|1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 12.6. וַהֲבֵאתֶם שָׁמָּה עֹלֹתֵיכֶם וְזִבְחֵיכֶם וְאֵת מַעְשְׂרֹתֵיכֶם וְאֵת תְּרוּמַת יֶדְכֶם וְנִדְרֵיכֶם וְנִדְבֹתֵיכֶם וּבְכֹרֹת בְּקַרְכֶם וְצֹאנְכֶם׃
| 12.6. and thither ye shall bring your burnt-offerings, and your sacrifices, and your tithes, and the offering of your hand, and your vows, and your freewill-offerings, and the firstlings of your herd and of your flock;"
|2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 29.18, 29.25, 29.41, 36.3-36.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 29.18. וְהִקְטַרְתָּ אֶת־כָּל־הָאַיִל הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עֹלָה הוּא לַיהוָה רֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה הוּא׃ 29.25. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם מִיָּדָם וְהִקְטַרְתָּ הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל־הָעֹלָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אִשֶּׁה הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 29.41. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכָּהּ תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּהּ לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 36.3. וַיִּקְחוּ מִלִּפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־הַתְּרוּמָה אֲשֶׁר הֵבִיאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לִמְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ לַעֲשֹׂת אֹתָהּ וְהֵם הֵבִיאוּ אֵלָיו עוֹד נְדָבָה בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר׃ 36.3. וְהָיוּ שְׁמֹנָה קְרָשִׁים וְאַדְנֵיהֶם כֶּסֶף שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר אֲדָנִים שְׁנֵי אֲדָנִים שְׁנֵי אֲדָנִים תַּחַת הַקֶּרֶשׁ הָאֶחָד׃ 36.4. וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־הַחֲכָמִים הָעֹשִׂים אֵת כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ אִישׁ־אִישׁ מִמְּלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה עֹשִׂים׃ 36.5. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר מַרְבִּים הָעָם לְהָבִיא מִדֵּי הָעֲבֹדָה לַמְּלָאכָה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לַעֲשֹׂת אֹתָהּ׃ 36.6. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה וַיַּעֲבִירוּ קוֹל בַּמַּחֲנֶה לֵאמֹר אִישׁ וְאִשָּׁה אַל־יַעֲשׂוּ־עוֹד מְלָאכָה לִתְרוּמַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וַיִּכָּלֵא הָעָם מֵהָבִיא׃ 36.7. וְהַמְּלָאכָה הָיְתָה דַיָּם לְכָל־הַמְּלָאכָה לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתָהּ וְהוֹתֵר׃
| 29.18. And thou shalt make the whole ram smoke upon the altar; it is a burnt-offering unto the LORD; it is a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 29.25. And thou shalt take them from their hands, and make them smoke on the altar upon the burnt-offering, for a sweet savour before the LORD; it is an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 29.41. And the other lamb thou shalt offer at dusk, and shalt do thereto according to the meal-offering of the morning, and according to the drink-offering thereof, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 36.3. And they received of Moses all the offering, which the children of Israel had brought for the work of the service of the sanctuary, wherewith to make it. And they brought yet unto him freewill-offerings every morning." 36.4. And all the wise men, that wrought all the work of the sanctuary, came every man from his work which they wrought." 36.5. And they spoke unto Moses, saying: ‘The people bring much more than enough for the service of the work, which the LORD commanded to make.’" 36.6. And Moses gave commandment, and they caused it to be proclaimed throughout the camp, saying: ‘Let neither man nor woman make any more work for the offering of the sanctuary.’ So the people were restrained from bringing." 36.7. For the stuff they had was sufficient for all the work to make it, and too much."
|3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.3, 5.1, 8.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 3.3. וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בּוֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ 5.1. זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 5.1. וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־קֵינָן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 8.21. וַיָּרַח יְהוָה אֶת־רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־לִבּוֹ לֹא־אֹסִף לְקַלֵּל עוֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּר הָאָדָם כִּי יֵצֶר לֵב הָאָדָם רַע מִנְּעֻרָיו וְלֹא־אֹסִף עוֹד לְהַכּוֹת אֶת־כָּל־חַי כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי׃
| 3.3. but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’" 5.1. This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;" 8.21. And the LORD smelled the sweet savour; and the LORD said in His heart: ‘I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake; for the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done."
|4. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 2.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 2.10. But I will sacrifice unto Thee With the voice of thanksgiving; That which I have vowed I will pay. Salvation is of the LORD."
|5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.4-1.5, 1.9, 1.17, 2.8-2.9, 2.12, 3.1, 3.5, 3.11, 3.16, 4.31, 6.15, 6.21, 7.16, 8.28, 9.24, 17.4, 17.6, 19.15, 22.21-22.23, 22.28, 23.13, 23.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 1.4. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הָעֹלָה וְנִרְצָה לוֹ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו׃ 1.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־בֶּן הַבָּקָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 1.9. וְקִרְבּוֹ וּכְרָעָיו יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַכֹּל הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ־נִיחוֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 1.17. וְשִׁסַּע אֹתוֹ בִכְנָפָיו לֹא יַבְדִּיל וְהִקְטִיר אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל־הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאֵשׁ עֹלָה הוּא אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 2.8. וְהֵבֵאתָ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה אֲשֶׁר יֵעָשֶׂה מֵאֵלֶּה לַיהוָה וְהִקְרִיבָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהִגִּישָׁהּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 2.9. וְהֵרִים הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 2.12. קָרְבַּן רֵאשִׁית תַּקְרִיבוּ אֹתָם לַיהוָה וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא־יַעֲלוּ לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ׃ 3.1. וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עֲלֵהֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַכְּסָלִים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶרֶת עַל־הַכָּבֵד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹת יְסִירֶנָּה׃ 3.1. וְאִם־זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים קָרְבָּנוֹ אִם מִן־הַבָּקָר הוּא מַקְרִיב אִם־זָכָר אִם־נְקֵבָה תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 3.5. וְהִקְטִירוּ אֹתוֹ בְנֵי־אַהֲרֹן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל־הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאֵשׁ אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 3.11. וְהִקְטִירוֹ הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לֶחֶם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 3.16. וְהִקְטִירָם הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לֶחֶם אִשֶּׁה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ כָּל־חֵלֶב לַיהוָה׃ 4.31. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּהּ יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר הוּסַר חֵלֶב מֵעַל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 6.15. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ תַּחְתָּיו מִבָּנָיו יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ חָק־עוֹלָם לַיהוָה כָּלִיל תָּקְטָר׃ 6.21. וּכְלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר תְּבֻשַּׁל־בּוֹ יִשָּׁבֵר וְאִם־בִּכְלִי נְחֹשֶׁת בֻּשָּׁלָה וּמֹרַק וְשֻׁטַּף בַּמָּיִם׃ 7.16. וְאִם־נֶדֶר אוֹ נְדָבָה זֶבַח קָרְבָּנוֹ בְּיוֹם הַקְרִיבוֹ אֶת־זִבְחוֹ יֵאָכֵל וּמִמָּחֳרָת וְהַנּוֹתָר מִמֶּנּוּ יֵאָכֵל׃ 8.28. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֹתָם מֵעַל כַּפֵּיהֶם וַיַּקְטֵר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל־הָעֹלָה מִלֻּאִים הֵם לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 9.24. וַתֵּצֵא אֵשׁ מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וַתֹּאכַל עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הַחֲלָבִים וַיַּרְא כָּל־הָעָם וַיָּרֹנּוּ וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם׃ 17.4. וְאֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא הֱבִיאוֹ לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן לַיהוָה לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה דָּם יֵחָשֵׁב לָאִישׁ הַהוּא דָּם שָׁפָךְ וְנִכְרַת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ׃ 17.6. וְזָרַק הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִקְטִיר הַחֵלֶב לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 19.15. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃ 22.21. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יַקְרִיב זֶבַח־שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה לְפַלֵּא־נֶדֶר אוֹ לִנְדָבָה בַּבָּקָר אוֹ בַצֹּאן תָּמִים יִהְיֶה לְרָצוֹן כָּל־מוּם לֹא יִהְיֶה־בּוֹ׃ 22.22. עַוֶּרֶת אוֹ שָׁבוּר אוֹ־חָרוּץ אוֹ־יַבֶּלֶת אוֹ גָרָב אוֹ יַלֶּפֶת לֹא־תַקְרִיבוּ אֵלֶּה לַיהוָה וְאִשֶּׁה לֹא־תִתְּנוּ מֵהֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה׃ 22.23. וְשׁוֹר וָשֶׂה שָׂרוּעַ וְקָלוּט נְדָבָה תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתוֹ וּלְנֵדֶר לֹא יֵרָצֶה׃ 22.28. וְשׁוֹר אוֹ־שֶׂה אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־בְּנוֹ לֹא תִשְׁחֲטוּ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד׃ 23.13. וּמִנְחָתוֹ שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ וְנִסְכֹּה יַיִן רְבִיעִת הַהִין׃ 23.18. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עַל־הַלֶּחֶם שִׁבְעַת כְּבָשִׂים תְּמִימִם בְּנֵי שָׁנָה וּפַר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד וְאֵילִם שְׁנָיִם יִהְיוּ עֹלָה לַיהוָה וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ־נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃
| 1.4. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him." 1.5. And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall present the blood, and dash the blood round about against the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting." 1.9. but its inwards and its legs shall he wash with water; and the priest shall make the whole smoke on the altar, for a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 1.17. And he shall rend it by the wings thereof, but shall not divide it asunder; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar, upon the wood that is upon the fire; it is a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 2.8. And thou shalt bring the meal-offering that is made of these things unto the LORD; and it shall be presented unto the priest, and he shall bring it unto the altar." 2.9. And the priest shall take off from the meal-offering the memorial-part thereof, and shall make it smoke upon the altar—an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 2.12. As an offering of first-fruits ye may bring them unto the LORD; but they shall not come up for a sweet savour on the altar." 3.1. And if his offering be a sacrifice of peace-offerings: if he offer of the herd, whether male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the LORD." 3.5. And Aaron’s sons shall make it smoke on the altar upon the burnt-offering, which is upon the wood that is on the fire; it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 3.11. And the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire unto the LORD." 3.16. And the priest shall make them smoke upon the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire, for a sweet savour; all the fat is the LORD’S." 4.31. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be forgiven." 6.15. And the anointed priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons shall offer it, it is a due for ever; it shall be wholly made to smoke unto the LORD." 6.21. But the earthen vessel wherein it is sodden shall be broken; and if it be sodden in a brazen vessel, it shall be scoured, and rinsed in water." 7.16. But if the sacrifice of his offering be a vow, or a freewill-offering, it shall be eaten on the day that he offereth his sacrifice; and on the morrow that which remaineth of it may be eaten." 8.28. And Moses took them from off their hands, and made them smoke on the altar upon the burnt-offering; they were a consecration-offering for a sweet savour; it was an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 9.24. And there came forth fire from before the LORD, and consumed upon the altar the burnt-offering and the fat; and when all the people saw it, they shouted, and fell on their faces." 17.4. and hath not brought it unto the door of the tent of meeting, to present it as an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD, blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people." 17.6. And the priest shall dash the blood against the altar of the LORD at the door of the tent of meeting, and make the fat smoke for a sweet savour unto the LORD." 19.15. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor favour the person of the mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour." 22.21. And whosoever bringeth a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the LORD in fulfilment of a vow clearly uttered, or for a freewill-offering, of the herd or of the flock, it shall be perfect to be accepted; there shall be no blemish therein." 22.22. Blind, or broken, or maimed, or having a wen, or scabbed, or scurvy, ye shall not offer these unto the LORD, nor make an offering by fire of them upon the altar unto the LORD." 22.23. Either a bullock or a lamb that hath any thing too long or too short, that mayest thou offer for a freewill-offering; but for a vow it shall not be accepted." 22.28. And whether it be cow or ewe, ye shall not kill it and its young both in one day." 23.13. And the meal-offering thereof shall be two tenth parts of an ephah of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire unto the LORD for a sweet savour; and the drink-offering thereof shall be of wine, the fourth part of a hin." 23.18. And ye shall present with the bread seven lambs without blemish of the first year, and one young bullock, and two rams; they shall be a burnt-offering unto the LORD, with their meal-offering, and their drink-offerings, even an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD."
|6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.2, 15.4-15.16, 15.24, 18.17, 28.6, 28.8, 28.24, 29.2, 29.8, 29.11, 29.13, 29.35-29.36, 29.39 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 15.2. רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵכֶם חַלָּה תָּרִימוּ תְרוּמָה כִּתְרוּמַת גֹּרֶן כֵּן תָּרִימוּ אֹתָהּ׃ 15.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל־אֶרֶץ מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לָכֶם׃ 15.4. וְהִקְרִיב הַמַּקְרִיב קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה מִנְחָה סֹלֶת עִשָּׂרוֹן בָּלוּל בִּרְבִעִית הַהִין שָׁמֶן׃ 15.4. לְמַעַן תִּזְכְּרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתָי וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 15.5. וְיַיִן לַנֶּסֶךְ רְבִיעִית הַהִין תַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־הָעֹלָה אוֹ לַזָּבַח לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד׃ 15.6. אוֹ לָאַיִל תַּעֲשֶׂה מִנְחָה סֹלֶת שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן שְׁלִשִׁית הַהִין׃ 15.7. וְיַיִן לַנֶּסֶךְ שְׁלִשִׁית הַהִין תַּקְרִיב רֵיחַ־נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 15.8. וְכִי־תַעֲשֶׂה בֶן־בָּקָר עֹלָה אוֹ־זָבַח לְפַלֵּא־נֶדֶר אוֹ־שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה׃ 15.9. וְהִקְרִיב עַל־בֶּן־הַבָּקָר מִנְחָה סֹלֶת שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים בָּלוּל בַּשֶּׁמֶן חֲצִי הַהִין׃ 15.11. כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לַשּׁוֹר הָאֶחָד אוֹ לָאַיִל הָאֶחָד אוֹ־לַשֶּׂה בַכְּבָשִׂים אוֹ בָעִזִּים׃ 15.12. כַּמִּסְפָּר אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשׂוּ כָּכָה תַּעֲשׂוּ לָאֶחָד כְּמִסְפָּרָם׃ 15.13. כָּל־הָאֶזְרָח יַעֲשֶׂה־כָּכָה אֶת־אֵלֶּה לְהַקְרִיב אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ־נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 15.14. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּכֶם גֵּר אוֹ אֲשֶׁר־בְּתוֹכְכֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וְעָשָׂה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ־נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשׂוּ כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה׃ 15.15. הַקָּהָל חֻקָּה אַחַת לָכֶם וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם כָּכֶם כַּגֵּר יִהְיֶה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 15.16. תּוֹרָה אַחַת וּמִשְׁפָּט אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לָכֶם וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר אִתְּכֶם׃ 15.24. וְהָיָה אִם מֵעֵינֵי הָעֵדָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה לִשְׁגָגָה וְעָשׂוּ כָל־הָעֵדָה פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד לְעֹלָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וּמִנְחָתוֹ וְנִסְכּוֹ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּת׃ 18.17. אַךְ בְּכוֹר־שׁוֹר אוֹ־בְכוֹר כֶּשֶׂב אוֹ־בְכוֹר עֵז לֹא תִפְדֶּה קֹדֶשׁ הֵם אֶת־דָּמָם תִּזְרֹק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־חֶלְבָּם תַּקְטִיר אִשֶּׁה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 28.6. עֹלַת תָּמִיד הָעֲשֻׂיָה בְּהַר סִינַי לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 28.8. וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכּוֹ תַּעֲשֶׂה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 28.24. כָּאֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַיּוֹם שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לֶחֶם אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ־נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה עַל־עוֹלַת הַתָּמִיד יֵעָשֶׂה וְנִסְכּוֹ׃ 29.2. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי פָּרִים עַשְׁתֵּי־עָשָׂר אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.2. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם עֹלָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד אַיִל אֶחָד כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שִׁבְעָה תְּמִימִם׃ 29.8. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה לַיהוָה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד אַיִל אֶחָד כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שִׁבְעָה תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ לָכֶם׃ 29.11. שְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים וְעֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם׃ 29.13. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פָּרִים בְּנֵי־בָקָר שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ׃ 29.35. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ׃ 29.36. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פַּר אֶחָד אַיִל אֶחָד כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שִׁבְעָה תְּמִימִם׃ 29.39. אֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַיהוָה בְּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם לְבַד מִנִּדְרֵיכֶם וְנִדְבֹתֵיכֶם לְעֹלֹתֵיכֶם וּלְמִנְחֹתֵיכֶם וּלְנִסְכֵּיכֶם וּלְשַׁלְמֵיכֶם׃
| 15.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When ye are come into the land of your habitations, which I give unto you," 15.4. then shall he that bringeth his offering present unto the LORD a meal-offering of a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour mingled with the fourth part of a hin of oil;" 15.5. and wine for the drink-offering, the fourth part of a hin, shalt thou prepare with the burnt-offering or for the sacrifice, for each lamb." 15.6. Or for a ram, thou shalt prepare for a meal-offering two tenth parts of an ephah of fine flour mingled with the third part of a hin of oil;" 15.7. and for the drink-offering thou shalt present the third part of a hin of wine, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 15.8. And when thou preparest a bullock for a burnt-offering, or for a sacrifice, in fulfilment of a vow clearly uttered, or for peace-offerings unto the LORD;" 15.9. then shall there be presented with the bullock a meal-offering of three tenth parts of an ephah of fine flour mingled with half a hin of oil." 15.10. And thou shalt present for the drink-offering half a hin of wine, for an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 15.11. Thus shall it be done for each bullock, or for each ram, or for each of the he-lambs, or of the kids." 15.12. According to the number that ye may prepare, so shall ye do for every one according to their number." 15.13. All that are home-born shall do these things after this manner, in presenting an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 15.14. And if a stranger sojourn with you, or whosoever may be among you, throughout your generations, and will offer an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD; as ye do, so he shall do." 15.15. As for the congregation, there shall be one statute both for you, and for the stranger that sojourneth with you, a statute for ever throughout your generations; as ye are, so shall the stranger be before the LORD." 15.16. One law and one ordice shall be both for you, and for the stranger that sojourneth with you." 15.24. then it shall be, if it be done in error by the congregation, it being hid from their eyes, that all the congregation shall offer one young bullock for a burnt-offering, for a sweet savour unto the LORD—with the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof, according to the ordice—and one he-goat for a sin-offering." 18.17. But the firstling of an ox, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they are holy: thou shalt dash their blood against the altar, and shalt make their fat smoke for an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the LORD." 28.6. It is a continual burnt-offering, which was offered in mount Sinai, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD." 28.8. And the other lamb shalt thou present at dusk; as the meal-offering of the morning, and as the drink-offering thereof, thou shalt present it, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 28.24. After this manner ye shall offer daily, for seven days, the food of the offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD; it shall be offered beside the continual burnt-offering, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.2. And ye shall prepare a burnt-offering for a sweet savour unto the LORD: one young bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.8. but ye shall present a burnt-offering unto the LORD for a sweet savour: one young bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year; they shall be unto you without blemish;" 29.11. one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the sin-offering of atonement, and the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and their drink-offerings." 29.13. and ye shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: thirteen young bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year; they shall be without blemish;" 29.35. On the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly: ye shall do no manner of servile work;" 29.36. but ye shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: one bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.39. These ye shall offer unto the LORD in your appointed seasons, beside your vows, and your freewill-offerings, whether they be your burnt-offerings, or your meal-offerings, or your drink-offerings, or your peace-offerings."
|7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 50.14, 54.8, 56.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 50.14. זְבַח לֵאלֹהִים תּוֹדָה וְשַׁלֵּם לְעֶלְיוֹן נְדָרֶיךָ׃ 56.13. עָלַי אֱלֹהִים נְדָרֶיךָ אֲשַׁלֵּם תּוֹדֹת לָךְ׃
| 50.14. offer unto God the sacrifice of thanksgiving; and pay thy vows unto the Most High;" 56.13. Thy vows are upon me, O God; I will render thank-offerings unto Thee."
|8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 15.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 15.7. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְשָׁלוֹם אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵלֲכָה נָּא וַאֲשַׁלֵּם אֶת־נִדְרִי אֲשֶׁר־נָדַרְתִּי לַיהוָה בְּחֶבְרוֹן׃
| 15.7. And it came to pass after forty years, that Avshalom said to the king, I pray thee, let me go and pay my vow, which I have vowed to the Lord, in Ĥevron."
|9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 19.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 19.21. וְנוֹדַע יְהוָה לְמִצְרַיִם וְיָדְעוּ מִצְרַיִם אֶת־יְהוָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְעָבְדוּ זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה וְנָדְרוּ־נֵדֶר לַיהוָה וְשִׁלֵּמוּ׃
| 19.21. And the LORD shall make Himself known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the LORD in that day; yea, they shall worship with sacrifice and offering, and shall vow a vow unto the LORD, and shall perform it."
|10. Anon., 1 Enoch, 24.2-24.3, 25.3 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
| 24.2. fire which burnt day and night. And I went beyond it and saw seven magnificent mountains all differing each from the other, and the stones (thereof) were magnificent and beautiful, magnificent as a whole, of glorious appearance and fair exterior: three towards the east, one founded on the other, and three towards the south, one upon the other, and deep rough ravines, no one of which 24.3. joined with any other. And the seventh mountain was in the midst of these, and it excelled them 25.3. know about everything, but especially about this tree.' And he answered saying: 'This high mountain which thou hast seen, whose summit is like the throne of God, is His throne, where the Holy Great One, the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, will sit, when He shall come down to visit 1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
|11. Cicero, On Invention, 1.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
| 1.9. Quare materia quidem nobis rhetoricae videtur artis ea, quam Aristoteli visam esse diximus; partes autem eae, quas plerique dixerunt, inventio, dispositio, elo- cutio, memoria, pronuntiatio. inventio est excogitatio rerum verarum aut veri similium, quae causam proba- bilem reddant; dispositio est rerum inventarum in or- dinem distributio; elocutio est idoneorum verborum et sententiarum ad inventionem accommodatio; memoria est firma animi rerum ac verborum ad inventionem perceptio; pronuntiatio est ex rerum et verborum dignitate vocis et corporis moderatio. Nunc his rebus breviter constitutis eas rationes, qui- bus ostendere possimus genus et finem et officium huius artis, aliud in tempus differemus; nam et mul- torum verborum indigent et non tanto opere ad artis descriptionem et praecepta tradenda pertinent. eum au- tem, qui artem rhetoricam scribat, de duabus reliquis rebus, materia artis ac partibus, scribere oportere existimamus. ac mihi quidem videtur coniuncte agen- dum de materia ac partibus. quare inventio, quae prin- ceps est omnium partium, potissimum in omni causa- rum genere, qualis debeat esse, consideretur.
|12. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 9.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
| 9.16. and the holy sanctuary, which he had formerly plundered, he would adorn with the finest offerings; and the holy vessels he would give back, all of them, many times over; and the expenses incurred for the sacrifices he would provide from his own revenues;'
|13. Septuagint, Judith, 16.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
| 16.19. Judith also dedicated to God all the vessels of Holofernes, which the people had given her; and the canopy which she took for herself from his bedchamber she gave as a votive offering to the Lord.
|14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 115 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
| 115. But when they appear to be made propitious, then Moses will sing a sacred hymn over them, saying, "The Lord has smelt the smell of a sweet savour," using the word to smell here as equivalent to approving of; for God is not formed like a man, nor has he any need of nostrils, or of any other organ parts.
|15. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 87 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
| 87. and he will appear in the outer conspicuous altar of life to exercise abundant prudence with respect to the skin, and flesh, and blood, and everything relating to the body, in order not to offend the common multitude which gives the second place in honour to the good things of the body in close proximity to the good things of the soul; and at the inner altar he will use bloodless, fleshless, incorporeal things, things proceeding from reasoning alone, which are compared to frankincense and other burnt spices; for as these fill the nostrils, so do those fill the whole region of the soul with fragrance. XXII.
|16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 165 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
| 165. But its juggleries and deceits pleasure does not venture to bring directly to the man, but first offers them to the woman, and by her means to the man; acting in a very natural and sagacious manner. For in human beings the mind occupies the rank of the man, and the sensations that of the woman. And pleasure joins itself to and associates itself with the sensations first of all, and then by their means cajoles also the mind, which is the domit part. For, after each of the senses have been subjected to the charms of pleasure, and has learnt to delight in what is offered to it, the sight being fascinated by varieties of colours and shapes, the hearing by harmonious sounds, the taste by the sweetness of flowers, and the smell by the delicious fragrance of the odours which are brought before it, these all having received these offerings, like handmaids, bring them to the mind as their master, leading with them persuasion as an advocate, to warn it against rejecting any of them whatever. And the mind being immediately caught by the bait, becomes a subject instead of a ruler, and a slave instead of a master, and an exile instead of a citizen, and a mortal instead of an immortal.
|17. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.42 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
| 1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV.
|18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.224-3.229, 3.233-3.254, 8.195, 17.151 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 3.224. 1. I will now, however, make mention of a few of our laws which belong to purifications, and the like sacred offices, since I am accidentally come to this matter of sacrifices. These sacrifices were of two sorts; of those sorts one was offered for private persons, and the other for the people in general; and they are done in two different ways. 3.225. In the one case, what is slain is burnt, as a whole burnt-offering, whence that name is given to it; but the other is a thank-offering, and is designed for feasting those that sacrifice. I will speak of the former. 3.226. Suppose a private man offer a burnt-offering, he must slay either a bull, a lamb, or a kid of the goats, and the two latter of the first year, though of bulls he is permitted to sacrifice those of a greater age; but all burnt-offerings are to be of males. When they are slain, the priests sprinkle the blood round about the altar; 3.227. they then cleanse the bodies, and divide them into parts, and salt them with salt, and lay them upon the altar, while the pieces of wood are piled one upon another, and the fire is burning; they next cleanse the feet of the sacrifices, and the inwards, in an accurate manner and so lay them to the rest to be purged by the fire, while the priests receive the hides. This is the way of offering a burnt-offering. 3.228. 2. But those that offer thank-offerings do indeed sacrifice the same creatures, but such as are unblemished, and above a year old; however, they may take either males or females. They also sprinkle the altar with their blood; but they lay upon the altar the kidneys and the caul, and all the fat, and the lobe of the liver, together with the rump of the lamb; 3.229. then, giving the breast and the right shoulder to the priests, the offerers feast upon the remainder of the flesh for two days; and what remains they burn. 3.233. 4. Now the law requires, both in private and public sacrifices, that the finest flour be also brought; for a lamb the measure of one tenth deal,—for a ram two,—and for a bull three. This they consecrate upon the altar, when it is mingled with oil; 3.234. for oil is also brought by those that sacrifice; for a bull the half of an hin, and for a ram the third part of the same measure, and one quarter of it for a lamb. This hin is an ancient Hebrew measure, and is equivalent to two Athenian choas (or congiuses). They bring the same quantity of oil which they do of wine, and they pour the wine about the altar; 3.235. but if any one does not offer a complete sacrifice of animals, but brings fine flour only for a vow, he throws a handful upon the altar as its first-fruits, while the priests take the rest for their food, either boiled or mingled with oil, but made into cakes of bread. But whatsoever it be that a priest himself offers, it must of necessity be all burnt. 3.236. Now the law forbids us to sacrifice any animal at the same time with its dam; and, in other cases, not till the eighth day after its birth. Other sacrifices there are also appointed for escaping distempers, or for other occasions, in which meat-offerings are consumed, together with the animals that are sacrificed; of which it is not lawful to leave any part till the next day, only the priests are to take their own share. 3.237. 1. The law requires, that out of the public expenses a lamb of the first year be killed every day, at the beginning and at the ending of the day; but on the seventh day, which is called the Sabbath, they kill two, and sacrifice them in the same manner. 3.238. At the new moon, they both perform the daily sacrifices, and slay two bulls, with seven lambs of the first year, and a kid of the goats also, for the expiation of sins; that is, if they have sinned through ignorance. 3.239. 2. But on the seventh month, which the Macedonians call Hyperberetaeus, they make an addition to those already mentioned, and sacrifice a bull, a ram, and seven lambs, and a kid of the goats, for sins. 3.241. And, besides these, they bring two kids of the goats; the one of which is sent alive out of the limits of the camp into the wilderness for the scapegoat, and to be an expiation for the sins of the whole multitude; but the other is brought into a place of great cleanness, within the limits of the camp, and is there burnt, with its skin, without any sort of cleansing. 3.242. With this goat was burnt a bull, not brought by the people, but by the high priest, at his own charges; which, when it was slain, he brought of the blood into the holy place, together with the blood of the kid of the goats, and sprinkled the ceiling with his finger seven times 3.243. as also its pavement, and again as often toward the most holy place, and about the golden altar: he also at last brings it into the open court, and sprinkles it about the great altar. Besides this, they set the extremities, and the kidneys, and the fat, with the lobe of the liver, upon the altar. The high priest likewise presents a ram to God as a burnt-offering. 3.244. 4. Upon the fifteenth day of the same month, when the season of the year is changing for winter, the law enjoins us to pitch tabernacles in every one of our houses, so that we preserve ourselves from the cold of that time of the year; 3.245. as also that when we should arrive at our own country, and come to that city which we should have then for our metropolis, because of the temple therein to be built, and keep a festival for eight days, and offer burnt-offerings, and sacrifice thank-offerings, that we should then carry in our hands a branch of myrtle, and willow, and a bough of the palm-tree, with the addition of the pome citron: 3.246. That the burnt-offering on the first of those days was to be a sacrifice of thirteen bulls, and fourteen lambs, and fifteen rams, with the addition of a kid of the goats, as an expiation for sins; and on the following days the same number of lambs, and of rams, with the kids of the goats; but abating one of the bulls every day till they amounted to seven only. 3.247. On the eighth day all work was laid aside, and then, as we said before, they sacrificed to God a bullock, a ram, and seven lambs, with a kid of the goats, for an expiation of sins. And this is the accustomed solemnity of the Hebrews, when they pitch their tabernacles. 3.248. 5. In the month of Xanthicus, which is by us called Nisan, and is the beginning of our year, on the fourteenth day of the lunar month, when the sun is in Aries, (for in this month it was that we were delivered from bondage under the Egyptians,) the law ordained that we should every year slay that sacrifice which I before told you we slew when we came out of Egypt, and which was called the Passover; and so we do celebrate this passover in companies, leaving nothing of what we sacrifice till the day following. 3.249. The feast of unleavened bread succeeds that of the passover, and falls on the fifteenth day of the month, and continues seven days, wherein they feed on unleavened bread; on every one of which days two bulls are killed, and one ram, and seven lambs. Now these lambs are entirely burnt, besides the kid of the goats which is added to all the rest, for sins; for it is intended as a feast for the priest on every one of those days. 3.251. They take a handful of the ears, and dry them, then beat them small, and purge the barley from the bran; they then bring one tenth deal to the altar, to God; and, casting one handful of it upon the fire, they leave the rest for the use of the priest. And after this it is that they may publicly or privately reap their harvest. They also at this participation of the first-fruits of the earth, sacrifice a lamb, as a burnt-offering to God. 3.252. 6. When a week of weeks has passed over after this sacrifice, (which weeks contain forty and nine days,) on the fiftieth day, which is Pentecost, but is called by the Hebrews Asartha, which signifies Pentecost, they bring to God a loaf, made of wheat flour, of two tenth deals, with leaven; and for sacrifices they bring two lambs; 3.253. and when they have only presented them to God, they are made ready for supper for the priests; nor is it permitted to leave any thing of them till the day following. They also slay three bullocks for a burnt-offering, and two rams; and fourteen lambs, with two kids of the goats, for sins; 3.254. nor is there anyone of the festivals but in it they offer burnt-offerings; they also allow themselves to rest on every one of them. Accordingly, the law prescribes in them all what kinds they are to sacrifice, and how they are to rest entirely, and must slay sacrifices, in order to feast upon them. 8.195. nay, before this happened, he sinned, and fell into an error about the observation of the laws, when he made the images of brazen oxen that supported the brazen sea, and the images of lions about his own throne; for these he made, although it was not agreeable to piety so to do; 17.151. for Herod had caused such things to be made which were contrary to the law, of which he was accused by Judas and Matthias; for the king had erected over the great gate of the temple a large golden eagle, of great value, and had dedicated it to the temple. Now the law forbids those that propose to live according to it, to erect images or representations of any living creature.
|19. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.312-2.314 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 2.312. nay, this violence of the soldiers broke out to such a degree of madness, that it spent itself on the queen herself; for they did not only torment and destroy those whom they had caught under her very eyes, but indeed had killed herself also, unless she had prevented them by flying to the palace, and had staid there all night with her guards, which she had about her for fear of an insult from the soldiers. 2.313. Now she dwelt then at Jerusalem, in order to perform a vow which she had made to God; for it is usual with those that had been either afflicted with a distemper, or with any other distresses, to make vows; and for thirty days before they are to offer their sacrifices, to abstain from wine, and to shave the hair of their head. 2.314. Which things Bernice was now performing, and stood barefoot before Florus’s tribunal, and besought him [to spare the Jews]. Yet could she neither have any reverence paid to her, nor could she escape without some danger of being slain herself.
|20. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.48 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 2.48. 5. Now this Apion was unacquainted with almost all the kings of those Macedonians whom he pretends to have been his progenitors,—who were yet very well affected towards us; for the third of those Ptolemies, who was called Euergetes, when he had gotten possession of all Syria by force, did not offer his thank-offerings to the Egyptian gods for his victory, but came to Jerusalem, and, according to our own laws, offered many sacrifices to God, and dedicated to him such gifts as were suitable to such a victory:
|21. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
|22. Mishnah, Tamid, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
| 4.3. He then took a knife and separated the lung from the liver and the finger of the liver from the liver, but he did not remove it from its place. He cut out the breast and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. He came to the right flank and cut into it as far as the spine, without touching the spine, until he came to the place between two small ribs. He cut it off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], with the liver attached to it. He then came to the neck, and he left two ribs on each side of it, cut it off and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], with the windpipe and the heart and the lung attached to it. He then came to the left flank in which he left the two thin ribs above and two thin ribs below; and he had done similarly with the other flank. Thus he left two on each side above and two on each side below. He cut it off and gave it to the one to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], and the spine with it and the spleen attached to it. This was really the largest piece, but the right flank was called the largest, because the liver was attached to it. He then came to the tail bone, which he cut off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp], along with the tail, the finger of the liver and the two kidneys. He then took the left leg and cut it off and gave it to the one who had merited [bringing it onto the ramp]. Thus they were all standing in a row with the limbs in their hands The first had the head and the [right] hind leg. The head was in his right hand with its nose towards his arm, its horns between his fingers, and the place where it was severed turned upwards with the fat covering it. The right leg was in his left hand with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The second had the two fore legs, the right leg in his right hand and the left leg in his left hand, the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The third had the tail bone and the other hind leg, the tail bone in his right hand with the tail hanging between his fingers and the finger of the liver and the two kidneys with it, and the left hind leg in his left hand with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The fourth had the breast and the neck, the breast in his right hand and the neck in his left hand, its ribs being between two of his fingers. The fifth had the two flanks, the right one in his right hand, and the left one in his left hand, with the place where the flaying began turned away from him. The sixth had the innards on a platter with the knees on top of them. The seventh had the fine flour. The eighth had the griddle cakes. The ninth had the wine. They went and placed them on the lower half of the ramp on its western side, and salted them (see Leviticus 2:13). They then came down and went to the Chamber of Hewn Stone to recite the Shema."
|23. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
|24. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance.
|25. New Testament, Philippians, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 4.8. Finally, brothers, whatever things are true, whatever things are honorable, whatever things are just, whatever things are pure, whatever things are lovely, whatever things are of good report; if there is any virtue, and if there is any praise, think about these things.
|26. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
| 75a. קניגיא עם לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כה) התמשוך לויתן בחכה ובחבל תשקיע לשונו ואלמלא הקב"ה עוזרו אין יכול לו שנאמר (איוב מ, יט) העושו יגש חרבו,כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שלויתן רעב מוציא הבל מפיו ומרתיח כל מימות שבמצולה שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ירתיח כסיר מצולה ואלמלא מכניס ראשו לגן עדן אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ים ישים כמרקחה,ובשעה שצמא עושה תלמים תלמים בים שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) אחריו יאיר נתיב אמר רב אחא בר יעקב אין תהום חוזר לאיתנו עד שבעים שנה שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) יחשוב תהום לשיבה ואין שיבה פחותה משבעים,אמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סעודה לצדיקים מבשרו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יכרו עליו חברים ואין כרה אלא סעודה שנאמר (מלכים ב ו, כג) ויכרה להם כרה גדולה ויאכלו וישתו ואין חברים אלא תלמידי חכמים שנאמר (שיר השירים ח, יג) היושבת בגנים חברים מקשיבים לקולך השמיעני,והשאר מחלקין אותו ועושין בו סחורה בשוקי ירושלים שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יחצוהו בין כנענים ואין כנענים אלא תגרים שנאמר (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה לעשק אהב ואי בעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סוכה לצדיקים מעורו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) התמלא בשכות עורו זכה עושין לו סוכה לא זכה עושין לו צלצל שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) ובצלצל דגים ראשו,זכה עושין לו צלצל לא זכה עושין לו ענק שנאמר (משלי א, ט) וענקים לגרגרותיך זכה עושין לו ענק לא זכה עושין לו קמיע שנאמר (איוב מ, כט) ותקשרנו לנערותיך,והשאר פורסו הקב"ה על חומות ירושלים וזיוו מבהיק מסוף העולם ועד סופו שנאמר (ישעיהו ס, ג) והלכו גוים לאורך ומלכים לנוגה זרחך:,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושמתי כדכד שמשותיך א"ר שמואל בר נחמני פליגי תרי מלאכי ברקיעא גבריאל ומיכאל ואמרי לה תרי אמוראי במערבא ומאן אינון יהודה וחזקיה בני רבי חייא חד אמר שוהם וחד אמר ישפה אמר להו הקב"ה להוי כדין וכדין,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושעריך לאבני אקדח כי הא דיתיב רבי יוחנן וקא דריש עתיד הקב"ה להביא אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם שלשים על שלשים וחוקק בהן עשר על עשרים ומעמידן בשערי ירושלים לגלג עליו אותו תלמיד השתא כביעתא דציצלא לא משכחינן כולי האי משכחינן,לימים הפליגה ספינתו בים חזא מלאכי השרת דיתבי וקא מינסרי אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם ל' על ל' וחקוק בהן עשר ברום עשרים אמר להו הני למאן אמרו ליה שעתיד הקב"ה להעמידן בשערי ירושלים אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר ליה דרוש רבי לך נאה לדרוש כאשר אמרת כן ראיתי אמר לו ריקא אלמלא (לא) ראית לא האמנת מלגלג על דברי חכמים אתה נתן עיניו בו ונעשה גל של עצמות,מיתיבי (ויקרא כו, יג) ואולך אתכם קוממיות רבי מאיר אומר מאתים אמה כשתי קומות של אדם הראשון,רבי יהודה אומר מאה אמה כנגד היכל וכתליו שנאמר (תהלים קמד, יב) אשר בנינו כנטיעים מגודלים בנעוריהם בנותינו כזויות מחוטבות תבנית היכל כי קאמר ר' יוחנן לכווי דבי זיקא,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות שבע חופות לכל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו ד, ה) וברא ה' על כל מכון הר ציון ועל מקראיה ענן יומם ועשן ונוגה אש להבה לילה כי על כל כבוד חופה מלמד שכל אחד ואחד עושה לו הקדוש ברוך הוא חופה לפי כבודו,עשן בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא שכל מי שעיניו צרות בתלמידי חכמים בעולם הזה מתמלאות עיניו עשן לעולם הבא ואש בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא מלמד שכל אחד ואחד נכוה מחופתו של חבירו אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר כז, כ) ונתתה מהודך עליו ולא כל הודך זקנים שבאותו הדור אמרו פני משה כפני חמה פני יהושע כפני לבנה אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,אמר רבי חמא (בר) חנינא עשר חופות עשה הקדוש ברוך הוא לאדם הראשון בגן עדן שנאמר (יחזקאל כח, יג) בעדן גן אלהים היית כל אבן יקרה וגו' מר זוטרא אמר אחת עשרה שנאמר כל אבן יקרה אמר רבי יוחנן וגרוע שבכולן זהב דקא חשיב ליה לבסוף,מאי (יחזקאל כח, יג) מלאכת תופיך ונקביך בך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לחירם מלך צור בך נסתכלתי ובראתי נקבים נקבים באדם ואיכא דאמרי הכי קאמר בך נסתכלתי
| 75a. ba hunt of the leviathan, as it is stated: “Can you draw out leviathan with a fish hook? Or press down his tongue with a cord?”(Job 40:25). bAnd were the Holy One, Blessed be He, not assistingGabriel, bhe would not be able tohunt bit, as it is stated: “Only He Who made him can use His sword to approach him”(Job 40:19)., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Whenthe bleviathan is hungry, he produces breath from his mouth andthereby bboils all of the waters in the depthsof the sea. bAs it is stated: “He makes the deep boil like a pot”(Job 41:23). bAnd ifthe leviathan bdid not place its head in the Garden of Eden, no creature could withstand hisfoul bsmell, as it is stated: “He makes the sea like a seething mixture [ imerkaḥa /i]”(Job 41:23), and the term imerkaḥais also used to describe something with a smell (see Exodus 30:25)., bAnd when he is thirsty, he makes many furrows in the sea, as it is stated: “He makes a path to shine after him”(Job 41:24). bRav Aḥa bar Yaakov says:After the leviathan drinks from the sea, bthe depthof the sea does bnot return to its normal condition until seventy yearshave passed, bas it is stated: “One would think the deep to be hoary”(Job 41:24), band hoaryindicates a person who is bno less than seventyyears old., bRabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will make a feast for the righteous from the flesh of the leviathan, as it is stated: “The iḥabbarimwill make a feast [ iyikhru /i] of him”(Job 40:30). bAnd ikera /imeans bnothing other than a feast, as it is stated: “And he prepared [ iva’yikhreh /i] for them a great feast [ ikera /i]; and they ate and drank”(II Kings 6:23). bAnd iḥabbarim /imeans bnothing other than Torah scholars, as it is stated: “You that dwell in the gardens, the companions [ iḥaverim /i] hearken for your voice: Cause me to hear it”(Song of Songs 8:13). This verse is interpreted as referring to Torah scholars, who listen to God’s voice., bAndwith regard to bthe remainderof the leviathan, they will bdivide it and use it for commerce in the markets of Jerusalem, as it is stated: “They will part him among the ikena’anim /i”(Job 40:30). bAnd ikena’anim /imeans bnothing other than merchants, as it is stated: “As for the merchant [ ikena’an /i], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He loves to oppress”(Hosea 12:8). bAnd if you wish, saythat the proof is bfrom here: “Whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers [ ikieha /i] are the honorable of the earth”(Isaiah 23:8)., bAnd Rabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will prepare a isukkafor the righteous from the skin ofthe bleviathan, as it is stated: “Can you fill his skin with barbed irons [ ibesukkot /i]”(Job 40:31). If one bis deservingof being called righteous, an entire isukkais prepared for himfrom the skin of the leviathan; if one is bnot deservingof this honor, ba covering is prepared for hishead, bas it is stated: “Or his head with fish-spears”(Job 40:31).,If one is bdeservingat least of this reward, ba covering is prepared for him,and if one is bnot deserving, a necklace is prepared for him, as it is stated: “And necklaces about your neck”(Proverbs 1:9). If one is somewhat bdeserving, a necklace is prepared for him,and if one is bnot deservingeven of this, only ban amu-let is prepared for himfrom the skin of the leviathan, bas it is stated: “Or will you bind him for your maidens”(Job 40:29), i.e., a small amulet is prepared for him, like the amulets tied on children’s necks., bAndwith regard to bthe remainingpart of the skin of the leviathan, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, spreads it on the walls of Jerusalem, and its glory radiates fromone bend of the world until theother bend. As it is stated: “And nations shall walk in your light, and kings at the brightness of your rising”(Isaiah 60:3).,§ With regard to the future glory of Jerusalem, the Gemara interprets the verse: b“And I will make your pinnacles of ikadkhod /i”(Isaiah 54:12). bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Two angels in heaven, Gabriel and Michael, disagreewith regard to the material that will be used to form the walls of Jerusalem. bAnd some saythat this dispute is between btwo iamora’imin the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael. bAnd who are they?They are bYehuda and Ḥizkiyya, the sons of Rabbi Ḥiyya. One saidthey will be made of bonyx, and one saidof bjasper. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Let it be like this [ ikedein /i] and like that [ iukhedein /i],i.e., let them be formed from both together. This compromise is indicated by the word ikadkhod /i, a combination of this [ ikedein /i] and that [ iukhedein /i].,The Gemara analyzes the rest of that verse: b“And your gates of precious stones”(Isaiah 54:12). This should be understood binlight of bthatincident bwhere Rabbi Yoḥa sat and taught:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will bring precious stones and pearls that are thirty by thirtycubits, band He will hollow out in thema hole of bten by twentycubits band set them in the gates of Jerusalem. A certainunnamed bstudent sneered at him,saying: bNow we do not findprecious stones even bofthe size of ban egg of a dove,and yet ball of this we will find? /b, bAftera period of btimethat student’s bship went to sea,where bhe saw ministering angels sitting and sawing precious stones and pearls that were thirty by thirtycubits, band hollowed out in themwere holes of bten by twentycubits. bHe said tothe angels: bFor whom are these? They said to him thatin the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will place them in the gates of Jerusalem.Later, the student bcame before Rabbi Yoḥaand bsaid to him:Continue to binterpret, my teacher, it is fitting for you to interpret,as bI sawjust bas you said.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Worthlessman, bif you had not seen, you would not have believed;clearly, byou are mocking the statement of the Sages.Rabbi Yoḥa bset his eyes upon him, andthe student was instantly killed band turned into a pile of bones. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionagainst Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement, based on a ibaraita /i. The verse states: b“And I will make you go upright [ ikomemiyyut /i]”(Leviticus 26:13). bRabbi Meir says:In the future, the Jewish people will have the stature of btwo hundred cubits, equivalent to twotimes the bheight [ ikomot /i] of Adam the firstman, whose height was one hundred cubits. Rabbi Meir interprets the word ikomemiyyutas two ikomot /i., bRabbi Yehuda says:They will have the stature of bone hundred cubits, corresponding to the Sanctuary and its walls, as it is stated: “We whose sons are as plants grown up in their youth; whose daughters are as corner-pillars carved after the fashion of the Sanctuary”(Psalms 144:12). But if they are each one hundred cubits tall, how could the Jews enter the gates of Jerusalem, whose entrance gate will be ten by twenty cubits, as claimed by Rabbi Yoḥa? The Gemara answers: bWhen Rabbi Yoḥa statedthat idea, he was not referring to the gates themselves but btothe bwindows thatallow bwindto enter.,§ bAnd Rabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:In the bfuture, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will fashion seven canopies for each and every righteousindividual, bas it is stated: “And the Lord will create over the whole habitation of Mount Zion, and over those who are invited to it, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory shall be a canopy”(Isaiah 4:5). This bteaches thatfor beach and everyrighteous individual, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, fashions for him a canopyseven times over, bin accordance with his honor,i.e., greater individuals receive grander and larger canopies.,The Gemara asks a question with regard to the above verse: bWhyshould there be bsmoke in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said:It is bbecause anyone whose eyes are narrow,i.e., is stingy, btoward Torah scholars in this world, his eyes fill with smoke in the World-to-Come. And whyshould there be bfire in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said:This bteaches that each and every one is burned fromembarrassment at the size of bthe canopy of the other,and says: bWoe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace,that I did not merit a canopy as large as his., bIn a similar manner, youcan bsaythat God said to Moses about Joshua: b“And you shall put of your honor upon him”(Numbers 27:20), which indicates that you should put some of your honor, bbut not all of your honor. The elders of that generation said: The face of Moseswas as bright bas the face of the sun; the face of Joshuawas blike the face of the moon. Woe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace,that we did not merit another leader of the stature of Moses., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, fashioned ten canopies for Adam the firstman, bin the Garden of Eden; as it is statedto Hiram, king of Tyre: b“You were in Eden the garden of God; every precious stonewas your covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of your drums and of your holes was in you; they were prepared on the day that you were created” (Ezekiel 28:13). This verse mentions ten items, from carnelian to gold. bMar Zutra said:There were belevencanopies, bas it states: “Every precious stone,”which is also part of the tally. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And the worst of all of themwas bgold, as it is counted last,which indicates that the other items are more valuable.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“The workmanship of your drums and of your holes [ inekavekha /i]”(Ezekiel 28:13)? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Hiram, king of Tyre:Were you in the Garden of Eden when I created all of this for you? bI looked at you,saw that you would one day claim divinity for yourself, band created many orifices [ inekavim /i] in man,i.e., the excretory system, so that you would know that you are human and not a god. bAnd there arethose bwho saythat bthisis what God bsaidto Hiram: bI looked at you /b