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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6301
Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 27.14


כַּאֲשֶׁר מְרִיתֶם פִּי בְּמִדְבַּר־צִן בִּמְרִיבַת הָעֵדָה לְהַקְדִּישֵׁנִי בַמַּיִם לְעֵינֵיהֶם הֵם מֵי־מְרִיבַת קָדֵשׁ מִדְבַּר־צִן׃because ye rebelled against My commandment in the wilderness of Zin, in the strife of the congregation, to sanctify Me at the waters before their eyes.’—These are the waters of Meribath-kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.—


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

28 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.19, 1.21, 1.25, 1.27-1.28, 1.31-1.40, 6.16, 9.22-9.23, 31.1-31.8, 31.15, 31.27, 32.16, 32.40, 32.48-32.52, 33.8, 34.5-34.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.19. וַנִּסַּע מֵחֹרֵב וַנֵּלֶךְ אֵת כָּל־הַמִּדְבָּר הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא הַהוּא אֲשֶׁר רְאִיתֶם דֶּרֶךְ הַר הָאֱמֹרִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֹתָנוּ וַנָּבֹא עַד קָדֵשׁ בַּרְנֵעַ׃ 1.21. רְאֵה נָתַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ עֲלֵה רֵשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֶיךָ לָךְ אַל־תִּירָא וְאַל־תֵּחָת׃ 1.27. וַתֵּרָגְנוּ בְאָהֳלֵיכֶם וַתֹּאמְרוּ בְּשִׂנְאַת יְהוָה אֹתָנוּ הוֹצִיאָנוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לָתֵת אֹתָנוּ בְּיַד הָאֱמֹרִי לְהַשְׁמִידֵנוּ׃ 1.28. אָנָה אֲנַחְנוּ עֹלִים אַחֵינוּ הֵמַסּוּ אֶת־לְבָבֵנוּ לֵאמֹר עַם גָּדוֹל וָרָם מִמֶּנּוּ עָרִים גְּדֹלֹת וּבְצוּרֹת בַּשָּׁמָיִם וְגַם־בְּנֵי עֲנָקִים רָאִינוּ שָׁם׃ 1.31. וּבַמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתָ אֲשֶׁר נְשָׂאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָׂא־אִישׁ אֶת־בְּנוֹ בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר הֲלַכְתֶּם עַד־בֹּאֲכֶם עַד־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 1.32. וּבַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֵינְכֶם מַאֲמִינִם בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 1.33. הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיכֶם בַּדֶּרֶךְ לָתוּר לָכֶם מָקוֹם לַחֲנֹתְכֶם בָּאֵשׁ לַיְלָה לַרְאֹתְכֶם בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר תֵּלְכוּ־בָהּ וּבֶעָנָן יוֹמָם׃ 1.34. וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קוֹל דִּבְרֵיכֶם וַיִּקְצֹף וַיִּשָּׁבַע לֵאמֹר׃ 1.35. אִם־יִרְאֶה אִישׁ בָּאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה הַדּוֹר הָרָע הַזֶּה אֵת הָאָרֶץ הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לָתֵת לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃ 1.36. זוּלָתִי כָּלֵב בֶּן־יְפֻנֶּה הוּא יִרְאֶנָּה וְלוֹ־אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר דָּרַךְ־בָּהּ וּלְבָנָיו יַעַן אֲשֶׁר מִלֵּא אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה׃ 1.37. גַּם־בִּי הִתְאַנַּף יְהוָה בִּגְלַלְכֶם לֵאמֹר גַּם־אַתָּה לֹא־תָבֹא שָׁם׃ 1.38. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן הָעֹמֵד לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא יָבֹא שָׁמָּה אֹתוֹ חַזֵּק כִּי־הוּא יַנְחִלֶנָּה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.39. וְטַפְּכֶם אֲשֶׁר אֲמַרְתֶּם לָבַז יִהְיֶה וּבְנֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ הַיּוֹם טוֹב וָרָע הֵמָּה יָבֹאוּ שָׁמָּה וְלָהֶם אֶתְּנֶנָּה וְהֵם יִירָשׁוּהָּ׃ 6.16. לֹא תְנַסּוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתֶם בַּמַּסָּה׃ 9.22. וּבְתַבְעֵרָה וּבְמַסָּה וּבְקִבְרֹת הַתַּאֲוָה מַקְצִפִים הֱיִיתֶם אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 9.23. וּבִשְׁלֹחַ יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם מִקָּדֵשׁ בַּרְנֵעַ לֵאמֹר עֲלוּ וּרְשׁוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָכֶם וַתַּמְרוּ אֶת־פִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְלֹא הֶאֱמַנְתֶּם לוֹ וְלֹא שְׁמַעְתֶּם בְּקֹלוֹ׃ 31.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.1. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר מִקֵּץ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים בְּמֹעֵד שְׁנַת הַשְּׁמִטָּה בְּחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת׃ 31.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם בֶּן־מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה אָנֹכִי הַיּוֹם לֹא־אוּכַל עוֹד לָצֵאת וְלָבוֹא וַיהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי לֹא תַעֲבֹר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה׃ 31.2. כִּי־אֲבִיאֶנּוּ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לַאֲבֹתָיו זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ וְאָכַל וְשָׂבַע וְדָשֵׁן וּפָנָה אֶל־אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַעֲבָדוּם וְנִאֲצוּנִי וְהֵפֵר אֶת־בְּרִיתִי׃ 31.3. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא עֹבֵר לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא־יַשְׁמִיד אֶת־הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה מִלְּפָנֶיךָ וִירִשְׁתָּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הוּא עֹבֵר לְפָנֶיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה׃ 31.3. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה בְּאָזְנֵי כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עַד תֻּמָּם׃ 31.4. וְעָשָׂה יְהוָה לָהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְסִיחוֹן וּלְעוֹג מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי וּלְאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁמִיד אֹתָם׃ 31.5. וּנְתָנָם יְהוָה לִפְנֵיכֶם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָהֶם כְּכָל־הַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם׃ 31.6. חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תַּעַרְצוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ׃ 31.7. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ כִּי אַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתָם לָתֵת לָהֶם וְאַתָּה תַּנְחִילֶנָּה אוֹתָם׃ 31.8. וַיהוָה הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ לְפָנֶיךָ הוּא יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ לֹא תִירָא וְלֹא תֵחָת׃ 31.15. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה בָּאֹהֶל בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן וַיַּעֲמֹד עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן עַל־פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל׃ 31.27. כִּי אָנֹכִי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת־מֶרְיְךָ וְאֶת־עָרְפְּךָ הַקָּשֶׁה הֵן בְּעוֹדֶנִּי חַי עִמָּכֶם הַיּוֹם מַמְרִים הֱיִתֶם עִם־יְהֹוָה וְאַף כִּי־אַחֲרֵי מוֹתִי׃ 32.16. יַקְנִאֻהוּ בְּזָרִים בְּתוֹעֵבֹת יַכְעִיסֻהוּ׃ 32.48. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 32.49. עֲלֵה אֶל־הַר הָעֲבָרִים הַזֶּה הַר־נְבוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרֵחוֹ וּרְאֵה אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַאֲחֻזָּה׃ 32.51. עַל אֲשֶׁר מְעַלְתֶּם בִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמֵי־מְרִיבַת קָדֵשׁ מִדְבַּר־צִן עַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קִדַּשְׁתֶּם אוֹתִי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.52. כִּי מִנֶּגֶד תִּרְאֶה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁמָּה לֹא תָבוֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי נֹתֵן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 33.8. וּלְלֵוִי אָמַר תֻּמֶּיךָ וְאוּרֶיךָ לְאִישׁ חֲסִידֶךָ אֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתוֹ בְּמַסָּה תְּרִיבֵהוּ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה׃ 34.5. וַיָּמָת שָׁם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב עַל־פִּי יְהוָה׃ 34.6. וַיִּקְבֹּר אֹתוֹ בַגַּיְ בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מוּל בֵּית פְּעוֹר וְלֹא־יָדַע אִישׁ אֶת־קְבֻרָתוֹ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 34.7. וּמֹשֶׁה בֶּן־מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה בְּמֹתוֹ לֹא־כָהֲתָה עֵינוֹ וְלֹא־נָס לֵחֹה׃ 34.8. וַיִּבְכּוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־מֹשֶׁה בְּעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וַיִּתְּמוּ יְמֵי בְכִי אֵבֶל מֹשֶׁה׃ 34.9. וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן מָלֵא רוּחַ חָכְמָה כִּי־סָמַךְ מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדָיו עָלָיו וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֵלָיו בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 1.19. And we journeyed from Horeb, and went through all that great and dreadful wilderness which ye saw, by the way to the hill-country of the Amorites, as the LORD our God commanded us; and we came to Kadesh-barnea." 1.21. Behold, the LORD thy God hath set the land before thee; go up, take possession, as the LORD, the God of thy fathers, hath spoken unto thee; fear not, neither be dismayed.’" 1.27. and ye murmured in your tents, and said: ‘Because the LORD hated us, He hath brought us forth out of the land of Egypt, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites, to destroy us." 1.28. Whither are we going up? our brethren have made our heart to melt, saying: The people is greater and taller than we; the cities are great and fortified up to heaven; and moreover we have seen the sons of the Anakim there.’" 1.31. and in the wilderness, where thou hast seen how that the LORD thy God bore thee, as a man doth bear his son, in all the way that ye went, until ye came unto this place." 1.32. Yet in this thing ye do not believe the LORD your God," 1.33. Who went before you in the way, to seek you out a place to pitch your tents in: in fire by night, to show you by what way ye should go, and in the cloud by day.’" 1.34. And the LORD heard the voice of your words, and was wroth, and swore, saying:" 1.35. ’Surely there shall not one of these men, even this evil generation, see the good land, which I swore to give unto your fathers," 1.36. save Caleb the son of Jephunneh, he shall see it; and to him will I give the land that he hath trodden upon, and to his children; because he hath wholly followed the LORD.’" 1.37. Also the LORD was angry with me for your sakes, saying: Thou also shalt not go in thither;" 1.38. Joshua the son of Nun, who standeth before thee, he shall go in thither; encourage thou him, for he shall cause Israel to inherit it." 1.39. Moreover your little ones, that ye said should be a prey, and your children, that this day have no knowledge of good or evil, they shall go in thither, and unto them will I give it, and they shall possess it." 1.40. But as for you, turn you, and take your journey into the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea.’" 6.16. Ye shall not try the LORD your God, as ye tried Him in Massah." 9.22. And at Taberah, and at Massah, and at Kibroth-hattaavah, ye made the LORD wroth." 9.23. And when the LORD sent you from Kadesh-barnea, saying: ‘Go up and possess the land which I have given you’; then ye rebelled against the commandment of the LORD your God, and ye believed Him not, nor hearkened to His voice." 31.1. And Moses went and spoke these words unto all Israel." 31.2. And he said unto them: ‘I am a hundred and twenty years old this day; I can no more go out and come in; and the LORD hath said unto me: Thou shalt not go over this Jordan." 31.3. The LORD thy God, He will go over before thee; He will destroy these nations from before thee, and thou shalt dispossess them; and Joshua, he shall go over before thee, as the LORD hath spoken." 31.4. And the LORD will do unto them as He did to Sihon and to Og, the kings of the Amorites, and unto their land; whom He destroyed." 31.5. And the LORD will deliver them up before you, and ye shall do unto them according unto all the commandment which I have commanded you." 31.6. Be strong and of good courage, fear not, nor be affrighted at them; for the LORD thy God, He it is that doth go with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.’" 31.7. And Moses called unto Joshua, and said unto him in the sight of all Israel: ‘Be strong and of good courage; for thou shalt go with this people into the land which the LORD hath sworn unto their fathers to give them; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it." 31.8. And the LORD, He it is that doth go before thee; He will be with thee, He will not fail thee, neither forsake thee; fear not, neither be dismayed.’" 31.15. And the LORD appeared in the Tent in a pillar of cloud; and the pillar of cloud stood over the door of the Tent." 31.27. For I know thy rebellion, and thy stiff neck; behold, while I am yet alive with you this day, ye have been rebellious against the LORD; and how much more after my death?" 32.16. They roused Him to jealousy with strange gods, With abominations did they provoke Him." 32.40. For I lift up My hand to heaven, And say: As I live for ever," 32.48. And the LORD spoke unto Moses that selfsame day, saying:" 32.49. ’Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, unto mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab, that is over against Jericho; and behold the land of Canaan, which I give unto the children of Israel for a possession;" 32.50. and die in the mount whither thou goest up, and be gathered unto thy people; as Aaron thy brother died in mount Hor, and was gathered unto his people." 32.51. Because ye trespassed against Me in the midst of the children of Israel at the waters of Meribath-kadesh, in the wilderness of Zin; because ye sanctified Me not in the midst of the children of Israel." 32.52. For thou shalt see the land afar off; but thou shalt not go thither into the land which I give the children of Israel.’" 33.8. And of Levi he said: Thy Thummim and Thy Urim be with Thy holy one, Whom Thou didst prove at Massah, With whom Thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;" 34.5. So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD." 34.6. And he was buried in the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth-peor; and no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day." 34.7. And Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated." 34.8. And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days; so the days of weeping in the mourning for Moses were ended." 34.9. And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him; and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the LORD commanded Moses."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 3.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.3. וַיֹּאמְרוּ עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְמָרְדֳּכָי מַדּוּעַ אַתָּה עוֹבֵר אֵת מִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 3.3. Then the king’s servants, that were in the king’s gate, said unto Mordecai: ‘Why transgressest thou the king’s commandment?’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.2, 15.23-15.24, 17.1-17.7, 33.3, 33.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.2. וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהֹוָה אֵלָיו בְּלַבַּת־אֵשׁ מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה הַסְּנֶה בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וְהַסְּנֶה אֵינֶנּוּ אֻכָּל׃ 3.2. וְשָׁלַחְתִּי אֶת־יָדִי וְהִכֵּיתִי אֶת־מִצְרַיִם בְּכֹל נִפְלְאֹתַי אֲשֶׁר אֶעֱשֶׂה בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יְשַׁלַּח אֶתְכֶם׃ 15.23. וַיָּבֹאוּ מָרָתָה וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לִשְׁתֹּת מַיִם מִמָּרָה כִּי מָרִים הֵם עַל־כֵּן קָרָא־שְׁמָהּ מָרָה׃ 15.24. וַיִּלֹּנוּ הָעָם עַל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר מַה־נִּשְׁתֶּה׃ 17.1. וַיִּסְעוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּדְבַּר־סִין לְמַסְעֵיהֶם עַל־פִּי יְהוָה וַיַּחֲנוּ בִּרְפִידִים וְאֵין מַיִם לִשְׁתֹּת הָעָם׃ 17.1. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמַר־לוֹ מֹשֶׁה לְהִלָּחֵם בַּעֲמָלֵק וּמֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן וְחוּר עָלוּ רֹאשׁ הַגִּבְעָה׃ 17.2. וַיָּרֶב הָעָם עִם־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ תְּנוּ־לָנוּ מַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה מַה־תְּרִיבוּן עִמָּדִי מַה־תְּנַסּוּן אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 17.3. וַיִּצְמָא שָׁם הָעָם לַמַּיִם וַיָּלֶן הָעָם עַל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר לָמָּה זֶּה הֶעֱלִיתָנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לְהָמִית אֹתִי וְאֶת־בָּנַי וְאֶת־מִקְנַי בַּצָּמָא׃ 17.4. וַיִּצְעַק מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לָעָם הַזֶּה עוֹד מְעַט וּסְקָלֻנִי׃ 17.5. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הָעָם וְקַח אִתְּךָ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַטְּךָ אֲשֶׁר הִכִּיתָ בּוֹ אֶת־הַיְאֹר קַח בְּיָדְךָ וְהָלָכְתָּ׃ 17.6. הִנְנִי עֹמֵד לְפָנֶיךָ שָּׁם עַל־הַצּוּר בְּחֹרֵב וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר וְיָצְאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם וְשָׁתָה הָעָם וַיַּעַשׂ כֵּן מֹשֶׁה לְעֵינֵי זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.7. וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם מַסָּה וּמְרִיבָה עַל־רִיב בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל נַסֹּתָם אֶת־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר הֲיֵשׁ יְהוָה בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ אִם־אָיִן׃ 33.3. אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ כִּי לֹא אֶעֱלֶה בְּקִרְבְּךָ כִּי עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף אַתָּה פֶּן־אֲכֶלְךָ בַּדָּרֶךְ׃ 33.5. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אַתֶּם עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף רֶגַע אֶחָד אֶעֱלֶה בְקִרְבְּךָ וְכִלִּיתִיךָ וְעַתָּה הוֹרֵד עֶדְיְךָ מֵעָלֶיךָ וְאֵדְעָה מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃ 3.2. And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed." 15.23. And when they came to Marah, they could not drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter. Therefore the name of it was called Marah." 15.24. And the people murmured against Moses, saying: ‘What shall we drink?’" 17.1. And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, by their stages, according to the commandment of the LORD, and encamped in Rephidim; and there was no water for the people to drink." 17.2. Wherefore the people strove with Moses, and said: ‘Give us water that we may drink.’ And Moses said unto them: ‘Why strive ye with me? wherefore do ye try the LORD?’" 17.3. And the people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured against Moses, and said: ‘Wherefore hast thou brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?’" 17.4. And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying: ‘What shall I do unto this people? they are almost ready to stone me.’" 17.5. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Pass on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thy hand, and go." 17.6. Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink.’ And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel." 17.7. And the name of the place was called Massah, and Meribah, because of the striving of the children of Israel, and because they tried the LORD, saying: ‘Is the LORD among us, or not?’" 33.3. unto a land flowing with milk and honey; for I will not go up in the midst of thee; for thou art a stiffnecked people; lest I consume thee in the way.’" 33.5. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Say unto the children of Israel: Ye are a stiffnecked people; if I go up into the midst of thee for one moment, I shall consume thee; therefore now put off thy ornaments from thee, that I may know what to do unto thee.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 13.8, 22.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֶל־לוֹט אַל־נָא תְהִי מְרִיבָה בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶיךָ וּבֵין רֹעַי וּבֵין רֹעֶיךָ כִּי־אֲנָשִׁים אַחִים אֲנָחְנוּ׃ 22.16. וַיֹּאמֶר בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידֶךָ׃ 13.8. And Abram said unto Lot: ‘Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen; for we are brethren." 22.16. and said: ‘By Myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son,"
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4.1, 6.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.1. וְאָכְלוּ וְלֹא יִשְׂבָּעוּ הִזְנוּ וְלֹא יִפְרֹצוּ כִּי־אֶת־יְהוָה עָזְבוּ לִשְׁמֹר׃ 4.1. שִׁמְעוּ דְבַר־יְהוָה בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי רִיב לַיהוָה עִם־יוֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ כִּי אֵין־אֱמֶת וְאֵין־חֶסֶד וְאֵין־דַּעַת אֱלֹהִים בָּאָרֶץ׃ 6.1. לְכוּ וְנָשׁוּבָה אֶל־יְהוָה כִּי הוּא טָרָף וְיִרְפָּאֵנוּ יַךְ וְיַחְבְּשֵׁנוּ׃ 6.1. בְּבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל רָאִיתִי שעריריה [שַׁעֲרוּרִיָּה] שָׁם זְנוּת לְאֶפְרַיִם נִטְמָא יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 4.1. Hear the word of the LORD, ye children of Israel! For the LORD hath a controversy with the inhabitants of the land, Because there is no truth, nor mercy, Nor knowledge of God in the land." 6.1. ’Come, and let us return unto the LORD; For He hath torn, and He will heal us, He hath smitten, and He will bind us up."
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 5.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.18. כִּי הוּא יַכְאִיב וְיֶחְבָּשׁ יִמְחַץ וידו [וְיָדָיו] תִּרְפֶּינָה׃ 5.18. For He maketh sore, and bindeth up; He woundeth, and His hands make whole."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.7, 14.21, 17.16-17.25, 18.21-18.24, 20.1-20.13, 20.24, 27.12-27.13, 27.15-27.23, 32.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.7. לֹא־כֵן עַבְדִּי מֹשֶׁה בְּכָל־בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא׃ 14.21. וְאוּלָם חַי־אָנִי וְיִמָּלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 17.16. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 17.17. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְקַח מֵאִתָּם מַטֶּה מַטֶּה לְבֵית אָב מֵאֵת כָּל־נְשִׂיאֵהֶם לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר מַטּוֹת אִישׁ אֶת־שְׁמוֹ תִּכְתֹּב עַל־מַטֵּהוּ׃ 17.18. וְאֵת שֵׁם אַהֲרֹן תִּכְתֹּב עַל־מַטֵּה לֵוִי כִּי מַטֶּה אֶחָד לְרֹאשׁ בֵּית אֲבוֹתָם׃ 17.19. וְהִנַּחְתָּם בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי הָעֵדוּת אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לָכֶם שָׁמָּה׃ 17.21. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּתְּנוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־נְשִׂיאֵיהֶם מַטֶּה לְנָשִׂיא אֶחָד מַטֶּה לְנָשִׂיא אֶחָד לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר מַטּוֹת וּמַטֵּה אַהֲרֹן בְּתוֹךְ מַטּוֹתָם׃ 17.22. וַיַּנַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּטֹּת לִפְנֵי יְהוָה בְּאֹהֶל הָעֵדֻת׃ 17.23. וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אֹהֶל הָעֵדוּת וְהִנֵּה פָּרַח מַטֵּה־אַהֲרֹן לְבֵית לֵוִי וַיֹּצֵא פֶרַח וַיָּצֵץ צִיץ וַיִּגְמֹל שְׁקֵדִים׃ 17.24. וַיֹּצֵא מֹשֶׁה אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּטֹּת מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶל־כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּרְאוּ וַיִּקְחוּ אִישׁ מַטֵּהוּ׃ 17.25. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הָשֵׁב אֶת־מַטֵּה אַהֲרֹן לִפְנֵי הָעֵדוּת לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת לְאוֹת לִבְנֵי־מֶרִי וּתְכַל תְּלוּנֹּתָם מֵעָלַי וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ׃ 18.21. וְלִבְנֵי לֵוִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְנַחֲלָה חֵלֶף עֲבֹדָתָם אֲשֶׁר־הֵם עֹבְדִים אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 18.22. וְלֹא־יִקְרְבוּ עוֹד בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לָשֵׂאת חֵטְא לָמוּת׃ 18.23. וְעָבַד הַלֵּוִי הוּא אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהֵם יִשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וּבְתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃ 18.24. כִּי אֶת־מַעְשַׂר בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ לַיהוָה תְּרוּמָה נָתַתִּי לַלְוִיִּם לְנַחֲלָה עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לָהֶם בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃ 20.1. וַיַּקְהִלוּ מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַקָּהָל אֶל־פְּנֵי הַסָּלַע וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם שִׁמְעוּ־נָא הַמֹּרִים הֲמִן־הַסֶּלַע הַזֶּה נוֹצִיא לָכֶם מָיִם׃ 20.1. וַיָּבֹאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־הָעֵדָה מִדְבַּר־צִן בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן וַיֵּשֶׁב הָעָם בְּקָדֵשׁ וַתָּמָת שָׁם מִרְיָם וַתִּקָּבֵר שָׁם׃ 20.2. וְלֹא־הָיָה מַיִם לָעֵדָה וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן׃ 20.2. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא תַעֲבֹר וַיֵּצֵא אֱדוֹם לִקְרָאתוֹ בְּעַם כָּבֵד וּבְיָד חֲזָקָה׃ 20.3. וַיָּרֶב הָעָם עִם־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר וְלוּ גָוַעְנוּ בִּגְוַע אַחֵינוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 20.4. וְלָמָה הֲבֵאתֶם אֶת־קְהַל יְהוָה אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה לָמוּת שָׁם אֲנַחְנוּ וּבְעִירֵנוּ׃ 20.5. וְלָמָה הֶעֱלִיתֻנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לְהָבִיא אֹתָנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הָרָע הַזֶּה לֹא מְקוֹם זֶרַע וּתְאֵנָה וְגֶפֶן וְרִמּוֹן וּמַיִם אַיִן לִשְׁתּוֹת׃ 20.6. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן מִפְּנֵי הַקָּהָל אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם וַיֵּרָא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 20.7. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 20.8. קַח אֶת־הַמַּטֶּה וְהַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעֵדָה אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְדִבַּרְתֶּם אֶל־הַסֶּלַע לְעֵינֵיהֶם וְנָתַן מֵימָיו וְהוֹצֵאתָ לָהֶם מַיִם מִן־הַסֶּלַע וְהִשְׁקִיתָ אֶת־הָעֵדָה וְאֶת־בְּעִירָם׃ 20.9. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּטֶּה מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּהוּ׃ 20.11. וַיָּרֶם מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיַּךְ אֶת־הַסֶּלַע בְּמַטֵּהוּ פַּעֲמָיִם וַיֵּצְאוּ מַיִם רַבִּים וַתֵּשְׁתְּ הָעֵדָה וּבְעִירָם׃ 20.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן יַעַן לֹא־הֶאֱמַנְתֶּם בִּי לְהַקְדִּישֵׁנִי לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָכֵן לֹא תָבִיאוּ אֶת־הַקָּהָל הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתִּי לָהֶם׃ 20.13. הֵמָּה מֵי מְרִיבָה אֲשֶׁר־רָבוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־יְהוָה וַיִּקָּדֵשׁ בָּם׃ 20.24. יֵאָסֵף אַהֲרֹן אֶל־עַמָּיו כִּי לֹא יָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל אֲשֶׁר־מְרִיתֶם אֶת־פִּי לְמֵי מְרִיבָה׃ 27.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲלֵה אֶל־הַר הָעֲבָרִים הַזֶּה וּרְאֵה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 27.13. וְרָאִיתָה אֹתָהּ וְנֶאֱסַפְתָּ אֶל־עַמֶּיךָ גַּם־אָתָּה כַּאֲשֶׁר נֶאֱסַף אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ׃ 27.15. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 27.16. יִפְקֹד יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הָרוּחֹת לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אִישׁ עַל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.17. אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יוֹצִיאֵם וַאֲשֶׁר יְבִיאֵם וְלֹא תִהְיֶה עֲדַת יְהוָה כַּצֹּאן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם רֹעֶה׃ 27.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח־לְךָ אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־רוּחַ בּוֹ וְסָמַכְתָּ אֶת־יָדְךָ עָלָיו׃ 27.19. וְהַעֲמַדְתָּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה וְצִוִּיתָה אֹתוֹ לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 27.21. וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן יַעֲמֹד וְשָׁאַל לוֹ בְּמִשְׁפַּט הָאוּרִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־פִּיו יֵצְאוּ וְעַל־פִּיו יָבֹאוּ הוּא וְכָל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִתּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.22. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֹתוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיַּעֲמִדֵהוּ לִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 27.23. וַיִּסְמֹךְ אֶת־יָדָיו עָלָיו וַיְצַוֵּהוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 32.13. וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְנִעֵם בַּמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה עַד־תֹּם כָּל־הַדּוֹר הָעֹשֶׂה הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 12.7. My servant Moses is not so; he is trusted in all My house;" 14.21. But in very deed, as I live—and all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the LORD—" 17.16. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 17.17. ‘Speak unto the children of Israel, and take of them rods, one for each fathers’house, of all their princes according to their fathers’houses, twelve rods; thou shalt write every man’s name upon his rod." 17.18. And thou shalt write Aaron’s name upon the rod of Levi, for there shall be one rod for the head of their fathers’houses." 17.19. And thou shalt lay them up in the tent of meeting before the testimony, where I meet with you." 17.20. And it shall come to pass, that the man whom I shall choose, his rod shall bud; and I will make to cease from Me the murmurings of the children of Israel, which they murmur against you.’" 17.21. And Moses spoke unto the children of Israel; and all their princes gave him rods, for each prince one, according to their fathers’houses, even twelve rods; and the rod of Aaron was among their rods." 17.22. And Moses laid up the rods before the LORD in the tent of the testimony." 17.23. And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses went into the tent of the testimony; and, behold, the rod of Aaron for the house of Levi was budded, and put forth buds, and bloomed blossoms, and bore ripe almonds." 17.24. And Moses brought out all the rods from before the LORD unto all the children of Israel; and they looked, and took every man his rod." 17.25. and the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Put back the rod of Aaron before the testimony, to be kept there, for a token against the rebellious children; that there may be made an end of their murmurings against Me, that they die not.’" 18.21. And unto the children of Levi, behold, I have given all the tithe in Israel for an inheritance, in return for their service which they serve, even the service of the tent of meeting." 18.22. And henceforth the children of Israel shall not come nigh the tent of meeting, lest they bear sin, and die." 18.23. But the Levites alone shall do the service of the tent of meeting, and they shall bear their iniquity; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, and among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance." 18.24. For the tithe of the children of Israel, which they set apart as a gift unto the LORD, I have given to the Levites for an inheritance; therefore I have said unto them: Among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance.’" 20.1. And the children of Israel, even the whole congregation, came into the wilderness of Zin in the first month; and the people abode in Kadesh; and Miriam died there, and was buried there." 20.2. And there was no water for the congregation; and they assembled themselves together against Moses and against Aaron." 20.3. And the people strove with Moses, and spoke, saying: ‘Would that we had perished when our brethren perished before the LORD!" 20.4. And why have ye brought the assembly of the LORD into this wilderness, to die there, we and our cattle?" 20.5. And wherefore have ye made us to come up out of Egypt, to bring us in unto this evil place? it is no place of seed, or of figs, or of vines, or of pomegranates; neither is there any water to drink.’" 20.6. And Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly unto the door of the tent of meeting, and fell upon their faces; and the glory of the LORD appeared unto them." 20.7. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 20.8. ’Take the rod, and assemble the congregation, thou, and Aaron thy brother, and speak ye unto the rock before their eyes, that it give forth its water; and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of the rock; so thou shalt give the congregation and their cattle drink.’" 20.9. And Moses took the rod from before the LORD, as He commanded him." 20.10. And Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together before the rock, and he said unto them: ‘Hear now, ye rebels; are we to bring you forth water out of this rock?’" 20.11. And Moses lifted up his hand, and smote the rock with his rod twice; and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their cattle." 20.12. And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron: ‘Because ye believed not in Me, to sanctify Me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them.’" 20.13. These are the waters of Meribah, where the children of Israel strove with the LORD, and He was sanctified in them." 20.24. ’Aaron shall be gathered unto his people; for he shall not enter into the land which I have given unto the children of Israel, because ye rebelled against My word at the waters of Meribah." 27.12. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, and behold the land which I have given unto the children of Israel." 27.13. And when thou hast seen it, thou also shalt be gathered unto thy people, as Aaron thy brother was gathered;" 27.15. And Moses spoke unto the LORD, saying:" 27.16. ’Let the LORD, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation," 27.17. who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd.’" 27.18. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is spirit, and lay thy hand upon him;" 27.19. and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and give him a charge in their sight." 27.20. And thou shalt put of thy honour upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may hearken." 27.21. And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the LORD; at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.’" 27.22. And Moses did as the LORD commanded him; and he took Joshua, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation." 27.23. And he laid his hands upon him, and gave him a charge, as the LORD spoke by the hand of Moses." 32.13. And the LORD’S anger was kindled against Israel, and He made them wander to and fro in the wilderness forty years, until all the generation, that had done evil in the sight of the LORD, was consumed."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 11.7, 20.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.7. בְּמוֹת אָדָם רָשָׁע תֹּאבַד תִּקְוָה וְתוֹחֶלֶת אוֹנִים אָבָדָה׃ 11.7. When a wicked man dieth, his expectation shall perish, And the hope of strength perisheth." 20.30. Sharp wounds cleanse away evil; So do stripes that reach the inward parts."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 77.8, 77.17, 77.56, 78.15-78.16, 80.8, 81.8, 95.8-95.9, 105.7, 105.32-105.33, 105.41, 105.43, 106.32, 147.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

77.8. הַלְעוֹלָמִים יִזְנַח אֲדֹנָי וְלֹא־יֹסִיף לִרְצוֹת עוֹד׃ 77.17. רָאוּךָ מַּיִם אֱ‍לֹהִים רָאוּךָ מַּיִם יָחִילוּ אַף יִרְגְּזוּ תְהֹמוֹת׃ 78.15. יְבַקַּע צֻרִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיַּשְׁקְ כִּתְהֹמוֹת רַבָּה׃ 78.16. וַיּוֹצִא נוֹזְלִים מִסָּלַע וַיּוֹרֶד כַּנְּהָרוֹת מָיִם׃ 80.8. אֱלֹהִים צְבָאוֹת הֲשִׁיבֵנוּ וְהָאֵר פָּנֶיךָ וְנִוָּשֵׁעָה׃ 81.8. בַּצָּרָה קָרָאתָ וָאֲחַלְּצֶךָּ אֶעֶנְךָ בְּסֵתֶר רַעַם אֶבְחָנְךָ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה סֶלָה׃ 95.8. אַל־תַּקְשׁוּ לְבַבְכֶם כִּמְרִיבָה כְּיוֹם מַסָּה בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 95.9. אֲשֶׁר נִסּוּנִי אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בְּחָנוּנִי גַּם־רָאוּ פָעֳלִי׃ 105.41. פָּתַח צוּר וַיָּזוּבוּ מָיִם הָלְכוּ בַּצִּיּוֹת נָהָר׃ 105.43. וַיּוֹצִא עַמּוֹ בְשָׂשׂוֹן בְּרִנָּה אֶת־בְּחִירָיו׃ 106.32. וַיַּקְצִיפוּ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה וַיֵּרַע לְמֹשֶׁה בַּעֲבוּרָם׃ 147.3. הָרֹפֵא לִשְׁבוּרֵי לֵב וּמְחַבֵּשׁ לְעַצְּבוֹתָם׃ 77.8. 'Will the Lord cast off for ever? And will He be favourable no more?" 77.17. The waters saw Thee, O God; The waters saw Thee, they were in pain; The depths also trembled." 78.15. He cleaved rocks in the wilderness, And gave them drink abundantly as out of the great deep." 78.16. He brought streams also out of the rock, And caused waters to run down like rivers." 80.8. O God of hosts, restore us; And cause Thy face to shine, and we shall be saved." 81.8. Thou didst call in trouble, and I rescued thee; I answered thee in the secret place of thunder; I proved thee at the waters of Meribah. Selah" 95.8. 'Harden not your heart, as at Meribah, As in the day of Massah in the wilderness;" 95.9. When your fathers tried Me, Proved Me, even though they saw My work." 105.41. He opened the rock, and waters gushed out; They ran, a river in the dry places." 105.43. And He brought forth His people with joy, His chosen ones with singing." 106.32. They angered Him also at the waters of Meribah, And it went ill with Moses because of them;" 147.3. Who healeth the broken in heart, And bindeth up their wounds."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 29.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.4. וַיִּקְצְפוּ עָלָיו שָׂרֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ שָׂרֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים הָשֵׁב אֶת־הָאִישׁ וְיָשֹׁב אֶל־מְקוֹמוֹ אֲשֶׁר הִפְקַדְתּוֹ שָׁם וְלֹא־יֵרֵד עִמָּנוּ בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה־לָּנוּ לְשָׂטָן בַּמִּלְחָמָה וּבַמֶּה יִתְרַצֶּה זֶה אֶל־אֲדֹנָיו הֲלוֹא בְּרָאשֵׁי הָאֲנָשִׁים הָהֵם׃ 29.4. And the princes of the Pelishtim were angry with him; and the princes of the Pelishtim said to him, Make this fellow return, that he may go back to his place which thou hast appointed him, and let him not go down with us to battle, lest in the battle he be an adversary to us: for with what might he reconcile himself to his master? could it not be with the heads of these men?"
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.6, 30.26, 61.1, 63.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.6. מִכַּף־רֶגֶל וְעַד־רֹאשׁ אֵין־בּוֹ מְתֹם פֶּצַע וְחַבּוּרָה וּמַכָּה טְרִיָּה לֹא־זֹרוּ וְלֹא חֻבָּשׁוּ וְלֹא רֻכְּכָה בַּשָּׁמֶן׃ 30.26. וְהָיָה אוֹר־הַלְּבָנָה כְּאוֹר הַחַמָּה וְאוֹר הַחַמָּה יִהְיֶה שִׁבְעָתַיִם כְּאוֹר שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים בְּיוֹם חֲבֹשׁ יְהוָה אֶת־שֶׁבֶר עַמּוֹ וּמַחַץ מַכָּתוֹ יִרְפָּא׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 1.6. From the sole of the foot even unto the head There is no soundness in it; But wounds, and bruises, and festering sores: They have not been pressed, neither bound up, Neither mollified with oil." 30.26. Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, And the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of the seven days, In the day that the LORD bindeth up the bruise of His people, And healeth the stroke of their wound." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 63.10. But they rebelled, and grieved His holy spirit; therefore He was turned to be their enemy, Himself fought against them."
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.10, 51.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

51.14. נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּנַפְשׁוֹ כִּי אִם־מִלֵּאתִיךְ אָדָם כַּיֶּלֶק וְעָנוּ עָלַיִךְ הֵידָד׃ 6.10. To whom shall I speak and give warning, That they may hear? Behold, their ear is dull, And they cannot attend; Behold, the word of the LORD is become unto them a reproach, They have no delight in it." 51.14. The LORD of hosts hath sworn by Himself: Surely I will fill thee with men, as with the canker-worm, And they shall lift up a shout against thee."
13. Homer, Iliad, 1.212 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.212. /With words indeed taunt him, telling him how it shall be. For thus will I speak, and this thing shall truly be brought to pass. Hereafter three times as many glorious gifts shall be yours on account of this arrogance. But refrain, and obey us. In answer to her spoke swift-footed Achilles:
14. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.4, 34.16, 37.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.4. אֶת־הַנַּחְלוֹת לֹא חִזַּקְתֶּם וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה לֹא־רִפֵּאתֶם וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת לֹא חֲבַשְׁתֶּם וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת לֹא הֲשֵׁבֹתֶם וְאֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת לֹא בִקַּשְׁתֶּם וּבְחָזְקָה רְדִיתֶם אֹתָם וּבְפָרֶךְ׃ 34.16. אֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת אֲבַקֵּשׁ וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת אָשִׁיב וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת אֶחֱבֹשׁ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה אֲחַזֵּק וְאֶת־הַשְּׁמֵנָה וְאֶת־הַחֲזָקָה אַשְׁמִיד אֶרְעֶנָּה בְמִשְׁפָּט׃ 37.14. וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 34.4. The weak have ye not strengthened, neither have ye healed that which was sick, neither have ye bound up that which was broken, neither have ye brought back that which was driven away, neither have ye sought that which was lost; but with force have ye ruled over them and with rigour." 34.16. I will seek that which was lost, and will bring back that which was driven away, and will bind up that which was broken, and will strengthen that which was sick; and the fat and the strong I will destroy, I will feed them in justice." 37.14. And I will put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I will place you in your own land; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken, and performed it, saith the LORD.’"
15. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.26 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.26. וַיַּמְרוּ וַיִּמְרְדוּ בָּךְ וַיַּשְׁלִכוּ אֶת־תּוֹרָתְךָ אַחֲרֵי גַוָּם וְאֶת־נְבִיאֶיךָ הָרָגוּ אֲשֶׁר־הֵעִידוּ בָם לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֵלֶיךָ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ נֶאָצוֹת גְּדוֹלֹת׃ 9.26. Nevertheless they were disobedient, and rebelled against Thee, and cast Thy law behind their back, and slew Thy prophets that did forewarn them to turn them back unto Thee, and they wrought great provocations."
16. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 11.9, 28.2, 33.1, 41.2, 44.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

28.2. Forgive your neighbor the wrong he has done,and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray. 28.2. for its yoke is a yoke of iron,and its fetters are fetters of bronze; 33.1. No evil will befall the man who fears the Lord,but in trial he will deliver him again and again. 33.1. All men are from the ground,and Adam was created of the dust. 41.2. and of silence, before those who greet you;of looking at a woman who is a harlot
17. Septuagint, Judith, 6.4, 8.33, 9.9, 11.7, 12.4, 13.15, 15.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

6.4. We will burn them up, and their mountains will be drunk with their blood, and their fields will be full of their dead. They cannot withstand us, but will utterly perish. So says King Nebuchadnezzar, the lord of the whole earth. For he has spoken; none of his words shall be in vain. 8.33. Stand at the city gate tonight, and I will go out with my maid; and within the days after which you have promised to surrender the city to our enemies, the Lord will deliver Israel by my hand. 9.9. Behold their pride, and send thy wrath upon their heads; give to me, a widow, the strength to do what I plan. 11.7. Nebuchadnezzar the king of the whole earth lives, and as his power endures, who had sent you to direct every living soul, not only do men serve him because of you, but also the beasts of the field and the cattle and the birds of the air will live by your power under Nebuchadnezzar and all his house. 12.4. Judith replied, "As your soul lives, my lord, your servant will not use up the things I have with me before the Lord carries out by my hand what he has determined to do. 13.15. Then she took the head out of the bag and showed it to them, and said, "See, here is the head of Holofernes, the commander of the Assyrian army, and here is the canopy beneath which he lay in his drunken stupor. The Lord has struck him down by the hand of a woman. 15.10. You have done all this singlehanded; you have done great good to Israel, and God is well pleased with it. May the Almighty Lord bless you for ever!" And all the people said, "So be it!
18. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 110 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

110. and also because he is anointed with oil, by which I mean that the principal part of him is illuminated with a light like the beams of the sun, so as to be thought worthy to be clothed with garments. And the most ancient word of the living God is clothed with the word as with a garment, for it has put on earth, and water, and air, and fire, and the things which proceed from those elements. But the particular soul is clothed with the body, and the mind of the wise man is clothed with the virtues.
19. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.46 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. New Testament, Acts, 7.46-7.47, 7.51-7.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.46. who found favor in the sight of God, and asked to find a habitation for the God of Jacob. 7.47. But Solomon built him a house. 7.51. You stiff-necked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, you always resist the Holy Spirit! As your fathers did, so you do. 7.52. Which of the prophets didn't your fathers persecute? They killed those who foretold the coming of the Righteous One, of whom you have now become betrayers and murderers.
21. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.1-3.6, 3.12-3.19, 4.1-4.11, 5.4, 7.5, 9.4, 9.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Therefore, holy brothers, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, Jesus; 3.2. who was faithful to him who appointed him, as also was Moses in all his house. 3.3. For he has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who built the house has more honor than the house. 3.4. For every house is built by someone; but he who built all things is God. 3.5. Moses indeed was faithful in all his house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were afterward to be spoken 3.6. but Christ is faithful as a Son over his house; whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the glorying of our hope firm to the end. 3.12. Beware, brothers, lest perhaps there be in any one of you an evil heart of unbelief, in falling away from the living God; 3.13. but exhort one another day by day, so long as it is called "today;" lest any one of you be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin. 3.14. For we have become partakers of Christ, if we hold fast the beginning of our confidence firm to the end: 3.15. while it is said, "Today if you will hear his voice, Don't harden your hearts, as in the rebellion. 3.16. For who, when they heard, rebelled? No, didn't all those who came out of Egypt by Moses? 3.17. With whom was he displeased forty years? Wasn't it with those who sinned, whose bodies fell in the wilderness? 3.18. To whom did he swear that they wouldn't enter into his rest, but to those who were disobedient? 3.19. We see that they were not able to enter in because of unbelief. 4.1. Let us fear therefore, lest perhaps a promise being left of entering into his rest, anyone of you should seem to have come short of it. 4.2. For indeed we have had good news preached to us, even as they also did, but the word they heard didn't profit them, because it wasn't mixed with faith by those who heard. 4.3. For we who have believed do enter into that rest, even as he has said, "As I swore in my wrath, they will not enter into my rest;" although the works were finished from the foundation of the world. 4.4. For he has said this somewhere about the seventh day, "God rested on the seventh day from all his works; 4.5. and in this place again, "They will not enter into my rest. 4.6. Seeing therefore it remains that some should enter therein, and they to whom the good news was before preached failed to enter in because of disobedience 4.7. he again defines a certain day, today, saying through David so long a time afterward (just as has been said), "Today if you will hear his voice, Don't harden your hearts. 4.8. For if Joshua had given them rest, he would not have spoken afterward of another day. 4.9. There remains therefore a Sabbath rest for the people of God. 4.10. For he who has entered into his rest has himself also rested from his works, as God did from his. 4.11. Let us therefore give diligence to enter into that rest, lest anyone fall after the same example of disobedience. 5.4. Nobody takes this honor on himself, but he is called by God, just like Aaron was. 7.5. They indeed of the sons of Levi who receive the priest's office have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brothers, though these have come out of the loins of Abraham 9.4. having a golden altar of incense, and the ark of the covet overlaid on all sides with gold, in which was a golden pot holding the manna, Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of the covet; 9.13. For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling those who have been defiled, sanctify to the cleanness of the flesh:
22. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.2, 1.18, 12.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 12.21. These, therefore, came to Philip, who was from Bethsaida of Galilee, and asked him, saying, "Sir, we want to see Jesus.
23. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.41 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 305, 176 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

25. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 140 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

26. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

60b. ופרשת שתויי יין ופרשת נרות ופרשת פרה אדומה,א"ר אלעזר תורה רוב בכתב ומיעוט על פה שנא' (הושע ח, יב) אכתוב לו רובי תורתי כמו זר נחשבו ור' יוחנן אמר רוב על פה ומיעוט בכתב שנא' (שמות לד, כז) כי על פי הדברים האלה,ואידך נמי הכתיב אכתוב לו רובי תורתי ההוא אתמוהי קא מתמה אכתוב לו רובי תורתי הלא כמו זר נחשבו,ואידך נמי הכתיב כי על פי הדברים האלה ההוא משום דתקיפי למיגמרינהו,דרש רבי יהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דרבי שמעון בן לקיש כתיב (שמות לד, כז) כתוב לך את הדברים האלה וכתיב (שמות לד, כז) כי ע"פ הדברים האלה הא כיצד דברים שבכתב אי אתה רשאי לאומרן על פה דברים שבעל פה אי אתה רשאי לאומרן בכתב דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא אלה אלה אתה כותב ואי אתה כותב הלכות,א"ר יוחנן לא כרת הקב"ה ברית עם ישראל אלא בשביל דברים שבעל פה שנאמר (שמות לד, כז) כי על פי הדברים האלה כרתי אתך ברית ואת ישראל:,מערבין בבית ישן מפני דרכי שלום: מאי טעמא אילימא משום כבוד והא ההוא שיפורא דהוה מעיקרא בי רב יהודה ולבסוף בי רבה ולבסוף בי רב יוסף ולבסוף בי אביי ולבסוף בי רבא,אלא משום חשדא:,בור שהוא קרוב לאמה וכו': איתמר בני נהרא רב אמר תתאי שתו מיא ברישא ושמואל אמר עילאי שתו מיא ברישא,בדמיזל כולי עלמא לא פליגי כי פליגי במיסכר ואשקויי שמואל אמר עילאי שתו מיא ברישא דאמרי אנן מקרבינן טפי ורב אמר תתאי שתו מיא ברישא דאמרי נהרא כפשטיה ליזיל,תנן בור הקרוב לאמה מתמלא ראשון מפני דרכי שלום תרגמה שמואל אליבא דרב באמה המתהלכת ע"פ בורו,אי הכי מאי למימרא מהו דתימא מצי אמרי ליה סכר מיסכר ואשקי בהינדזא קמ"ל,אמר רב הונא בר תחליפא השתא דלא איתמר הלכתא לא כמר ולא כמר כל דאלים גבר,רב שימי בר אשי אתא לקמיה דאביי אמר ליה לותבן מר בעידנא אמר ליה אית לי עידנא לדידי ולותבן מר בליליא א"ל אית לי מיא לאשקויי א"ל אנא משקינא ליה למר מיא ביממא ולותבן מר בליליא א"ל לחיי,אזל לעילאי אמר להו תתאי שתו מיא ברישא אזל לתתאי אמר להו עילאי שתו מיא ברישא אדהכי סכר מיסכר ואשקי כי אתא לקמיה דאביי אמר ליה כבי תרי עבדת לי ולא טעמינהו אביי לפירי דההיא שתא,הנהו בני בי חרמך דאזול כרו ברישא דשנוותא ואהדרוה ושדיוה בשילהי נהרא אתו עילאי לקמיה דאביי אמרו ליה קא מתקיל לנהרין אמר להו כרו בהדייהו טפי פורתא אמרו ליה קא יבשי פירין אמר להו זילו סליקו נפשייכו מהתם:,מצודות חיה ועופות ודגי' יש בהן וכו': באוזלי ואוהרי 60b. bthe sectiondealing with priests who have become bintoxicated with wine(Leviticus 10:8–11); bthe section of the lamps(Numbers 8:1–7); band the section of the red heifer(Numbers, chapter 19), as all of these sections are necessary for service in the Tabernacle.,§ The Gemara continues its discussion concerning the writing of the Torah: bRabbi Elazar says: The majority of the Torahwas transmitted bin writing, while the minoritywas transmitted borally, as it is stated: “I wrote for him the greater part of My Torah; they were reckoned a strange thing”(Hosea 8:12), meaning that the majority of the Torah was transmitted in written form. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: The majorityof the Torah was transmitted borally [ ial peh /i], while the minoritywas transmitted bin writing, as it is statedwith regard to the giving of the Torah to Moses on Mount Sinai: b“For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these mattersI have made a covet with you and with Israel” (Exodus 34:27), which indicates that the greater part of the Sinaitic covet was taught orally.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Rabbi Yoḥa, bas well, isn’t it written: “I wrote for him the greater part of My Torah”?How does he understand this verse? The Gemara answers: bThisverse bisnot a statement, but rather a rhetorical question expressing bbewilderment:For did bI write for him the greater part of My Torah?In that case bthey,the Jewish people, bwould be reckoned as strangers,meaning that there would be no difference between them and the nations of the world if everything was written down. Rather, the majority of the Torah must remain an oral tradition.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe otherSage, Rabbi Elazar, bas well, isn’t it written: “For on the basis of these mattersI have made a covet with you and with Israel”? How does he understand this verse? The Gemara answers: bThatverse, which indicates that the covet was based on that which was taught by oral tradition, is stated bdue tothe fact that bit ismore bdifficult to learnmatters transmitted orally, but not because these matters are more numerous than those committed to writing., bRabbi Yehuda bar Naḥmani, the disseminator for Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, expoundedas follows: bIt is written: “Write you these matters”(Exodus 34:27), band it is writtenlater in that same verse: b“For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these matters.” Howcan bthesetexts be reconciled? They mean to teach: bMatters that were written you may not express them orally [ ial peh /i],and bmatters that weretaught borally you may not express them in writing. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:The word b“these”in the mitzva recorded in the verse “Write you these matters” is used here in an emphatic sense: bThesematters, i.e., those recorded in the Written Law, byou may write, but you may not write ihalakhot /i,i.e., the imishnayotand the rest of the Oral Law., bRabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, made a covet with the Jewish people only for the sake of the matters thatwere transmitted borally [ ibe’al peh /i], as it is stated: “For on the basis of [ ial pi /i] these matters I have made a covet with you and with Israel”(Exodus 34:27).,§ The mishna teaches that the Sages enacted that ba joiningof courtyards [ ieiruv /i] bis placed in an old housewhere it had regularly been placed bon account of the ways of peace.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bIf we saythat it is btoshow brespectto the owner of that house, bbut wasn’tit related about ba certain charity box,which was fashioned for the benefit of the community and brought honor to the person in whose house it was placed, bthat initially it wasplaced bin Rav Yehuda’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bRabba’s house, and afterwardit was transferred to bRav Yosef’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bAbaye’s house, and afterwardit was moved to bRava’s house.This teaches that there is no issue here of respect, and that such items would ordinarily be moved from place to place., bRather,say instead that the Sages instituted this enactment btoavoid arousing bsuspicion.Since the ieiruvhad regularly been placed in a particular house, were it to be moved, people might think that the residents of the alleyway suspected that the owner of the house was stealing from them, and therefore they put it somewhere else.,§ The mishna teaches that the Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields is filled first on account of the ways of peace. bIt was statedthat the iamora’imdisagree about the following issue: When bpeopleown fields balong a riverand they irrigate their fields with water that is redirected from it, who among them enjoys first rights to irrigate his field? bRav said:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water,i.e., irrigate their fields, bfirst. And Shmuel said:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first. /b,The Gemara explains: bWithregard to a case where the water bflowson its own, beveryone agreesthat whoever wishes to irrigate may do so as he wishes. bWhen they disagree,it is bwithregard to a case bwhere theyneed to bdamthe river band irrigatethrough channels. bShmuel said:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first becausethey can bsay: We are nearerto the river’s headwaters. bAnd Rav said:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water first becausethey can bsay: Let the river go itsnatural bwayand after we take what we need, dam it as you please., bWe learnedin the mishna that the Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields bis filled first on account of the ways of peace.This teaches that the party who is nearest to the water’s source enjoys first rights, and it supports Shmuel’s opinion and is difficult for Rav. bShmuel interpretedthe mishna bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav:The mishna refers here to ban irrigation channel that passes the mouth of the pit,so that the pit fills with water on its own, even without damming.,The Gemara asks: bIf so, whatis the purpose bof statingthis? It is obvious. The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat the owners of the other fields bcan say tothe owner of the pit: bDamyour pit as well so that water not enter it, band irrigateyour fields bin proportion [ ihindeza /i],just like the rest of us. The mishna therefore bteaches usthat the owner of the pit is not required to do this, and consequently his pit is filled first., bRav Huna bar Taḥalifa said: Now that the ihalakhawas stated neither in accordance withthe opinion of bthis Sage,Rav, bnor in accordance withthe opinion of bthat Sage,Shmuel, bwhoever is stronger prevails.Since the ihalakhahas not been decided, the court refuses to judge the case and leaves the claimants to settle the matter themselves, in the hope that the rightful party will exert himself and prevail., bRav Shimi bar Ashi came before Abayeand bsaid to him: Master, set a time for meto study with you. Abaye bsaid to him: I havea set btime for myself,and I cannot devote it to you. Rav Shimi bar Ashi said to him: bMaster, seta time bfor me at night,and we can study then. Abaye bsaid to him: I haveto bring bwaterat night with which bto irrigatemy fields. Rav Shimi bar Ashi bsaid to him: I will irrigate for Master during the day, andthen bMaster can seta time bfor me at nightto study with him. Abaye bsaid to him: Very well;this is an acceptable arrangement.,What did Rav Shimi bar Ashi do? bHefirst bwent tothe owners of bthe uppermostfields, and bsaid to them:The owners of bthe lowermostfields bdrink the water first,in accordance with the opinion of Rav. bHethen bwent tothe owners of bthe lowermostfields, band said to them:The owners of bthe uppermostfields bdrink the water first,in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. bIn the meantime,while the owners of the upper fields and the lower fields were arguing over who has first rights to the water, Rav Shimi bar Ashi bdammedthe river band irrigatedAbaye’s fields. bWhen he came before Abaye,the latter bsaid to him: You have acted for me in accordance with twoopposing opinions. bAnd Abaye would noteven btaste the produce of that yearbecause he thought that the water had reached his field in an unlawful manner.,It is related that there were bcertain residentsof a place called bBei Ḥarmakh who wentand bduga channel bat the head of the ShanvataRiver in order to divert the water and allow it to circle their fields, band then they returnedthe water to the river further bdownstream.Those who owned fields further bupstream came before Abaye,and bsaid to him: This damages our river,as the water is not flowing as it once had. Abaye bsaid to them: Dig a little deeper with them,and that should solve the problem. bThey said to him:If we do that, bour pits will become dry.Once Abaye heard this bhe said tothe residents of Bei Ḥarmakh: bGo remove yourselves from there,and dam the diversion that you made for the river.,§ The mishna teaches: Taking banimals, birds, or fishthat were caught in btrapsbelonging to another person is considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. And Rabbi Yosei says that this is full-fledged robbery. The Gemara comments: bWith regard to nets [ iuzlei /i] andwoven btraps [ ioharei /i], /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומביאו לחיי העולם הבא,אמר רבי אבהו כגון אבימי ברי קיים מצות כיבוד חמשה בני סמכי הוה ליה לאבימי בחיי אביו וכי הוה אתא רבי אבהו קרי אבבא רהיט ואזיל ופתח ליה ואמר אין אין עד דמטאי התם,יומא חד אמר ליה אשקיין מיא אדאייתי ליה נמנם גחין קאי עליה עד דאיתער איסתייעא מילתיה ודרש אבימי (תהלים עט, א) מזמור לאסף,אמר ליה רב יעקב בר אבוה לאביי כגון אנא דעד דאתינא מבי רב אבא מדלי לי כסא ואמא מזגה לי היכי איעביד א"ל מאמך קביל ומאבוך לא תקבל דכיון דבר תורה הוא חלשה דעתיה,רבי טרפון הוה ליה ההיא אמא דכל אימת דהות בעיא למיסק לפוריא גחין וסליק לה וכל אימת דהות נחית נחתת עלויה אתא וקא משתבח בי מדרשא אמרי ליה עדיין לא הגעת לחצי כיבוד כלום זרקה ארנקי בפניך לים ולא הכלמתה,רב יוסף כי הוה שמע קל כרעא דאמיה אמר איקום מקמי שכינה דאתיא אמר רבי יוחנן אשרי מי שלא חמאן רבי יוחנן כי עברתו אמו מת אביו ילדתו מתה אמו וכן אביי איני והאמר אביי אמרה לי אם ההיא מרבינתיה הואי,רב אסי הוה ליה ההיא אמא זקינה אמרה לי' בעינא תכשיטין עבד לה בעינא גברא נייעין לך בעינא גברא דשפיר כותך שבקה ואזל לארעא דישראל,שמע דקא אזלה אבתריה אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר לי' מהו לצאת מארץ לחוצה לארץ א"ל אסור לקראת אמא מהו א"ל איני יודע [אתרח] פורתא הדר אתא אמר ליה אסי נתרצית לצאת המקום יחזירך לשלום,אתא לקמיה דרבי אלעזר א"ל חס ושלום דלמא מירתח רתח א"ל מאי אמר לך אמר ליה המקום יחזירך לשלום אמר ליה ואם איתא דרתח לא הוה מברך לך אדהכי והכי שמע לארונא דקאתי אמר אי ידעי לא נפקי,ת"ר מכבדו בחייו ומכבדו במותו בחייו כיצד הנשמע בדבר אביו למקום לא יאמר שלחוני בשביל עצמי מהרוני בשביל עצמי פטרוני בשביל עצמי אלא כולהו בשביל אבא,במותו כיצד היה אומר דבר שמועה מפיו לא יאמר כך אמר אבא אלא כך אמר אבא מרי הריני כפרת משכבו והני מילי תוך שנים עשר חדש מכאן ואילך אומר זכרונו לברכה לחיי העולם הבא,תנו רבנן חכם משנה שם אביו ושם רבו תורגמן אינו משנה לא שם אביו ולא שם רבו אבוה דמאן אילימא אבוה דמתורגמן אטו תורגמן לאו בר חיובא הוא,אלא אמר רבא שם אביו של חכם ושם רבו של חכם כי הא דמר בר רב אשי כי הוה דריש בפירקא איהו אמר אבא מרי ואמוריה אמר הכי אמר רב אשי,ת"ר איזהו מורא ואיזהו כיבוד מורא לא עומד במקומו ולא יושב במקומו ולא סותר את דבריו ולא מכריעו כיבוד מאכיל ומשקה מלביש ומכסה מכניס ומוציא,איבעיא להו 31b. and this action bbrings him to the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bRabbi Abbahu said:One bsuch as Avimi, my son,properly bfulfilled the mitzva of honoringhis parents. The Gemara relates: bAvimi had five sons during his father’s lifetimewho were bordainedto issue halakhic rulings, and he too was ordained. bAndyet bwhen Rabbi Abbahu,his father, bcame and called at the gateto enter, Avimi bwouldhimself brun and go to openthe door bfor him. And before he arrived there, hewould already bsay: Yes, yes,so that his father would not think that he was being ignored., bOne dayRabbi Abbahu bsaid toAvimi his son: bGive me water to drink. Before he brought himthe water, Rabbi Abbahu bdozed off.Avimi bbent overand bstood over him untilhis father bawoke.The performance of this mitzva baided him,i.e., as a reward God helped him in his studies, bandAvimi succeeded in homiletically binterpretingthe psalm: b“A song to Asaph”(Psalms 79)., bRav Ya’akov bar Avuh said to Abaye:With regard to one bsuch as I,so beloved by my parents that bbefore I return from the study hall my father brings me a cup and my mother pours for me, how should I act?Is it disrespectful to accept this honor from them? Abaye bsaid to him: Acceptit bfrom your mother, but do not accept it from your father, as, since he is a Torah scholar he will be disheartenedif his son does not show him the proper level of respect.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Tarfon had a certainmanner of treating his bmother, that whenever she wished to ascend intoher bbed he would bend over andhelp bher to ascend, and whenever she wished to descendfrom the bed, bshe would descend onto him. He came and praisedhimself in the bstudy hallfor performing the mitzva of honoring one’s father and mother so thoroughly. bThey said to him: You still have not reached even half ofthe bhonordue to her. bHasit ever happened that bshe threw a purse into the sea in front of you, and you did not embarrass her? /b, bWhen Rav Yosef heard his mother’s footsteps, hewould bsay: I will stand before the arriving Divine Presence. Rabbi Yoḥa said: Fortunate is one who never sawhis father and mother, as it is so difficult to honor them appropriately. The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yoḥahimself never saw his parents. bWhen his mother was pregt with him, his father died;and when bshe gave birth to him, his mother died. And the sameis true of bAbaye.The Gemara asks: bIs that so,that Abaye never saw his mother? bBut didn’t Abaye sayon many occasions: bMy mother told me?The Gemara answers: bThatmother bwasactually bhis foster mother,not his birth mother., bRav Asi had an elderly mother. She said to him: I want jewelry,and bhe madejewelry bfor her.She said to him: bI want a manwhom I can marry, and he said to her: bI will seekone bfor you.She said to him: bI want a husband who is as handsome as you.At this point, he realized that she was senile, and that he would be unable to fulfill all her requests. Therefore, bhe left her and went to Eretz Yisrael. /b,Rav Asi bheard that she was following himto Eretz Yisrael. bHe came before Rabbi Yoḥaand bsaid to him: What isthe ihalakhawith regard to bleaving EretzYisrael to go boutside of EretzYisrael? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him:It is bprohibited.Rav Asi further asked: If one is going bto greethis bmother, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: I do not know.Rav Asi bwaited a littlewhile, and bthen cameback to him. Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Asi, you areevidently bdetermined to leave.May bthe Omnipresent return you in peace,and he said no more.,Rav Asi bcame before Rabbi Elazar,because he did not know how to interpret Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement. bHe said toRabbi Elazar: bGod forbid, perhapshe bis angrywith me that I wished to leave? Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: Whatexactly bdid he say to you?Rav Asi bsaid to him:May bthe Omnipresent return you in peace.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: If it is so that he was angry, he would not have blessed you.Rabbi Yoḥa certainly gave you permission to leave. bIn the meantime,while he was traveling to meet her, Rav Asi bheard that her coffin was coming,i.e., his mother had died and her coffin was being brought to Eretz Yisrael. bHe said: Had I known I would not have left,as after his mother’s death he was not obligated to leave Eretz Yisrael to honor her., bThe Sages taught: One honorshis father bin his life and honors him in his death. Howdoes he honor him bin his life? One who goes to a place on the command of his father should not sayto the people to whom he has been sent, to hurry them along: bSend meon my journey bon my own behalf,or: bHurry up on my own behalf,or: bAllow meto btake leaveof this business bon my own behalf. Rather,he should say ballof the above in the following manner: Act in this manner bon Father’s behalf,as a mark of respect for his father., bHowdoes he honor him bin his death?If bhe says a matter he heard from hisfather’s bmouth, he should not say: So said Father. Rather,he should say: bSo said Father, my teacher, may I be an atonement for his restingsoul. bAnd this ihalakha bapplies within twelve monthsof his death. bFrom thistime bonward he says: May his memory be for a blessing, for the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bThe Sages taught: A Sagewho lectures in public must bchange the name of his father,i.e., when he quotes his father he should not mention him by name. bAndsimilarly, he changes the bname of his teacher. The disseminator,who explains the statements of a Sage to the audience, bchanges neither the name of his father nor the name of his teacher.The Gemara asks: To bwhose fatheris this referring? bIf we sayit is referring to bthe father of the disseminator,whom the Sage mentioned in his lecture, bis that to saythat bthe disseminator is not obligatedto observe the mitzva of honoring one’s father? How can a disseminator mention his own father by name?, bRather, Rava said:This is referring to the bname of the Sage’s father and the name of the Sage’s teacher.This is blike that which Mar bar Rav Ashiwould do, as bwhen he would teachTorah bat his regular lectureand would mention a ihalakhain the name of his father, Rav Ashi, bhe would say:So said bmy father, my teacher; and his disseminatorwould bsay: So said Rav Ashi.Although a son may not mention his father’s name, the disseminator of his lecture may do so., bThe Sages taught: What is fear and what is honor? Fearof one’s father includes the following: bOne may not stand in hisfather’s fixed bplace, and may not sit in his place, and may not contradict his statementsby expressing an opinion contrary to that of his father, band he may not choose sideswhen his father argues with someone else. What is considered bhonor? He giveshis father bfood and drink, dresses and covershim, and bbringshim bin and takeshim boutfor all his household needs., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages:
28. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7b. שנאמר (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים גבורים סביב לה מגבורי ישראל כולם אחוזי חרב מלומדי מלחמה איש חרבו על יריכו מפחד בלילות מפחדה של גיהנם שדומה ללילה,דרש ר' יאשיה ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו כא, יב) בית דוד כה אמר ה' דינו לבקר משפט והצילו גזול מיד עושק וכי בבקר דנין וכל היום אין דנין אלא אם ברור לך הדבר כבקר אמרהו ואם לאו אל תאמרהו ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יונתן מהכא (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את אם ברור לך הדבר כאחותך שהיא אסורה לך אומרהו ואם לאו אל תאמרהו,אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה שיושבין בדין קולר תלוי בצואר כולן פשיטא לא צריכא אלא לתלמיד היושב לפני רבו,רב הונא כי הוה אתי דינא לקמיה מיכניף ומייתי עשרה רבנן מבי רב אמר כי היכי דלימטיי' שיבא מכשורא רב אשי כי הוה אתי טריפתא לקמיה מכניף ומייתי להו לכולהו טבחי דמתא מחסיא אמר כי היכי דלימטיין שיבא מכשורא,כי אתא רב דימי אמר דרש רב נחמן בר כהן מאי דכתיב (משלי כט, ד) מלך במשפט יעמיד ארץ ואיש תרומות יהרסנה אם דיין דומה למלך שאינו צריך לכלום יעמיד ארץ ואם דומה לכהן שמחזר בבית הגרנות יהרסנה,דבי נשיאה אוקמו דיינא דלא הוה גמיר א"ל ליהודה בר נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש קום עליה באמורא קם גחין עליה ולא א"ל ולא מידי,פתח ואמר (חבקוק ב, יט) הוי אומר לעץ הקיצה עורי לאבן דומם הוא יורה הנה הוא תפוש זהב וכסף וכל רוח אין בקרבו ועתיד הקב"ה ליפרע ממעמידין שנאמר (חבקוק ב, כ) וה' בהיכל קדשו הס מפניו כל הארץ,אמר ריש לקיש כל המעמיד דיין (על הציבור) שאינו הגון כאילו נוטע אשירה בישראל שנאמר (דברים טז, יח) שופטים ושוטרים תתן לך וסמיך ליה (דברים טז, כא) לא תטע לך אשירה כל עץ אמר רב אשי ובמקום שיש תלמידי חכמים כאילו נטעו אצל מזבח שנאמר (דברים טז, כא) אצל מזבח ה' אלהיך,כתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב אלהי כסף ואלהי זהב הוא דלא עבדי הא דעץ שרי אמר רב אשי אלוה הבא בשביל כסף ואלוה הבא בשביל זהב,רב כי הוה אתי לבי דינא אמר הכי ברעות נפשיה לקטלא נפיק וצבי ביתיה לית הוא עביד וריקן לביתיה עייל ולואי שתהא ביאה כיציאה,כי הוי חזי אמבוהא (דספרי) אבתריה אמר (איוב כ, ו) אם יעלה לשמים שיאו [וגו'] כגללו לנצח יאבד (וגו') מר זוטרא חסידא כי הוו מכתפי ליה בשבתא דריגלא אמר הכי (משלי כז, כד) כי לא לעולם חוסן ואם נזר לדור ודור,דרש בר קפרא מנא הא מילתא דאמרו רבנן הוו מתונין בדין דכתיב (שמות כ, כו) לא תעלה במעלות וסמיך ליה (שמות כא, א) ואלה המשפטים אמר ר' אליעזר מניין לדיין שלא יפסע על ראשי עם קודש שנא' לא תעלה במעלות וסמיך ליה ואלה המשפטים,אשר תשים אשר תלמדם מיבעי ליה אמר רבי ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא אלו כלי הדיינין רב הונא כי הוה נפק לדינא אמר הכי אפיקו לי מאני חנותאי מקל ורצועה ושופרא וסנדלא,(דברים א, טז) ואצוה את שופטיכם בעת ההיא אמר רבי יוחנן כנגד מקל ורצועה תהא זריז (דברים א, טז) שמוע בין אחיכם ושפטתם אמר רבי חנינא אזהרה לבית דין שלא ישמע דברי בעל דין קודם שיבא בעל דין חבירו ואזהרה לבעל דין שלא יטעים דבריו לדיין קודם שיבא בעל דין חבירו קרי ביה נמי שמע בין אחיכם,רב כהנא אמר מהכא (שמות כג, א) מלא תשא לא תשיא,(דברים א, טז) ושפטתם צדק אמר ריש לקיש צדק את הדין ואחר כך חתכהו (דברים א, טז) בין איש ובין אחיו (ובין גרו) אמר רב יהודה אפילו בין בית לעלייה,ובין גרו אמר רב יהודה אפילו בין תנור לכירים,(דברים א, יז) לא תכירו פנים במשפט רבי יהודה אומר לא תכירהו רבי אלעזר אומר לא תנכרהו,אושפיזכניה דרב אתא לקמיה לדינא אמר לו לאו אושפיזכני את אמר לו אין אמר ליה דינא אית לי אמר ליה 7b. bas it is stated: “Behold, it is the bed of Solomon; sixty mighty men are around it, of the mighty men of Israel. They all handle the sword, and are expert in war; every man has his sword upon his thigh due to dread in the night”(Song of Songs 3:7–8). The words “due to dread in the night” mean bdue to the dread of Gehenna, which is similar to the night.Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani interprets this verse as referring to judges, who are called: Mighty men of Israel, as they preside in the Temple, which is termed: The bed of God. In this verse, God is referred to as: Solomon [ iShlomo /i], the King to Whom peace [ ishalom /i] belongs., bRabbi Yoshiya, and some say Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, interpreteda verse bhomiletically. Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “House of David, so says the Lord: Execute justice in the morning, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor”(Jeremiah 21:12)? bAndis it bsothat a court bmay judge in the morning, and allthe rest of bthe daya court bmay not judge?Why does the verse specifically relate to judging in the morning? bRather,the meaning is: bIf the matter is as clear to you as the morning, statethe verdict; band if not, do not state it. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yonatansays this principle may be derived bfrom here: “Say to wisdom: You are my sister”(Proverbs 7:4). bIf the matter isas bclear to you asthe fact bthat your sister is forbidden to you, state it, and if not, do not state it. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:If btenjudges bare sitting in judgment,a prisoner’s bcollar [ ikolar /i],referring to responsibility for the consequences of an incorrect verdict, bhangs around all of their necks.The Gemara asks: Isn’t it bobviousthat all of the judges bear joint responsibility for the verdict? The Gemara answers: It bis necessary onlyin order btoinclude ba student who is sitting in front of his teacherin the court, and notices that his teacher erred. Although he is not formally part of the court, he nevertheless bears responsibility if he remains silent.,The Gemara relates concerning bRav Hunathat bwhena case bwould come before himfor bjudgment,he would bgather and bring ten rabbis from Rav’s study hall.He bwould say:I do this bso thatonly a small part of the responsibility, comparable to ba splinter from a beam, will reacheach of bus.The greater the number of judges, the less responsibility each one assumes for the verdict. Similarly, with bRav Ashi, whena person bwould come before himwith meat suspected to be from ban animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [ itereifta /i],he bwould gather and bringtogether ball the butchers of Mata Meḥasyaand consult with them before ruling on the status of the meat. He bwould sayto them: I do this bso thatonly a small part of the responsibility, comparable to ba splinter from a beam, will reacheach of bus. /b, bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael, he bsaid: Rav Naḥman bar Kohen interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The king by justice establishes the land; but he who exacts gifts [ iterumot /i] overthrows it”(Proverbs 29:4)? This teaches that bif the judgeis blike a kingin bthat he does not need anythingand is not dependent on anyone, he bestablishes the land,i.e., he can serve as a judge. bBut if he is like a priest who seeks outhis iterumot bfromvarious bgranaries,as he is dependent on others, he boverthrowsthe land., bIn the house of the iNasi /i, they appointed a judge who was not learned.This judge bsaid to Yehuda bar Naḥmani,who was the binterpreter of Reish Lakishand whose role was to repeat and explain the Sage’s lectures: bStand overme bas an interpreter,and I will lecture. Yehuda bar Naḥmani baroseand bbent over himin the conventional manner, to hear the judge’s words. bAnd,being ignorant, the judge bdid not say anything to him. /b,The interpreter bbegan and said:The verse states: b“Woe to him who says to the wood: Awake, to the dumb stone: Arise. Can this teach? Behold, it is overlaid with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it”(Habakkuk 2:19). So is this judge, appointed to teach the public for gold, i.e., for payment, but no more qualified than wood and stone. bAndin the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will punish those who appointsuch judges, bas it is statedin the next verse: b“But the Lord is in His holy Sanctuary; let all the earth be silent before Him”(Habakkuk 2:20). God, Who is above everything, will judge those responsible for such appointments., bReish Lakish says:With regard to banyone who appoints over the community a judge who is not fit,it is bas thoughhe bplants a treeused as part of idolatrous rites b[ iashera /i] among the Jewish people, as it is stated: “You shall make judges and officers for yourself”(Deuteronomy 16:18), band juxtaposed to it,it is written: b“You shall not plant yourself an iasheraof any kind of tree”(Deuteronomy 16:21). By implication, appointing unfit judges is akin to planting a tree for idolatry. bRav Ashi says: And in a place where there are Torah scholars,it is bas thoughhe bplantedthe tree bnext to the altar, as it is stated:“You shall not plant yourself an iashera /i… bbeside the altar of the Lord your God.” /b,It is bwritten: “You shall not make with Me gods of [ ielohei /i] silver and gods of gold”(Exodus 20:20). The Gemara asks: It is bgods of silver and gods of gold thatyou may bnot make, butare gods bof wood permitted?Rather, bRav Ashi says:This verse discusses ba judge,called ielohim /i, bwho comes,i.e., is appointed, bdue topayment of bsilver, and a judge who comes due topayment of bgold. /b,The Gemara relates that bRav, when he would come to courtto judge a case, bwould say thisabout himself: bBy his own willhe bgoes out todanger of bdeath,as a judge who misjudges a case is liable to receive the punishment of death at the hand of Heaven; band he does not dowhat is necessary to provide for bthe needs of his house, and he enters his home empty-handed,because a judge does not receive a salary. He said: bIf onlyit should be so that his bentryinto his home bwill bethe same bashis bdeparture,without sin or transgression.,In a similar demonstration of humility, bwhenRav bwould see a convoy [ iambuha /i] of scribesfollowing bafter himto honor him, he bwould say: “Though his excellency mount up to the heavensand his head reach the clouds, byet he shall perish forever like his own dung;they who have seen him shall say: Where is he?” (Job 20:6–7). It is said of bMar Zutra the Piousthat bwhenthe people bwould carry himto his lectures bon their shoulders during Shabbat of the Festival,he would bsay thisto avoid becoming arrogant: b“For power is not forever, and does the crown endure for all generations?”(Proverbs 27:24)., bBar Kappara taught,based on a homiletical interpretation of a verse: bFrom where is this matter that the Sages statedderived: bBe temperate in judgment( iAvot1:1)? bAs it is written: “Neither shall you go up by stepsonto My altar” (Exodus 20:23), i.e., do not ascend hurriedly, band juxtaposed to it,it is written: b“Now these are the ordicesthat you shall set before them” (Exodus 21:1). bRabbi Eliezer says: From whereis it derived bthat a judge may not step over the heads of the sacred nation,walking among those assembled for the lecture, who would sit upon the floor, in such a manner that he has the appearance of stepping on them? It is derived from that bwhich is stated: “Neither shall you go up by steps,” and juxtaposed to itis an introduction to civil laws and courtroom regulations: b“Now these are the ordices.”This indicates that the prohibition against ascending upon steps applies to judges.,The Gemara interprets the second part of the verse cited above: “Now these are the ordices bthat you shall setbefore them.” The verse bshould havestated: bThat you shall teach them.What is indicated by the phrase: “Set before them”? bRabbi Yirmeya, and some say Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, says: These are the judges’ tools.To illustrate this, the Gemara relates that bRav Huna, when he would go out to a judgment, would say this: Take out for me tools from my shop: A rod and strap,with which to flog transgressors; band a shofar,necessary in the event that someone must be excommunicated; band a sandal,necessary in the event of iḥalitza /i, the procedure by which a levirate marriage is rejected.,The Gemara interprets other verses related to the topic of adjudicating cases. b“And I charged your judges at that time,saying: Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the stranger who is with him” (Deuteronomy 1:16). Understanding that the word “charged” indicates alacrity, bRabbi Yoḥa says:Moses urged the judges: bWith regard to the rod and the strap, be vigilant.With regard to the clause b“Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge,” Rabbi Ḥanina says:This is ba warning to a court thatit bmay not hear the statement ofone blitigant before the other litigant comes, andit is ba warning to a litigant thathe bmay not explain his statement to the judge before the other litigant comes. Read intothe phrase in the verse: b“Hear the causes between your brethren,”that it is balso concerningthe litigant. Although he is not the judge, he is also required to assure that the case is conducted in the presence of both parties., bRav Kahana saysthe litigant’s responsibility may be derived bfrom here: From “you shall not bear [ itissa /i]a false report” (Exodus 23:1). Although conjugated in this manner the verb would seem to be addressed to the judges, commanding them not to lend credence to a false report, the term may also be read as: bYou shall not deliver [ itassi /i]a false report, conjugated so that it addresses the litigants and the witnesses.,The Gemara returns to the verse in Deuteronomy cited above: “And I charged your judges at that time, saying: Hear the causes between your brethren, band judge righteously.” Reish Lakish says: Verify the judgmentby meticulously examining the particulars of the case, bandonly bafterward, implement it.The verse continues: b“Between a man and his brother, and the stranger who is with him.” Rav Yehuda says:The judge must distinguish beven betweenthe merits of ba house and the upper storywhen dividing a two-floor property among inheriting brothers.,With regard to the clause in the verse: b“And the stranger who is with him [ igero /i],”the word igeroresembles the word: Dwell [ igur /i], and bRav Yehuda says:This word teaches that the judge must distinguish beven betweenthe merits of ban oven and a stove.The judge must carefully weigh how to divide even these domestic items in a case of inheritance, to ensure that the distribution of property is absolutely equitable.,The next verse states: b“You shall not respect [ itakiru /i] people in judgment;you shall hear the small and the great alike; you shall not be afraid before any man, for the judgment is God’s; and the cause that is too hard for you, you shall bring to me, and I will hear it” (Deuteronomy 1:17). bRabbi Yehuda says: Do not recognize him [ itakirehu /i],i.e., do not acknowledge the litigant as a friend in your role as a judge. bRabbi Elazar says:Even if he is your opponent, bdo not estrange him [ itenakerehu /i]in such a way as to prejudge him as liable, but treat him as though you do not know him at all., bRav’s host [ iushpizekhaneih /i],with whom he would stay occasionally, bcame before him for a judgment.Rav bsaid tothe host: bAre you not my host?He bsaid to him: Yes,I am. The host then bsaid to him: I havea dispute with another that needs ba judgment.Rav bsaid to him: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 241, 244
angelus interpres,of the lord Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 126
anthropomorphism Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 96
army,assyrian Gera (2014), Judith, 145
christology,logos related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 96
claudius,roman emperor,expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 397
death Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 25
deuteronomy,and centralization DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 130
divine transcendence Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 96
egypt Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 25
eleazar Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 157
elohim Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 96
exhortation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 241, 248
faith Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 241, 248
faithfulness Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187
glory,memra related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 126
god,vengeful and warrior Gera (2014), Judith, 145
god Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187
gods,foreign Gera (2014), Judith, 145
good Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187
hand Gera (2014), Judith, 145
heart Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187
heavens Gera (2014), Judith, 145
holiness Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 241
holophernes Gera (2014), Judith, 145
homer Gera (2014), Judith, 145
hope Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 248
humanity Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 157
israel/israelite Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187
johannine logos,philos logos and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 126
joshua,as moses successor DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 130
joshua Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 25; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 157
land (of israel,promised) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 248
language and style,book of judith,calques and hebraicisms Gera (2014), Judith, 145
language and style,book of judith,septuagint influence Gera (2014), Judith, 145
logos,christology related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 96
memra,glory related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 126
memra,philos logos and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 96
meturgeman (interpreter) Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 151
middle-platonism Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 126
moses Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 151; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 25; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 241, 244, 248
nebuchadnezzar of judith,as rival of god Gera (2014), Judith, 145
nebuchadnezzar of judith,vengeful Gera (2014), Judith, 145
nebuchadnezzar of judith Gera (2014), Judith, 145
neighbors Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187
oaths Gera (2014), Judith, 145
onqelos,(targum) Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 151
philos logos,as second god Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 126
philos logos,johannine logos and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 126
philos logos,memra and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 96
prophetic succession DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 130
quarreling Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187
reconciliation Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187
second god,philos logos and' Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 126
secrets/confidences,keeping/betraying Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187
septuagint,lukes use Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 378
septuagint Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 244, 248
shepherd Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 157
spirit DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 130
stoic logos,nomos related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 126
succession Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 157
temptation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 241
tent of meeting DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 130
testing Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 241
torah Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 151
treachery Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187
wound Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 187