובמקום שיש תלמידי חכמים כאילו נטעו אצל מזבח שנאמר (דברים טז, כא) אצל מזבח ה' אלהיך,כתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב הוא דלא עבדי הא דעץ שרי אמר רב אשי אלוה הבא בשביל כסף ואלוה הבא בשביל זהב,רב כי הוה אתי לבי דינא אמר הכי ברעות נפשיה לקטלא נפיק וצבי ביתיה לית הוא עביד וריקן לביתיה עייל ולואי שתהא ביאה כיציאה,כי הוי חזי אמבוהא (דספרי) אבתריה אמר (איוב כ, ו) אם יעלה לשמים שיאו [וגו'] כגללו לנצח יאבד (וגו') מר זוטרא חסידא כי הוו מכתפי ליה בשבתא דריגלא אמר הכי (משלי כז, כד) כי לא לעולם חוסן ואם נזר לדור ודור,דרש בר קפרא מנא הא מילתא דאמרו רבנן הוו מתונין בדין דכתיב (שמות כ, כו) לא תעלה במעלות וסמיך ליה (שמות כא, א) ואלה המשפטים אמר ר' אליעזר מניין לדיין שלא יפסע על ראשי עם קודש שנא' לא תעלה במעלות וסמיך ליה ואלה המשפטים,אשר תשים אשר תלמדם מיבעי ליה אמר רבי ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא אלו כלי הדיינין רב הונא כי הוה נפק לדינא אמר הכי אפיקו לי מאני חנותאי מקל ורצועה ושופרא וסנדלא,(דברים א, טז) ואצוה את שופטיכם בעת ההיא אמר רבי יוחנן כנגד מקל ורצועה תהא זריז (דברים א, טז) שמוע בין אחיכם ושפטתם אמר רבי חנינא אזהרה לבית דין שלא ישמע דברי בעל דין קודם שיבא בעל דין חבירו ואזהרה לבעל דין שלא יטעים דבריו לדיין קודם שיבא בעל דין חבירו קרי ביה נמי שמע בין אחיכם,רב כהנא אמר מהכא (שמות כג, א) מלא תשא לא תשיא,(דברים א, טז) ושפטתם צדק אמר ריש לקיש צדק את הדין ואחר כך חתכהו (דברים א, טז) בין איש ובין אחיו (ובין גרו) אמר רב יהודה אפילו בין בית לעלייה,ובין גרו אמר רב יהודה אפילו בין תנור לכירים,(דברים א, יז) לא תכירו פנים במשפט רבי יהודה אומר לא תכירהו רבי אלעזר אומר לא תנכרהו,אושפיזכניה דרב אתא לקמיה לדינא אמר לו לאו אושפיזכני את אמר לו אין אמר ליה דינא אית לי אמר ליה 7b. bas it is stated: “Behold, it is the bed of Solomon; sixty mighty men are around it, of the mighty men of Israel. They all handle the sword, and are expert in war; every man has his sword upon his thigh due to dread in the night”(Song of Songs 3:7–8). The words “due to dread in the night” mean bdue to the dread of Gehenna, which is similar to the night.Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani interprets this verse as referring to judges, who are called: Mighty men of Israel, as they preside in the Temple, which is termed: The bed of God. In this verse, God is referred to as: Solomon [ iShlomo /i], the King to Whom peace [ ishalom /i] belongs., bRabbi Yoshiya, and some say Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, interpreteda verse bhomiletically. Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “House of David, so says the Lord: Execute justice in the morning, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor”(Jeremiah 21:12)? bAndis it bsothat a court bmay judge in the morning, and allthe rest of bthe daya court bmay not judge?Why does the verse specifically relate to judging in the morning? bRather,the meaning is: bIf the matter is as clear to you as the morning, statethe verdict; band if not, do not state it. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yonatansays this principle may be derived bfrom here: “Say to wisdom: You are my sister”(Proverbs 7:4). bIf the matter isas bclear to you asthe fact bthat your sister is forbidden to you, state it, and if not, do not state it. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:If btenjudges bare sitting in judgment,a prisoner’s bcollar [ ikolar /i],referring to responsibility for the consequences of an incorrect verdict, bhangs around all of their necks.The Gemara asks: Isn’t it bobviousthat all of the judges bear joint responsibility for the verdict? The Gemara answers: It bis necessary onlyin order btoinclude ba student who is sitting in front of his teacherin the court, and notices that his teacher erred. Although he is not formally part of the court, he nevertheless bears responsibility if he remains silent.,The Gemara relates concerning bRav Hunathat bwhena case bwould come before himfor bjudgment,he would bgather and bring ten rabbis from Rav’s study hall.He bwould say:I do this bso thatonly a small part of the responsibility, comparable to ba splinter from a beam, will reacheach of bus.The greater the number of judges, the less responsibility each one assumes for the verdict. Similarly, with bRav Ashi, whena person bwould come before himwith meat suspected to be from ban animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [ itereifta /i],he bwould gather and bringtogether ball the butchers of Mata Meḥasyaand consult with them before ruling on the status of the meat. He bwould sayto them: I do this bso thatonly a small part of the responsibility, comparable to ba splinter from a beam, will reacheach of bus. /b, bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael, he bsaid: Rav Naḥman bar Kohen interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The king by justice establishes the land; but he who exacts gifts [ iterumot /i] overthrows it”(Proverbs 29:4)? This teaches that bif the judgeis blike a kingin bthat he does not need anythingand is not dependent on anyone, he bestablishes the land,i.e., he can serve as a judge. bBut if he is like a priest who seeks outhis iterumot bfromvarious bgranaries,as he is dependent on others, he boverthrowsthe land., bIn the house of the iNasi /i, they appointed a judge who was not learned.This judge bsaid to Yehuda bar Naḥmani,who was the binterpreter of Reish Lakishand whose role was to repeat and explain the Sage’s lectures: bStand overme bas an interpreter,and I will lecture. Yehuda bar Naḥmani baroseand bbent over himin the conventional manner, to hear the judge’s words. bAnd,being ignorant, the judge bdid not say anything to him. /b,The interpreter bbegan and said:The verse states: b“Woe to him who says to the wood: Awake, to the dumb stone: Arise. Can this teach? Behold, it is overlaid with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it”(Habakkuk 2:19). So is this judge, appointed to teach the public for gold, i.e., for payment, but no more qualified than wood and stone. bAndin the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will punish those who appointsuch judges, bas it is statedin the next verse: b“But the Lord is in His holy Sanctuary; let all the earth be silent before Him”(Habakkuk 2:20). God, Who is above everything, will judge those responsible for such appointments., bReish Lakish says:With regard to banyone who appoints over the community a judge who is not fit,it is bas thoughhe bplants a treeused as part of idolatrous rites b[ iashera /i] among the Jewish people, as it is stated: “You shall make judges and officers for yourself”(Deuteronomy 16:18), band juxtaposed to it,it is written: b“You shall not plant yourself an iasheraof any kind of tree”(Deuteronomy 16:21). By implication, appointing unfit judges is akin to planting a tree for idolatry. bRav Ashi says: And in a place where there are Torah scholars,it is bas thoughhe bplantedthe tree bnext to the altar, as it is stated:“You shall not plant yourself an iashera /i… bbeside the altar of the Lord your God.” /b,It is bwritten: “You shall not make with Me gods of [ ielohei /i] silver and gods of gold”(Exodus 20:20). The Gemara asks: It is bgods of silver and gods of gold thatyou may bnot make, butare gods bof wood permitted?Rather, bRav Ashi says:This verse discusses ba judge,called ielohim /i, bwho comes,i.e., is appointed, bdue topayment of bsilver, and a judge who comes due topayment of bgold. /b,The Gemara relates that bRav, when he would come to courtto judge a case, bwould say thisabout himself: bBy his own willhe bgoes out todanger of bdeath,as a judge who misjudges a case is liable to receive the punishment of death at the hand of Heaven; band he does not dowhat is necessary to provide for bthe needs of his house, and he enters his home empty-handed,because a judge does not receive a salary. He said: bIf onlyit should be so that his bentryinto his home bwill bethe same bashis bdeparture,without sin or transgression.,In a similar demonstration of humility, bwhenRav bwould see a convoy [ iambuha /i] of scribesfollowing bafter himto honor him, he bwould say: “Though his excellency mount up to the heavensand his head reach the clouds, byet he shall perish forever like his own dung;they who have seen him shall say: Where is he?” (Job 20:6–7). It is said of bMar Zutra the Piousthat bwhenthe people bwould carry himto his lectures bon their shoulders during Shabbat of the Festival,he would bsay thisto avoid becoming arrogant: b“For power is not forever, and does the crown endure for all generations?”(Proverbs 27:24)., bBar Kappara taught,based on a homiletical interpretation of a verse: bFrom where is this matter that the Sages statedderived: bBe temperate in judgment( iAvot1:1)? bAs it is written: “Neither shall you go up by stepsonto My altar” (Exodus 20:23), i.e., do not ascend hurriedly, band juxtaposed to it,it is written: b“Now these are the ordicesthat you shall set before them” (Exodus 21:1). bRabbi Eliezer says: From whereis it derived bthat a judge may not step over the heads of the sacred nation,walking among those assembled for the lecture, who would sit upon the floor, in such a manner that he has the appearance of stepping on them? It is derived from that bwhich is stated: “Neither shall you go up by steps,” and juxtaposed to itis an introduction to civil laws and courtroom regulations: b“Now these are the ordices.”This indicates that the prohibition against ascending upon steps applies to judges.,The Gemara interprets the second part of the verse cited above: “Now these are the ordices bthat you shall setbefore them.” The verse bshould havestated: bThat you shall teach them.What is indicated by the phrase: “Set before them”? bRabbi Yirmeya, and some say Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, says: These are the judges’ tools.To illustrate this, the Gemara relates that bRav Huna, when he would go out to a judgment, would say this: Take out for me tools from my shop: A rod and strap,with which to flog transgressors; band a shofar,necessary in the event that someone must be excommunicated; band a sandal,necessary in the event of iḥalitza /i, the procedure by which a levirate marriage is rejected.,The Gemara interprets other verses related to the topic of adjudicating cases. b“And I charged your judges at that time,saying: Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the stranger who is with him” (Deuteronomy 1:16). Understanding that the word “charged” indicates alacrity, bRabbi Yoḥa says:Moses urged the judges: bWith regard to the rod and the strap, be vigilant.With regard to the clause b“Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge,” Rabbi Ḥanina says:This is ba warning to a court thatit bmay not hear the statement ofone blitigant before the other litigant comes, andit is ba warning to a litigant thathe bmay not explain his statement to the judge before the other litigant comes. Read intothe phrase in the verse: b“Hear the causes between your brethren,”that it is balso concerningthe litigant. Although he is not the judge, he is also required to assure that the case is conducted in the presence of both parties., bRav Kahana saysthe litigant’s responsibility may be derived bfrom here: From “you shall not bear [ itissa /i]a false report” (Exodus 23:1). Although conjugated in this manner the verb would seem to be addressed to the judges, commanding them not to lend credence to a false report, the term may also be read as: bYou shall not deliver [ itassi /i]a false report, conjugated so that it addresses the litigants and the witnesses.,The Gemara returns to the verse in Deuteronomy cited above: “And I charged your judges at that time, saying: Hear the causes between your brethren, band judge righteously.” Reish Lakish says: Verify the judgmentby meticulously examining the particulars of the case, bandonly bafterward, implement it.The verse continues: b“Between a man and his brother, and the stranger who is with him.” Rav Yehuda says:The judge must distinguish beven betweenthe merits of ba house and the upper storywhen dividing a two-floor property among inheriting brothers.,With regard to the clause in the verse: b“And the stranger who is with him [ igero /i],”the word igeroresembles the word: Dwell [ igur /i], and bRav Yehuda says:This word teaches that the judge must distinguish beven betweenthe merits of ban oven and a stove.The judge must carefully weigh how to divide even these domestic items in a case of inheritance, to ensure that the distribution of property is absolutely equitable.,The next verse states: b“You shall not respect [ itakiru /i] people in judgment;you shall hear the small and the great alike; you shall not be afraid before any man, for the judgment is God’s; and the cause that is too hard for you, you shall bring to me, and I will hear it” (Deuteronomy 1:17). bRabbi Yehuda says: Do not recognize him [ itakirehu /i],i.e., do not acknowledge the litigant as a friend in your role as a judge. bRabbi Elazar says:Even if he is your opponent, bdo not estrange him [ itenakerehu /i]in such a way as to prejudge him as liable, but treat him as though you do not know him at all., bRav’s host [ iushpizekhaneih /i],with whom he would stay occasionally, bcame before him for a judgment.Rav bsaid tothe host: bAre you not my host?He bsaid to him: Yes,I am. The host then bsaid to him: I havea dispute with another that needs ba judgment.Rav bsaid to him: /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

37b. ארבע ארבע וארבע הרי שמונה שמונה ושמונה הרי שש עשרה וכן בסיני וכן בערבות מואב שנא' (דברים כח, סט) אלה דברי הברית אשר צוה ה' את משה וגו' וכתיב (דברים כט, ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת וגו' נמצא מ"ח בריתות על כל מצוה ומצוה,ר"ש מוציא הר גריזים והר עיבל ומכניס אהל מועד שבמדבר,ובפלוגתא דהני תנאי דתניא רבי ישמעאל אומר כללות נאמרו בסיני ופרטות באהל מועד ר' עקיבא אומר כללות ופרטות נאמרו בסיני ונשנו באהל מועד ונשתלשו בערבות מואב,ואין לך כל דבר מצוה ומצוה שכתובה בתורה שלא נכרתו עליה ארבעים ושמנה בריתות,ר' שמעון בן יהודה איש כפר עכו אמר משום רבי שמעון אין לך מצוה ומצוה שכתובה בתורה שלא נכרתו עליה ארבעים ושמנה בריתות של שש מאות אלף ושלשת אלפים וחמש מאות וחמשים,אמר רבי לדברי רבי שמעון בן יהודה איש כפר עכו שאמר משום רבי שמעון אין לך כל מצוה ומצוה שבתורה שלא נכרתו עליה ארבעים ושמנה בריתות של שש מאות אלף ושלשת אלפים וחמש מאות וחמשים נמצא לכל אחד ואחד מישראל שש מאות אלף ושלשת אלפים וחמש מאות וחמשים,מאי בינייהו אמר רב משרשיא ערבא וערבא דערבא איכא בינייהו,דרש רבי יהודה בן נחמני מתורגמניה דרבי שמעון בן לקיש כל הפרשה כולה לא נאמרה אלא בנואף ונואפת,(דברים כז, טו) ארור האיש אשר יעשה פסל ומסכה וגו' בארור סגי ליה אלא זה הבא על הערוה והוליד בן והלך לבין עובדי כוכבים ועבד עבודת כוכבים ארורין אביו ואמו של זה שכך גרמו לו,ת"ר (דברים יא, כט) ונתת את הברכה על הר גריזים ואת הקללה וגו מה תלמוד לומר אם ללמד שתהא ברכה על הר גריזים וקללה על הר עיבל הרי כבר נאמר (דברים כז, יב) אלה יעמדו לברך את העם על הר גריזים וכתיב (דברים כז, יג) ואלה יעמדו על הקללה בהר עיבל אלא להקדים ברכה לקללה,יכול יהיו כל הברכות קודמות לקללות תלמוד לומר ברכה וקללה ברכה אחת קודמת לקללה ואין כל הברכות קודמות לקללות,ולהקיש ברכה לקללה לומר לך מה קללה בלוים אף ברכה בלוים ומה קללה בקול רם אף ברכה בקול רם ומה קללה בלשון הקודש אף ברכה בלה"ק ומה קללה בכלל ופרט אף ברכה בכלל ופרט ומה קללה אלו ואלו עונין ואומרים אמן אף ברכה אלו ואלו עונין ואומרים אמן, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ברכת כהנים כיצד במדינה אומר אותה שלש ברכות ובמקדש ברכה אחת במקדש אומר את השם 37b. every mitzva contains bfouraspects. bFourgeneral aspects band fourspecific aspects add up to beight. Eightblessings band eightcurses add up to bsixteen. And so too atMount bSinai, and so too at the plains of Moab, as it is stated: “These are the words of the covet that the Lord commanded Mosesto make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the covet that He made with them in Horeb” (Deuteronomy 28:69). bAnd it is written: “Observe therefore the words of this covet”(Deuteronomy 29:8). bIt followsthat between the three events where sixteen covets were made, God established bforty-eight covets for each and every mitzva. /b, bRabbi Shimon excludes Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebalfrom this list because only some of the mitzvot were mentioned there, band he includesinstead the covet at bthe Tent of Meeting in the desert. /b,The Gemara explains: bAndit is bin the disputebetween bthese itanna’im /ithat they disagree, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta8:11): bRabbi Yishmael says: General statements were said at Sinai,i.e., Moses received general mitzvot at Sinai, including the Ten Commandments. bAndthe bdetailsof the mitzvot were explained to Moses at a later time bin the Tent of Meeting. Rabbi Akiva says:Both bgeneral statements andthe bdetailsof mitzvot bwere said at Sinai, andlater brepeated in the Tent of Meeting, andreiterated ba third timeby Moses to the Jewish people bin the plains of Moab.Rabbi Shimon holds in accordance with his teacher, Rabbi Akiva, and counts Mount Sinai and the Tent of Meeting Tent as two distinct places where all of the mitzvot were given.,The ibaraitaconcludes: bAnd there is no mitzva written in the Torah for which forty-eight covets were not established. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko said in the name of Rabbi Shimon: There is no mitzva written in the Torah for which forty-eight covets were not established 603,550 times,corresponding to the population of the Jewish people in the desert. This is because each member of the Jewish people received the covet both for himself and as a guarantor for the rest of the Jewish people., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: According to the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko, who spoke in the name of Rabbi Shimon, there is no mitzva in the Torah for which forty-eight covets were not established 603,550 times; it followsthat bfor every one of the Jewish peoplethere were b603,550covets.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthe statements of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda Ish Kefar Akko and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? What does the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi add? bRav Mesharshiyya said:The matter of ba guarantor and a guarantor for a guarantoris the difference bbetween them.According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, every Jew is not only rendered a guarantor for every other Jew, but he is also rendered a guarantor for every other Jew’s responsibility as a guarantor. Therefore, according to his calculation, the number of covets is multiplied again by 603,550.,§ bRabbi Yehuda ben Naḥmani, the disseminator of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, taught: The entire passageof the blessings and curses bis stated onlyin reference bto an adulterer and adulteress. /b,This is proved from the verse: b“Cursed is the man who makes a graven or molten image”(Deuteronomy 27:15). bIs a curse a sufficientconsequence bforthe actions of an idol worshipper? He has rebelled against the fundamental tenet of the Torah. bRather, thisis referring to bone who engaged in sexual intercourse with a forbidden relative and boreher a imamzer bson. Andthe son, who is not allowed to marry a Jew of unflawed lineage, bwentto live bamong theother bnations of the world and engaged in idol worship. His father and mother are cursed for causing himto worship idols. Likewise, the rest of the curses refer to sins that are the result of adultery., bThe Sages taught: “And you shall give the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the curseon Mount Ebal” (Deuteronomy 11:29). bWhymust bthe verse statethis? bIfit is bto teach that the blessing must begiven bon Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal, it is already stated: “These shall stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people”(Deuteronomy 27:12), band it is written: “And these shall stand on Mount Ebal for the curse”(Deuteronomy 27:13). bRather,the verse teaches that the proclamation of the bblessing must precedethe bcurse. /b,One bmighthave thought that ball of the blessingsshould bprecede the curses.Therefore, bthe verse states “blessing” and “curse”in the singular, to teach that bone blessing precedeseach bcurse, but all of the blessings do not precede the curses.The blessings and curses were recited alternately, first one blessing and then one curse., bAndfurthermore, the verse comes bto juxtaposethe bblessing withthe bcurse, to say to youthat bjust asthe bcurseis recited bbythe bLevites, so too,the bblessingis uttered bbythe bLevites; and just asthe bcurseis proclaimed bloudly, so too,the bblessingis proclaimed bloudly; and just asthe bcurseis proclaimed bin the sacred tongue,Hebrew, bso too,the bblessingis proclaimed bin the sacred tongue; and just asthe bcurseis proclaimed both bin general and in detail, so too,the bblessing isproclaimed bin general and in detail. And just asafter the bcurseis uttered, bbothgroups of people on each mountain brespond and say amen, so too,after the bblessingis uttered, bbothgroups brespond and say amen. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bHowis bthe Priestly Benedictionrecited? bIn the country,i.e., outside the Temple, the priest brecitesthe verses as bthree blessings,pausing between each verse while the people respond amen. bAnd in the Temple,the priests recite all three verses as bone blessing,after which the people respond: Blessed be the Lord, God, the God of Israel, from eternity to eternity, as is the customary response to blessings in the Temple. bIn the Temple,the priest butters the nameof God
33. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

21a. ויש אומרים אף רידייא ובעו רבנן רחמי אנשמה בשעה שיוצאה מן הגוף ובטלוה,תניא כוותיה דר' שילא היוצא לדרך קודם קריאת הגבר דמו בראשו רבי יאשיה אומר עד שישנה ויש אומרים עד שישלש ובאיזה תרנגול אמרו בתרנגול בינוני,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שישראל עולין לרגל עומדין צפופין ומשתחוים רווחים נמשכין אחת עשרה אמה אחורי בית הכפורת מאי קאמר הכי קאמר אף על פי שנמשכין אחת עשרה אמה אחורי בית הכפורת ועומדים צפופין כשהן משתחוין משתחוין רווחים וזה אחד מעשרה נסים שנעשו במקדש,דתנן עשרה נסים נעשו בבית המקדש לא הפילה אשה מריח בשר הקדש ולא הסריח בשר הקדש מעולם ולא נראה זבוב בבית המטבחים ולא אירע קרי לכהן גדול ביום הכפורים ולא נמצא פסול בעומר ובשתי הלחם ובלחם הפנים עומדים צפופים ומשתחוים רווחים ולא הזיק נחש ועקרב בירושלים מעולם ולא אמר אדם לחברו צר לי המקום שאלין בירושלים,פתח במקדש וסיים בירושלים איכא תרתי אחרנייתא במקדש תניא מעולם לא כבו גשמים אש של עצי המערכה ועשן המערכה אפי' כל הרוחות שבעולם באות ומנשבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו,ותו ליכא והתניא רב שמעיה בקלנבו שברי כלי חרס נבלעין במקומן ואמר אביי מוראה ונוצה ודישון מזבח הפנימי ודישון המנורה נבלעין במקומן,פסולי תלתא הוו חשבינהו בחד אפיק תרי ועייל תרי אי הכי בלועין נמי תרי הוו חשבינהו בחד חסרו להו איכא נמי אחריתי דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי נס גדול היה נעשה בלחם הפנים סלוקו כסדורו שנאמר (שמואל א כא, ז) לשום לחם חום ביום הלקחו,ותו ליכא והאמר ר' לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו מקום ארון אינו מן המדה ואמר רבנאי אמר שמואל כרובים בנס היו עומדין,ניסי דבראי קא חשיב ניסי דגואי לא קא חשיב אי הכי לחם הפנים נמי ניסי דגואי הוא לחם הפנים ניסי דבראי הוא דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (ויקרא כד, ו) על השלחן הטהור טהור מכלל שהוא טמא 21a. bAnd some say:The sound of bRidya as well.Ridya is the angel tasked with irrigating the earth, who calls to the heavens and to the aquifers to provide their water. The Gemara comments: bAnd the Sages asked for mercyso that the sound of bthe soul at the moment that it leaves the bodywould no longer be heard to that extent, bandGod beliminated it.In any event, clearly this ibaraitaunderstands ikeriat hageveras the proclamation of the Temple crier, in support of the opinion of Rav.,A ibaraita bwas taught in accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Sheila:With regard to bone who sets out on the pathat night bbefore ikeriat hagever /iand is killed by demons, bhis blood is on hisown bhead,i.e., he is at fault. bRabbi Yoshiya says:The prohibition of traveling at night is in effect buntilthe rooster crows btwice. And some say: Until hecrows bthree times. And with regard to what rooster didthese Sages bstatethis advisory? It is with regard to ba roosterof bmediumsize. Clearly, this ibaraitaunderstands ikeriat hageveras the crow of the rooster.,§ bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: When the Jewish people ascendto Jerusalem bfor the pilgrimageFestivals bthey stand crowded, butwhen they bbowduring confession they are bspacedso that no one hears the confession of another. bAnddue to the large crowd bthey extend eleven cubits behind the Hall of the Ark Cover,the Holy of Holies. The Gemara asks: bWhat is he sayingin the reference to eleven cubits behind the Holy of Holies? The Gemara explains that bthis is what he is saying: Even thoughthe crowd is so large that the people bextend eleven cubits behind the Hall of the Ark Cover andpeople bstand crowded,still, bwhen they bow, they bow spaced. And that is one of the ten miracles that were performed in the Temple. /b, bAs we learnedin a mishna: bTen miracles were performed in the Temple. No woman miscarried from the aroma of the sacrificial meat,as a pregt woman craves various foods and occasionally that craving leads to miscarriage. bAnd the sacrificial meat never putrefied. And no fly was seen in the slaughterhouse,although flies are generally attracted to a place where there is flesh and blood. bAnd a seminal emission did not befall the High Priest on Yom Kippur. And no disqualification was found in the iomeror the two loaves,which are communal offerings, bor in the shewbread.And the Jewish people bstand crowded but bow spaced. And neither a snake nor a scorpion ever harmedanyone bin Jerusalem. And a person never said to another: There is no room for me to stay overnight in Jerusalem. /b,The Gemara notes: This list bopenedwith miracles that occurred bin the Temple, and closedwith miracles that occurred bin Jerusalem.Apparently there were not actually ten miracles performed in the Temple. The Gemara answers: bThere are two othermiracles bin the Temple, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRain never extinguished the fire of the arrangement of woodon the altar, despite the fact that the altar stood in the courtyard, exposed to the elements. bAndwith regard to bthe smoke of the arrangement, even if all the winds in the world come and blow it, they do not move it from its placeand it rises directly heavenward.,The Gemara asks: bAnd are there no moremiracles in the Temple? bBut didn’t Rav Shemaya teachin a ibaraitain the city of bKalnevo: Shards of earthenware vessels were swallowedin the earth bin their places,and there was no need to dispose of them. The vessels used for cooking the meat of the offerings of the most sacred order absorbed some of the meat. The meat that was absorbed became inotarwhen the period during which the offering may be eaten concludes. One was required to break those vessels in which the meat was absorbed. The shards of those vessels were miraculously swallowed in the earth where they were smashed. And similarly, bAbaye said: The crop and feathersof sacrificial birds, band the ashes of the inner altar, and the ashes of the candelabrum,which were not removed to the place of ashes outside the Temple like the ashes of the outer altar, bwerealso bswallowedin the earth bin their places.Apparently, there were more than ten miracles in the Temple.,The Gemara answers: bThe disqualificationsmentioned that never occurred in the Temple, in the iomer /i, the two loaves, or the shewbread, bwere three; consider them as onemiracle. bEliminate twofrom the total band introducethese btwoto complete the list of ten miracles. The Gemara asks: bIfsimilar miracles are combined and considered as one, bthe swallowingof the earthenware, crops, feathers, and ashes bare also twosimilar miracles that should be bconsidered as one,the result being that bthey are lackingone miracle to complete the total of ten. The Gemara responds: bThere is also anothermiracle, bas Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A great miracle was performed with regard to the shewbreadin the Temple, that the bread was as hot at bits removalon Shabbat, after a week on the table, basit was at bits arrangement, as it is stated: “To put out hot bread on the day it was taken away”(I Samuel 21:7).,The Gemara asks: bAnd were there no moremiracles in the Temple? bBut didn’t Rabbi Levi saythat bthis matter is a traditionthat bwereceived bfrom our ancestors: The place of the Arkof the Covet bis notincluded bin the measurementof the Holy of Holies. Based on that measurement, the Ark should not have fit inside the hall. The Holy of Holies measured twenty cubits by twenty cubits (see I Kings 6), and a ibaraitastates that there were ten cubits of space on either side of the Ark. Therefore, it was only through a miracle that the Ark fit in the Holy of Holies. bAnd Rabbenai saidthat bShmuel said:It was bthrough a miraclethat the bcherubsthat Solomon placed in the Holy of Holies bwould stand.Their wingspan was twenty cubits, and since the length of the chamber was the same, there was no room for the bodies of the cherubs. There were additional miracles performed in the Temple.,The Gemara responds: The itanna bcounts miracles thatwere performed boutsidethe Sanctuary and were visible to all, but he bdoes not count miracles thatwere performed binsidethe Sanctuary and were not visible to all. The Gemara asks: bIf so, the shewbread is also a miracleperformed on the table binsidethe Sanctuary and is not visible to all, yet the miracle that the bread’s heat did not dissipate was listed among the miracles. The Gemara answers: bThe shewbread was a miracleperformed boutside, as Reish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written:“Place them bon the pure tablebefore the Lord in two rows, six to a row” (Leviticus 24:6)? From the emphasis that the Torah places on the fact that the table was ritually bpure,it can be learned bby inference that it indicates that itcould become bimpureas well.
34. Anon., Sifre Zuta Numbers, 27



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
abraham Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
ahab Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 62, 63
alexandria, under trajan Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
alexandria, zealots in alexandrian jewish community Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
amidah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
animals Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 170
body Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
breastplate (high priests garments) Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
chiefs, chieftains Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
chieftain / prince Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
christian, conception of the spirit Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
claudius, letter to the alexandrians Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
combat myth Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 62, 63
coronation Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
death Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 25, 29
deborah Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
deuteronomy, and centralization DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 130, 131
divine Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
divine answer Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
egypt Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 71; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 25
eleazar Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 157
elijah Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
enthronement Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
ephod Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
esau Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
exodus Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 62
flesh Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
four empires' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 62
four empires Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 63
garments (priestly) Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
god, choosing of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
god, destruction/punishment of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
ground Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
healing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
herod archelaus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
high priest Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
humanity Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 157, 170
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
isaac Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
isaiah Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
ishmael Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
israel, biblical, high-priestly rule of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
jacob Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
jehoshaphat Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 62, 63
john hyrcanus i Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
joseph Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
josephus, on egyptian jews Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
josephus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
joshua, as moses successor DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 130, 131
joshua, as prophet like moses DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 131
joshua Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 25, 29, 35; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 157
judaea (judea), and egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
judaea (judea) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
judas the galilaean Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
judges Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
justice Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 170
king Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
kingship Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 170
knowledge, effects of knowledge korah Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
knowledge, god's own" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
lamberton, robert, land, settlement of Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 62
meturgeman (interpreter) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151
moses, death of Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 63; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
moses Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 25, 29, 35
mother Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
nile, river Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
oil Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
onqelos, (targum) Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151
onyx Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
overseer Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 170
pharaoh Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 71
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
prayer Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 170
priest Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
priesthood Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
priestly garments Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
prophecy, and charisma DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 131
prophecy, and fulfillment DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 131
prophecy Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
prophetic succession DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 130, 131
rebekah Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
rome Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
second temple period Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
shepherd Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29, 35; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 157
sin Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
spirit, characterizations as, superadditum Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
spirit, effects of, wisdom Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68, 71
spirit DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 130, 131
stoicism Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 170
succession Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 157
syria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
tabernacle Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
temple Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
temple scroll Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
tent, of meeting Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 68
tent of meeting DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 130
thanksgiving Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 170
throne Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
torah Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 151; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 29
trajan, jewish revolts under Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357
urim (and thummim) Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
voice Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 35
wars Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 304
zealots, in alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 357