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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6297
Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.10-2.16


nanHave we not all one father? Hath not one God created us? Why do we deal treacherously every man against his brother, Profaning the covenant of our fathers?


בָּגְדָה יְהוּדָה וְתוֹעֵבָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה בְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבִירוּשָׁלִָם כִּי חִלֵּל יְהוּדָה קֹדֶשׁ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אָהֵב וּבָעַל בַּת־אֵל נֵכָר׃Judah hath dealt treacherously, And an abomination is committed in Israel and in Jerusalem; For Judah hath profaned the holiness of the LORD which He loveth, And hath married the daughter of a strange god.


יַכְרֵת יְהוָה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂנָּה עֵר וְעֹנֶה מֵאָהֳלֵי יַעֲקֹב וּמַגִּישׁ מִנְחָה לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃May the LORD cut off to the man that doeth this, Him that calleth and him that answereth out of the tents of Jacob, And him that offereth an offering unto the LORD of hosts.


וְזֹאת שֵׁנִית תַּעֲשׂוּ כַּסּוֹת דִּמְעָה אֶת־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה מֵאֵין עוֹד פְּנוֹת אֶל־הַמִּנְחָה וְלָקַחַת רָצוֹן מִיֶּדְכֶם׃And this further ye do: Ye cover the altar of the LORD with tears, With weeping, and with sighing, Insomuch that He regardeth not the offering any more, Neither receiveth it with good will at your hand.


וַאֲמַרְתֶּם עַל־מָה עַל כִּי־יְהוָה הֵעִיד בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין אֵשֶׁת נְעוּרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָּגַדְתָּה בָּהּ וְהִיא חֲבֶרְתְּךָ וְאֵשֶׁת בְּרִיתֶךָ׃Yet ye say: ‘Wherefore?’ Because the LORD hath been witness Between thee and the wife of thy youth, Against whom thou hast dealt treacherously, Though she is thy companion, And the wife of thy covenant.


וְלֹא־אֶחָד עָשָׂה וּשְׁאָר רוּחַ לוֹ וּמָה הָאֶחָד מְבַקֵּשׁ זֶרַע אֱלֹהִים וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם בְּרוּחֲכֶם וּבְאֵשֶׁת נְעוּרֶיךָ אַל־יִבְגֹּד׃And not one hath done so Who had exuberance of spirit! For what seeketh the one? A seed given of God. Therefore take heed to your spirit, And let none deal treacherously against the wife of his youth.


כִּי־שָׂנֵא שַׁלַּח אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִסָּה חָמָס עַל־לְבוּשׁוֹ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם בְּרוּחֲכֶם וְלֹא תִבְגֹּדוּ׃For I hate putting away, Saith the LORD, the God of Israel, And him that covereth his garment with violence, Saith the LORD of hosts; Therefore take heed to your spirit, That ye deal not treacherously.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

24 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.17, 1.31, 8.2, 8.5, 8.16, 13.3, 14.1, 32.4-32.6, 34.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.17. לֹא־תַכִּירוּ פָנִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט כַּקָּטֹן כַּגָּדֹל תִּשְׁמָעוּן לֹא תָגוּרוּ מִפְּנֵי־אִישׁ כִּי הַמִּשְׁפָּט לֵאלֹהִים הוּא וְהַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יִקְשֶׁה מִכֶּם תַּקְרִבוּן אֵלַי וּשְׁמַעְתִּיו׃ 1.31. וּבַמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתָ אֲשֶׁר נְשָׂאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָׂא־אִישׁ אֶת־בְּנוֹ בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר הֲלַכְתֶּם עַד־בֹּאֲכֶם עַד־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 8.2. כַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה מַאֲבִיד מִפְּנֵיכֶם כֵּן תֹאבֵדוּן עֵקֶב לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּן בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 8.2. וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־כָּל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר הֹלִיכֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ זֶה אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בַּמִּדְבָּר לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ לְנַסֹּתְךָ לָדַעַת אֶת־אֲשֶׁר בִּלְבָבְךָ הֲתִשְׁמֹר מצותו [מִצְוֺתָיו] אִם־לֹא׃ 8.5. וְיָדַעְתָּ עִם־לְבָבֶךָ כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר יְיַסֵּר אִישׁ אֶת־בְּנוֹ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְיַסְּרֶךָּ׃ 8.16. הַמַּאֲכִלְךָ מָן בַּמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּן אֲבֹתֶיךָ לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ וּלְמַעַן נַסֹּתֶךָ לְהֵיטִבְךָ בְּאַחֲרִיתֶךָ׃ 13.3. וּבָא הָאוֹת וְהַמּוֹפֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר אֵלֶיךָ לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתָּם וְנָעָבְדֵם׃ 14.1. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 14.1. בָּנִים אַתֶּם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לֹא תִתְגֹּדְדוּ וְלֹא־תָשִׂימוּ קָרְחָה בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם לָמֵת׃ 32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ 32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃ 32.5. וּמֻת בָּהָר אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹלֶה שָׁמָּה וְהֵאָסֵף אֶל־עַמֶּיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר־מֵת אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ בְּהֹר הָהָר וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל־עַמָּיו׃ 32.5. שִׁחֵת לוֹ לֹא בָּנָיו מוּמָם דּוֹר עִקֵּשׁ וּפְתַלְתֹּל׃ 32.6. הֲ־לַיְהוָה תִּגְמְלוּ־זֹאת עַם נָבָל וְלֹא חָכָם הֲלוֹא־הוּא אָבִיךָ קָּנֶךָ הוּא עָשְׂךָ וַיְכֹנְנֶךָ׃ 1.17. Ye shall not respect persons in judgment; ye shall hear the small and the great alike; ye shall not be afraid of the face of any man; for the judgment is God’s; and the cause that is too hard for you ye shall bring unto me, and I will hear it.’" 1.31. and in the wilderness, where thou hast seen how that the LORD thy God bore thee, as a man doth bear his son, in all the way that ye went, until ye came unto this place." 8.2. And thou shalt remember all the way which the LORD thy God hath led thee these forty years in the wilderness, that He might afflict thee, to prove thee, to know what was in thy heart, whether thou wouldest keep His commandments, or no." 8.5. And thou shalt consider in thy heart, that, as a man chasteneth his son, so the LORD thy God chasteneth thee." 8.16. who fed thee in the wilderness with manna, which thy fathers knew not, that He might afflict thee, and that He might prove thee, to do thee good at thy latter end;" 13.3. and the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof he spoke unto thee—saying: ‘Let us go after other gods, which thou hast not known, and let us serve them’;" 14.1. Ye are the children of the LORD your God: ye shall not cut yourselves, nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead." 32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. ." 32.5. Is corruption His? No; His children’s is the blemish; A generation crooked and perverse." 32.6. Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? Is not He thy father that hath gotten thee? Hath He not made thee, and established thee?" 34.10. And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.22, 22.8, 32.14, 32.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.22. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 22.8. עַל־כָּל־דְּבַר־פֶּשַׁע עַל־שׁוֹר עַל־חֲמוֹר עַל־שֶׂה עַל־שַׂלְמָה עַל־כָּל־אֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר כִּי־הוּא זֶה עַד הָאֱלֹהִים יָבֹא דְּבַר־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר יַרְשִׁיעֻן אֱלֹהִים יְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנַיִם לְרֵעֵהוּ׃ 32.14. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה עַל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְעַמּוֹ׃ 32.34. וְעַתָּה לֵךְ נְחֵה אֶת־הָעָם אֶל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ הִנֵּה מַלְאָכִי יֵלֵךְ לְפָנֶיךָ וּבְיוֹם פָּקְדִי וּפָקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם חַטָּאתָם׃ 4.22. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born." 22.8. For every matter of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, whereof one saith: 'This is it,' the cause of both parties shall come before God; he whom God shall condemn shall pay double unto his neighbour." 32.14. And the LORD repented of the evil which He said He would do unto His people." 32.34. And now go, lead the people unto the place of which I have spoken unto thee; behold, Mine angel shall go before thee; nevertheless in the day when I visit, I will visit their sin upon them.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 31.47, 38.3-38.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.47. וַיִּקְרָא־לוֹ לָבָן יְגַר שָׂהֲדוּתָא וְיַעֲקֹב קָרָא לוֹ גַּלְעֵד׃ 38.3. וְאַחַר יָצָא אָחִיו אֲשֶׁר עַל־יָדוֹ הַשָּׁנִי וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ זָרַח׃ 38.3. וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ עֵר׃ 38.4. וַתַּהַר עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ אוֹנָן׃ 31.47. And Laban called it Jegar-sahadutha; but Jacob called it Galeed." 38.3. And she conceived, and bore a son; and he called his name Er." 38.4. And she conceived again, and bore a son; and she called his name O."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 11.1-11.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.1. אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה יֵלְכוּ כְּאַרְיֵה יִשְׁאָג כִּי־הוּא יִשְׁאַג וְיֶחֶרְדוּ בָנִים מִיָּם׃ 11.1. כִּי נַעַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וָאֹהֲבֵהוּ וּמִמִּצְרַיִם קָרָאתִי לִבְנִי׃ 11.2. קָרְאוּ לָהֶם כֵּן הָלְכוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם לַבְּעָלִים יְזַבֵּחוּ וְלַפְּסִלִים יְקַטֵּרוּן׃ 11.3. וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל־זְרוֹעֹתָיו וְלֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי רְפָאתִים׃ 11.4. בְּחַבְלֵי אָדָם אֶמְשְׁכֵם בַּעֲבֹתוֹת אַהֲבָה וָאֶהְיֶה לָהֶם כִּמְרִימֵי עֹל עַל לְחֵיהֶם וְאַט אֵלָיו אוֹכִיל׃ 11.1. When Israel was a child, then I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son." 11.2. The more they called them, the more they went from them; They sacrificed unto the Baalim, And offered to graven images." 11.3. And I, I taught Ephraim to walk, Taking them by their arms; But they knew not that I healed them." 11.4. I drew them with cords of a man, With bands of love; And I was to them as they that take off the yoke on their jaws, And I fed them gently."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 21.13-21.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.13. וְהוּא אִשָּׁה בִבְתוּלֶיהָ יִקָּח׃ 21.14. אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וַחֲלָלָה זֹנָה אֶת־אֵלֶּה לֹא יִקָּח כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלָה מֵעַמָּיו יִקַּח אִשָּׁה׃ 21.15. וְלֹא־יְחַלֵּל זַרְעוֹ בְּעַמָּיו כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשׁוֹ׃ 21.13. And he shall take a wife in her virginity." 21.14. A widow, or one divorced, or a profaned woman, or a harlot, these shall he not take; but a virgin of his own people shall he take to wife." 21.15. And he shall not profane his seed among his people; for I am the LORD who sanctify him."
6. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.1-1.2, 1.6-1.13, 2.11-2.16, 3.6-3.12, 3.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. מִי גַם־בָּכֶם וְיִסְגֹּר דְּלָתַיִם וְלֹא־תָאִירוּ מִזְבְּחִי חִנָּם אֵין־לִי חֵפֶץ בָּכֶם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּמִנְחָה לֹא־אֶרְצֶה מִיֶּדְכֶם׃ 1.1. מַשָּׂא דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיַד מַלְאָכִי׃ 1.2. אָהַבְתִּי אֶתְכֶם אָמַר יְהוָה וַאֲמַרְתֶּם בַּמָּה אֲהַבְתָּנוּ הֲלוֹא־אָח עֵשָׂו לְיַעֲקֹב נְאֻם־יְהוָה וָאֹהַב אֶת־יַעֲקֹב׃ 1.6. בֵּן יְכַבֵּד אָב וְעֶבֶד אֲדֹנָיו וְאִם־אָב אָנִי אַיֵּה כְבוֹדִי וְאִם־אֲדוֹנִים אָנִי אַיֵּה מוֹרָאִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת לָכֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים בּוֹזֵי שְׁמִי וַאֲמַרְתֶּם בַּמֶּה בָזִינוּ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ׃ 1.7. מַגִּישִׁים עַל־מִזְבְּחִי לֶחֶם מְגֹאָל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם בַּמֶּה גֵאַלְנוּךָ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן יְהוָה נִבְזֶה הוּא׃ 1.8. וְכִי־תַגִּשׁוּן עִוֵּר לִזְבֹּחַ אֵין רָע וְכִי תַגִּישׁוּ פִּסֵּחַ וְחֹלֶה אֵין רָע הַקְרִיבֵהוּ נָא לְפֶחָתֶךָ הֲיִּרְצְךָ אוֹ הֲיִשָּׂא פָנֶיךָ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.9. וְעַתָּה חַלּוּ־נָא פְנֵי־אֵל וִיחָנֵנוּ מִיֶּדְכֶם הָיְתָה זֹּאת הֲיִשָּׂא מִכֶּם פָּנִים אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.11. כִּי מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ וְעַד־מְבוֹאוֹ גָּדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מָקוֹם מֻקְטָר מֻגָּשׁ לִשְׁמִי וּמִנְחָה טְהוֹרָה כִּי־גָדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.12. וְאַתֶּם מְחַלְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן אֲדֹנָי מְגֹאָל הוּא וְנִיבוֹ נִבְזֶה אָכְלוֹ׃ 1.13. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם הִנֵּה מַתְּלָאָה וְהִפַּחְתֶּם אוֹתוֹ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וַהֲבֵאתֶם גָּזוּל וְאֶת־הַפִּסֵּחַ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלֶה וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַאֶרְצֶה אוֹתָהּ מִיֶּדְכֶם אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 2.11. בָּגְדָה יְהוּדָה וְתוֹעֵבָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה בְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבִירוּשָׁלִָם כִּי חִלֵּל יְהוּדָה קֹדֶשׁ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אָהֵב וּבָעַל בַּת־אֵל נֵכָר׃ 2.12. יַכְרֵת יְהוָה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂנָּה עֵר וְעֹנֶה מֵאָהֳלֵי יַעֲקֹב וּמַגִּישׁ מִנְחָה לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 2.13. וְזֹאת שֵׁנִית תַּעֲשׂוּ כַּסּוֹת דִּמְעָה אֶת־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה מֵאֵין עוֹד פְּנוֹת אֶל־הַמִּנְחָה וְלָקַחַת רָצוֹן מִיֶּדְכֶם׃ 2.14. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם עַל־מָה עַל כִּי־יְהוָה הֵעִיד בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין אֵשֶׁת נְעוּרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָּגַדְתָּה בָּהּ וְהִיא חֲבֶרְתְּךָ וְאֵשֶׁת בְּרִיתֶךָ׃ 2.15. וְלֹא־אֶחָד עָשָׂה וּשְׁאָר רוּחַ לוֹ וּמָה הָאֶחָד מְבַקֵּשׁ זֶרַע אֱלֹהִים וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם בְּרוּחֲכֶם וּבְאֵשֶׁת נְעוּרֶיךָ אַל־יִבְגֹּד׃ 2.16. כִּי־שָׂנֵא שַׁלַּח אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִסָּה חָמָס עַל־לְבוּשׁוֹ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם בְּרוּחֲכֶם וְלֹא תִבְגֹּדוּ׃ 3.6. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה לֹא שָׁנִיתִי וְאַתֶּם בְּנֵי־יַעֲקֹב לֹא כְלִיתֶם׃ 3.7. לְמִימֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם סַרְתֶּם מֵחֻקַּי וְלֹא שְׁמַרְתֶּם שׁוּבוּ אֵלַי וְאָשׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וַאֲמַרְתֶּם בַּמֶּה נָשׁוּב׃ 3.8. הֲיִקְבַּע אָדָם אֱלֹהִים כִּי אַתֶּם קֹבְעִים אֹתִי וַאֲמַרְתֶּם בַּמֶּה קְבַעֲנוּךָ הַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַתְּרוּמָה׃ 3.9. בַּמְּאֵרָה אַתֶּם נֵאָרִים וְאֹתִי אַתֶּם קֹבְעִים הַגּוֹי כֻּלּוֹ׃ 3.11. וְגָעַרְתִּי לָכֶם בָּאֹכֵל וְלֹא־יַשְׁחִת לָכֶם אֶת־פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה וְלֹא־תְשַׁכֵּל לָכֶם הַגֶּפֶן בַּשָּׂדֶה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 3.12. וְאִשְּׁרוּ אֶתְכֶם כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם כִּי־תִהְיוּ אַתֶּם אֶרֶץ חֵפֶץ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 3.23. הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ לָכֶם אֵת אֵלִיָּה הַנָּבִיא לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃ 1.1. The burden of the word of the LORD to Israel by Malachi." 1.2. I have loved you, saith the LORD. Yet ye say: ‘Wherein hast Thou loved us?’ Was not Esau Jacob’s brother? Saith the LORD; Yet I loved Jacob;" 1.6. A son honoureth his father, And a servant his master; If then I be a father, Where is My honour? And if I be a master, Where is My fear? Saith the LORD of hosts Unto you, O priests, that despise My name. And ye say: ‘Wherein have we despised Thy name?’" 1.7. Ye offer polluted bread upon Mine altar. And ye say: ‘Wherein have we polluted thee?’ In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is contemptible.’" 1.8. And when ye offer the blind for sacrifice, is it no evil! And when ye offer the lame and sick, is it no evil! Present it now unto thy governor; will he be pleased with thee? Or will he accept thy person? Saith the LORD of hosts." 1.9. And now, I pray you, entreat the favour of God That He may be gracious unto us!— This hath been of your doing.— Will He accept any of your persons? Saith the LORD of hosts." 1.10. Oh that there were even one among you that would shut the doors, That ye might not kindle fire on Mine altar in vain! I have no pleasure in you, Saith the LORD of hosts, Neither will I accept an offering at your hand." 1.11. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same My name is great among the nations; And in every place offerings are presented unto My name, Even pure oblations; For My name is great among the nations, Saith the LORD of hosts." 1.12. But ye profane it, In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is polluted, And the fruit thereof, even the food thereof, is contemptible.’" 1.13. Ye say also: ‘Behold, what a weariness is it!’ And ye have snuffed at it, Saith the LORD of hosts; And ye have brought that which was taken by violence, And the lame, and the sick; Thus ye bring the offering; Should I accept this of your hand? Saith the LORD." 2.11. Judah hath dealt treacherously, And an abomination is committed in Israel and in Jerusalem; For Judah hath profaned the holiness of the LORD which He loveth, And hath married the daughter of a strange god." 2.12. May the LORD cut off to the man that doeth this, Him that calleth and him that answereth out of the tents of Jacob, And him that offereth an offering unto the LORD of hosts." 2.13. And this further ye do: Ye cover the altar of the LORD with tears, With weeping, and with sighing, Insomuch that He regardeth not the offering any more, Neither receiveth it with good will at your hand." 2.14. Yet ye say: ‘Wherefore?’ Because the LORD hath been witness Between thee and the wife of thy youth, Against whom thou hast dealt treacherously, Though she is thy companion, And the wife of thy covet." 2.15. And not one hath done so Who had exuberance of spirit! For what seeketh the one? A seed given of God. Therefore take heed to your spirit, And let none deal treacherously against the wife of his youth." 2.16. For I hate putting away, Saith the LORD, the God of Israel, And him that covereth his garment with violence, Saith the LORD of hosts; Therefore take heed to your spirit, That ye deal not treacherously." 3.6. For I the LORD change not; and ye, O sons of Jacob, are not consumed." 3.7. From the days of your fathers ye have turned aside from Mine ordices, and have not kept them. Return unto Me, and I will return unto you, Saith the LORD of hosts. But ye say: ‘Wherein shall we return?’" 3.8. Will a man rob God? Yet ye rob Me. But ye say: ‘Wherein have we robbed Thee?’ In tithes and heave-offerings." 3.9. Ye are cursed with the curse, Yet ye rob Me, Even this whole nation." 3.10. Bring ye the whole tithe into the store-house, that there may be food in My house, and try Me now herewith, Saith the LORD of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall be more than sufficiency. ." 3.11. And I will rebuke the devourer for your good, and he shall not destroy the fruits of your land; Neither shall your vine cast its fruit before the time in the field, Saith the LORD of hosts." 3.12. And all nations shall call you happy; For ye shall be a delightsome land, Saith the LORD of hosts." 3.23. Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet Before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 82.6-82.7, 103.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

82.6. אֲ‍נִי־אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם וּבְנֵי עֶלְיוֹן כֻּלְּכֶם׃ 82.7. אָכֵן כְּאָדָם תְּמוּתוּן וּכְאַחַד הַשָּׂרִים תִּפֹּלוּ׃ 103.13. כְּרַחֵם אָב עַל־בָּנִים רִחַם יְהוָה עַל־יְרֵאָיו׃ 82.6. I said: Ye are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High." 82.7. Nevertheless ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes.'" 103.13. Like as a father hath compassion upon his children, So hath the LORD compassion upon them that fear Him. ."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3.1, 11.1-11.9, 11.31-11.35, 14.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.1. וַיִּיטַב הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינֵי אֲדֹנָי כִּי שָׁאַל שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 3.1. וַיִּתְחַתֵּן שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ מִצְרָיִם וַיִּקַּח אֶת־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה וַיְבִיאֶהָ אֶל־עִיר דָּוִד עַד כַּלֹּתוֹ לִבְנוֹת אֶת־בֵּיתוֹ וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה וְאֶת־חוֹמַת יְרוּשָׁלִַם סָבִיב׃ 11.1. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אָהַב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וְאֶת־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת עַמֳּנִיּוֹת אֲדֹמִיֹּת צֵדְנִיֹּת חִתִּיֹּת׃ 11.1. וְצִוָּה אֵלָיו עַל־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי־לֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא שָׁמַר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 11.2. וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ אֲחוֹת תַּחְפְּנֵיס אֵת גְּנֻבַת בְּנוֹ וַתִּגְמְלֵהוּ תַחְפְּנֵס בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי גְנֻבַת בֵּית פַּרְעֹה בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי פַרְעֹה׃ 11.2. מִן־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־תָבֹאוּ בָהֶם וְהֵם לֹא־יָבֹאוּ בָכֶם אָכֵן יַטּוּ אֶת־לְבַבְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּהֶם דָּבַק שְׁלֹמֹה לְאַהֲבָה׃ 11.3. וַיְהִי־לוֹ נָשִׁים שָׂרוֹת שְׁבַע מֵאוֹת וּפִלַגְשִׁים שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַיַּטּוּ נָשָׁיו אֶת־לִבּוֹ׃ 11.3. וַיִּתְפֹּשׂ אֲחִיָּה בַּשַּׂלְמָה הַחֲדָשָׁה אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו וַיִּקְרָעֶהָ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר קְרָעִים׃ 11.4. וַיְהִי לְעֵת זִקְנַת שְׁלֹמֹה נָשָׁיו הִטּוּ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא־הָיָה לְבָבוֹ שָׁלֵם עִם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו כִּלְבַב דָּוִיד אָבִיו׃ 11.4. וַיְבַקֵּשׁ שְׁלֹמֹה לְהָמִית אֶת־יָרָבְעָם וַיָּקָם יָרָבְעָם וַיִּבְרַח מִצְרַיִם אֶל־שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וַיְהִי בְמִצְרַיִם עַד־מוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 11.5. וַיֵּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אַחֲרֵי עַשְׁתֹּרֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִדֹנִים וְאַחֲרֵי מִלְכֹּם שִׁקֻּץ עַמֹּנִים׃ 11.6. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא מִלֵּא אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה כְּדָוִד אָבִיו׃ 11.7. אָז יִבְנֶה שְׁלֹמֹה בָּמָה לִכְמוֹשׁ שִׁקֻּץ מוֹאָב בָּהָר אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם וּלְמֹלֶךְ שִׁקֻּץ בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 11.8. וְכֵן עָשָׂה לְכָל־נָשָׁיו הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת מַקְטִירוֹת וּמְזַבְּחוֹת לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 11.9. וַיִּתְאַנַּף יְהוָה בִּשְׁלֹמֹה כִּי־נָטָה לְבָבוֹ מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַנִּרְאָה אֵלָיו פַּעֲמָיִם׃ 11.31. וַיֹּאמֶר לְיָרָבְעָם קַח־לְךָ עֲשָׂרָה קְרָעִים כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנְנִי קֹרֵעַ אֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָה מִיַּד שְׁלֹמֹה וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ אֵת עֲשָׂרָה הַשְּׁבָטִים׃ 11.32. וְהַשֵּׁבֶט הָאֶחָד יִהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְמַעַן עַבְדִּי דָוִד וּלְמַעַן יְרוּשָׁלִַם הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתִּי בָהּ מִכֹּל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 11.33. יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עֲזָבוּנִי וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְעַשְׁתֹּרֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִדֹנִין לִכְמוֹשׁ אֱלֹהֵי מוֹאָב וּלְמִלְכֹּם אֱלֹהֵי בְנֵי־עַמּוֹן וְלֹא־הָלְכוּ בִדְרָכַי לַעֲשׂוֹת הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינַי וְחֻקֹּתַי וּמִשְׁפָּטַי כְּדָוִד אָבִיו׃ 11.34. וְלֹא־אֶקַּח אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּמְלָכָה מִיָּדוֹ כִּי נָשִׂיא אֲשִׁתֶנּוּ כֹּל יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן דָּוִד עַבְדִּי אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתִּי אֹתוֹ אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַר מִצְוֺתַי וְחֻקֹּתָי׃ 11.35. וְלָקַחְתִּי הַמְּלוּכָה מִיַּד בְּנוֹ וּנְתַתִּיהָ לְּךָ אֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַשְּׁבָטִים׃ 14.21. וּרְחַבְעָם בֶּן־שְׁלֹמֹה מָלַךְ בִּיהוּדָה בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִים וְאַחַת שָׁנָה רְחַבְעָם בְּמָלְכוֹ וּשֲׁבַע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה מָלַךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִַם הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר־בָּחַר יְהוָה לָשׂוּם אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שָׁם מִכֹּל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשֵׁם אִמּוֹ נַעֲמָה הָעַמֹּנִית׃ 3.1. And Solomon became allied to Pharaoh king of Egypt by marriage, and took Pharaoh’s daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about." 11.1. Now king Solomon loved many foreign women, besides the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites;" 11.2. of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel: ‘Ye shall not go among them, neither shall they come among you; for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods’; Solomon did cleave unto these in love." 11.3. And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines; and his wives turned away his heart." 11.4. For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods; and his heart was not whole with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father." 11.5. For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the detestation of the Ammonites." 11.6. And Solomon did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD, as did David his father." 11.7. Then did Solomon build a high place for Chemosh the detestation of Moab, in the mount that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech the detestation of the children of Ammon." 11.8. And so did he for all his foreign wives, who offered and sacrificed unto their gods." 11.9. And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned away from the LORD, the God of Israel, who had appeared unto him twice," 11.31. And he said to Jeroboam: ‘Take thee ten pieces; for thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Behold, I will rend the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon, and will give ten tribes to thee—" 11.32. but he shall have one tribe, for My servant David’s sake, and for Jerusalem’s sake, the city which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel—" 11.33. because that they have forsaken Me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, Chemosh the god of Moab, and Milcom the god of the children of Ammon; and they have not walked in My ways, to do that which is right in Mine eyes, and to keep My statutes and Mine ordices, as did David his father." 11.34. Howbeit I will not take the whole kingdom out of his hand; but I will make him prince all the days of his life, for David My servant’s sake, whom I chose, because he kept My commandments and My statutes;" 11.35. but I will take the kingdom out of his son’s hand, and will give it unto thee, even ten tribes." 14.21. And Rehoboam the son of Solomon reigned in Judah. Rehoboam was forty and one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the LORD had chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, to put His name there; and his mother’s name was Naamah the Ammonitess."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.2, 63.16, 64.7-64.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.2. וְאִם־תְּמָאֲנוּ וּמְרִיתֶם חֶרֶב תְּאֻכְּלוּ כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 1.2. שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמַיִם וְהַאֲזִינִי אֶרֶץ כִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר בָּנִים גִּדַּלְתִּי וְרוֹמַמְתִּי וְהֵם פָּשְׁעוּ בִי׃ 63.16. כִּי־אַתָּה אָבִינוּ כִּי אַבְרָהָם לֹא יְדָעָנוּ וְיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יַכִּירָנוּ אַתָּה יְהוָה אָבִינוּ גֹּאֲלֵנוּ מֵעוֹלָם שְׁמֶךָ׃ 64.7. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אָבִינוּ אָתָּה אֲנַחְנוּ הַחֹמֶר וְאַתָּה יֹצְרֵנוּ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ כֻּלָּנוּ׃ 64.8. אַל־תִּקְצֹף יְהוָה עַד־מְאֹד וְאַל־לָעַד תִּזְכֹּר עָוֺן הֵן הַבֶּט־נָא עַמְּךָ כֻלָּנוּ׃ 1.2. Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth, For the LORD hath spoken: Children I have reared, and brought up, And they have rebelled against Me." 63.16. For Thou art our Father; for Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel doth not acknowledge us; Thou, O LORD, art our Father, Our Redeemer from everlasting is Thy name." 64.7. But now, O LORD, Thou art our Father; we are the clay, and Thou our potter, and we all are the work of Thy hand." 64.8. Be not wroth very sore, O LORD, neither remember iniquity for ever; behold, look, we beseech Thee, we are all Thy people."
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.4, 3.19, 31.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.4. הֲלוֹא מֵעַתָּה קראתי [קָרָאת] לִי אָבִי אַלּוּף נְעֻרַי אָתָּה׃ 3.19. וְאָנֹכִי אָמַרְתִּי אֵיךְ אֲשִׁיתֵךְ בַּבָּנִים וְאֶתֶּן־לָךְ אֶרֶץ חֶמְדָּה נַחֲלַת צְבִי צִבְאוֹת גּוֹיִם וָאֹמַר אָבִי תקראו־[תִּקְרְאִי־] לִי וּמֵאַחֲרַי לֹא תשובו [תָשׁוּבִי׃] 31.9. בִּבְכִי יָבֹאוּ וּבְתַחֲנוּנִים אוֹבִילֵם אוֹלִיכֵם אֶל־נַחֲלֵי מַיִם בְּדֶרֶךְ יָשָׁר לֹא יִכָּשְׁלוּ בָּהּ כִּי־הָיִיתִי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְאָב וְאֶפְרַיִם בְּכֹרִי הוּא׃ 3.4. Didst thou not just now cry unto Me: ‘My father, Thou art the friend of my youth." 3.19. But I said: ‘How would I put thee among the sons, And give thee a pleasant land, The goodliest heritage of the nations! ’ And I said: ‘Thou shalt call Me, My father; And shalt not turn away from following Me.’" 31.9. They shall come with weeping, And with supplications will I lead them; I will cause them to walk by rivers of waters, In a straight way wherein they shall not stumble; For I am become a father to Israel, And Ephraim is My first-born."
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.22 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.22. וְאַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה לֹא־יִקְחוּ לָהֶם לְנָשִׁים כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלֹת מִזֶּרַע בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה מִכֹּהֵן יִקָּחוּ׃ 44.22. Neither shall they take for their wives a widow, nor her that is put away; but they shall take virgins of the seed of the house of Israel, or a widow that is the widow of a priest."
12. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.25. עָנֵה וְאָמַר הָא־אֲנָה חָזֵה גֻּבְרִין אַרְבְּעָה שְׁרַיִן מַהְלְכִין בְּגוֹא־נוּרָא וַחֲבָל לָא־אִיתַי בְּהוֹן וְרֵוֵהּ דִּי רביעיא [רְבִיעָאָה] דָּמֵה לְבַר־אֱלָהִין׃ 3.25. He answered and said: ‘Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the appearance of the fourth is like a son of the gods.’"
15. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 11.10, 18.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11.10. For thou didst test them as a father does in warning,but thou didst examine the ungodly as a stern king does in condemnation. 18.13. For though they had disbelieved everything because of their magic arts,yet, when their first-born were destroyed,they acknowledged thy people to be Gods son.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.29 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.29. Again. Moses commands, do not either form a connection of marriage with one of another nation, and do not be seduced into complying with customs inconsistent with your own, and do not stray from the right way and forget the path which leads to piety, turning into a road which is no road. And, perhaps, you will yourself resist, if you have been from your earliest youth trained in the best possible instruction, which your parents have instilled into you, continually filling your mind with the sacred laws. And the anxiety and fear which parents feel for their sons and daughters is not slight; for, perchance, they may be allured by mischievous customs instead of genuine good ones, and so they may be in danger of learning to forget the honour belonging to the one God, which is the beginning and end of extreme unhappiness.
17. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.16-2.42 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. Manetho says that the Jews departed out of Egypt, in the reign of Tethmosis, three hundred and ninety-three years before Danaus fled to Argos; Lysimachus says it was under king Bocchoris, that is, one thousand seven hundred years ago; 2.16. When he had therefore come to such a good resolution, and had performed such wonderful exploits, we had just reason to look upon ourselves as having him for a divine governor and counsellor; and when he had first persuaded himself that his actions and designs were agreeable to God’s will, he thought it his duty to impress, above all things, that notion upon the multitude; for those who have once believed that God is the inspector of their lives, will not permit themselves in any sin; 2.17. Molo and some others determined it as every one pleased; but this Apion of ours, as deserving to be believed before them, hath determined it exactly to have been in the seventh olympiad, and the first year of that olympiad; the very same year in which he says that Carthage was built by the Phoenicians. The reason why he added this building of Carthage was, to be sure, in order, as he thought, to strengthen his assertion by so evident a character of chronology. But he was not aware that this character confutes his assertion; 2.17. The reason why the constitution of this legislation was ever better directed to the utility of all than other legislations were, is this, that Moses did not make religion a part of virtue, but he saw and he ordained other virtues to be parts of religion; I mean justice, and fortitude, and temperance, and a universal agreement of the members of the community with one another; 2.18. for if we may give credit to the Phoenician records as to the time of the first coming of their colony to Carthage, they relate that Hirom their king was above one hundred and fifty years earlier than the building of Carthage; concerning whom I have formerly produced testimonials out of those Phoenician records 2.18. for no other people but we Jews have avoided all discourses about God that any way contradict one another, which yet are frequent among other nations; and this is true not only among ordinary persons, according as every one is affected, but some of the philosophers have been insolent enough to indulge such contradictions, while some of them have undertaken to use such words as entirely take away the nature of God, as others of them have taken away his providence over mankind. 2.19. as also that this Hirom was a friend of Solomon when he was building the temple of Jerusalem, and gave him great assistance in his building that temple, while still Solomon himself built that temple, six hundred and twelve years after the Jews came out of Egypt. 2.19. What are the things then that we are commanded or forbidden?—They are simply and easily known. The first command is concerning God, and affirms that God contains all things, and is a being every way perfect and happy, self-sufficient, and supplying all other beings; the beginning, the middle, and the end of all things. He is manifest in his works and benefits, and more conspicuous than any other being whatsoever, but as to his form and magnitude, he is most obscure. 2.21. for he says, that “when the Jews had travelled a six days’ journey, they had buboes in their groins: and that on this account it was that they rested on the seventh day, as having got safely to that country which is now called Judea; that then they preserved the language of the Egyptians, and called that day the Sabbath, for that malady of buboes in their groin was named Sabbatosis by the Egyptians.” 2.21. Accordingly our legislator admits all those that have a mind to observe our laws, so to do; and this after a friendly manner, as esteeming that a true union, which not only extends to our own stock, but to those that would live after the same manner with us; yet does he not allow those that come to us by accident only to be admitted into communion with us. /p 2.22. And would not a man now laugh at this fellow’s trifling, or rather hate his impudence in writing thus? We must, it seems, take it for granted, that all these hundred and ten thousand men must have these buboes! 2.22. 32. Nay, indeed, in case it had so fallen out, that our nation had not been so thoroughly known among all men as they are, and our voluntary submission to our laws had not been so open and manifest as it is 2.23. But, for certain, if those men had been blind and lame, and had all sorts of distempers upon them, as Apion says they had, they could not have gone one single day’s journey; but if they had been all able to travel over a large desert, and, besides that, to fight and conquer those that opposed them, they had not all of them had buboes in their groins after the sixth day was over; 2.23. while they made use of other men as their servants for all the necessaries of life, and had their food prepared for them by the others: and these good and humane actions they do for no other purpose but this, that by their actions and their sufferings they may be able to conquer all those against whom they make war. 2.24. for no such distemper comes naturally and of necessity upon those that travel; but still, when there are many ten thousands in a camp together, they constantly march a settled space [in a day]. Nor is it at all probable that such a thing should happen by chance: this would be prodigiously absurd to be supposed. 2.24. uch as these, that they may be allowed to be as numerous as they have a mind to have them; that they are begotten one by another, and that after all the kinds of generation you can imagine. They also distinguish them in their places and ways of living, as they would distinguish several sorts of animals: as some to be under the earth; as some to be in the sea; and the ancientest of them all to be bound in hell; 2.25. However, our admirable author Apion hath before told us, that “they came to Judea in six days’ time;” and again, that “Moses went up to a mountain that lay between Egypt and Arabia, which was called Sinai, and was concealed there forty days, and that when he came down from thence he gave laws to the Jews.” But then, how was it possible for them to tarry forty days in a desert place where there was no water, and at the same time to pass all over the country between that and Judea in the six days? 2.25. 36. Wherefore it deserves our inquiry what should be the occasion of this unjust management, and of these scandals about the Deity. And truly I suppose it to be derived from the imperfect knowledge the heathen legislators had at first of the true nature of God; nor did they explain to the people even so far as they did comprehend of it: nor did they compose the other parts of their political settlements according to it 2.26. And as for this grammatical translation of the word Sabbath, it either contains an instance of his great impudence or gross ignorance; 2.26. and perhaps there may be some reason to blame the rigid severity of the Lacedemonians, for they bestowed the privilege of their city on no foreigners, nor indeed would give leave to them to stay among them; 2.27. for the words iSabboand iSabbathare widely different from one another; for the word Sabbath in the Jewish language denotes rest from all sorts of work; but the word Sabbo, as he affirms, denotes among the Egyptians the malady of a bubo in the groin. /p 2.27. And to be sure Apollonius was greatly pleased with the laws of the Persians, and was an admirer of them, because the Greeks enjoyed the advantage of their courage, and had the very same opinion about the gods which they had. This last was exemplified in the temples which they burnt, and their courage in coming, and almost entirely enslaving the Grecians. However, Apollonius has imitated all the Persian institutions, and that by his offering violence to other men’s wives, and castrating his own sons. 2.28. 3. This is that novel account which the Egyptian Apion gives us concerning the Jews’ departure out of Egypt, and is no better than a contrivance of his own. But why should we wonder at the lies he tells us about our forefathers, when he affirms them to be of Egyptian original, when he lies also about himself? 2.28. 40. We have already demonstrated that our laws have been such as have always inspired admiration and imitation into all other men; 2.29. for although he was born at Oasis in Egypt, he pretends to be, as a man may say, the top man of all the Egyptians; yet does he forswear his real country and progenitors, and by falsely pretending to be born at Alexandria, cannot deny the pravity of his family; 2.29. Those accusers reproached our legislator as a vile fellow; whereas God in old time bare witness to his virtuous conduct; and since that testimony of God, time itself hath been discovered to have borne witness to the same thing. /p 2.31. As for the Egyptians’ claim to be of our kindred, they do it on one of the following accounts; I mean, either as they value themselves upon it, and pretend to bear that relation to us: or else as they would draw us in to be partakers of their own infamy. 2.32. But this fine fellow Apion seems to broach this reproachful appellation against us [that we were originally Egyptians] in order to bestow it on the Alexandrians as a reward for the privilege they had given him of being a fellow citizen with them; he also is apprised of the ill will the Alexandrians bear to those Jews who are their fellow citizens, and so proposes to himself to reproach them, although he must thereby include all the other Egyptians also; while in both cases he is no better than an impudent liar. /p 2.33. 4. But let us now see what those heavy and wicked crimes are which Apion charges upon the Alexandrian Jews. “They came (says he) out of Syria, and inhabited near the tempestuous sea, and were in the neighborhood of the dashing of the waves.” 2.34. Now, if the place of habitation includes any thing that is reproachful, this man reproaches not his own real country [Egypt], but what he pretends to be his own country, Alexandria; for all are agreed in this, that the part of that city which is near the sea is the best part of all for habitation. 2.35. Now, if the Jews gained that part of the city by force, and have kept it hitherto without impeachment, this is a mark of their valor: but in reality it was Alexander himself that gave them that place for their habitation, when they obtained equal privileges there with the Macedonians. 2.36. Nor can I devise what Apion would have said, had their habitation been at Necropolis, and not been fixed hard by the royal palace [as it is]; nor had their nation had the denomination of Macedonians given them till this very day [as they have]. 2.37. Had this man now read the epistles of king Alexander, or those of Ptolemy the son of Lagus, or met with the writings of the succeeding kings, or that pillar which is still standing at Alexandria, and contains the privileges which the great [Julius] Caesar bestowed upon the Jews; had this man, I say, known these records, and yet hath the impudence to write in contradiction to them, he hath shown himself to be a wicked man: but if he knew nothing of these records, he hath shown himself to be a man very ignorant; 2.38. nay, when he appears to wonder how Jews could be called Alexandrians, this is another like instance of his ignorance; for all such as are called out to be colonies, although they be ever so far remote from one another in their original, receive their names from those that bring them to their new habitations. 2.39. And what occasion is there to speak of others, when those of us Jews that dwell at Antioch are named Antiochians, because Seleucus the founder of that city gave them the privileges belonging thereto? After the like manner do those Jews that inhabit Ephesus and the other cities of Ionia enjoy the same name with those that were originally born there, by the grant of the succeeding princes; 2.41. and if Apion reject this way of obtaining the privilege of a citizen of Alexandria, let him abstain from calling himself an Alexandrian hereafter; for otherwise, how can he who was born in the very heart of Egypt be an Alexandrian, if this way of accepting such a privilege, of which he would have us deprived, be once abrogated? Although indeed these Romans, who are now the lords of the habitable earth, have forbidden the Egyptians to have the privileges of any city whatsoever 2.42. while this fine fellow, who is willing to partake of such a privilege himself as he is forbidden to make use of, endeavors by calumnies to deprive those of it that have justly received it; for Alexander did not therefore get some of our nation to Alexandria, because he wanted inhabitants for this his city, on whose building he had bestowed so much pains; but this was given to our people as a reward; because he had, upon a careful trial, found them all to have been men of virtue and fidelity to him;
18. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.6. one God and Father of all, who is over all, and through all, and in us all.
19. New Testament, John, 1.12-1.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
20. New Testament, Luke, 20.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.25. He said to them, "Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's.
21. New Testament, Mark, 12.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.17. Jesus answered them, "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's."They marveled greatly at him.
22. New Testament, Matthew, 22.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.21. They said to him, "Caesar's."Then he said to them, "Give therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's.
23. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 4.1, 18.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4.1. נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא בִּשְׁגָגָה מִכֹּל מִצְוֹת ה', זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (קהלת ג, טז): וְעוֹד רָאִיתִי תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט וגו', רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר: מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁסַּנְהֶדְּרֵי גְדוֹלָה יוֹשֶׁבֶת וְחוֹתֶכֶת דִּינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁמָּה (ירמיה לט, ג): וַיָּבֹאוּ כֹּל שָׂרֵי מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בְּשַׁעַר הַתָּוֶךְ, שֶׁשָּׁם חוֹתְכִין אֶת הַהֲלָכָה, בְּמַתְלָא אֲמַר הָן דִּי תָלְיָא מָרֵי זַיְינֵיהּ, כּוֹלְבָא רַעֲיָא תְּלָא קוּלְתֵיהּ. וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת: מְקוֹם הַצֶּדֶק שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ (ישעיה א, כא): צֶדֶק יָלִין בָּהּ, עַתָּה עֲבִידִין קָטוֹלִין, שָׁם הָרְגוּ אֶת זְכַרְיָה וְאֶת אוּרִיָה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר: מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִדַּת הַדִּין בְּמַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל, דִּכְתִיב (שמות לב, כז): עִבְרוּ וָשׁוּבוּ מִשַּׁעַר לָשַׁעַר, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁם (שמות לב, לה): וַיִּגֹּף ה' אֶת הָעָם, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת: מְקוֹם הַצֶּדֶק שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁהִצְדַּקְתִּים וּקְרָאתִים אֱלָהוּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים פב, ו): אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁמָּה הִרְשִׁיעוּ וְעָשׂוּ אֶת הָעֵגֶל וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מְדַבֵּר בְּדוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית בָּהֶם מִדַּת הַדִּין בְּדוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, כְּדִתְנַן (גמרא סנהדרין קז, ב): דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא וְאֵינָן עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁם (בראשית ז, כג): וַיִּמַּח אֶת כָּל הַיְקוּם, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת: מְקוֹם הַצֶּדֶק שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁהִצְדַּקְתִּים, דִּכְתִיב (איוב כא, ט): בָּתֵּיהֶם שָׁלוֹם מִפָּחַד. שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע (איוב כא, יד): וַיֹּאמְרוּ לָאֵל סוּר מִמֶּנּוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מְדַבֵּר בִּסְדוֹמִיִּים, מָקוֹם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִדַּת הַדִּין בִּסְדוֹמִיִּים, כְּדִתְנַן אַנְשֵׁי סְדוֹם אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא אֲבָל עוֹמְדִים בְּדִין, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁם (בראשית יט, כד): וַה' הִמְטִיר עַל סְדוֹם, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת: מְקוֹם הַצֶּדֶק שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁהִצְדַקְתִּים וְכָתַבְתִּי בְּאַרְצָם (איוב כח, ה ו): אֶרֶץ מִמֶּנָּה יֵצֵא לָחֶם, מְקוֹם סַפִּיר אֲבָנֶיהָ וְעַפְרֹת זָהָב לוֹ, אָמְרוּ כְּשֶׁהָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן הוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל הַגַּנָּן וְאָמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִי בְּאִיסָר יָרָק, כְּשֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן מְשַׁכְשְׁכוֹ וּמוֹצֵא בְּעַפְרוֹ זָהָב, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְעַפְרֹת זָהָב לוֹ. שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, שָׁם אָמְרוּ נַעֲמֹד וּנְשַׁכַּח תּוֹרַת הָרֶגֶל מִבֵּינוֹתֵינוּ, (יחזקאל טז, מט): וְיַד עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן לֹא הֶחֱזִיקָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן פָּתַר קְרָיָא בַּשִּׁטִּים, מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִדַּת הַדִּין בַּשִּׁטִּים, דִּכְתִיב (במדבר כה, ד): קַח אֶת כָּל רָאשֵׁי הָעָם, שָׁמָּה הָרֶשַׁע, שָׁם (במדבר כה, ט): וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת: מְקוֹם הַצֶּדֶק שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע, מָקוֹם שֶׁהָפַכְתִּי קִלְּלַת בִּלְעָם לִבְרָכָה, דִּכְתִיב (דברים כג, ו): וַיַּהֲפֹךְ ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ אֶת הַקְּלָלָה לִבְרָכָה, שָׁמָּה הָרָשַׁע (במדבר כה, א): וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים. רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ שְׁנֵי דְּבָרִים בַּיְּמִין וּשְׁנֵי דְבָרִים בַּיָּד, שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים בַּיְּמִין, תּוֹרָה וּצְדָקָה, תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן (דברים לג, ב): מִימִינוֹ אֵשׁ דָּת לָמוֹ. צְדָקָה מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים מח, יא): צֶדֶק מָלְאָה יְמִינֶךָ. שְׁנֵי דְבָרִים בַּיָּד, נֶפֶשׁ וּמִשְׁפָּט, נֶפֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב יב, י): אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדוֹ נֶפֶשׁ כָּל חָי. מִשְׁפָּט, דִּכְתִיב (דברים לב, מא): וְתֹאחֵז בְּמִשְׁפָּט יָדִי, הַנֶּפֶשׁ נְתוּנָה בִּמְקוֹם מִשְׁפָּט, וְנֶפֶשׁ יוֹצְאָה מִמְּקוֹם מִשְׁפָּט וְחוֹטֵאת, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲנִי כָּתַבְתִּי עָלַיִךְ (דברים יב, כג): רַק חֲזַק לְבִלְתִּי אֲכֹל הַדָּם וגו', וְאַתְּ יוֹצֵאת וְחוֹטֵאת, נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא בִּשְׁגָּגָה. 18.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ, זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (חבקוק א, ז): אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא. אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ, מִמִּזְרַח לְמַעֲרָב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, מִן הַצָּפוֹן לְדָרוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, וּמִנַּיִן אַף כַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זוֹ חַוָּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ג, יב): וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה עִמָּדִי הִוא נָתְנָה לִּי וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה עֵשָׂו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים כז, טו): וַתִּקַּח רִבְקָה אֶת בִּגְדֵי עֵשָׂו בְּנָהּ הַגָּדֹל. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה עֹבַדְיָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק עֹבַדְיָה גֵּר אֲדוֹמִי הָיָה, וְהָיָה מִתְנַבֵּא עַל אֱדוֹם (עובדיה א, יח): וְלֹא יִהְיֶה שָׂרִיד לְבֵית עֵשָׂו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה סַנְחֵרִיב, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה לו, כ): מִי בְּכָל אֱלֹהֵי הָאֲרָצוֹת הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר הִצִילוּ אֶת אַרְצָם מִיָּדִי. מִמֶּנוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, אֵלּוּ בָּנָיו (מלכים ב יט, לז): וַיְהִי הוּא מִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה בֵּית נִסְרֹךְ אֱלֹהָיו וְאַדְרַמֶּלֶךְ וְשַׁרְאֶצֶר בָּנָיו הִכֻּהוּ בַחֶרֶב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה חִירָם מֶלֶךְ צוֹר, דִּכְתִיב (יחזקאל כח, ב): בֶּן אָדָם אֱמֹר לִנְגִיד צֹר כֹּה אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהִים יַעַן גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן מָסֹרֶת אַגָּדָה הִיא חִירָם בַּעַל אִמּוֹ שֶׁל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הָיָה, עָמַד עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל כח, יח): וָאוֹצִיא אֵשׁ מִתּוֹכְךָ הִיא אֲכָלַתְךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר (ישעיה יד, יג): וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה וגו'. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ, אָמְרוּ כָּל אוֹתָן שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁעָבְרוּ עַל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, נָטְלוּ אֶת אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ וְהִמְלִיכוּהוּ תַּחְתָּיו, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁחָזַר נְטָלוֹ וַחֲבָשׁוֹ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְכָל מִי שֶׁהָיָה נִכְנַס בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים בְּיָמָיו לֹא הָיָה יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יד, יז): אֲסִירָיו לֹא פָתַח בָּיְתָה. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁמֵּת חָזְרוּ עַל אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ לְהַמְלִיכוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶם אֵינִי שׁוֹמֵעַ לָכֶם, בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה שָׁמַעְתִּי לָכֶם נְטָלַנִּי וַחֲבָשַׁנִי בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְעַכְשָׁיו הֲרֵי הוּא הוֹרְגֵנִי, וְלֹא הֶאֱמִין לָהֶם עַד שֶׁגְּרָרוּהוּ וְהִשְׁלִיכוּהוּ לְפָנָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה יד, יט): וְאַתָּה הָשְׁלַכְתָּ מִקִּבְרְךָ וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִינָא וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא כָּל שׂוֹנֵא וְשׂוֹנֵא שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ הָיָה בָּא וְדוֹקְרוֹ בַּחֶרֶב, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יד, יט): לְבֻשׁ הֲרֻגִים מְטֹעֲנֵי חָרֶב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים פב, ו): אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, שֶׁלָּקוּ בְּזִיבוּת וּבְצָרַעַת, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶן: אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ. 4.1. \"When a person incurs guilt accidentally by [transgressing one among] all of the commandments of YHVH\": This is that of which the Bible says: \"And indeed I have witnessed under the sun the place of judgment...\" (Ecclesiastes 3:16). Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Joshua [in conversation]... "
24. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. לומר לך שאם חטא יחיד אומרים לו כלך אצל יחיד ואם חטאו צבור אומרים לו כלך אצל צבור,וצריכא דאי אשמועינן יחיד משום דלא מפרסם חטאיה אבל צבור דמפרסם חטאיהו אימא לא ואי אשמועינן צבור משום דנפישי רחמייהו אבל יחיד דלא אלימא זכותיה אימא לא צריכא,והיינו דרבי שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב כג, א) נאם דוד בן ישי ונאם הגבר הוקם על נאם דוד בן ישי שהקים עולה של תשובה,וא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל העושה מצוה אחת בעולם הזה מקדמתו והולכת לפניו לעולם הבא שנאמר (ישעיהו נח, ח) והלך לפניך צדקך וכבוד ה' יאספך וכל העובר עבירה אחת מלפפתו ומוליכתו ליום הדין שנאמר (איוב ו, יח) ילפתו ארחות דרכם וגו',ר"א אומר קשורה בו ככלב שנאמר (בראשית לט, י) ולא שמע אליה לשכב אצלה להיות עמה לשכב אצלה בעוה"ז להיות עמה בעוה"ב,אמר ר"ל בואו ונחזיק טובה לאבותינו שאלמלא הן לא חטאו אנו לא באנו לעולם שנאמר (תהלים פב, ו) אני אמרתי אלהים אתם ובני עליון כלכם חבלתם מעשיכם אכן כאדם תמותון וגו',למימרא דאי לא חטאו לא הוו מולדו והכתיב (בראשית ט, ז) ואתם פרו ורבו עד סיני בסיני נמי כתיב (דברים ה, כז) לך אמור להם שובו לכם לאהליכם לשמחת עונה,והכתיב (דברים ה, כו) למען ייטב להם ולבניהם וגו' לאותן העומדים על הר סיני,והאמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם וגו' וכי ספר היה לו לאדם הראשון מלמד שהראה לו הקב"ה לאדם הראשון דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו דור דור ופרנסיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של ר"ע שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל [וגו'],וא"ר יוסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו נשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) [כי לא לעולם אריב ולא לנצח אקצוף] כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי,לא תימא אנו לא באנו לעולם אלא כמי שלא באנו לעולם למימרא דאי לא חטאו לא הוו מייתי והכתיב פרשת יבמות ופרשת נחלות,על תנאי ומי כתיבי קראי על תנאי אין דהכי אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית א, לא) ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום הששי מלמד שהתנה הקב"ה עם מעשה בראשית ואמר אם מקבלין ישראל את התורה מוטב ואם לאו אחזיר אתכם לתוהו ובוהו,מיתיבי (דברים ה, כו) מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם לבטל מהם מלאך המות א"א שכבר נגזרה גזרה,הא לא קיבלו ישראל את התורה אלא כדי שלא תהא אומה ולשון שולטת בהן שנאמר (דברים ה, כו) למען ייטב להם ולבניהם עד עולם,הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא רבי יוסי אומר לא קיבלו ישראל את התורה אלא כדי שלא יהא מלאך המות שולט בהן שנאמר (תהלים פב, ו) אני אמרתי אלהים אתם ובני עליון כלכם חבלתם מעשיכם אכן כאדם תמותון,ורבי יוסי נמי הכתיב למען ייטב להם ולבניהם עד עולם טובה הוא דהויא הא מיתה איכא (רבי יוסי) אמר לך כיון דליכא מיתה אין לך טובה גדולה מזו,ות"ק נמי הכתיב אכן כאדם תמותון מאי מיתה עניות דאמר מר ארבעה חשובים כמתים אלו הן עני סומא ומצורע ומי שאין לו בנים,עני דכתיב (שמות ד, יט) כי מתו כל האנשים ומאן נינהו דתן ואבירם ומי מתו מיהוי הוו אלא שירדו מנכסיהם,סומא דכתיב (איכה ג, ו) במחשכים הושיבני כמתי עולם מצורע דכתיב (במדבר יב, יב) אל נא תהי כמת ומי שאין לו בנים דכתיב (בראשית ל, א) הבה לי בנים ואם אין מתה אנכי,תנו רבנן (ויקרא כו, ג) אם בחקתי תלכו אין אם אלא לשון תחנונים וכן הוא אומר (תהלים פא, יד) לו עמי שומע לי [וגו'] כמעט אויביהם אכניע ואומר (ישעיהו מח, יח) לו הקשבת למצותי ויהי כנהר שלומך וגו' ויהי כחול זרעך וצאצאי מעיך וגו',תנו רבנן (דברים ה, כז) מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם אמר להן משה לישראל כפויי טובה בני כפויי טובה בשעה שאמר הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל מי יתן והיה לבבם זה להם היה להם לומר תן אתה,כפויי טובה דכתיב (במדבר כא, ה) ונפשנו קצה 5a. This serves bto say to you that if an individualhas bsinned, one says to him: Go tothat famous bindividualwho sinned, King David, and learn from him that one can repent. bAnd if the community sinned, one says tothem: bGo tothe bcommunitythat sinned, i.e., the Jewish people at the time of the Golden Calf.,The Gemara notes: bAndit is bnecessaryto learn about repentance both in the case of an individual and in the case of a community. The reason is bthat if we had learnedthis idea only with regard to ban individual,one might have thought that he has the option to repent only bbecause his sin is not publicized. Butin the case of ba community, whose sin is publicized,one might bsaythat the community bcannotrepent. bAndlikewise, bif we had learnedthis idea only with regard to ba community,one might have said that their repentance is accepted bbecause their prayers are more numerousthan those of an individual, and they are heard before God. bButin the case of ban individual, whose merit is notas bstrong,one might bsaythat he is bnotable to repent. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto teach both cases., bAnd this issimilar to that bwhich Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmanisays that bRabbi Yonatan says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The saying of David, son of Yishai, and the saying of the man raised on high [ ial /i]”(II Samuel 23:1)? This is the meaning of the verse: bThe saying of David, son of Yishai, who raisedand lightened bthe yoke [ iullah /i] of repentance,as he taught the power of repentance through his own example., bAnd Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmanifurther bsaysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:With regard to banyone who performs one mitzva in this world,the mitzva will bprecede him and walk before him in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And your righteousness shall go before you, the glory of the Lord shall be your reward”(Isaiah 58:8). bAndwith regard to banyone who commits one transgression,that transgression will bshroud him and lead him on the Day of Judgment, as it is stated: “The paths of their way do wind,they go up into the waste, and are lost” (Job 6:18)., bRabbi Elazar says:The transgression bis tied to him like a dogand does not leave him, bas it is statedwith regard to Joseph and Potiphar’s wife: b“And he did not listen to her, to lie by her, or to be with her”(Genesis 39:10). This teaches that Joseph refused b“to lie by her” in this world,which would have meant that he would have had b“to be with her” in the World-to-Come. /b,§ The Gemara further discusses the sin of the Golden Calf. bReish Lakish says: Come and let us be grateful to our ancestorswho sinned with the Golden Calf, bas had they not sinned wewould bnot have come into the world.Reish Lakish explains: bAs it is statedabout the Jewish people after the revelation at Sinai: b“I said: You are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High”(Psalms 82:6), which indicates that they had become like angels and would not have propagated offspring. Then, God states: After byou ruined your deeds: “Yet you shall die like a man,and fall like one of the princes” (Psalms 82:7).,The Gemara asks: Is this bto say that if they had not sinnedwith the Golden Calf bthey would not have siredchildren? bBut isn’t it writtenthat Noah and his children were instructed: b“And you, be fruitful, and multiply”(Genesis 9:7)? The Gemara answers: This instruction was issued only buntilthe revelation at bSinai,but the Jewish people would have become like angels there, had they not sinned. The Gemara asks: Isn’t it balso writtenabout the Jewish people who were at the revelation bat Sinai: “Go say to them: Return to your tents”(Deuteronomy 5:27), which means that they were instructed to resume marital relations? The Gemara answers: That verse is referring bto the enjoyment of conjugal rights,not to procreation.,The Gemara further asks: bBut isn’t it written: “That it might be good for them, and with their childrenforever” (Deuteronomy 5:26), which indicates that they would continue to bear children? The Gemara answers: This verse is referring bto thosechildren bwho stoodwith them bat Mount Sinai,not to future generations.,The Gemara raises a further difficulty: bBut doesn’t Reish Lakish say: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam,in the day that God created man” (Genesis 5:1)? bDid Adam the firstman bhave a book?Rather, the verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed Adam, the firstman, bevery generation and its expositors, every generation and its Sages,and bevery generation and its leaders. WhenAdam barrived at the generation of Rabbi Akiva, he rejoiced in his Torah and was saddened by his death,as Rabbi Akiva was tortured and murdered. Adam bsaid: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God!How great is the sum of them” (Psalms 139:17). It is evident from here that the Jews were destined to bear future generations from the beginning of time., bAndsimilarly, bRabbi Yosei says:The Messiah, bson of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished,i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so. bAs it is stated: “For I will not contend for ever, neither will I be always wroth; for the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16). According to Rabbi Yosei, in order for the Messiah to come in the end of days, it is necessary for the future generations to be born.,The Gemara answers: bDo not saythat if our ancestors had not sinned bwe would not have come into the world,as we still would have been born; brather,it would have been bas though we had not come into the world.We would have been of no importance, due to the previous generations that would have still been alive. The Gemara asks: Is this bto say that ifthe Jewish people bhad not sinnedwith the Golden Calf then bthey would not have died? But isn’t the chapterthat addresses bwidows whose husbands die childless(Deuteronomy 25:5–10) bwrittenin the Torah, band the chapterthat addresses bthe inheritancea deceased father bequeaths to his sons (Numbers 27:8–11) is also written?,The Gemara answers: These passages were written bconditionally,i.e., if the Jewish people were to sin and not become like angels, those ihalakhotwould take effect. The Gemara asks: bAnd are verses written conditionallyin this manner? The Gemara answers: bYes, as thisis what bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day”(Genesis 1:31)? This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, established a condition with the acts of Creation, and He said: If the Jewish people accept the Torahat the revelation at Sinai, all is bwelland the world will continue to exist. bBut ifthey do bnotaccept it, bI will return you tothe primordial state of bchaos and disorder. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraitato the new formulation of Reish Lakish’s statement, according to which the Jewish people would have become immortal had they not sinned with the Golden Calf. The verse states about the Jewish people after the revelation at Sinai: b“Who would give that they had such a heart as this always,to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children forever” (Deuteronomy 5:26). The ibaraitastates that although they had reached such an elevated state, it bwas not possible to nullifythe power of bthe Angel of Death over them, as the decreeof death bwas already issuedfrom the time of creation.,Rather, the ibaraitaexplains that bthe Jewish people accepted the Torah only in order that no nation or tongue would rule over them, as it is statedin the same verse: b“That it might be good for them, and with their children forever.”This indicates that had the Jewish people not sinned they would not have achieved immortality, which contradicts Reish Lakish’s statement.,The Gemara answers: Reish Lakish bsaidhis statement bin accordance withthe opinion of bthat itanna /i. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: The Jewish people accepted the Torah only in order that the Angel of Death would not rule over them, as it is stated: “I said: You are godlike beings, and all of you sons of the Most High”(Psalms 82:6), i.e., they had become immortal like angels. Then, God states: After byou ruined your deeds, “yet you shall die like a man,and fall like one of the princes” (Psalms 82:7).,The Gemara asks: bAnd also,according to bRabbi Yosei, isn’t it written: “That it might be good for them, and with their children forever,”from which it may be inferred that although bitwill be bgoodfor them if they remain in this elevated state, btherewill still be bdeath?The Gemara answers: bRabbi Yoseicould have bsaid to you: Since there is no death, there is no greater good than this,i.e., the promise of the verse is immortality.,The Gemara inquires: bAndaccording to bthe first itannaas well, isn’t it written: “Yet you shall die like a man,”which indicates that their mortality was decreed only due to the sin of the Golden Calf? The Gemara answers: bWhatis meant by bdeath?It means bpoverty. As the Master said: Four are considered asthough they were bdead: These are a pauper, a blind person, a leper, and one who has no children. /b, bA pauperis considered as though dead, bas it is writtenthat God said to Moses: “Go, return to Egypt; bfor all the menthat sought your life bare dead”(Exodus 4:19). bAnd who were thesemen? They were bDathan and Abiram. But did theyreally bdie? They werestill alive, as they participated in the rebellion of Korah, which took place years later. bRather,the verse does not mean that they had died, but bthat they had lost their propertyand become impoverished. This demonstrates that a pauper is considered as though he were dead., bA blind personis considered as though he were dead, bas it is written: “He has made me to dwell in dark places, as those that have been long dead”(Lamentations 3:6). bA leperis considered as though he were dead, bas it is writtenthat Aaron said to Moses when Miriam was struck with leprosy: b“Let her not, I pray, be as one dead”(Numbers 12:12). bAnd one who has no childrenis considered as though he were dead, bas it is writtenthat Rachel said to Jacob: b“Give me children, or else I am dead”(Genesis 30:1)., bThe Sages taughtwith regard to the verse: b“If you walk in My statutes”(Leviticus 26:3): In this context, b“if”is ba termthat means bnothing other than supplication,i.e., God is hoping that the Jewish people will observe the Torah. bAnd similarly, it is stated: “Oh that My people would hearken to Me,that Israel would walk in My ways, bI would soon subdue their enemies”(Psalms 81:14–15). bAnd it states: “Oh that you would hearken to My commandments! Then your peace would be as a river,and your righteousness as the waves of the sea. bYour seed also would be as the sand, and the offspring of your bodylike its grains” (Isaiah 48:18–19).,§ The Gemara returns to a verse cited above. bThe Sages taughtwith regard to the verse: b“Who would give that they had such a heart as thisalways, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be good for them, and with their children forever” (Deuteronomy 5:26). At a later stage, bMoses said to the Jewish people: Ingrates, children of ingrates! When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: “Who would give that they had such a heart as this always,” they should have said: You should giveus a heart to fear You.,The Gemara explains that Moses calls the Jewish people bingrates, as it is writtenthat the Jewish people spoke disparagingly of the manna: b“And our soul loathes /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 115
abraham Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
adoption as sons, creature Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 238
adoption as sons, soteriology Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 238
alien/foreigner, jewish attitudes toward Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
ammonites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
apocalyptic Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 144
being and will, making Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 218
being and will, scripture Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 238
bet hillel Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 115
bet shammai Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 115
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 82
book of the twelve Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 142
bund Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 163, 164, 168
canaan Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 144
canonization Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 8
discipline Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 144
divination Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 8
divine/heavenly (beings, status) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 82
divinization, deification Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 82
elia Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 161, 172
er Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 163
esau Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 162, 164, 168
esra/ezra Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 142, 161, 172
ezra/esra Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 142, 161, 172
father, addressing god as Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 238
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 310
fortschreibung Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 142
fremde götter Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 163
god, as parent Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 144
grace Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 238
hagar Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
heavenly host, angels, angelic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 82
hebrews/israelites, and mixed marriages Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
hermeneut Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 172
hermeneutics Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 8
hittites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
idolatry, and mixed marriages Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
intermarriage, biblical figures Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
interreligiöse ehe Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 163, 168
intertextualität Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 162, 163
isaac Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 144
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 82
jakob Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 162, 163, 164, 168
jerusalem Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 163
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 82
jesus Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 217
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and intermarriage in post-biblical texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
josephus Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 217
judah, land of Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
judaism, early Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 310
kingdom of god Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 217
laban Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 168
latter prophets Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 8
levi/levites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
levi Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 164, 172
lxx/septuagint/septuaginta Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 144, 163, 164, 172
malachi Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 8, 142, 144, 161
marriage Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 82
messianic Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 8
mixed marriage Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 142
moab/moabites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
mose Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 172
moses Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 144
mythic, mythology (near eastern, semitic), demythologizing Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 82
mündliche tora Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 172
nature Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 8, 144
new testament Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 217
onan Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 163
onias iv Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 162
palästinisches judentum Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 161
parallelismus membrorum Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 164
participation (μετοχή) Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 238
persian-period/persian period Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 142
persian Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 8
philo Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
phoenicians Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
qumran Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 161
sarah Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
schriftkonformitätsformel Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 172
scribal prophecy Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 8
scribe Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 161
scripture, interpretation Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 218
second temple Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 142
septuagint' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 310
septuagint/septuaginta/lxx Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 144, 163, 164, 172
sinai, covenant, revelation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 82
solomon Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115
son, as word in scripture Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 218
son, the, by nature Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 238
son, the, creature, work Widdicombe, The Fatherhood of God from Origen to Athanasius (2000) 218
sons of god, sons of heaven Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 82
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 144
targum Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 161, 163, 164, 172
temple Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 142
tora/torah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 8, 162, 172
toralehrer Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 164
tradition Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 8
ursprungslegende Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 168
wilderness passim, place Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 144
wisdom, in gospels Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 217
worship/ritual/cult as identity markers, for jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 115