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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6296
Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.1-5.12


וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;


וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;


nanAnd he shall prepare the second for a burnt-offering, according to the ordinance; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin which he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven.


וְאִם־לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ לִשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ לִשְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵפָה סֹלֶת לְחַטָּאת לֹא־יָשִׂים עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה כִּי חַטָּאת הִיא׃But if his means suffice not for two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he shall bring his offering for that wherein he hath sinned, the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin-offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon; for it is a sin-offering.


וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִמֶּנָּה מְלוֹא קֻמְצוֹ אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הִוא׃And he shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; it is a sin-offering.


וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃or if any one touch any unclean thing, whether it be the carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, or the carcass of unclean swarming things, and be guilty, it being hidden from him that he is unclean;


אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בְּכָל־דָּבָר טָמֵא אוֹ בְנִבְלַת חַיָּה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת שֶׁרֶץ טָמֵא וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא טָמֵא וְאָשֵׁם׃or if any one touch any unclean thing, whether it be the carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, or the carcass of unclean swarming things, and be guilty, it being hidden from him that he is unclean;


אוֹ כִי יִגַּע בְּטֻמְאַת אָדָם לְכֹל טֻמְאָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא בָּהּ וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם׃or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsoever his uncleanness be wherewith he is unclean, and it be hid from him; and, when he knoweth of it, be guilty;


אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תִשָּׁבַע לְבַטֵּא בִשְׂפָתַיִם לְהָרַע אוֹ לְהֵיטִיב לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יְבַטֵּא הָאָדָם בִּשְׁבֻעָה וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה׃or if any one swear clearly with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall utter clearly with an oath, and it be hid from him; and, when he knoweth of it, be guilty in one of these things;


וְהָיָה כִי־יֶאְשַׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְהִתְוַדָּה אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עָלֶיהָ׃and it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that wherein he hath sinned;


וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא נְקֵבָה מִן־הַצֹּאן כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ־שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ׃and he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat, for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin.


וְאִם־לֹא תַגִּיע יָדוֹ דֵּי שֶׂה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ־שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה לַיהוָה אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְאֶחָד לְעֹלָה׃And if his means suffice not for a lamb, then he shall bring his forfeit for that wherein he hath sinned, two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD: one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering.


וְהֵבִיא אֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־אֲשֶׁר לַחַטָּאת רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמָלַק אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ מִמּוּל עָרְפּוֹ וְלֹא יַבְדִּיל׃And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin-offering first, and pinch off its head close by its neck, but shall not divide it asunder.


וְהִזָּה מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת עַל־קִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַנִּשְׁאָר בַּדָּם יִמָּצֵה אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ חַטָּאת הוּא׃And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin-offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar; it is a sin-offering.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

37 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.2, 17.6, 17.9, 19.16, 22.1-22.3, 30.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.2. לְבִלְתִּי רוּם־לְבָבוֹ מֵאֶחָיו וּלְבִלְתִּי סוּר מִן־הַמִּצְוָה יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיךְ יָמִים עַל־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ הוּא וּבָנָיו בְּקֶרֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.2. כִּי־יִמָּצֵא בְקִרְבְּךָ בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֶת־הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲבֹר בְּרִיתוֹ׃ 17.6. עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃ 17.9. וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם וְאֶל־הַשֹּׁפֵט אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְהִגִּידוּ לְךָ אֵת דְּבַר הַמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 19.16. כִּי־יָקוּם עֵד־חָמָס בְּאִישׁ לַעֲנוֹת בּוֹ סָרָה׃ 22.1. לֹא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־שׁוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ נִדָּחִים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם לְאָחִיךָ׃ 22.1. לֹא־תַחֲרֹשׁ בְּשׁוֹר־וּבַחֲמֹר יַחְדָּו׃ 22.2. וְאִם־לֹא קָרוֹב אָחִיךָ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתּוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְהָיָה עִמְּךָ עַד דְּרֹשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ׃ 22.2. וְאִם־אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לֹא־נִמְצְאוּ בְתוּלִים לנער [לַנַּעֲרָה׃] 22.3. וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַת אָחִיךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְצָאתָהּ לֹא תוּכַל לְהִתְעַלֵּם׃ 30.4. אִם־יִהְיֶה נִדַּחֲךָ בִּקְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם מִשָּׁם יְקַבֶּצְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּמִשָּׁם יִקָּחֶךָ׃ 17.2. If there be found in the midst of thee, within any of thy gates which the LORD thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that doeth that which is evil in the sight of the LORD thy God, in transgressing His covet," 17.6. At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death." 17.9. And thou shall come unto the priests the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days; and thou shalt inquire; and they shall declare unto thee the sentence of judgment." 19.16. If an unrighteous witness rise up against any man to bear perverted witness against him;" 22.1. Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep driven away, and hide thyself from them; thou shalt surely bring them back unto thy brother." 22.2. And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, and thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it home to thy house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother require it, and thou shalt restore it to him." 22.3. And so shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his garment; and so shalt thou do with every lost thing of thy brother’s, which he hath lost, and thou hast found; thou mayest not hide thyself." 30.4. If any of thine that are dispersed be in the uttermost parts of heaven, from thence will the LORD thy God gather thee, and from thence will He fetch thee."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.8, 21.29, 22.6, 23.7, 24.7, 32.4, 34.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.8. וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם יַחְדָּו וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וַיָּשֶׁב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 21.29. וְאִם שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא מִתְּמֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם וְהוּעַד בִּבְעָלָיו וְלֹא יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ וְהֵמִית אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה הַשּׁוֹר יִסָּקֵל וְגַם־בְּעָלָיו יוּמָת׃ 22.6. כִּי־יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ כֶּסֶף אוֹ־כֵלִים לִשְׁמֹר וְגֻנַּב מִבֵּית הָאִישׁ אִם־יִמָּצֵא הַגַּנָּב יְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנָיִם׃ 23.7. מִדְּבַר־שֶׁקֶר תִּרְחָק וְנָקִי וְצַדִּיק אַל־תַּהֲרֹג כִּי לֹא־אַצְדִּיק רָשָׁע׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 32.4. וַיִּקַּח מִיָּדָם וַיָּצַר אֹתוֹ בַּחֶרֶט וַיַּעֲשֵׂהוּ עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלֶּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלוּךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 34.7. נֹצֵר חֶסֶד לָאֲלָפִים נֹשֵׂא עָוֺן וָפֶשַׁע וְחַטָּאָה וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־בְּנֵי בָנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים׃ 19.8. And all the people answered together, and said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken we will do.’ And Moses reported the words of the people unto the LORD." 21.29. But if the ox was wont to gore in time past, and warning hath been given to its owner, and he hath not kept it in, but it hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and its owner also shall be put to death." 22.6. If a man deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man’s house; if the thief be found, he shall pay double." 23.7. Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and righteous slay thou not; for I will not justify the wicked." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 32.4. And he received it at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, and made it a molten calf; and they said: ‘This is thy god, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.’" 34.7. keeping mercy unto the thousandth generation, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin; and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and unto the fourth generation.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 18.24, 21.23, 50.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.24. אוּלַי יֵשׁ חֲמִשִּׁים צַדִּיקִם בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר הַאַף תִּסְפֶּה וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא לַמָּקוֹם לְמַעַן חֲמִשִּׁים הַצַּדִּיקִם אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבָּהּ׃ 21.23. וְעַתָּה הִשָּׁבְעָה לִּי בֵאלֹהִים הֵנָּה אִם־תִּשְׁקֹר לִי וּלְנִינִי וּלְנֶכְדִּי כַּחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי עִמְּךָ תַּעֲשֶׂה עִמָּדִי וְעִם־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־גַּרְתָּה בָּהּ׃ 50.17. כֹּה־תֹאמְרוּ לְיוֹסֵף אָנָּא שָׂא נָא פֶּשַׁע אַחֶיךָ וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי־רָעָה גְמָלוּךָ וְעַתָּה שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע עַבְדֵי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ וַיֵּבְךְּ יוֹסֵף בְּדַבְּרָם אֵלָיו׃ 18.24. Peradventure there are fifty righteous within the city; wilt Thou indeed sweep away and not forgive the place for the fifty righteous that are therein?" 21.23. Now therefore swear unto me here by God that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, nor with my son, nor with my son’s son; but according to the kindness that I have done unto thee, thou shalt do unto me, and to the land wherein thou hast sojourned.’" 50.17. So shall ye say unto Joseph: Forgive, I pray thee now, the transgression of thy brethren, and their sin, for that they did unto thee evil. And now, we pray thee, forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of thy father.’ And Joseph wept when they spoke unto him."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.7. וְהֵמָּה כְּאָדָם עָבְרוּ בְרִית שָׁם בָּגְדוּ בִי׃ 6.7. But they like men have transgressed the covet; There have they dealt treacherously against Me."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 4.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וְאֵלַי דָּבָר יְגֻנָּב וַתִּקַּח אָזְנִי שֵׁמֶץ מֶנְהוּ׃ 4.12. Now a word was secretly brought to me, And mine ear received a whisper thereof."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 4.2-4.35, 5.2-5.14, 5.20-5.26, 16.8, 16.10, 16.16, 16.26, 19.17, 26.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וְעָשָׂה לַפָּר כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְפַר הַחַטָּאת כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ וְכִפֶּר עֲלֵהֶם הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לָהֶם׃ 4.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר נֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה מִכֹּל מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְעָשָׂה מֵאַחַת מֵהֵנָּה׃ 4.3. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדָּמָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָהּ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 4.3. אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶחֱטָא לְאַשְׁמַת הָעָם וְהִקְרִיב עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר תָּמִים לַיהוָה לְחַטָּאת׃ 4.4. וְהֵבִיא אֶת־הַפָּר אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 4.5. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהֵבִיא אֹתוֹ אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.6. וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־אֶצְבָּעוֹ בַּדָּם וְהִזָּה מִן־הַדָּם שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶת־פְּנֵי פָּרֹכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 4.7. וְנָתַן הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַדָּם עַל־קַרְנוֹת מִזְבַּח קְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת כָּל־דַּם הַפָּר יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.8. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֵלֶב פַּר הַחַטָּאת יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמְכַסֶּה עַל־הַקֶּרֶב וְאֵת כָּל־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַקֶּרֶב׃ 4.9. וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עֲלֵיהֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַכְּסָלִים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶרֶת עַל־הַכָּבֵד עַל־הַכְּלָיוֹת יְסִירֶנָּה׃ 4.11. וְאֶת־עוֹר הַפָּר וְאֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל־כְּרָעָיו וְקִרְבּוֹ וּפִרְשׁוֹ׃ 4.12. וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־כָּל־הַפָּר אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה אֶל־מָקוֹם טָהוֹר אֶל־שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן וְשָׂרַף אֹתוֹ עַל־עֵצִים בָּאֵשׁ עַל־שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן יִשָּׂרֵף׃ 4.13. וְאִם כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁגּוּ וְנֶעְלַם דָּבָר מֵעֵינֵי הַקָּהָל וְעָשׂוּ אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְאָשֵׁמוּ׃ 4.14. וְנוֹדְעָה הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר חָטְאוּ עָלֶיהָ וְהִקְרִיבוּ הַקָּהָל פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְהֵבִיאוּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.15. וְסָמְכוּ זִקְנֵי הָעֵדָה אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 4.16. וְהֵבִיא הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.17. וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶצְבָּעוֹ מִן־הַדָּם וְהִזָּה שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת פְּנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת׃ 4.18. וּמִן־הַדָּם יִתֵּן עַל־קַרְנֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת כָּל־הַדָּם יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.19. וְאֵת כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה׃ 4.21. וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־הַפָּר אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׂרַף אֹתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׂרַף אֵת הַפָּר הָרִאשׁוֹן חַטַּאת הַקָּהָל הוּא׃ 4.22. אֲשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא וְעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה בִּשְׁגָגָה וְאָשֵׁם׃ 4.23. אוֹ־הוֹדַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא בָּהּ וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ שְׂעִיר עִזִּים זָכָר תָּמִים׃ 4.24. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָעֹלָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הוּא׃ 4.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־דָּמוֹ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה׃ 4.26. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ יַקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה כְּחֵלֶב זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.27. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת תֶּחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ בַּעֲשֹׂתָהּ אַחַת מִמִּצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְאָשֵׁם׃ 4.28. אוֹ הוֹדַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא וְהֵבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים תְּמִימָה נְקֵבָה עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא׃ 4.29. וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הַחַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם הָעֹלָה׃ 4.31. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּהּ יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר הוּסַר חֵלֶב מֵעַל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.32. וְאִם־כֶּבֶשׂ יָבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ לְחַטָּאת נְקֵבָה תְמִימָה יְבִיאֶנָּה׃ 4.33. וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הַחַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט אֹתָהּ לְחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָעֹלָה׃ 4.34. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָהּ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 4.35. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּה יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר יוּסַר חֵלֶב־הַכֶּשֶׂב מִזֶּבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָם הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.2. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.2. אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בְּכָל־דָּבָר טָמֵא אוֹ בְנִבְלַת חַיָּה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת שֶׁרֶץ טָמֵא וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא טָמֵא וְאָשֵׁם׃ 5.3. אוֹ כִי יִגַּע בְּטֻמְאַת אָדָם לְכֹל טֻמְאָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא בָּהּ וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם׃ 5.4. אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תִשָּׁבַע לְבַטֵּא בִשְׂפָתַיִם לְהָרַע אוֹ לְהֵיטִיב לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יְבַטֵּא הָאָדָם בִּשְׁבֻעָה וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה׃ 5.5. וְהָיָה כִי־יֶאְשַׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְהִתְוַדָּה אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עָלֶיהָ׃ 5.6. וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא נְקֵבָה מִן־הַצֹּאן כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ־שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ׃ 5.7. וְאִם־לֹא תַגִּיע יָדוֹ דֵּי שֶׂה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ־שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה לַיהוָה אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְאֶחָד לְעֹלָה׃ 5.8. וְהֵבִיא אֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־אֲשֶׁר לַחַטָּאת רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמָלַק אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ מִמּוּל עָרְפּוֹ וְלֹא יַבְדִּיל׃ 5.9. וְהִזָּה מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת עַל־קִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַנִּשְׁאָר בַּדָּם יִמָּצֵה אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ חַטָּאת הוּא׃ 5.11. וְאִם־לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ לִשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ לִשְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵפָה סֹלֶת לְחַטָּאת לֹא־יָשִׂים עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה כִּי חַטָּאת הִיא׃ 5.12. וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִמֶּנָּה מְלוֹא קֻמְצוֹ אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הִוא׃ 5.13. וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא מֵאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְנִסְלַח לוֹ וְהָיְתָה לַכֹּהֵן כַּמִּנְחָה׃ 5.14. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.21. נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וּמָעֲלָה מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְכִחֵשׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ בְּפִקָּדוֹן אוֹ־בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד אוֹ בְגָזֵל אוֹ עָשַׁק אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ׃ 5.22. אוֹ־מָצָא אֲבֵדָה וְכִחֶשׁ בָּהּ וְנִשְׁבַּע עַל־שָׁקֶר עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה הָאָדָם לַחֲטֹא בָהֵנָּה׃ 5.23. וְהָיָה כִּי־יֶחֱטָא וְאָשֵׁם וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־הַגְּזֵלָה אֲשֶׁר גָּזָל אוֹ אֶת־הָעֹשֶׁק אֲשֶׁר עָשָׁק אוֹ אֶת־הַפִּקָּדוֹן אֲשֶׁר הָפְקַד אִתּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־הָאֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר מָצָא׃ 5.24. אוֹ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַע עָלָיו לַשֶּׁקֶר וְשִׁלַּם אֹתוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִשִׁתָיו יֹסֵף עָלָיו לַאֲשֶׁר הוּא לוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ בְּיוֹם אַשְׁמָתוֹ׃ 5.25. וְאֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ יָבִיא לַיהוָה אַיִל תָּמִים מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ לְאָשָׁם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 5.26. וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְנִסְלַח לוֹ עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה לְאַשְׁמָה בָהּ׃ 16.8. וְנָתַן אַהֲרֹן עַל־שְׁנֵי הַשְּׂעִירִם גּוֹרָלוֹת גּוֹרָל אֶחָד לַיהוָה וְגוֹרָל אֶחָד לַעֲזָאזֵל׃ 16.16. וְכִפֶּר עַל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִטֻּמְאֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִפִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה לְאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד הַשֹּׁכֵן אִתָּם בְּתוֹךְ טֻמְאֹתָם׃ 16.26. וְהַמְשַׁלֵּחַ אֶת־הַשָּׂעִיר לַעֲזָאזֵל יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ אֶת־בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יָבוֹא אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 26.31. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־עָרֵיכֶם חָרְבָּה וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִי אֶת־מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם וְלֹא אָרִיחַ בְּרֵיחַ נִיחֹחֲכֶם׃ 4.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If any one shall sin through error, in any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and shall do any one of them:" 4.3. if the anointed priest shall sin so as to bring guilt on the people, then let him offer for his sin, which he hath sinned, a young bullock without blemish unto the LORD for a sin-offering." 4.4. And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tent of meeting before the LORD; and he shall lay his hand upon the head of the bullock, and kill the bullock before the LORD." 4.5. And the anointed priest shall take of the blood of the bullock, and bring it to the tent of meeting." 4.6. And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil of the sanctuary." 4.7. And the priest shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the LORD, which is in the tent of meeting; and all the remaining blood of the bullock shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting." 4.8. And all the fat of the bullock of the sin-offering he shall take off from it; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards," 4.9. and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the loins, and the lobe above the liver, which he shall take away by kidneys," 4.10. as it is taken off from the ox of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke upon the altar of burnt-offering." 4.11. But the skin of the bullock, and all its flesh, with its head, and with its legs, and its inwards, and its dung," 4.12. even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire; where the ashes are poured out shall it be burnt." 4.13. And if the whole congregation of Israel shall err, the thing being hid from the eyes of the assembly, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and are guilty:" 4.14. when the sin wherein they have sinned is known, then the assembly shall offer a young bullock for a sin-offering, and bring it before the tent of meeting." 4.15. And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD; and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD." 4.16. And the anointed priest shall bring of the blood of the bullock to the tent of meeting." 4.17. And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil." 4.18. And he shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar which is before the LORD, that is in the tent of meeting, and all the remaining blood shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting." 4.19. And all the fat thereof shall he take off from it, and make it smoke upon the altar." 4.20. Thus shall he do with the bullock; as he did with the bullock of the sin-offering, so shall he do with this; and the priest shall make atonement for them, and they shall be forgiven." 4.21. And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bullock; it is the sin-offering for the assembly." 4.22. When a ruler sinneth, and doeth through error any one of all the things which the LORD his God hath commanded not to be done, and is guilty:" 4.23. if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, be known to him, he shall bring for his offering a goat, a male without blemish." 4.24. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt-offering before the LORD; it is a sin-offering." 4.25. And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering." 4.26. And all the fat thereof shall he make smoke upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin, and he shall be forgiven." 4.27. And if any one of the common people sin through error, in doing any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and be guilty:" 4.28. if his sin, which he hath sinned, be known to him, then he shall bring for his offering a goat, a female without blemish, for his sin which he hath sinned." 4.29. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and kill the sin-offering in the place of burnt-offering." 4.30. And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and all the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar." 4.31. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be forgiven." 4.32. And if he bring a lamb as his offering for a sin-offering, he shall bring it a female without blemish." 4.33. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and kill it for a sin-offering in the place where they kill the burnt-offering." 4.34. And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and all the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar." 4.35. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; and the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven." 5.2. or if any one touch any unclean thing, whether it be the carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, or the carcass of unclean swarming things, and be guilty, it being hidden from him that he is unclean;" 5.3. or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsoever his uncleanness be wherewith he is unclean, and it be hid from him; and, when he knoweth of it, be guilty;" 5.4. or if any one swear clearly with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall utter clearly with an oath, and it be hid from him; and, when he knoweth of it, be guilty in one of these things;" 5.5. and it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that wherein he hath sinned;" 5.6. and he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat, for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin." 5.7. And if his means suffice not for a lamb, then he shall bring his forfeit for that wherein he hath sinned, two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD: one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering." 5.8. And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin-offering first, and pinch off its head close by its neck, but shall not divide it asunder." 5.9. And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin-offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar; it is a sin-offering." 5.10. And he shall prepare the second for a burnt-offering, according to the ordice; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin which he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven." 5.11. But if his means suffice not for two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he shall bring his offering for that wherein he hath sinned, the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin-offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon; for it is a sin-offering." 5.12. And he shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; it is a sin-offering." 5.13. And the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned in any of these things, and he shall be forgiven; and the remt shall be the priest’s, as the meal-offering." 5.14. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.20. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.21. If any one sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and deal falsely with his neighbour in a matter of deposit, or of pledge, or of robbery, or have oppressed his neighbour;" 5.22. or have found that which was lost, and deal falsely therein, and swear to a lie; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein;" 5.23. then it shall be, if he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took by robbery, or the thing which he hath gotten by oppression, or the deposit which was deposited with him, or the lost thing which he found," 5.24. or any thing about which he hath sworn falsely, he shall even restore it in full, and shall add the fifth part more thereto; unto him to whom it appertaineth shall he give it, in the day of his being guilty." 5.25. And he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of the flock, according to thy valuation, for a guilt-offering, unto the priest." 5.26. And the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD, and he shall be forgiven, concerning whatsoever he doeth so as to be guilty thereby." 16.8. And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats: one lot for the LORD, and the other lot for Azazel." 16.10. But the goat, on which the lot fell for Azazel, shall be set alive before the LORD, to make atonement over him, to send him away for Azazel into the wilderness." 16.16. And he shall make atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleannesses of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions, even all their sins; and so shall he do for the tent of meeting, that dwelleth with them in the midst of their uncleannesses." 16.26. And he that letteth go the goat for Azazel shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he may come into the camp." 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 26.31. And I will make your cities a waste, and will bring your sanctuaries unto desolation, and I will not smell the savour of your sweet odours."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.5-5.31, 8.14, 12.1, 12.8, 14.18, 21.5, 21.7, 30.2-30.3, 30.6-30.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.5. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.6. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַעֲשׂוּ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאת הָאָדָם לִמְעֹל מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְאָשְׁמָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא׃ 5.7. וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת־חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִישִׁתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַאֲשֶׁר אָשַׁם לוֹ׃ 5.8. וְאִם־אֵין לָאִישׁ גֹּאֵל לְהָשִׁיב הָאָשָׁם אֵלָיו הָאָשָׁם הַמּוּשָׁב לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן מִלְּבַד אֵיל הַכִּפֻּרִים אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ עָלָיו׃ 5.9. וְכָל־תְּרוּמָה לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 5.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.12. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־תִשְׂטֶה אִשְׁתּוֹ וּמָעֲלָה בוֹ מָעַל׃ 5.13. וְשָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְנֶעְלַם מֵעֵינֵי אִישָׁהּ וְנִסְתְּרָה וְהִיא נִטְמָאָה וְעֵד אֵין בָּהּ וְהִוא לֹא נִתְפָּשָׂה׃ 5.14. וְעָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִוא נִטְמָאָה אוֹ־עָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִיא לֹא נִטְמָאָה׃ 5.15. וְהֵבִיא הָאִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנָהּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵיפָה קֶמַח שְׂעֹרִים לֹא־יִצֹק עָלָיו שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלָיו לְבֹנָה כִּי־מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הוּא מִנְחַת זִכָּרוֹן מַזְכֶּרֶת עָוֺן׃ 5.16. וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶעֱמִדָהּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 5.17. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מַיִם קְדֹשִׁים בִּכְלִי־חָרֶשׂ וּמִן־הֶעָפָר אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בְּקַרְקַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן יִקַּח הַכֹּהֵן וְנָתַן אֶל־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.18. וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּפָרַע אֶת־רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן עַל־כַּפֶּיהָ אֵת מִנְחַת הַזִּכָּרוֹן מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הִוא וּבְיַד הַכֹּהֵן יִהְיוּ מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים׃ 5.19. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אִם־לֹא שָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָךְ וְאִם־לֹא שָׂטִית טֻמְאָה תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ הִנָּקִי מִמֵּי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 5.21. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁבֻעַת הָאָלָה וְאָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לָאִשָּׁה יִתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת־בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה׃ 5.22. וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃ 5.23. וְכָתַב אֶת־הָאָלֹת הָאֵלֶּה הַכֹּהֵן בַּסֵּפֶר וּמָחָה אֶל־מֵי הַמָּרִים׃ 5.24. וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים׃ 5.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה אֵת מִנְחַת הַקְּנָאֹת וְהֵנִיף אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 5.26. וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְאַחַר יַשְׁקֶה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.27. וְהִשְׁקָהּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם וְהָיְתָה אִם־נִטְמְאָה וַתִּמְעֹל מַעַל בְּאִישָׁהּ וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים וְצָבְתָה בִטְנָהּ וְנָפְלָה יְרֵכָהּ וְהָיְתָה הָאִשָּׁה לְאָלָה בְּקֶרֶב עַמָּהּ׃ 5.28. וְאִם־לֹא נִטְמְאָה הָאִשָּׁה וּטְהֹרָה הִוא וְנִקְּתָה וְנִזְרְעָה זָרַע׃ 5.29. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַקְּנָאֹת אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׂטֶה אִשָּׁה תַּחַת אִישָׁהּ וְנִטְמָאָה׃ 5.31. וְנִקָּה הָאִישׁ מֵעָוֺן וְהָאִשָּׁה הַהִוא תִּשָּׂא אֶת־עֲוֺנָהּ׃ 8.14. וְהִבְדַּלְתָּ אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָיוּ לִי הַלְוִיִּם׃ 12.1. וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מִרְיָם וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת׃ 12.1. וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל־אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח כִּי־אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח׃ 12.8. פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃ 14.18. יְהוָה אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד נֹשֵׂא עָוֺן וָפָשַׁע וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים׃ 21.5. וַיְדַבֵּר הָעָם בֵּאלֹהִים וּבְמֹשֶׁה לָמָה הֶעֱלִיתֻנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָמוּת בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי אֵין לֶחֶם וְאֵין מַיִם וְנַפְשֵׁנוּ קָצָה בַּלֶּחֶם הַקְּלֹקֵל׃ 21.7. וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי־דִבַּרְנוּ בַיהוָה וָבָךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וְיָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה בְּעַד הָעָם׃ 30.2. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־רָאשֵׁי הַמַּטּוֹת לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 30.3. אִישׁ כִּי־יִדֹּר נֶדֶר לַיהוָה אוֹ־הִשָּׁבַע שְׁבֻעָה לֶאְסֹר אִסָּר עַל־נַפְשׁוֹ לֹא יַחֵל דְּבָרוֹ כְּכָל־הַיֹּצֵא מִפִּיו יַעֲשֶׂה׃ 30.6. וְאִם־הֵנִיא אָבִיהָ אֹתָהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ וֶאֱסָרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר־אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ לֹא יָקוּם וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ כִּי־הֵנִיא אָבִיהָ אֹתָהּ׃ 30.7. וְאִם־הָיוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ וּנְדָרֶיהָ עָלֶיהָ אוֹ מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ׃ 30.8. וְשָׁמַע אִישָׁהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ וְהֶחֱרִישׁ לָהּ וְקָמוּ נְדָרֶיהָ וֶאֱסָרֶהָ אֲשֶׁר־אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ יָקֻמוּ׃ 30.9. וְאִם בְּיוֹם שְׁמֹעַ אִישָׁהּ יָנִיא אוֹתָהּ וְהֵפֵר אֶת־נִדְרָהּ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃ 30.11. וְאִם־בֵּית אִישָׁהּ נָדָרָה אוֹ־אָסְרָה אִסָּר עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ בִּשְׁבֻעָה׃ 30.12. וְשָׁמַע אִישָׁהּ וְהֶחֱרִשׁ לָהּ לֹא הֵנִיא אֹתָהּ וְקָמוּ כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ וְכָל־אִסָּר אֲשֶׁר־אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ יָקוּם׃ 30.13. וְאִם־הָפֵר יָפֵר אֹתָם אִישָׁהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ כָּל־מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ לִנְדָרֶיהָ וּלְאִסַּר נַפְשָׁהּ לֹא יָקוּם אִישָׁהּ הֲפֵרָם וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃ 30.14. כָּל־נֵדֶר וְכָל־שְׁבֻעַת אִסָּר לְעַנֹּת נָפֶשׁ אִישָׁהּ יְקִימֶנּוּ וְאִישָׁהּ יְפֵרֶנּוּ׃ 30.15. וְאִם־הַחֲרֵשׁ יַחֲרִישׁ לָהּ אִישָׁהּ מִיּוֹם אֶל־יוֹם וְהֵקִים אֶת־כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ אוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֱסָרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הֵקִים אֹתָם כִּי־הֶחֱרִשׁ לָהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ׃ 5.5. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.6. Speak unto the children of Israel: When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to commit a trespass against the LORD, and that soul be guilty;" 5.7. then they shall confess their sin which they have done; and he shall make restitution for his guilt in full, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him in respect of whom he hath been guilty." 5.8. But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution may be made for the guilt, the restitution for guilt which is made shall be the LORD’S, even the priest’s; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby atonement shall be made for him." 5.9. And every heave-offering of all the holy things of the children of Israel, which they present unto the priest, shall be his." 5.10. And every man’s hallowed things shall be his: whatsoever any man giveth the priest, it shall be his." 5.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.12. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: If any man’s wife go aside, and act unfaithfully against him," 5.13. and a man lie with her carnally, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, and there be no witness against her, neither she be taken in the act;" 5.14. and the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be defiled; or if the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be not defiled;" 5.15. then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is a meal-offering of jealousy, a meal-offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance." 5.16. And the priest shall bring her near, and set her before the LORD." 5.17. And the priest shall take holy water in an earthen vessel; and of the dust that is on the floor of the tabernacle the priest shall take, and put it into the water." 5.18. And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and put the meal-offering of memorial in her hands, which is the meal-offering of jealousy; and the priest shall have in his hand the water of bitterness that causeth the curse." 5.19. And the priest shall cause her to swear, and shall say unto the woman: ‘If no man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness, being under thy husband, be thou free from this water of bitterness that causeth the curse;" 5.20. but if thou hast gone aside, being under thy husband, and if thou be defiled, and some man have lain with thee besides thy husband—" 5.21. then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman—the LORD make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the LORD doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell;" 5.22. and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’" 5.23. And the priest shall write these curses in a scroll, and he shall blot them out into the water of bitterness." 5.24. And he shall make the woman drink the water of bitterness that causeth the curse; and the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter." 5.25. And the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy out of the woman’s hand, and shall wave the meal-offering before the LORD, and bring it unto the altar." 5.26. And the priest shall take a handful of the meal-offering, as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke upon the altar, and afterward shall make the woman drink the water." 5.27. And when he hath made her drink the water, then it shall come to pass, if she be defiled, and have acted unfaithfully against her husband, that the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter, and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall fall away; and the woman shall be a curse among her people." 5.28. And if the woman be not defiled, but be clean; then she shall be cleared, and shall conceive seed." 5.29. This is the law of jealousy, when a wife, being under her husband, goeth aside, and is defiled;" 5.30. or when the spirit of jealousy cometh upon a man, and he be jealous over his wife; then shall he set the woman before the LORD, and the priest shall execute upon her all this law." 5.31. And the man shall be clear from iniquity, and that woman shall bear her iniquity." 8.14. Thus shalt thou separate the Levites from among the children of Israel; and the Levites shall be Mine." 12.1. And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman." 12.8. with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’" 14.18. The LORD is slow to anger, and plenteous in lovingkindness, forgiving iniquity and transgression, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, upon the third and upon the fourth generation." 21.5. And the people spoke against God, and against Moses: ‘Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, and there is no water; and our soul loatheth this light bread.’" 21.7. And the people came to Moses, and said: ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that He take away the serpents from us.’ And Moses prayed for the people." 30.2. And Moses spoke unto the heads of the tribes of the children of Israel, saying: This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded." 30.3. When a man voweth a vow unto the LORD, or sweareth an oath to bind his soul with a bond, he shall not break his word; he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth." 30.6. But if her father disallow her in the day that he heareth, none of her vows, or of her bonds wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand; and the LORD will forgive her, because her father disallowed her." 30.7. And if she be married to a husband, while her vows are upon her, or the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul;" 30.8. and her husband hear it, whatsoever day it be that he heareth it, and hold his peace at her; then her vows shall stand, and her bonds wherewith she hath bound her soul shall stand." 30.9. But if her husband disallow her in the day that he heareth it, then he shall make void her vow which is upon her, and the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul; and the LORD will forgive her." 30.10. But the vow of a widow, or of her that is divorced, even every thing wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand against her." 30.11. And if a woman vowed in her husband’s house, or bound her soul by a bond with an oath," 30.12. and her husband heard it, and held his peace at her, and disallowed her not, then all her vows shall stand, and every bond wherewith she bound her soul shall stand." 30.13. But if her husband make them null and void in the day that he heareth them, then whatsoever proceeded out of her lips, whether it were her vows, or the bond of her soul, shall not stand: her husband hath made them void; and the LORD will forgive her." 30.14. Every vow, and every binding oath to afflict the soul, her husband may let it stand, or her husband may make it void." 30.15. But if her husband altogether hold his peace at her from day to day, then he causeth all her vows to stand, or all her bonds, which are upon her; he hath let them stand, because he held his peace at her in the day that he heard them."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 11.10, 24.28, 27.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.28. אַל־תְּהִי עֵד־חִנָּם בְּרֵעֶךָ וַהֲפִתִּיתָ בִּשְׂפָתֶיךָ׃ 11.10. When it goeth well with the righteous, the city rejoiceth; And when the wicked perish, there is joy." 24.28. Be not a witness against thy neighbour without cause; And deceive not with thy lips." 27.10. Thine own friend, and thy father’s friend, forsake not; Neither go into thy brother’s house in the day of thy calamity; Better is a neighbour that is near than a brother far off."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 32.1, 50.20, 78.19, 96.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.1. רַבִּים מַכְאוֹבִים לָרָשָׁע וְהַבּוֹטֵחַ בַּיהוָה חֶסֶד יְסוֹבְבֶנּוּ׃ 32.1. לְדָוִד מַשְׂכִּיל אַשְׁרֵי נְשׂוּי־פֶּשַׁע כְּסוּי חֲטָאָה׃ 78.19. וַיְדַבְּרוּ בֵּאלֹהִים אָמְרוּ הֲיוּכַל אֵל לַעֲרֹךְ שֻׁלְחָן בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 96.2. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה בָּרֲכוּ שְׁמוֹ בַּשְּׂרוּ מִיּוֹם־לְיוֹם יְשׁוּעָתוֹ׃ 32.1. [A Psalm] of David. Maschil. Happy is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is pardoned." 50.20. Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; Thou slanderest thine own mother's son." 78.19. Yea, they spoke against God; They said 'Can God prepare a table in the wilderness?" 96.2. Sing unto the LORD, bless His name; Proclaim His salvation from day to day."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 28.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28.24. וְלָאִשָּׁה עֵגֶל־מַרְבֵּק בַּבַּיִת וַתְּמַהֵר וַתִּזְבָּחֵהוּ וַתִּקַּח־קֶמַח וַתָּלָשׁ וַתֹּפֵהוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 28.24. And the woman had a fatted calf in the house; and she hastened, and killed it, and took flour, and kneaded it, and baked unleavened bread of it:"
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.6, 52.13-53.12, 53 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7, 6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 17.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.2. וַיֹּאמֶר לְאִמּוֹ אֶלֶף וּמֵאָה הַכֶּסֶף אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח־לָךְ ואתי [וְאַתְּ] אָלִית וְגַם אָמַרְתְּ בְּאָזְנַי הִנֵּה־הַכֶּסֶף אִתִּי אֲנִי לְקַחְתִּיו וַתֹּאמֶר אִמּוֹ בָּרוּךְ בְּנִי לַיהוָה׃ 17.2. And he said to his mother, The eleven hundred shekels of silver that were taken from thee, about which thou didst pronounce a curse, uttering it also in my ears, behold, the silver is with me; I took it. And his mother said, Blessed be thou of the Lord, my son."
14. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 2 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 10.30 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.30. they cleaved to their brethren, their nobles, and entered into a curse, and into an oath, to walk in God’s law, which was given by Moses the servant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the LORD our Lord, and His ordices and His statutes;"
16. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 3.9, 5.1-5.3, 5.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.9. כִּי הִנֵּה הָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לִפְנֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ עַל־אֶבֶן אַחַת שִׁבְעָה עֵינָיִם הִנְנִי מְפַתֵּחַ פִּתֻּחָהּ נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּמַשְׁתִּי אֶת־עֲוֺן הָאָרֶץ־הַהִיא בְּיוֹם אֶחָד׃ 5.1. וָאָשׁוּב וָאֶשָּׂא עֵינַי וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה מְגִלָּה עָפָה׃ 5.1. וָאֹמַר אֶל־הַמַּלְאָךְ הַדֹּבֵר בִּי אָנָה הֵמָּה מוֹלִכוֹת אֶת־הָאֵיפָה׃ 5.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה וָאֹמַר אֲנִי רֹאֶה מְגִלָּה עָפָה אָרְכָּהּ עֶשְׂרִים בָּאַמָּה וְרָחְבָּהּ עֶשֶׂר בָּאַמָּה׃ 5.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי זֹאת הָאָלָה הַיּוֹצֵאת עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי כָל־הַגֹּנֵב מִזֶּה כָּמוֹהָ נִקָּה וְכָל־הַנִּשְׁבָּע מִזֶּה כָּמוֹהָ נִקָּה׃ 3.9. For behold the stone that I have laid before Joshua; upon one stone are seven facets; behold, I will engrave the graving thereof, saith the LORD of hosts: And I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day." 5.1. Then again I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and behold a flying scroll." 5.2. And he said unto me: ‘What seest thou?’ And I answered: ‘I see a flying scroll; the length thereof is twenty cubits, and the breadth thereof ten cubits.’" 5.3. Then said he unto me: ‘This is the curse that goeth forth over the face of the whole land; for every one that stealeth shall be swept away on the one side like it; and every one that sweareth shall be swept away on the other side like it."
17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.2, 9.1, 9.6-9.8, 9.10-9.17, 14.18-14.22, 19.8-19.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.2, 9.1, 9.6-9.8, 9.10-9.17, 14.20-14.21, 19.8-19.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.11. וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עָבְרוּ אֶת־תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְסוֹר לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמוֹעַ בְּקֹלֶךָ וַתִּתַּךְ עָלֵינוּ הָאָלָה וְהַשְּׁבֻעָה אֲשֶׁר כְּתוּבָה בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי חָטָאנוּ לוֹ׃ 9.11. Yea, all Israel have transgressed Thy law, and have turned aside, so as not to hearken to Thy voice; and so there hath been poured out upon us the curse and the oath that is written in the Law of Moses the servant of God; for we have sinned against Him."
20. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.4, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. Cases concerning offenses punishable by death [are decided] by twenty three. A beast that has sexual relations with a woman or with a man is [judged] by twenty three, as it says, “You shall execute the woman and the beast” (Lev. 20:16) and it says, “You shall execute the beast”. The ox that is stoned [is judged] by twenty three., as it says, “The ox shall be stoned and also its owner shall be put to death” (Exodus 21:29), as is the death of the owner, so too is the death of the ox. The wolf, the lion, the bear, the leopard, the panther, or serpent [that have killed a human being] their death is [adjudicated] by twenty three. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Anyone who kills them before they come to court merits.” But Rabbi Akiva says: “Their death must be [adjudicated] by twenty three." 4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]"
21. Mishnah, Shevuot, 4.10-4.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.10. [If] he stood in the synagogue and said, “I adjure you that if you know any testimony for me you should come and bear testimony for me”, they are exempt unless he directs himself to them." 4.11. If he said to two [persons]: “I adjure you, so-and-so and so-and-so, that if you know any testimony for me you should come and bear testimony for me”: [And they replied,] “We swear we know no testimony for you”, and they did know testimony for him, [but it was evidence of] one witness from the mouth of another witness; or if one of them was a relative or [otherwise] ineligible [as a witness], they are exempt." 4.12. If he sent by the hand of his servant, or if the defendant said to them: “I adjure you that if you know any testimony for him you should come and bear testimony for him”, they are exempt, until they hear [the adjuration] direct from the claimant."
22. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The mitzvah of the aravah how was it [performed]?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah [long blast], a teru’ah [staccato blast] and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: [they would say,] “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”"
23. New Testament, Acts, 5.1-5.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.1. But a certain man named Aias, with Sapphira, his wife, sold a possession 5.2. and kept back part of the price, his wife also being aware of it, and brought a certain part, and laid it at the apostles' feet. 5.3. But Peter said, "Aias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit, and to keep back part of the price of the land? 5.4. While you kept it, didn't it remain your own? After it was sold, wasn't it in your power? How is it that you have conceived this thing in your heart? You haven't lied to men, but to God. 5.5. Aias, hearing these words, fell down and died. Great fear came on all who heard these things. 5.6. The young men arose and wrapped him up, and they carried him out and buried him. 5.7. About three hours later, his wife, not knowing what had happened, came in. 5.8. Peter answered her, "Tell me whether you sold the land for so much."She said, "Yes, for so much. 5.9. But Peter asked her, "How is it that you have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? Behold, the feet of those who have buried your husband are at the door, and they will carry you out. 5.10. She fell down immediately at his feet, and died. The young men came in and found her dead, and they carried her out and buried her by her husband. 5.11. Great fear came on the whole assembly, and on all who heard these things.
24. New Testament, Hebrews, 9.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.28. so Christ also, having been once offered to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, without sin, to those who are eagerly waiting for him for salvation.
25. Tosefta, Bava Qamma, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Tosefta, Yevamot, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 6.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

6.3. גּוּפָא אַל תְּהִי שְׁבוּעַת שָׁוְא קַלָּה בְּעֵינֶיךָ, שֶׁהֲרֵי זְכַרְיָה חָמֵי לֵיהּ (זכריה ה, א): וָאֶשָּׂא עֵינַי וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה מְגִלָּה עָפָה, מֶה עָפָה, שַׁיְיטָא, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (ישעיה ו, ו): וַיָּעָף אֵלַי אֶחָד מִן הַשְּׂרָפִים, (זכריה ה, ב): וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה וָאֹמַר אֲנִי רֹאֶה מְגִלָּה עָפָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אֲפִלּוּ עוֹרוֹ שֶׁל פִּיל וְעוֹרוֹ שֶׁל גָּמָל אֵינָן בַּמִּדָּה הַזּוֹ, וְאַתְּ אֲמַר כָּאן (זכריה ה, ג): זֹאת הָאָלָּה הַיּוֹצֵאת עַל פְּנֵי כָל הָאָרֶץ, מֵהֵיכָן יָצָאת מִפִּתְחוֹ שֶׁל אוּלָם, דִּתְנַן פִּתְחוֹ שֶׁל אוּלָם גָּבְהוֹ אַרְבָּעִים אַמָּה וְרָחְבּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ מִפְנֵי מָה מַשְׁבִּיעִין הָאָדָם בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וּמְבִיאִין לְפָנָיו נוֹדוֹת נְפוּחִים, לוֹמַר אֶתְמוֹל הָיָה הַנּוֹד הַזֶּה מָלֵא גִּידִים וַעֲצָמוֹת, וְעַכְשָׁיו הוּא רֵק מִכֻּלָּן, כָּךְ הַמַּשְׁבִּיעַ לַחֲבֵרוֹ לַשֶּׁקֶר סוֹף שֶׁיֵּצֵא רֵיקָם מִכָּל מָמוֹנוֹ. רַבִּי אַסָּא אָמַר עַל שָׁקֶר, רַבִּי יוֹנָה אָמַר אֲפִלּוּ עַל אֱמֶת. רַבִּי יַנַּאי הֲוָה יָתֵיב וְדָרִישׁ עַל הֲדָא דְּרַבִּי יוֹנָה אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן אֵין מוֹסְרִין אֶת הַשְּׁבוּעָה לְמִי שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּד עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה, וְאֵין נוֹתְנִין אֶת הַשְּׁבוּעָה לְמִי שֶׁהוּא רָץ אַחַר הַשְּׁבוּעָה. הֲוָה עוֹבָדָא בְּבַר תְּמַלְּיוֹן וְסִיַּע לְרַבִּי אַסֵּי. עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה דְּאַפְקִיד חַד גַּבְרָא גַּבֵּי בַּר תְּמַלְּיוֹן מֵאָה דִּינָרִין, אָזַל בָּעָא לְהוֹן מִינֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַה דְּאַפְקַדַת בְּיָדִי מְסָרִית בִּידָךְ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִשְׁתַּבַּע לִי. מֶה עָבֵיד בַּר תְּמַלְּיוֹן נָטַל חַד קָנֶה וַחֲקָקֵיהּ וִיהַב בֵּיהּ הָלֵין דִּינָרִין וְשָׁרֵי מִסְמַךְ עֲלֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ צוֹר הָדֵין קַנְיָא בִּידָךְ וַאֲנָא מִשְׁתַּבַּע לָךְ, כֵּיוָן דְּמָטֵי לְבֵי כְנִשְׁתָּא אֲמַר מָרֵיהּ דְּהָדֵין בֵּיתָא טָבָא מַה דִּמְסַרְתְּ בְּיָדִי מְסָרִית בִּידָךְ, הַהוּא מִן דְּבִידֵיהּ נָסְתֵיהּ לְקַנְיָא וְאַקְשֵׁיהּ לְאַרְעָא, שָׁרְיָין הָלֵין דִּינָרִין מִתְבַּדְּרִין, וְשָׁרֵי הַהוּא מְלַקֵּט, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְקַט לְקַט דְּמִן דִּידָךְ אַנְתְּ מְלַקֵּט. (שמות כב, י): שְׁבֻעַת ה' תִּהְיֶה בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם, שֶׁאֵינָה זָזָה מִבֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם, אִם הַמַּשְׁבִּיעַ מַשְׁבִּיעַ עַל שֶׁקֶר סוֹפָהּ לָצֵאת עָלָיו, וְאִם הַנִּשְׁבַּע נִשְׁבַּע עַל שֶׁקֶר סוֹפָהּ לָצֵאת עָלָיו. עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּחָדָא אִתְּתָא דְּעָלַת לְמֵילַשׁ גַּבֵּי מְגֵירָתָא וַהֲווֹ צָיְירִין בְּשׁוֹשִׁיפָהּ תְּלָתָא דִּינָרֵי, נְסָבַתְהוֹן וְיָהֲבַת יַתְהוֹן עַל גַּבֵּי סוּדָרָא, אִגַּבְלוּן בַּלִּישָׁה, אֲפָה פִּיתָּא וְאָזְלָא לָהּ, אֲמַר לָהּ בַּעֲלָהּ הַב לִי תְּלָתָא דִּינָרִין, אָזְלַת בָּעֲיָא לְהוֹן גַּבֵּי מְגֵירָתָא, אֲמָרַת לָהּ דִּלְמָא חָמִית לִי הָלֵין תְּלַת דִּינָרִין, הַוְיָין לְהַהִיא מְגֵירָתָא תְּלָתָא בְּנִין, אָמְרָה לָהּ תִּקְבְּרִנֵּיהּ הַהִיא אִתְּתָא בְּרָא אִי הִיא יָדְעָה בְּהוֹן, גַּרְמוּן חוֹבִין וּקְבַרְתֵּיהּ, אָמְרָה אִלּוּלֵי דְהַהִיא אִתְּתָא חֲשִׁידָה בְּהוֹן לָא הֲוָה קָבְרָה לֵיהּ, אָזְלָה וְאָמְרָה לָהּ דִּלְמָא חָמִית לִי לְהָלֵין דִּינָרִין, אָמְרָה הַהִיא אִתְּתָא תִּקְבּוֹר בְּנָה אַחֲרִינָא אִי הִיא יָדְעָה בְּהוֹן, גָּרְמוּן חוֹבִין וּמִית בְּרָא אַחֲרִינָא, זְמַן אָחֳרָן אָמְרָה לָהּ דִּלְמָא חָמִית לִי הָלֵין דִּינָרִין, אָמְרָה תִּקְבּוֹר הַהִיא אִתְּתָא בְּרָא תְּלִיתָאָה אִי הִיא יָדְעָה בְּהוֹן, גָּרְמוּן חוֹבִין וּקְבַרְתֵּיהּ. אֲמַר לָהּ בַּעֲלָהּ לֵית אַנְתְּ אָזֵיל לִמְנַחֲמָא לַהֲדָא מְגֵירָתֵיךָ, נְסָבַת תְּרֵין עִגוּלִין דְּפִתָּא וַאֲזָלַת מְנַחְמַת יָתָהּ, כֵּיוָן דְּקָצוֹן עִגּוּלָה נָפְקוּן הָלֵין תְּלַת דִּינָרֵי מִינָהּ, הֲדָא דִּבְרִיָּיתָא אָמְרִין בֵּין זַכַּאי בֵּין חַיָּב לִידֵי מוֹמֵי לָא תֵיעוֹל. (זכריה ה, ד): וּבָאָה אֶל בֵּית הַגַּנָּב וְאֶל בֵּית הַנִּשְׁבָּע בִּשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְלָנֶה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְכִלַּתּוּ [ואת] עֵצָיו [ואת] אֲבָנָיו, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן מַלְאֲכֵי חַבָּלָה אֵין לָהֶם קְפִיצִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב א, ז): מִשּׁוּט בָּאָרֶץ וּמֵהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ, בְּרַם הָכָא וְלָנֶה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵין הָאֵשׁ שׂוֹרְפָן שְׁבוּעַת שָׁוְא מְכַלָּתָן, דַּרְכָּהּ שֶׁל אֵשׁ לֶאֱכֹל עֵצִים, שֶׁמָּא אֲבָנִים, בְּרַם הָכָא וְכִלַּתּוּ אֶת עֵצָיו וְאֶת אֲבָנָיו.
28. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28b. אתיא לאחלופי בראשון הא קא אתי רגל שלישי,ת"ר בראשונה כל מי שמצא אבידה היה מכריז עליה שלשה רגלים ואחר רגל אחרון שבעת ימים כדי שילך שלשה ויחזור שלשה ויכריז יום אחד משחרב בית המקדש שיבנה במהרה בימינו התקינו שיהו מכריזים בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות ומשרבו האנסים התקינו שיהו מודיעין לשכיניו ולמיודעיו ודיו,מאי משרבו האנסין דאמרי אבידתא למלכא רבי אמי אשכח אודייא דדינרי חזייה ההוא בר נש דקא מירתת א"ל זיל שקול לנפשך דלאו פרסאי אנן דאמרי אבידתא למלכא,ת"ר אבן טוען היתה בירושלים כל מי שאבדה לו אבידה נפנה לשם וכל מי שמוצא אבידה נפנה לשם זה עומד ומכריז וזה עומד ונותן סימנין ונוטלה וזו היא ששנינו צאו וראו אם נמחת אבן הטוען:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמר את האבידה ולא אמר סימניה לא יתן לו והרמאי אע"פ שאמר סימניה לא יתן לו שנאמר (דברים כב, ב) עד דרוש אחיך אותו עד שתדרוש את אחיך אם רמאי הוא אם אינו רמאי:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אתמר רב יהודה אמר אבידתא מכריז ור"נ אמר גלימא מכריז,רב יהודה אמר אבידתא מכריז דאי אמרת גלימא מכריז חיישינן לרמאי,ר"נ אמר גלימא מכריז לרמאי לא חיישינן דא"כ אין לדבר סוף,תנן אמר את האבידה ולא אמר את סימניה ה"ז לא יתן לו אי אמרת בשלמא אבידתא מכריז הא קמ"ל אע"ג דאמר גלימא כי לא אמר סימנין לא מהדרינן ליה אלא אי אמרת גלימא מכריז אמר איהו גלימא ואמר איהו גלימא צריכא למימר כי לא אמר סימנין לא מהדרינן ליה,אמר רב ספרא לעולם גלימא מכריז אמר איהו גלימא ואמר איהו סימנין ומאי לא אמר את סימניה לא אמר סימנין מובהקין דידה:,והרמאי אע"פ שאמר את סימניה ה"ז לא יתן לו: ת"ר בראשונה כל מי שאבדה לו אבידה היה נותן סימנין ונוטלה משרבו הרמאין התקינו שיהו אומרים לו צא והבא עדים דלאו רמאי את וטול,כי הא דאבוה דרב פפא אירכס ליה חמרא ואשכחוה אתא לקמיה דרבה בר רב הונא אמר ליה זיל אייתי סהדי דלאו רמאי את וטול אזל אייתי סהדי אמר להו ידעיתון ביה דרמאי הוא אמרו ליה אין אמר להו אנא רמאה אנא אמרו ליה אנן לאו רמאי את קאמרינן אמר רבה בר רב הונא מסתברא לא מייתי איניש חובתא לנפשיה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כל דבר שעושה ואוכל יעשה ויאכל ודבר שאין עושה ואוכל ימכר שנאמר (דברים כב, ב) והשבותו לו ראה היאך תשיבנו לו,מה יהא בדמים ר"ט אומר ישתמש בהן לפיכך אם אבדו חייב באחריותן ר"ע אומר לא ישתמש בהן לפיכך אם אבדו אין חייב באחריותן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ולעולם אמר רב נחמן אמר שמואל עד י"ב חדש תניא נמי הכי כל דבר שעושה ואוכל כגון פרה וחמור מטפל בהן עד י"ב חדש מכאן ואילך שם דמיהן ומניחן,עגלים וסייחין מטפל בהן שלשה חדשים מכאן ואילך שם דמיהן ומניחן אווזין ותרנגולין מטפל בהם שלשים יום מכאן ואילך שם דמיהן ומניחן,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק תרנגולת כבהמה גסה תניא נמי הכי תרנגולת ובהמה גסה מטפל בהן שנים עשר חודש מכאן ואילך שם דמיהן ומניחן עגלים וסייחין מטפל בהן ל' יום מכאן ואילך שם דמיהן ומניחן אווזין ותרנגולין וכל דבר שטיפולו מרובה משכרו מטפל בהן שלשה ימים מכאן ואילך שם דמיהן ומניחן,קשיא עגלים וסייחין אעגלים וסייחין אווזין ותרנגולין אאווזין ותרנגולין,עגלים וסייחין אעגלים וסייחין לא קשיא הא דרעיא והא דפטומא,אווזין ותרנגולין אאווזין ותרנגולין נמי לא קשיא הא ברברבי הא בזוטרי:,ושאינו עושה ואוכל: תנו רבנן והשבותו לו ראה היאך תשיבנו לו שלא יאכיל עגל לעגלים וסיח לסייחין אווזא לאווזין ותרנגול לתרנגולין:,מה יהא בדמים רבי טרפון אומר ישתמש וכו': עד כאן לא פליגי 28b. because perhaps one who hears him will bcome to confuseit bwith the firstpilgrimage Festival? The Gemara answers: Confusing the second Festival with the first is not a problem, as in any case, bwon’tthe finder bcomeon the bthird pilgrimage Festival,thereby giving the owner another opportunity to recover his lost item?,§ bThe Sages taught: Initially, anyone who found a lost item would proclaimhis find for bthree pilgrimage Festivals andfor bseven days after the lastof the three bpilgrimage Festivals, so thatits owner bwill go to his home,a trip lasting up to bthreedays, band will returnto Jerusalem, a trip lasting up to bthreedays, band proclaimhis loss for bone day.But bfromthe time bthat the Temple was destroyed, may it be rebuilt speedily in our days,the Sages binstituted thatthose who find lost items bshall proclaimtheir finds bin synagogues and study halls. And fromthe time bthat the oppressors proliferated,the Sages binstitutedan ordice bthatone who finds a lost item bshall inform his neighbors and acquaintances, andthat will bsuffice for him. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: bFromthe time bthat the oppressors proliferated?The Gemara answers: It is from the time bthat they say: A lost itembelongs bto the king.The Sages were concerned that any public proclamation would result in confiscation of the lost item. The Gemara relates: bRabbi Ami found a vesselfull bof dinars. A certain Roman saw that he was waryand hesitant to take it. The Roman bsaid to him: Go, take it for yourself; as we are not Persians, who say that a lost itembelongs bto the king. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThere was a Claimant’s Stone in Jerusalem,and banyone who lost an item would be directed there and anyone who found a lost item would be directed there. Thisfinder would bstand and proclaimhis find band thatowner bwould stand and provideits bdistinguishing marks and takethe item. bAnd that isthe place about which bwe learnedin a mishna ( iTa’anit19a): bGo and see if the Claimant’s Stone has been obscuredby the rising water., strongMISHNA: /strong If a claimant accurately bstatedwhat type of item bthe lost itemthat was found by another is, bbut did not state,i.e., describe, bits distinguishing marks,the finder bshall not giveit bto him. Andin the case of ba swindler, even though he stated its distinguishing marks,the finder bshall not givethe lost item bto him, as it is stated:“And if your brother be not near you, and you know him not, then you shall bring it into your house, and it shall be with you buntil your brother claims [ iderosh /i] it [ ioto /i],and you shall return it to him” (Deuteronomy 22:2). Would it enter your mind that the finder would give it to him before he claims it? How can the finder return it if he does not know the identity of the owner? Rather, the verb ideroshis not referring to the claim of the owner; it is referring to the scrutiny performed by the finder. You shall not return the lost item buntilyou bscrutinize [ ishetidrosh /i] your brotherto determine bwhetherhe, the claimant, bis a swindleror bwhether he is not a swindler. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bIt was statedthat bRav Yehuda said:One who finds an item bproclaimsthat he found ba lost itemwithout specifying its nature. bAnd Rav Naḥman said:He specifies the nature of the item, e.g., bhe proclaimsthat he found ba cloak. /b, bRav Yehuda said:One who finds an item bproclaimsthat he found ba lost item, as if you saythat bhe proclaimsthat he found ba cloak, we are concerned aboutthe possibility that ba swindlermay attempt to claim the item. Perhaps the swindler learned that another person lost that item, and he will ascertain its distinguishing marks, provide those distinguishing marks, and claim the item., bRav Naḥman said:The finder bproclaimsthat he found ba cloak, and we are not concerned aboutthe possibility that ba swindlermay attempt to claim the item, bas if so, there is no end to the matter.Even if the finder does not specify the nature of the item, perhaps a swindler would be able to guess its nature.,The Gemara cites proof from that which bwe learnedin the mishna: If a claimant accurately bstateswhat type of item bthe lost itemthat was found by another is, bbut did not state its distinguishing marks,the finder bshall not giveit bto him. Granted, if you saythe finder bproclaimsthat he found an unspecified blost item, thismishna bteaches usthat beven thoughthe claimant indeed bstatedthat the lost item is ba cloak, aslong as bhe did not stateits bdistinguishing marks, we do not returnit bto him. But if you saythat the finder bproclaimsthat he found ba cloak,if the finder bstatedthat he found ba cloak andthe claimant bstatedthat he lost ba cloak,does it bneed to be saidthat bwhen he did not stateits bdistinguishing marks, we do not return it to him? /b, bRav Safra said: Actually,one could say that the finder bproclaimsthat he found ba cloak,and the mishna is referring to a case where the finder bstatedthat he found ba cloak, andthe claimant bstatedits bdistinguishing marks. And whatis the meaning of the phrase in the mishna: If he bdid not state its distinguishing marks?It means: If bhe did not state its clear-cut distinguishing marksbut rather stated distinguishing marks that are not exclusive to the item. Therefore, he does not prove his ownership.,§ The mishna teaches: bAndin the case of ba swindler, even though he stated its distinguishing marks,the finder bshall not givethe lost item bto him. The Sages taught: Initially, anyone who lost an item would provideits bdistinguishing marks and take it.But bwhen the swindlers proliferated,the Sages binstitutedan ordice bthatthe finders will bsay to him: Go and bring witnesseswho can testify bthat you are not a swindler, and takeyour item.,The Gemara relates: This is basin bthatincident involving bthe father of Rav Pappa,who blost a donkey andothers bfound it. He came before Rabba bar Rav Hunato reclaim his donkey. Rabba bar Rav Huna bsaidto the father of Rav Pappa: bGo and bring witnesseswho can testify bthat you are not a swindler, andyou may btakeyour donkey. The father of Rav Pappa bwent and brought witnesses.Rabba bar Rav Huna bsaid tothe witnesses: bDo you know about himthat bhe is a swindler?The witnesses bsaid: Yes.Rav Pappa’s father bsaid,incredulously, btothe witnesses: bI am a swindler?The witnesses bsaid to him: We were saying that you are not a swindler.They had thought the question was if he was not a swindler, and therefore responded in the affirmative. bRabba bar Rav Huna said:It bis reasonableto conclude that the witnesses actually intended to support Rav Pappa’s father, because presumably, ba person does not bring condemnation upon himself;Rav Pappa’s father would not have volunteered to provide witnesses who would testify against him., strongMISHNA: /strong If one finds banyliving bbeing that works andgenerates enough revenue to cover the costs of the food that it beats,it bshall work and eatwhile in the finder’s possession. bAnd anyliving bbeing that does not work butit does beat shall be sold, as it is stated:“Then you shall bring it into your house, and it shall be with you until your brother claims it, band you shall return it to him”(Deuteronomy 22:2), indicating that the finder must bsee howbest bto return it to him.Since the owner must repay the finder for his expenditures, if feeding the animal costs more than its value, the finder’s keep-ing the animal in his possession will prevent the owner from recovering it., bWhat shall bedone bwith the moneyreceived from the sale of the animal? bRabbi Tarfon says:The finder bmay use it; therefore, ifthe money bis lost,he is bliableto pay brestitutionfor bit. Rabbi Akiva says: He may not usethe money; btherefore, if it is lost,he is bnot liableto pay brestitutionfor bit. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that an animal that generates enough revenue to cover the costs of the food that it eats shall work and eat while in the finder’s possession. The Gemara asks: bAndmust he care for the animal bforever? Rav Naḥman saysthat bShmuel says:He cares for the animal buntil twelve monthspass. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If one finds banyliving bbeing that works andgenerates enough revenue to cover the costs of the food that it beats, e.g., a cow or a donkey,he btends to them until twelve monthspass. bFrom thatpoint bforward, one assesses their value,sells them, band placesthe money aside for the owner.,If one finds bcalves and foals,which are young and unfit for labor, bhe tends to themfor bthree months,as they do not earn their keep. bFrom thatpoint bforward, one assesses their value,sells them, band placesthe money aside for the owner. If one finds bgeese and roosters, he tends to themfor bthirty days. From thatpoint bforward, one assesses their value,sells them, band placesthe money aside for the owner., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says:The legal status of ba chicken is likethat of ba large domesticated animalin that the eggs it lays suffice to cover the cost of its food, and therefore the finder keeps it for twelve months. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If one finds ba chicken and a large domesticated animal,he btends to them for twelve months. From thatpoint bforward, one assesses their value,sells them, band placesthe money aside for the owner. If one finds bcalves and foals, he tends to themfor bthirty days. From thatpoint bforward, one assesses their value,sells them, band placesthe money aside for the owner. If one finds bgeese and roosters and anything thatcosts bmore to tend to thanthe brevenuegenerated by bit, he tends to themfor bthree days. From thatpoint bforward, one assesses their value,sells them, band placesthe money aside for the owner.,The Gemara asks: It is bdifficult,as there is a contradiction between the ruling in the first ibaraitathat the finder keeps bcalves and foalsfor three months bandthe ruling in the second ibaraitathat the finder keeps bcalves and foalsfor thirty days; and there is another contradiction between the ruling in the first ibaraitathat the finder keeps bgeese and roostersfor thirty days, bandthe ruling in the second ibaraitathat the finder keeps bgeese and roostersfor three days.,The Gemara answers: The contradiction between the ruling in the first ibaraitawith regard to bcalves and foals andthe ruling in the second ibaraitawith regard to bcalves and foalsis bnot difficult. Thisruling in the first ibaraitathat the finder keeps them for three months is referring to calves and foals bthat grazein the pasture, band thatruling in the second ibaraitathat the finder keeps them for thirty days is referring to calves and foals bthatneed to be bfattenedand therefore require greater exertion on the part of the one who finds them.,The contradiction between the ruling in the first ibaraitawith regard to bgeese and roosters andthe ruling in the second ibaraitawith regard to bgeese and roostersis balso not difficult. Thisruling in the first ibaraitathat the finder keeps them for thirty days is referring bto largegeese and roosters, which do not require great exertion, band thatruling in the second ibaraitathat the finder keeps them for three days is referring bto smallgeese and roosters, which require great exertion.,The mishna teaches: bAndany living being bthat does not work butit does beatshall be sold. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“And you shall return it to him”(Deuteronomy 22:2), indicating that the finder must bsee howbest bto return it to him,meaning bthatone bshall not feedthe value of ba calf tothe lost bcalvesthat he is tending, bnorthe value of ba foal tothe lost bfoalsthat he is tending, bnorthe value of ba goose tothe bgeesethat he is tending, bnorthe value of ba rooster tothe broostersthat he is tending. Were the finder to do so, ultimately, the owner would receive nothing.,§ The mishna teaches: bWhat shall bedone bwith the moneyreceived from the sale of the animal? bRabbi Tarfon says:The finder bmay use it;therefore, if the money is lost, he is liable to pay restitution for its loss. Rabbi Akiva says: He may not use the money. Therefore, if it is lost, he is not liable to pay restitution. The Gemara analyzes the tannaitic dispute: Rabbi Tarfon and Rabbi Akiva bdisagree /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

90a. והלכתא מותרת לשניהם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בית שמאי אומרים לא יגרש אדם את אשתו אלא אם כן מצא בה דבר ערוה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ובית הלל אומרים אפילו הקדיחה תבשילו שנאמר כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ר' עקיבא אומר אפי' מצא אחרת נאה הימנה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא אמרו בית הלל לבית שמאי והלא כבר נאמר דבר אמרו להם ב"ש והלא כבר נאמר ערות,אמרו להם ב"ה אם נאמר ערות ולא נאמר דבר הייתי אומר משום ערוה תצא משום דבר לא תצא לכך נאמר דבר ואילו נאמר דבר ולא נאמר ערות הייתי אומר משום דבר תנשא לאחר ומשום ערוה לא תנשא לאחר לכך נאמר ערות,וב"ש האי דבר מאי עבדי ליה נאמר כאן דבר ונאמר להלן דבר (דברים יט, טו) על פי שני עדים או על פי שלשה עדים יקום דבר מה להלן בשני עדים אף כאן בשני עדים,וב"ה מי כתיב ערוה בדבר וב"ש מי כתיב או ערוה או דבר,וב"ה להכי כתיב ערות דבר דמשמע הכי ומשמע הכי:,ר"ע אומר אפי' מצא אחרת: במאי קא מיפלגי בדר"ל דאמר ריש לקיש כי משמש בד' לשונות אי דלמא אלא דהא,ב"ש סברי [והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו] כי מצא בה ערות דבר דהא מצא בה ערות דבר ור"ע סבר כי מצא בה ערות דבר אי נמי מצא בה ערות דבר,אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא לא מצא בה לא ערוה ולא דבר מהו,א"ל מדגלי רחמנא גבי אונס (דברים כב, יט) לא יוכל לשלחה כל ימיו כל ימיו בעמוד והחזיר קאי התם הוא דגלי רחמנא אבל הכא מאי דעבד עבד,א"ל רב משרשיא לרבא אם לבו לגרשה והיא יושבת תחתיו ומשמשתו מהו קרי עליה (משלי ג, כט) אל תחרש על רעך רעה והוא יושב לבטח אתך,תניא היה רבי מאיר אומר כשם שהדעות במאכל כך דעות בנשים יש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ואינו שותהו וזו היא מדת פפוס בן יהודה שהיה נועל בפני אשתו ויוצא,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ושותהו וזו היא מדת כל אדם שמדברת עם אחיה וקרוביה ומניחה,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך תמחוי מוצצו ואוכלו זו היא מדת אדם רע שרואה את אשתו יוצאה וראשה פרוע וטווה בשוק 90a. bAnd the ihalakha /iis that bshe is permitted to both of them. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bBeit Shammai say: A man may not divorce his wife unless he findsout babout herhaving engaged in ba matter of forbidden sexual intercourse [ idevar erva /i],i.e., she committed adultery or is suspected of doing so, bas it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i] in her,and he writes her a scroll of severance” (Deuteronomy 24:1)., bAnd Beit Hillel say:He may divorce her bevendue to a minor issue, e.g., because bshe burnedor over-salted bhis dish, as it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter in her,”meaning that he found any type of shortcoming in her., bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is bbetter looking than herand wishes to marry her, bas it is statedin that verse: b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes”(Deuteronomy 24:1)., strongGEMARA: /strong It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bBeit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: But isn’tthe word b“matter” already statedin the verse, indicating that any disadvantageous matter is a legitimate reason for divorce? bBeit Shammai said to them: But isn’tthe word b“unseemly [ iervat /i]” already stated? /b, bBeit Hillel said to them: Ifthe word b“unseemly” had been stated andthe word b“matter” had not been stated, I would have saidthat a wife bshould leaveher husband bdue to forbidden sexual intercourse,but bshe should nothave to bleavehim bdue toany other bmatter. Therefore,the word b“matter” is stated. And ifthe word b“matter” had been stated andthe word b“unseemly” had not been stated, I would have saidthat if he divorced her merely bdue toa disadvantageous bmatter she may marry anotherman, as the Torah continues: “And she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another man’s wife” (Deuteronomy 24:2). bButif she was divorced bdue toher engaging in bforbidden sexual intercourse, she may not marry anotherman, as she is prohibited from remarrying. bTherefore,the word b“unseemly” is stated,indicating that even a wife who is divorced due to adultery is permitted to remarry.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what do Beit Shammai do with thisword b“matter”?How do they interpret it? It seems superfluous, as in their opinion the verse refers specifically to a wife who engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse. The Gemara answers: The word b“matter” is stated here,with regard to divorce, bandthe word b“matter” is stated there,with regard to testimony: b“At the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, a matter shall be established”(Deuteronomy 19:15). bJust as there,it is stated that a matter is established only bthrough two witnesses, so too here,a matter of forbidden sexual intercourse justifies divorce only if it is established bthrough two witnesses. /b, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond to this analogy in the following manner: bIs it written:Because he has found something bunseemly in a matter [ ierva bedavar /i],indicating that it was established through the testimony of two witnesses that she engaged in adultery? bAnd Beit Shammaiwould respond to Beit Hillel’s interpretation as follows: bIs it written:Because he has found beithersomething bunseemly oranother bmatter i[o erva o davar /i],in accordance with Beit Hillel’s understanding?, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond that bfor thisreason the expression b“some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i]” is written, as it indicates thatinterpretation, i.e., that a husband is not obligated to divorce his wife unless there are two witnesses to her having engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse, band italso bindicates thisinterpretation, i.e., that he may divorce her due to any deficiency, be it adultery or any other shortcoming.,§ It is stated in the mishna that bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is better looking than her. bWith regard to what do they disagree?They disagree bwith regard tothe application of bReish Lakish’sstatement, bas Reish Lakish saidthat the term iki /iactually bhasat least bfourdistinct bmeanings: If, perhaps, rather,and bbecause. /b, bBeit Shammai holdthat the verse b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes, because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means that she did not find favor in his eyes bdue tothe fact that bhe has found some unseemly matter in her. And Rabbi Akiva holdsthat the phrase b“because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means: bOr if he has found some unseemly matter in her. /b,§ bRav Pappa said to Rava:According to Beit Hillel, if the husband bfound about her neither forbidden sexual intercourse norany other bmatter,but divorced her anyway, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? Is the divorce valid?,Rava bsaid to himthat the answer can be derived bfrom what the Merciful One revealsin the Torah bwith regard to a rapist: “He may not send her away all his days”(Deuteronomy 22:29), indicating that even if he divorces the woman whom he raped and was subsequently commanded to marry, ball his days he standscommanded bto arise and remarryher as his wife. Evidently, bspecifically therethe husband is obligated to remarry his divorcée, bas the Merciful One revealsas much. bBut here, what he did, he did. /b, bRav Mesharshiyya said to Rava: If he intends to divorce her and she is living with him and serving him, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rava breadthe following verse baboutsuch a person: b“Devise not evil against your neighbor, seeing he dwells securely by you”(Proverbs 3:29).,§ It bis taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iSota5:9) that bRabbi Meir would say: Just as there aredifferent battitudes with regard to food, so too, there aredifferent battitudes with regard to women.With regard to food, byou have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe wine with the fly band does not drink it. And this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of Pappos ben Yehudawith regard to his wife, bas he would lockthe door bbefore his wife and leaveso that she would not see any other man., bAnd you have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe fly band drinksthe wine. bAnd this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of anycommon bman, whosewife bspeaks with her siblings and relatives, and he lets herdo so., bAnd you have a man who,when ba fly falls intohis bserving bowl, he sucksthe fly band eatsthe food. bThis is the demeanor of a bad man, who sees his wife going outinto the street bwith her head uncovered, and spinning in the marketplaceimmodestly
30. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

113a. גזייתא נינהו דשמטי סוסיא ואתו דברי להו,(וא"ל) רב לרב אסי לא תדור במתא דלא צניף בה סוסיא ולא נבח בה כלבא ואל תדור בעיר דריש מתא אסיא ולא תנסיב תרתי אי נסבת תרתי נסיב תלת,א"ל רב לרב כהנא הפוך בנבילתא ולא תיפוך במילי פשוט נבילתא בשוקא ושקיל אגרא ולא תימא כהנא אנא וגברא רבא אנא וסניא בי מלתא סלקת לאיגרא שירותך בהדך מאה קרי במתא בזוזא תותי כנפיך ניהוו,א"ל רב לחייא בריה לא תשתי סמא ולא תשוור ניגרא ולא תעקר ככא ולא תקנא בחיויא ולא תקנא בארמאה,תנו רבנן ג' אין מתקנאין בהן ואלו הן נכרי קטן ונחש קטן ותלמיד קטן מ"ט דמלכותייהו אחורי אודנייהו קאי,א"ל רב לאיבו בריה טרחי בך בשמעתא ולא מסתייע מילתא תא אגמרך מילי דעלמא אדחלא אכרעיך זבינך זבין כל מילי זבין ותחרט בר מחמרא דזבין ולא תחרט,שרי כיסיך פתח שקיך קבא מארעא ולא כורא מאיגרא,תמרא בחלוזך לבית סודנא רהיט ועד כמה אמר רבא עד תלתא סאה אמר רב פפא אי לא דרמאי שכרא לא איעתרי א"ד אמר רב חסדא אי לא דרמאי שכרא לא איעתרי מאי סודנא אמר רב חסדא סוד נאה וגמילות חסדים,אמר רב פפא כל אגב גביא בעי כל אשראי ספק אתי ספק לא אתי ודאתי מעות רעות נינהו,ג' דברים א"ר יוחנן משום אנשי ירושלים כשאתה יוצא למלחמה אל תצא בראשונה אלא תצא באחרונה כדי שתכנס בראשונה ועשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות והוי משתדל עם מי שהשעה משחקת לו,(א"ר) שלשה דברים א"ר יהושע בן לוי משום אנשי ירושלים אל תרבה בגנות משום מעשה שהיה בתך בגרה שחרר עבדך ותן לה והוי זהיר באשתך מחתנה הראשון מ"ט רב חסדא אמר משום ערוה רב כהנא אמר משום ממון הא והא איתנהו,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה מנוחלי העוה"ב אלו הן הדר בא"י והמגדל בניו לתלמוד תורה והמבדיל על היין במוצאי שבתות מאי היא דמשייר מקידושא לאבדלתא,א"ר יוחנן שלשה מכריז עליהן הקב"ה בכל יום על רווק הדר בכרך ואינו חוטא ועל עני המחזיר אבידה לבעליה ועל עשיר המעשר פירותיו בצינעה רב ספרא רווק הדר בכרך הוה 113a. barefound bon the paths [ igazyata /i]near the city, bas horsesbelonging to the demons bfleealong those paths, bandthe demons bcome to lead themaway. Generally, however, demons do not enter inhabited places., bAndRav bsaid to Rav Asi: Do not live in a city where horses do not neigh and where dogs do not bark,as these animals provide security and protection. bAnd do not live in a city where the mayor is a doctor,as he will be too busy working to govern properly. bAnd do not marry twowomen, as they will likely join forces against you. And bif youdo bmarry two, marry a thirdas well. If two of your wives plot against you, the third will inform you of their plans., bRav said to Rav Kahana:It is better for one bto turn over a carcass than to turn over his word,i.e., to break his promise. Rav further said: bSkin a carcass in the market and take payment, but do not say: I am a priest, or: I am a great man, and this matter disgusts me.It is preferable for one to work, even in menial labor, than to be dependent on others. Rav also advised Rav Kahana: If byou ascend to the roof,carry byour food with you.One should always carry his sustece with him, even if he goes only on a short trip. If bone hundred pumpkins in the citycost ba izuz /i, placethem carefully under bthe cornersof your clothes. Treat food respectfully even if it is inexpensive., bRav said to Ḥiyya, his son: Do notget into the habit of bdrinking medications,lest you develop an addiction. bAnd do not leap over a ditch,as you might hurt yourself in the process. bAnd do not pull out a tooth,but try to heal it if possible. bAnd do not provoke a snakein your house to try to kill it or chase it away. bAnd do not provoke a gentile,as this too is dangerous.,Similarly, bthe Sages taught:There are bthreebeings boneshould bnot provoke: A small gentile, and a small snake, and a smallTorah bscholar. What is the reason? Because their authority stands behind their ears.They will eventually grow up, assume power, each in his own way, and avenge those who have harassed them., bRav said to Ayvu, his son: I struggledto teach byou ihalakhabutmy efforts bdid not succeed,as you did not become a great scholar. bComeand bI will teach youabout bmundane matters: Sell your merchandise while the dustfrom the road is still bon your feet.As soon you return from your travels, sell your wares, lest the prices fall in the meantime. Furthermore, it is possible that banything you sellmight later cause you to bregretthe sale, bexcept for wine, which youcan bsell without regret.Since wine might go bad and be entirely lost, its sale is always advisable.,Rav further advised his son: bOpen your purseto accept payment, and only then bopen your sackto deliver the goods, to ensure you will receive payment for your merchandise. It is better to earn ba ikavfrom the ground than a ikorfrom the roof.A ikoris one hundred and eighty times larger than a ikav /i. This proverb means that it is preferable to earn a small amount from a local, safe transaction than to attempt to earn more through a distant, risky venture.,Rav continued: If there are bdates in your storeroom, run to the breweryto sell them. If you wait, there is a good chance the dates will go bad. The Gemara asks: bAnd how manydates should one keep for himself? bRava said: Up to three ise’a /i. Rav Pappa said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy. Some saythat it was bRav Ḥisda who said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the word isudana /i,the Aramaic term for a brewer? bRav Ḥisda said: A pleasant secret [ isod na’e /i] and acts of loving kindness,as brewing is a good way to make money and also enables one to perform good deeds.,The Gemara continues to offer advice about mundane matters. bRav Pappa said: Anythingyou acquire with a document bby meansof which ownership is transferred, i.e., a bill of acquisition or obligation, brequires collection,despite the fact that you are the legal owner. bAny sale on credit is uncertain whether or notit bwill cometo fruition. bAndeven bif itdoes bcometo fruition, bthe money is bad.These funds are difficult to collect, and they are generally not paid on time., bRabbi Yoḥa said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: When you go to war do not go out first, but go out last.The reason is bso thatif your side is defeated and you need to flee for your life, byou will enterthe refuge of the city bfirst. Andit is better to bmake your Shabbatlike an ordinary bweekday and do not be beholden toother bbeings. And exert yourselfto join together bwith one upon whom the hour smiles. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: Do not indulge in a shameful actin public, bbecause of the incident that occurredinvolving David and Bathsheba (see II Samuel 11–12). If byour daughter has grown up,it is better to bfree yourCanaanite bslave and givehim bto herthan to leave her to find a husband on her own. bAnd be careful with your wife with regard to her first son-in-law,as she is especially fond of him. bWhat is the reasonfor this warning? bRav Ḥisda said: Due tothe possibility of blicentiousness. Rav Kahana said: Due tothe fact that she might give him all your bmoneyand leave you impoverished. The Gemara comments: Since beither of thesecould bhappen,it is best to be prudent., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Threepeople are bamong those who inherit the World-to-Come: One who lives in Eretz Yisrael; one who raises his sons toengage bin Torah study; and one who recites ihavdalaover wine at the conclusion of Shabbat.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe special importance of bthatmitzva, to recite ihavdalaover wine? The Gemara answers: This is referring to an individual with only a small amount of wine, bwhonevertheless bleaves some ofhis kiddush wine bfor ihavdala /i. /b, bRabbi Yoḥafurther bsaid: The Holy One, Blessed be He, proclaims aboutthe goodness of bthreekinds bof people every day,as exceptional and noteworthy individuals: bAbout a bachelor who lives in a city and does not sinwith women; babout a poor person who returns a lost object to its ownersdespite his poverty; band about a wealthy person who tithes his produce in private,without publicizing his behavior. The Gemara reports: bRav Safra was a bachelor living in a city. /b
31. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. ודכולי עלמא כרבנן דפליגי עליה דרבי יהושע בן קרחה והכא באקושי הגדה לראיה קא מיפלגי מר סבר מקשינן הגדה לראיה ומר סבר לא מקשינן,רבי שמעון בן אליקים הוה משתקיד עליה דר' יוסי ברבי חנינא למסמכיה ולא קא מיסתייע מילתא יומא חד הוה יתיב קמיה דר' יוחנן,אמר להו מי איכא דידע הלכה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה או לא א"ל רבי שמעון בן אליקים דין ידע אמר ליה לימא איזו אמר ליה ליסמכיה מר ברישא סמכיה,אמר ליה בני אמור לי כיצד שמעת א"ל כך שמעתי שמודה ר' יהושע בן קרחה לרבי נתן,אמר לזה הוצרכתי השתא ומה עיקר ראיה בהדי הדדי אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה לא בעינן הגדה מיבעיא,א"ל הואיל ועלית לא תרד אמר ר' זירא שמע מינה גברא רבה כיון דסמיך סמיך,א"ר חייא בר אבין אמר רב הלכה כר' יהושע בן קרחה בין בקרקעות בין במטלטלין,עולא אמר הלכה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה בקרקעות אבל לא במטלטלין,א"ל אביי הלכה מכלל דפליגי והאמר ר' אבא א"ר הונא אמר רב מודים חכמים לרבי יהושע בן קרחה בעדות קרקע,ותני רב אידי בר אבין בנזיקין דבי קרנא מודין חכמים לרבי יהושע בן קרחה בעדות בכור ובעדות קרקע ובעדות חזקה וכן שבבן ושבבת,גברא אגברא קא רמית מר סבר פליגי ומר סבר לא פליגי,מאי וכן שבבן ושבבת אילימא אחד אומר אחת בגבה ואחד אומר אחת בכריסה האי חצי דבר וחצי עדות הוא,אלא אחד אומר שתים בגבה ואחד אומר שתים בכריסה,אמר רב יוסף אנא אמינא משמיה דעולא הלכה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה בין בקרקעות בין במטלטלין ורבנן דאתו ממחוזא אמרי אמר ר' זירא משמיה דרב בקרקעות אין אבל לא במטלטלין,רב לטעמיה דאמר רב הודאה אחר הודאה הודאה אחר הלואה מצטרפי,הלואה אחר הלואה הלואה אחר הודאה לא מצטרפי,אשכחיה רב נחמן בר יצחק לרב הונא בריה דרב יהושע א"ל מאי שנא הלואה אחר הלואה דלא דמנה דקא חזי האי לא קא חזי האי הודאה אחר הודאה נמי אמנה דקא מודה קמי האי לא מודי קמי האי,דא"ל להאי בתרא בהאי מנה דאודיי ליה קמך אודיי ליה נמי קמי פלוני,אכתי בתרא ידע קמא לא ידע,דהדר אזיל א"ל לקמא האי מנה דאודיי ליה קמך אודיי ליה נמי קמי פלוני א"ל תנוח דעתך שהתנחת את דעתי,א"ל מאי ניחותא דרבא ואיתימא רב ששת שדא בה נרגא לאו היינו הודאה אחר הלואה,אמר ליה היינו דשמיע לי עלייכו דרמיתו דיקלי וזקפיתו להו,נהרדעי אמרי בין הודאה אחר הודאה בין הודאה אחר הלואה בין הלואה אחר הלואה בין הלואה אחר הודאה מצטרפות כמאן כר' יהושע בן קרחה,אמר רב יהודה עדות המכחשת זו את זו בבדיקות כשרה בדיני ממונות,אמר רבא מסתברא מילתיה דרב יהודה באחד אומר בארנקי שחורה ואחד אומר בארנקי לבנה אבל אחד אומר מנה שחור ואחד אומר מנה לבן אין מצטרפין,וארנקי שחורה בדיני נפשות לא והאמר רב חסדא אחד אומר בסייף הרגו ואחד אומר בארירן הרגו אין זה נכון אחד אומר כליו שחורים ואחד אומר כליו לבנים הרי זה נכון 30b. band everyone,both the first itannaand Rabbi Natan, holds bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa,and derive from this verse that it is necessary that the witnesses see the incident together, i.e., they were both present and observed the incident at the same time. bAnd here,with regard to whether or not the witnesses must testify in court together, bthey disagree with regard towhether or not the bstatementof the witnesses, i.e., their testimony in court, bis compared totheir bobservationof the incident. One bSage,the first itanna /i, bholdsthat bwe comparetheir bstatement totheir bobservation.Therefore, just as they must see the incident together, so too, they must testify together in court. bAndone bSage,Rabbi Natan, bholdsthat bwe do not comparetheir statement to their observation.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Shimon ben Elyakim was striving to ordain Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, and was not successfulin his attempts. bOne day,Rabbi Shimon ben Elyakim bwas sitting before Rabbi Yoḥaamong Rabbi Yoḥa’s other students.,Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid tohis students: bIs thereanyone bwho knowswhether the ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, or not? Rabbi Shimon ben Elyakim said to him: Thisone, Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, bknows.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: If so, let him say.Rabbi Shimon ben Elyakim bsaid to him: Let the Master ordain him first;since we are all in need of his wisdom, he is fit for ordination. Rabbi Yoḥa then bordainedRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina.,Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: My son, tell me what you heard.Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, bsaid to him: This is what I heard: That Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa concedes tothe opinion of bRabbi Natanthat it is unnecessary for the witnesses to testify together.,Rabbi Yoḥa was disappointed, and bsaid: For this I neededto ordain him? bNowthat with regard to the bmainelement of testimony, i.e., bobservingthe incident, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says we do not needboth witnesses to see it btogether,with regard to their bstatementin court, bisit bnecessaryto explicate that there is no requirement that they testify together?,Although the statement of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, was unnecessary, Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Since you ascended,i.e., you were ordained, byou will not descend,even though it was in error. bRabbi Zeira said: Conclude from itthat with regard to ba great man, once he is ordained,even if it was due to mistaken judgment, bhe is ordained.The ordination is not canceled.,As for the ihalakhain this matter, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saysthat bRav says:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥathat it is unnecessary for the two witnesses to observe the incident together, bboth with regard tocases of blandand bwith regard tocases of bmovable property. /b, bUlla says:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa with regard to land,which is unmovable, and therefore both testimonies are certainly about the same piece of land; bbut not with regard to movable property,as there is a concern that they are not testifying about the same item., bAbaye said toUlla: If you say that the ihalakha /iis in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa with regard to land, bby inferenceyou hold bthat they disagreewith regard to this matter. bBut doesn’t Rabbi Abba saythat bRav Huna saysthat bRav says: The Rabbis concede tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa with regard to testimonyconcerning bland? /b, bAnd Rav Idi bar Avin teaches inthe ihalakhotof bdamagesthat were taught bat the school ofthe Sage bKarna: The Rabbis concede tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥathat the witnesses do not need to see the incident together bwith regard to testimonyconcerning a blemish in a male bfirstbornkosher animal, which renders it permitted to derive benefit from it, band with regard to testimonyconcerning ownership of bland, and with regard to testimonyconcerning bpresumptive ownershipof land. Since it is clear that they are testifying about the same land, it is unnecessary for them to see it together. bAnd sothey concede with regard to testimony over the two pubic hairs bof a boy or of a girl,which are a sign of adulthood.,The Gemara rejects Abaye’s question: bAre you settingthe statement of one bman againstthe statement of another bman?One bSage,Ulla, bholdsthat the Rabbis bdisagreewith Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa even with regard to land, bandone bSage,i.e., Rav and Rav Idi, bholdsthat bthey do not disagree. /b,The Gemara asks tangentially about the statement: bAnd sothey concede with regard to testimony over the two pubic hairs bof a boy or of a girl: Whatis this referring to? bIf we sayit is referring to testimony that a girl has reached majority, in which bonewitness bsaysthat he saw bonehair bonthe bherlower bback and onewitness bsaysthat he saw bonehair bon herlower babdomen,that is difficult. A girl is considered to have reached maturity when she has two pubic hairs. In this case, two witnesses separately testify that they have each seen one hair. In bthiscase each testimony is obviously invalid, as it bis half a matter andalso bhalf a testimony.Not only does each testimony refer to one hair, which is half a matter, it is submitted by one witness, which is half a testimony. Consequently, it is obvious that the girl is not considered to have reached majority in this case., bRather,it must be referring to a case where bone saysthat he saw btwohairs bon herlower bback, andthe other bone sayshe saw btwohairs bon herlower babdomen.Since they each testify that she has reached adulthood, it is unnecessary for them to see the same hairs., bRav Yosef said: I say in the name of Ullathat the ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa both with regard to land and with regard to movable property. But the Sages who came from Meḥoza saythat bRabbi Zeira says in the name of Rav: With regard to landthe ihalakha bisin accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, bbut not with regard to movable property. /b,The Gemara comments: bRavconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as Rav says:Testimonies of ban admission following an admissionare combined into one; if one witness testifies that the respondent admitted in his presence that he owes the claimant, and the other witness testifies that the respondent admitted in his presence that he owes the claimant in a separate incident, their testimonies are combined. Likewise, testimonies of ban admission following a loan are combinedinto one; where one witness testifies that the respondent admitted in his presence that he owes the claimant, and the other one testifies that on a previous date the respondent borrowed money from the claimant in his presence, their testimonies are combined.,Rav continues: But testimonies of ba loan following a loanare not combined. If one testifies that the claimant lent the respondent one hundred dinars in his presence, and the other testifies that he lent him one hundred dinars in a separate incident in his presence, their testimonies are not combined, as they are clearly testifying about two separate loans. Similarly, testimonies of ba loan following an admission are not combined.If one testifies that the claimant lent money to the respondent, and the other one testifies that on an earlier date the respondent admitted to owing the claimant, their testimonies are not combined., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak encountered Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua. He said to him: What is differentabout ba loan following a loan,in bwhichcase the testimonies are bnotcombined, bas the one hundred dinars that thiswitness bsaw, thatwitness bdid not see?In the case of ban admission following an admission as well,perhaps bthe one hundred dinars about whichthe respondent badmitted in the presence of thiswitness, bhe did not admit in the presence of thatwitness. Perhaps his admissions were in reference to two separate loans, and therefore the testimonies should not be combined.,Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, answered him: The reference is to a case bwherethe respondent bsaid to this lastwitness: bWith regard to the one hundred dinars that I admittedto owing bin your presence, I admittedto owing bthem in the presence of so-and-so,the first witness, bas well. /b,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak asked: bStill, the lastwitness bknowsthat he is testifying about the same loan as the first witness, but bthe firstwitness bdoes not knowthis. Since only one witness testifies that it is the same loan, the testimonies still cannot be combined.,Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, answered: It is a case bwhere,after his admission to the second witness, the respondent bwent backand bsaid to the firstwitness: With regard to bthose one hundred dinars that I admittedto owing bin your presence, I admittedowing bthem in the presence of so-and-so as well.Therefore, both witnesses know that they are testifying about the same loan. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak bsaid to him: May your mind be settled, as you have settled my mindand put it at ease by answering this question that was troubling me.,Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, bsaid to him: What is settlingabout this explanation? bAs Rava, and some say Rav Sheshet, threw an ax atmy answer, i.e., he rejected my explanation, as follows: According to this interpretation of the case of an admission following an admission, bisn’t thisthe same as ban admission following a loan?The case of an admission following an admission is now rendered superfluous, as it adds no new insight on the matter.,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak bsaid to him: This is what I heard about youSages of Meḥoza, bthat you knock down palm trees and erect them,i.e., you build and then destroy what you built. After you came up with such an excellent explanation, you ruined it yourselves.,The Sages bof Neharde’a say: Whetherit is a case of ban admission following an admission, or an admission following a loan, or a loan following a loan, or a loan following an admission,in all these cases the testimonies bare combined. In accordance with whoseopinion is this? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa,who teaches that since both witnesses testify about a debt of one hundred dinars, it is considered like one testimony.,§ bRav Yehuda says: Testimonyof two witnesses bwho contradictthe testimony of beach other inresponse to the judges’ bexaminationof the details of the story bis valid incases of bmonetary law,although a contradiction of this type disqualifies testimony in cases of capital law., bRava says: The statement of Rav Yehuda is reasonable ina case where bonewitness bsays:The money was bin a black purse [ ibe’arnaki /i], andthe other bone says:It was bin a white purse.Since this is a secondary detail, they may not remember it accurately. bButif bone says:He lent him ba black coin,i.e., the coin was dark, bandthe other bone says:He lent him ba white coin,the testimonies bare not combined.Since they contradict each other with regard to a characteristic of the money itself, one is probably lying.,The Gemara challenges Rabbi Yehuda’s ruling: bAndif witnesses contradict each other with regard to secondary details such as ba black purse incases of bcapital law,is it the case that their testimony is bnotaccepted? bBut doesn’t Rav Ḥisda say:In a case where boneof the witnesses bsays:The murderer bkilledthe victim bwith a sword, and oneof the witnesses bsays:The murderer bkilledthe victim bwith an iariran /i,another type of weapon, bthis is not congruenttestimony, as this is a clear contradiction. But if boneof the witnesses bsays:The murderer’s bgarmentswere bblack, and oneof the witnesses bsays:The murderer’s bgarmentswere bwhite, this is congruenttestimony, as this is not a meaningful discrepancy.
32. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

104a. עלויי קא מעלי ליה דאמר רב חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין אלא סתום ועשאו פתוח גרועי קא מגרע ליה דאמר ר' ירמיה ואיתימא ר' חייא בר אבא מנצפך צופים אמרום,ותיסברא והכתיב (ויקרא כז, לד) אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא מיהוה הואי מידע לא הוה ידעין הי באמצע תיבה הי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים תקנינהו ואכתי אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,גופא א"ר חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין ואמר רב חסדא כתב שבלוחות נקרא מבפנים ונקרא מבחוץ כגון נבוב בובן (רהב בהר) סרו ורס:,אמרי ליה רבנן לריב"ל אתו דרדקי האידנא לבי מדרשא ואמרו מילי דאפילו בימי יהושע בן נו"ן לא איתמר כוותייהו אל"ף בי"ת אלף בינה גימ"ל דל"ת גמול דלים מ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דגימ"ל לגבי דל"ת שכן דרכו של גומל חסדים לרוץ אחר דלים ומ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דדל"ת לגבי גימ"ל דלימציה ליה נפשיה ומ"ט מהדר אפיה דדל"ת מגימ"ל דליתן ליה בצינעה כי היכי דלא ליכסיף מיניה,ה"ו זה שמו של הקב"ה ז"ח ט"י כ"ל ואם אתה עושה כן הקב"ה זן אותך וחן אותך ומטיב לך ונותן לך ירושה וקושר לך כתר לעוה"ב מ"ם פתוחה מ"ם סתומה מאמר פתוח מאמר סתום נו"ן כפופה נו"ן פשוטה נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט,ס"ע סמוך עניים ל"א סימנין עשה בתורה וקנה אותה פ' כפופה פ' פשוטה פה פתוח פה סתום צד"י כפופה וצד"י פשוטה צדיק כפוף צדיק פשוט היינו נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט הוסיף לך הכתוב כפיפה על כפיפתו מכאן שנתנה התורה במנוד ראש,קו"ף קדוש רי"ש רשע מאי טעמא מהדר אפיה דקו"ף מרי"ש אמר הקב"ה אין אני יכול להסתכל ברשע ומאי טעמא מהדרה תגיה דקו"ף לגבי רי"ש אמר הקב"ה אם חוזר בו אני קושר לו כתר כמותי ומ"ט כרעיה דקו"ף תלויה דאי הדר ביה ליעייל,וליעול בהך מסייע ליה לריש לקיש) דאמר ר"ל מ"ד (משלי ג, לד) אם ללצים הוא יליץ ולענוים יתן חן בא ליטמא פותחין לו בא ליטהר מסייעים אותו,שי"ן שקר תי"ו אמת מאי טעמא שקר מקרבן מיליה אמת מרחקא מיליה שיקרא שכיח קושטא לא שכיח ומ"ט שיקרא אחדא כרעיה קאי ואמת מלבן לבוניה קושטא קאי שיקרא לא קאי,א"ת ב"ש אותי תעב אתאוה לו ב"ש בי לא חשק שמי יחול עליו ג"ר גופו טימא ארחם עליו ד"ק דלתותי נעל קרניו לא אגדע עד כאן מדת רשעים,אבל מדת צדיקים א"ת ב"ש אם אתה בוש ג"ר ד"ק אם אתה עושה כן גור בדוק ה"ץ ו"ף חציצה הוי בינך לאף ז"ע ח"ס ט"ן ואין אתה מזדעזע מן השטן י"ם כ"ל אמר [שר של] גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לים כל,אמר הקב"ה אח"ס בט"ע גי"ף אני חס עליהם מפני שבעטו בגי"ף דכ"ץ דכים הם כנים הם צדיקים הם הל"ק אין לך חלק בהן ומרז"ן ש"ת אמר גיהנם לפניו רבונו של עולם מרי זניני מזרעו של שת,א"ל א"ל ב"ם ג"ן ד"ס להיכן אוליכן לגן הדס ה"ע ו"ף אמר גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם עיף אנכי ז"ץ ח"ק הללו זרעו של יצחק ט"ר י"ש כ"ת טר יש לי כיתות כיתות של עובדי כוכבים שאני נותן לך: 104a. bhe elevates itsstatus, as bRav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously.Each letter was chiseled all the way through the tablets. In that case, the segment of the tablets at the center of the isamekhand final imem /i, letters that are completely closed, should have fallen. Miraculously, they remained in place. Consequently, rendering an open imemclosed elevates its status. bHowever,if bone rendered a closedletter bopen, he diminishes itsstatus, as bRabbi Yirmeya said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho said: bThe prophets institutedthe difference between the open and closed forms of the letters imem /i, inun /i, itzadi /i, ipeh /i, ikaf /i.Since the closed letters date back to the Ten Commandments, apparently the prophets introduced the open versions of the letters, which are therefore less significant.,The Gemara rejects this: bAnd is that reasonable? Isn’t it written: “These are the commandmentsthat the Lord commanded Moses to tell the children of Israel at Mount Sinai” (Leviticus 27:34). The word “these” underscores bthat a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belementrelated to the Torah and its mitzvot bfrom here on. Rather,the prophets did not innovate these forms. Both the open and closed versions bexistedbefore then. However, people bdid not know whichform appeared bin the middle of a wordand bwhichform bat the end of a word. And the prophets cameand binstituted theirset positions. The Gemara asks: bAnd stillthe question remains: Didn’t the Sages derive from the verse: b“These are the commandments,” that a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belement from here on?How could they institute the position of the letters? bRather,over the course of time, the people bforgot theirpositions in the words bandthe prophets bthen reestablished theirpositions. Apparently, closed letters are no more significant than the open ones.,The Gemara returns to discuss bthe matter itself. Rav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously. Andfurthermore, bRav Ḥisda said:The bwriting on the tablets was read from the inside,from one side of the tablets, band read from the outside,the other side of the tablets, in reverse order. The Gemara cites words that appear elsewhere in the Bible: iNevuv /iwas read as ibet /i, ivav /i, ibet /i, inun /i; irahav /ias ibeit /i, iheh /i, ireish /i;and isaru /ias ivav /i, ireish /i, isamekh /i. /b, bThe Sages said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Young students cametoday bto the study hall and said thingsthe likes of bwhich were not saideven bin the days of Joshua bin Nun.These children who only knew the Hebrew alphabet interpreted the letters homiletically. briAlef beit /imeans blearn[ielaf/b] the bwisdom[ibina/b] of the Torah. briGimmel dalet /imeans bgive to the poor[igemol dalim/b]. bWhy is the leg of the igimmelextended towardthe idalet /i? Because it is the manner of one who bestows loving-kindness to pursue the poor. And whyis the bleg ofthe idaletextended towardthe igimmel /i?It is so bthata poor person bwill make himself available to himwho wants to give him charity. bAnd why does the idaletface away fromthe igimmel /i?It is to teach bthat one should givecharity bdiscreetly so thatthe poor person bwill not be embarrassed by him. /b,The children continued to interpret the letters. briHeh vav /i: That isthe principal bname of the Holy One, Blessed be He.briZayin ḥet /i, itet yod /i, ikaf lamed /i: And if you do so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds [ izan /i] you, and shows you favor [ iḥan /i], and bestows goodness [ imeitiv /i] upon you, and gives you an inheritance [ iyerusha /i], and ties a crown [ iketer /i] for you in the World to Come [ ila’olam haba /i].brThe bopen imemand closed imem /iindicate that the Torah contains ban open statement,understood by all, and ban esoteric statement.brThe bbent inun /iand the bstraight inun /iat the end of a word refer to ba faithful person who is bent [ ine’eman kafuf /i]and is modest now, who will ultimately become a bwell-known faithful person [ ine’eman pashut /i]. /b,iSamekh ayin /i: Support the poor [ isemokh aniyyim /i]to prevent them from falling further. bAnother version: Make mnemonicsigns b[ isimanim aseh /i]to remember bthe Torah and acquire it.brThe bbent ipeh /iand the bstraight ipeh /i:Sometimes one needs to have ban open mouth [ ipeh patuaḥ /i]and speak, and sometimes one needs to have ba closed mouth [ ipeh satum /i].brThe bbent itzadi /iand the bstraight itzadi /iindicate that ba righteousperson who is bbentand humble b[ itzaddik kafuf /i]now will ultimately become ba well-known righteousperson b[ itzaddik pashut /i]whose righteousness is apparent to all. The Gemara asks: bThat is identicalto the interpretation of the bent and straight inun /i: iNe’eman kafuf /i, ine’eman pashut /i.The Gemara explains: bThe verse addedthe bbendingof the righteous person bto the bending ofthe faithful person. bFrom hereit is derived bthat the Torah was given inan atmosphere of bgravity.One must receive the Torah with a sense of awe and extreme humility.,The children continued: briKuf /i: Holy [ ikadosh /i],referring to God. briReish /i: A wicked person [ irasha /i]. Why is the ikuffacing away fromthe ireish /i?This question was phrased euphemistically, as it is the ireishthat is facing away from the ikuf /i. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am unable look at a wicked person,i.e., the wicked person does not want to look toward God. bAnd why is the crown ofthe letter ikufturned towardthe ireish /i? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Ifthe wicked person brepentshis evil ways bI will tie a crown for him like My own. And why is the leg ofthe ikufsuspendedand not connected to the roof of the letter? bBecause ifthe wicked person brepents he can enterthrough this opening if he so desires.,The Gemara asks: bLet him enter through thatopening, as the ikufis open on both sides at the bottom. The Gemara answers: This bsupportsthe statement of bReish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “If it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, and unto the humble He gives grace”(Proverbs 3:34)? One who bcomesin order bto become impure,i.e., to sin, bthey,in Heaven, bprovide him with an openingto do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. However, if he bcomesin order bto become purified,not only is he allowed to do so, but bthey,in Heaven, bassist him. /b,They further taught: briShin /i: Falsehood [ isheker /i]. iTav /i: Truth [ iemet /i].br bWhy are the letters ofthe word ishekeradjacentto one another in the alphabet, while bthe letters of iemetare distantfrom one another? That is because while bfalsehood iseasily bfound, truth is foundonly with great difficulty. bAnd why dothe letters that comprise the word isheker /iall bstand on one foot, andthe letters that comprise the word iemet /istand on bases that are wide like bbricks?Because the btruth standseternal and bfalsehood does not standeternal.,The Gemara cites another midrash that also deals with the letters of the alphabet. This one uses a code in which the first letter is paired with the last letter, the second letter with the penultimate one, and so on b[ ialef tav /i, ibeit shin /i]. iAlef tav /i, God said: If bhe despised Me [ ioti ti’ev /i]would bI desire [ ietaveh /i] him? iBeit shin /i:If bhe does not desireto worship bMe [ ibi /i],shall bMy name [ ishemi /i] rest upon him? iGimmel reish /i:He bdefiled his body [ igufo /i];shall bI have mercy [ iaraḥem /i] on him?The word comprised of the letters igimmeland ireishin Aramaic means licentiousness. iDalet kuf /i:He blocked My doors [ idaltotai /i],shall bI not cut off his horns [ ikarnav /i]? To this point,the Gemara interpreted the letters as referring to bthe attribute of the wicked. /b, bHowever,with regard to bthe attribute of the righteousit is taught differently. iAlef tav /i, ibeit shin /i: If you have shame [ iata bosh /i], igimmel reish /i, idalet kuf /i: If you do so,you will breside [ igur /i] inthe bheavens [ ibedok /i],as the verse says: “Who stretches out the Heavens like a curtain [ idok /i]” (Isaiah 40:22). iHeh tzadi /i, ivav peh /i: There is a partition [ iḥatzitza havei /i] between you and anger [ iaf /i]. iZayin ayin /i, iḥet samekh /i, itet nun /i: And you will not be shaken [ imizdaze’a /i] by the Satan. iYod mem /i, ikaf lamed /i: The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,send the righteous as well into the bseato which ballgo b[ iyam kol /i],Gehenna.,The interpretation of the alphabet continues with other combinations of letters. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: iAlef ḥet samekh /i, ibet tet ayin /i, igimmel yod peh /i: I have mercy on them [ iAni ḥas aleihem /i] because they spurned [ iba’atu /i] adultery [ igif /i].The Gemara continues with this combination of the letters: iDalet kaf tzadi /i: They are pure [ idakkim /i], they are honest [ ikenim /i], they are righteous [ itzaddikim /i]. iHeh lamed kuf /i: You have no portion [ iḥelek /i] with them,based on the interchange of the letters iḥetand iheh /i. iVav mem reish zayin nun /i, ishin tav /i:The minister of bGehenna said [ iamar /i],based on ivav mem reish /i, bbefore Him: Master of the Universe, my Master [ iMari /i], sustain me [ izaneini /i] with the seed of Seth [ iShet /i],which refers to all humankind, including the Jewish people.,The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to himusing another configuration of the alphabet: iAlef lamed /i, ibeit mem /i: Not with them [ ial bam /i],i.e., you will have no portion of them. iGimmel nun /i, idalet samekh /i: To where will I lead them?I will lead them bto the garden of myrtle [ igan hadas /i],i.e., the Garden of Eden. iHeh ayin /i, ivav peh /i:The minister of bGehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I am tired [ iayef anokhi /i]and thirsty and need people to care for me. The Holy One, Blessed be He, responded: iZayin tzadi /i, iḥet kuf /i: These are the descendants [ izaro /i] of Isaac [ iYitzḥak /i]. iTet reish /i, iyod shin /i, ikaf tav /i: Wait [ itar /i], I have groupsupon bgroups [ iyesh li kittot kittot /i] ofother bnations that I will give youinstead.
33. Babylonian Talmud, Shevuot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30a. מתני׳ big strongשבועת /strong /big העדות נוהגת באנשים ולא בנשים ברחוקין ולא בקרובין בכשרין ולא בפסולין ואינה נוהגת אלא בראוין להעיד,בפני בית דין ושלא בפני ב"ד מפי עצמו ומפי אחרים אין חייבין עד שיכפרו בהן בב"ד דברי ר' מאיר וחכמים אומרים בין מפי עצמו ובין מפי אחרים אינן חייבין עד שיכפרו בהן בב"ד,וחייבין על זדון השבועה ועל שגגתה עם זדון העדות ואינן חייבין על שגגתה ומה הן חייבין על זדון השבועה קרבן עולה ויורד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנהני מילי דת"ר (דברים יט, יז) ועמדו שני האנשים בעדים הכתוב מדבר,אתה אומר בעדים או אינו אלא בבעלי דינין כשהוא אומר (דברים יט, יז) אשר להם הריב הרי בעלי דינין אמור הא מה אני מקיים ועמדו שני האנשים בעדים הכתוב מדבר ואם נפשך לומר נאמר כאן שני ונאמר להלן (דברים יט, יז) שני מה להלן בעדים אף כאן בעדים,מאי אם נפשך לומר וכי תימא מדלא כתב ואשר להם הריב כוליה קרא בבעלי דינין משתעי נאמר כאן שני ונאמר להלן שני מה להלן בעדים אף כאן בעדים,תניא אידך ועמדו שני האנשים בעדים הכתוב מדבר אתה אומר בעדים או אינו אלא בבעלי דינין אמרת וכי שנים באים לדין שלשה אין באין לדין ואם נפשך לומר נאמר כאן שני ונאמר להלן שני מה להלן בעדים אף כאן בעדים,מאי אם נפשך לומר וכי תימא בתובע ונתבע קא משתעי קרא נאמר כאן שני ונאמר להלן שני מה להלן בעדים אף כאן בעדים,תניא אידך ועמדו שני האנשים בעדים הכתוב מדבר אתה אומר בעדים או אינו אלא בבעלי דינין אמרת וכי אנשים באין לדין נשים אין באות לדין ואם נפשך לומר נאמר כאן שני ונאמר להלן שני מה להלן בעדים אף כאן בעדים,מאי אם נפשך לומר וכי תימא אשה לאו אורחה משום (תהלים מה, יד) כל כבודה בת מלך פנימה נאמר כאן שני ונאמר להלן שני מה להלן בעדים אף כאן בעדים,ת"ר ועמדו שני האנשים מצוה לבעלי דינין שיעמדו אמר ר' יהודה שמעתי שאם רצו להושיב את שניהם מושיבין איזהו אסור שלא יהא אחד עומד ואחד יושב אחד מדבר כל צרכו ואחד אומר לו קצר דבריך,ת"ר (ויקרא יט, טו) בצדק תשפוט עמיתך שלא יהא אחד יושב ואחד עומד אחד מדבר כל צרכו ואחד אומר לו קצר דבריך ד"א בצדק תשפוט עמיתך הוי דן את חבירך לכף זכות,תני רב יוסף בצדק תשפוט עמיתך עם שאתך בתורה ובמצות השתדל לדונו יפה,רב עולא בריה דרב עילאי הוה ליה דינא קמיה דרב נחמן שלח ליה רב יוסף עולא חברנו עמית בתורה ובמצות אמר למאי שלח לי לחנופי ליה הדר אמר למישרא בתיגריה 30a. strongMISHNA: /strong bThe oath of testimony is practiced with regard to men but not with regard to women, with regard to non-relativesof the litigants bbut not with regard to relatives, with regard tothose bfitto testify bbut not with regard tothose bunfitto testify due to a transgression that they performed. bAndthe oath of testimony bis practiced only with regard tothose bfit to testify. /b,The oath of testimony is practiced both bin the presence of a court and not in the presence of a court,when the potential witness takes the oath bon his own. Butif the oath is administered bby othersand those denying that they witnessed the incident in question neither take an oath nor answer amen to the administered oath, bthey are not liable until they denyany knowledge of the incident in question bin court.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Whetherone of the witnesses takes the oath bon his own or whetherthe oath is administered bby others,the witnesses bare not liable until they denyany knowledge of the incident in question before the litigants bin court. /b, bAnd one is liable forthe act of taking a false boath with intent and for an unwittingact of taking a false oath, i.e., he is unaware of the liability for taking a false oath, provided that he takes the oath bwith intentin terms of bthe testimony,i.e., he takes an oath that he has no knowledge of the matter even though he knows that he witnessed the incident. bButwitnesses bare not liable fortaking the oath if they were bunwittingin terms of the testimony, i.e., they believe that they have no knowledge of the matter. bAnd what are they liable forby taking a false boath with intent?They are liable to bring ba sliding-scale offering. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that the oath of testimony is not practiced with regard to women because they are unfit to testify. The Gemara asks: bFrom where is this matter,that women do not testify, derived? The Gemara answers: It is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: When the verse states: “If an unrighteous witness rises up against any man… bthen the two men shall stand”(Deuteronomy 19:16–17), it is bwith regard to witnessesthat bthe verse is speaking.Apparently, men, not women, may testify.,The ibaraitacontinues: bDo you saythat it is bwith regard to witnesses, orperhaps it is bonly with regard to litigantsthat the verse is speaking? bWhen it states: “Between whom the controversy is”(Deuteronomy 19:17), bthe litigants arealready bstatedin the verse. bHow do I realizethe meaning of the phrase b“then the two men shall stand”?Apparently, it is bwith regard to witnessesthat bthe verse is speaking. And if it is your wish to saythat this is not a proof, another proof may be cited. bIt is stated here:“The btwomen,” band it is stated there:“On the basis of btwowitnesses” (Deuteronomy 19:15); bjust as there,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks, bso too here,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the statement of the ibaraita /i: And bif it is your wish to say?Why is the initial proof inadequate? The Gemara answers: bAnd if you would saythat bfromthe fact bthatthe verse bdid not write:Then the two men band those between whom the controversy isshall stand, which would indicate that the verse changes its focus from the witnesses to the litigants, perhaps throughout bthe entire verseit is bwith regard to litigantsthat bit is speaking.Therefore, the itannacites an additional proof. bIt is stated here:“The btwomen,” band it is stated there:“On the basis of btwowitnesses”; bjust as there,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks, bso too here,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: When the verse states: b“Then the two men shall stand,”it is bwith regard to witnessesthat bthe verse is speaking.The ibaraitacontinues: bDo you saythat it is bwith regard to witnesses, orperhaps it is bonly with regard to litigantsthat the verse is speaking? The itannaasks: Did byou saythat? If the reference is to litigants, why does the verse mention two? bDo twopeople bcometo court bfor judgmentbut bthreepeople bdo not cometo court bfor judgment? And if it is your wish to saythat this is not a proof, another proof may be cited. bIt is stated here:“The btwomen,” band it is stated there:“On the basis of btwowitnesses”; bjust as there,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks, bso too here,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: And bif it is your wish to say?Why is the initial proof inadequate? The Gemara answers: bAnd if you would saythat even though there are cases where there are more than two litigants, it is bwith regard to a plaintiff and a defendantthat bthe verse is speaking.Therefore, the itannacites an additional proof. bIt is stated here:“The btwomen,” band it is stated there:“On the basis of btwowitnesses”; bjust as there,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks, bso too here,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: When the verse states: b“Then the two men shall stand,”it is bwith regard to witnessesthat bthe verse is speaking.The ibaraitacontinues: bDo you saythat it is bwith regard to witnesses, orperhaps it is bonly with regard to litigantsthat the verse is speaking? The itannaasks: Did byou saythat? If the reference is to litigants, why does the verse mention men? Do bmen cometo court bfor judgmentbut bwomen do not cometo court bfor judgment? And if it is your wish to saythat this is not a proof, another proof may be cited. bIt is stated here:“The btwomen,” band it is stated there:“On the basis of btwowitnesses”; bjust as there,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks, bso too here,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks.,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: And bif it is your wish to say?Why is the initial proof inadequate? The Gemara answers that it means: bAnd if you would saythat with regard to ba woman, it is nottypical bconductfor bherto appear in court bdue tothe verse that is stated with regard to women: b“All the glory of the king’s daughter is within”(Psalms 45:14), and that is why the verse addressed a situation that is prevalent, i.e., a case where the litigants are men, and there is no proof that women are unfit for testimony. Therefore, the itannacites an additional proof. bIt is stated here:“The btwomen,” band it is stated there:“On the basis of btwowitnesses”; bjust as there,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks, bso too here,it is bwith regard to witnessesthat the verse speaks.,§ The Gemara cites another interpretation of the verse. bThe Sages taught: “Then the two men shall stand”;this indicates that there is ba mitzva for the litigants to standduring the court proceedings. bRabbi Yehuda said: I heard that ifthe judges bwished to seat bothof the litigants, bthey may seatthem. bWhat,then, bis prohibitedfor the judges? They must ensure bthat there will not bea situation where bonelitigant bis standing and onelitigant bis sitting,or a situation where bonelitigant bsays everythingthat bhe needsto say to present his case band onelitigant, the judge bsays to him: Curtail your statement. /b, bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“But in righteousness shall you judge your colleague”(Leviticus 19:15), from which it is derived: The court must ensure bthat there will not bea situation where bonelitigant bis sitting and onelitigant bis standing,or a situation where bonelitigant bsays everythingthat bhe needsto say to present his case band onelitigant, the judge bsays to him: Curtail your statement. Alternatively,it is derived from the verse: b“But in righteousness shall you judge your colleague,”that you bshould judge another favorably,and seek to find justification for his actions, even if when interpreted differently his actions could be judged unfavorably., bRav Yosef teachesthat from the verse: b“But in righteousness shall you judge your colleague [ iamitekha /i],”it is derived: bWithregard to one bwho is with you [ iim she’itekha /i] inobservance of bTorah and infulfillment of bmitzvot, try to judge him favorably,in the manner that the Gemara will now explain.,The Gemara relates: bRav Ulla, son of Rav Ilai, had a trialpending bbefore Rav Naḥman. Rav Yosef senta message btoRav Naḥman: bUlla our friendis ba colleague in Torah and mitzvot,with regard to whom the verse states that you should judge him favorably. Rav Naḥman bsaid: For whatpurpose bdid he sendthis message bto me?Does he expect me bto grant him preferentialtreatment? Every judgment must be undertaken with righteousness. Rav Naḥman bthen said:Rav Yosef sent me the message btoensure I would bopen withRav Ulla’s bdisputein the event that other cases come before me for judgment, in deference to the Torah because he is a Torah scholar.
34. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

9a. (דברים יד, כב) עשר תעשר עשר בשביל שתתעשר,אשכחיה ר' יוחנן לינוקא דריש לקיש אמר ליה אימא לי פסוקיך א"ל עשר תעשר א"ל ומאי עשר תעשר א"ל עשר בשביל שתתעשר אמר ליה מנא לך א"ל זיל נסי,אמר ליה ומי שרי לנסוייה להקב"ה והכתיב (דברים ו, טז) לא תנסו את ה' א"ל הכי אמר רבי הושעיא חוץ מזו שנאמר (מלאכי ג, י) הביאו את כל המעשר אל בית האוצר ויהי טרף בביתי ובחנוני נא בזאת אמר ה' צבאות אם לא אפתח לכם את ארובות השמים והריקותי לכם ברכה עד בלי די,מאי עד בלי די אמר רמי בר חמא אמר רב עד שיבלו שפתותיכם מלומר די א"ל אי הות מטי התם להאי פסוקא לא הוית צריכנא לך ולהושעיא רבך,ותו אשכחיה ר' יוחנן לינוקיה דריש לקיש דיתיב ואמר (משלי יט, ג) אולת אדם תסלף דרכו ועל ה' יזעף לבו,יתיב רבי יוחנן וקא מתמה אמר מי איכא מידי דכתיבי בכתובי דלא רמיזי באורייתא א"ל אטו הא מי לא רמיזי והכתיב (בראשית מב, כח) ויצא לבם ויחרדו איש אל אחיו לאמר מה זאת עשה אלהים לנו,דל עיניה וחזא ביה אתיא אימיה אפיקתיה אמרה ליה תא מקמיה דלא ליעבד לך כדעבד לאבוך,(א"ר יוחנן מטר בשביל יחיד פרנסה בשביל רבים מטר בשביל יחיד דכתיב (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב לתת מטר ארצך פרנסה בשביל רבים דכתיב (שמות טז, ד) הנני ממטיר לכם לחם,מיתיבי ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר שלשה פרנסים טובים עמדו לישראל אלו הן משה ואהרן ומרים וג' מתנות טובות ניתנו על ידם ואלו הן באר וענן ומן באר בזכות מרים עמוד ענן בזכות אהרן מן בזכות משה מתה מרים נסתלק הבאר שנאמר (במדבר כ, א) ותמת שם מרים וכתיב בתריה ולא היה מים לעדה וחזרה בזכות שניהן,מת אהרן נסתלקו ענני כבוד שנאמר (במדבר כא, א) וישמע הכנעני מלך ערד מה שמועה שמע שמע שמת אהרן ונסתלקו ענני כבוד וכסבור ניתנה לו רשות להלחם בישראל והיינו דכתיב (במדבר כ, כט) ויראו כל העדה כי גוע אהרן,אמר ר' אבהו אל תקרי ויראו אלא וייראו כדדריש ר"ל דאר"ל כי משמש בארבע לשונות אי דלמא אלא דהא,חזרו שניהם בזכות משה מת משה נסתלקו כולן שנאמר (זכריה יא, ח) ואכחיד את שלשת הרועים בירח אחד וכי בירח אחד מתו והלא מרים מתה בניסן ואהרן באב ומשה באדר אלא מלמד שנתבטלו ג' מתנות טובות שנתנו על ידן ונסתלקו כולן בירח אחד,אלמא אשכחן פרנסה בשביל יחיד שאני משה כיון דלרבים הוא בעי כרבים דמי,רב הונא בר מנוח ורב שמואל בר אידי ורב חייא מווסתניא הוו שכיחי קמיה דרבא כי נח נפשיה דרבא אתו לקמיה דרב פפא כל אימת דהוה אמר להו שמעתא ולא הוה מסתברא להו הוו מרמזי אהדדי חלש דעתיה 9a. b“A tithe shall you tithe [ ite’aser /i]”(Deuteronomy 14:22)? This phrase can be interpreted homiletically: bTake a tithe [ iasser /i] so that you will become wealthy [ ititasher /i],in the merit of the mitzva., bRabbi Yoḥa foundthe byoung son of Reish Lakish. He said tothe boy: bRecite to me your verse,i.e., the verse you studied today in school. The boy bsaid to him: “A tithe shall you tithe.”The boy further bsaid toRabbi Yoḥa: bButwhat is the meaning of this phrase: b“A tithe shall you tithe”?Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him:The verse means: bTake a tithe so that you will become wealthy.The boy bsaid toRabbi Yoḥa: bFrom where do youderive that this is so? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Goand btestit.,The boy bsaid to him: And is it permitted to test the Holy One, Blessed be He? But isn’t it written: “You shall not test the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 6:16)? Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid tothe boy that bRabbi Hoshaya said as follows:It is prohibited to test God in any way, bexcept in thiscase of tithes, bas it is stated: “Bring the whole tithe into the storeroom, that there may be food in My house, and test Me now by this, said the Lord of hosts, if I will not open for you the windows of heaven, and pour out for you a blessing that there shall be more than sufficiency”(Malachi 3:10).,In relation to the above verse, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“That there shall be more than sufficiency [ iad beli dai /i]”? Rami bar Ḥama saidthat bRav said:It means that the abundance will be so great bthat your lips will be worn out [ iyivlu /i],similar to the word ibeli /i, bfrom saying enough [ idai /i].Returning to the above incident, the Gemara adds that the boy bsaid toRabbi Yoḥa: Your claim appears explicitly in a verse. bIf I had arrived there,at this verse, bI would not have needed you or Hoshaya your teacher,as I could have understood it on my own.,The Gemara relates another story about the precociousness of this child. bAnd furthermore,on a different occasion bRabbi Yoḥa foundthe byoung son of Reish Lakish, when he was sittingand studying bandhe was brecitingthe verse: b“The foolishness of man perverts his way, and his heart frets against the Lord”(Proverbs 19:3). This verse means that when someone sins and every manner of mishap befalls him, he complains and wonders why these things are happening to him., bRabbi Yoḥa sat down and wonderedaloud about this verse, bsaying: Is there anything that is written in the Writings that is not alluded to in the Torahat all? I cannot think of any hint of this idea in the Torah itself. The child bsaid to him: Is that to saythat bthisidea is really bnot alluded toin the Torah? bBut isn’t it written,with regard to Joseph’s brothers: b“And their heart failed them and they turned trembling to one to another, saying: What is this that God has done to us?”(Genesis 42:28). This verse exemplifies the notion that when one sins and encounters troubles, he wonders why it is happening to him.,Impressed by the youth’s wisdom, Rabbi Yoḥa braised his eyes and stared at the boy.At this point, the boy’s bmother came and took him away, saying to him: Come away fromRabbi Yoḥa, bso that he does not do to you as he did to your father.Reish Lakish, the boy’s father, died during a heated dispute with Rabbi Yoḥa over a Torah matter. The argument ended with an offended look from Rabbi Yoḥa which caused Reish Lakish’s death, and the boy’s mother was afraid that her son might suffer the same fate.,§ After this brief digression, the Gemara turns to the fifth in the series of statements by Rabbi Yoḥa concerning rain. bRabbi Yoḥa said: Rainfalls even bfor the sake of an individual,in response to the petition of a single person in need of rain, whereas a blessing of bsustececomes only bfor the sake of many. Rainfalls even bfor the sake of an individual, as it is written: “The Lord will open for you His good treasure,the heavens, bto give the rain of your land”(Deuteronomy 28:12). The fact that this verse is written in the second person singular demonstrates that rain can fall even for the sake of an individual. Rabbi Yoḥa further proves that bsustececomes bfor the sake of many, as it is written: “Behold I will cause to rain bread from the heavens for you”(Exodus 16:4). Here, God is referring to the people in the plural form.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Three good sustainers rose up for the Jewish peopleduring the exodus from Egypt, and bthey are: Moses, Aaron and Miriam. And three good gifts were givenfrom Heaven bthrough their agency, and these are they:The bwellof water, the pillar of bcloud, andthe bmanna.He elaborates: The bwellwas given to the Jewish people bin the merit of Miriam;the bpillar of cloudwas bin the merit of Aaron;and the bmanna in the merit of Moses.When bMiriam diedthe bwell disappeared, as it is stated: “And Miriam died there”(Numbers 20:1), band it says thereafterin the next verse: b“And there was no water for the congregation”(Numbers 20:2). bButthe well breturned in the merit of bothMoses and Aaron.,When bAaron diedthe bclouds of glory disappeared, as it is stated: “And the Canaanite, the king of Arad heard”(Numbers 33:40). bWhat report did he hear? He heard that Aaron had died and the clouds of glory had disappeared, and he thought thatthe Jewish people were no longer protected by Heaven and therefore bhe had been given permission to go to war against the Jewish people. And thisdisappearance of the clouds bisthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “And all the congregation saw that [ iki /i] Aaron was dead”(Numbers 20:29)., bRabbi Abbahu said: Do not readthe verse as: b“And they saw [ iva’yiru /i]”; rather,read it as: bAnd they were seen [ iva’yera’u /i],as the clouds which had concealed the Jewish people were temporarily removed. This is bas Reish Lakish taught. As Reish Lakish said:The term iki /iactually bhasat least bfourdistinct bmeanings: If; perhaps; but; because,or that. According to this interpretation, the verse would be rendered: And all the congregation was seen, because [ iki /i] Aaron was dead.,The ibaraitacontinues: bBoththe well and the clouds of glory breturned in the merit of Moses.However, when bMoses died all of them disappeared. As it is stated: “And I cut off the three shepherds in one month”(Zechariah 11:8). bBut didthe three shepherds really bdie in one month? Didn’t Miriam die inthe month of bNisan, and Aaron in Av and Moses in Adar? Rather,this verse bteachesus bthatwith the death of Moses the bthree good gifts that were given through their agency were annulled, andall three gifts bdisappeared in one month,which made it seem as though all three leaders had died at the same time.,The Gemara explains the difficulty from this ibaraita /i. bApparently, we findthat bsustececan come bfor the sake of an individual,as the ibaraitastates that sustece in the form of manna came for the sake of Moses. The Gemara answers: bMoses is different, since he requestedthe manna bfor many,and therefore he was considered blike many,not as an individual.,The Gemara relates a story concerning the aforementioned verse from Zechariah. bRav Huna bar Manoaḥ, Rav Shmuel bar Idi, and Rav Ḥiyya from Vastanya wereoften bfound before Rava,as they were among his most distinguished students. bWhen Rava died, they came before Rav Pappato learn from him. However, as also they were great Sages, bwhenever Rav Pappa would say a ihalakhathat did notsound breasonable to them, they would gesture to each otherthat Rav Pappa was not equal in stature to Rava. Rav Pappa bwas offendedby their behavior.
35. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 38

36. Ctesias, Fragments, 1

37. Epigraphy, Syll. , 985



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron ben elijah of nicomedia Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
accusation Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 101, 112
accuser, the Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 19
achan Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 126
adam Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 180; Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 20
adjuration Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 112, 114, 116, 123, 125
adultery Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 112, 123, 126
agdistis Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 72
aggadah Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 13
agriculture Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 176
allegorical, exegesis of the song of songs Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 19
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 101, 116, 127, 176
animal bones Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 127
animals Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 105
apotropaic, rituals Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 19
arabic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 176
aramaic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 180
ascending and descending offering Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 104
atonement, as bearing others sins nan
atonement, as slaughter of the sacrificial victim nan
atonement, as substance of his heavenly offering nan
atonement, in the levitical cult nan
atonement Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97
babylonian talmud Amsler, Knowledge Construction in Late Antiquity (2023) 43
baking Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 18
bible Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 101, 111, 125, 176
biblical period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 123
bind/binding Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 19
birth Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 137
blasphemy Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 126
capital matters Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 86, 101, 128
carrion Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 105
children Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 105
concealment (heelem) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 104
conditional, imprecation Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 127
confession Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116, 123
conscience Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 177
conviction Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81
corpse(-uncleanness) Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 105
court Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 114
creation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 180
curse Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 126, 127
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 19
danby, herbert Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 196
dangerous gentile Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 105
death Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 137
dialogue, idiom' Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 19
dialogue Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 18
dietary prohibitions Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 137
each person a world Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 13
eden Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 20
embodiment Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 137
examination Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
examiner Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81
exegesis, midrash Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 112, 123, 125, 126, 128
exegesis, pesher Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 101
exegesis, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 86, 111, 112, 123
exegesis, tannaitic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 114, 123
exorcisms/exorcise/exorcists/exorcistic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 19
expulsion Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 19
financial contact, matters Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 114, 126, 175
finder of lost object Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116, 123, 125
fines Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
forgiveness nan
galilean, jewish practice Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 18
gamliel, rabban Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 20
gender, conflict Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 18
gender, division Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 18
genre, of the folktale Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 20
gezerah shawah Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 123
god Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 101
gospels Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 180
guilt Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97, 104; Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 243; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 112, 114, 125, 126
guilt offering (asham) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97
haggadah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 196
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 19
heaven, punishment at the hands of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 114
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 86, 101, 125, 176
hebrew, masoretic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 176
hebrew, mishnaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 125
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 111, 112, 114, 116, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 176
hebrew, rabbinic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 176
hellenism, hellenistic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 127, 175
heresy Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 180
hermeneutic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 180
hermeneutics, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 112, 123
hieros gamos Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 19
history Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 19
impure, impurity Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 104
income tax Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
intention Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 348
interreligious discourse Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 18
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 180
jerusalem Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 125
jesus Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 18
judah the nasi, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 196
judges Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
karaites Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86, 126
knappert, jan, x, labor, classification of Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 55
law, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 123, 128
law, derivation of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 123, 128
law, karaite Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116
law, medieval Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116, 123
law, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 111, 112, 114, 116
leviticus Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 114
maimonides, moses Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116
manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
marriage Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 198
menstrual blood Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 137
micaiah (micah) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 127
mishna Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 180
misogynous phrase, and negative view of women Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 20
moral impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 348
moses, as legal authority Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 243
moshav ha-rabbim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
mythical era Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 19
nahal hever Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 101
near east, ancient Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111
non-pentateuchal scripture, appeal to Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 243
numerology, oaths, speciation of Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 55
oath, false (shevu'at sheqer)" Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 123, 125
oath, false (shevu'at sheqer)" '267.0_114.0@oath, invalid Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 126
oath, public recitation of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 114, 116, 127
oath, violation of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 125, 126
oath, voluntary Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 114
oath Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 72; Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 20; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 111, 112, 114, 116, 126, 127
oaths Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 19
offenses, recording of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81
offenses, repetition of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 86
offenses Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 176
orthography, masoretic, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 176
orthography, masoretic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 101
owner, lost property, not located Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 116, 123
owner, lost property, unidentified Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 116
owner, lost property Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111
ownership, private Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 175
parody Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 18
penal code of the manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175, 176
pentateuch Amsler, Knowledge Construction in Late Antiquity (2023) 43, 44
pentateuchal Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 243
perjury Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
philadelphia (lydia) Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 72
philo, kinds of sacrifice in Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 177
philo Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 177; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86, 125, 126
polemics Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 18
precentor (hazzan) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116
priest, priests Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 104
priestly code Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97, 104
priests, aaronide Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 112, 114, 116, 123
priests Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 243
prooftexts, non-pentateuchal Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 243
property, communal use of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 175
property, disposition of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 123, 125
property, found, announcement of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 125
property, guardian of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116
property, illegal appropriation of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 123
property, location of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 123
property, lost or missing Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 116, 123
property, registration of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
property, restitution of lost or stolen Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 112, 114, 116, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128
property, stolen Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 112, 123, 125
prophets and writings Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81
punishment, penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 112, 114, 126, 175
pure food, removal from Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81
purification Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97
qumran, headquarters of sect, population Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 176
qumran Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 72
rabbi aibo Amsler, Knowledge Construction in Late Antiquity (2023) 44
rabbi akiva Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 128
rabbi judah the prince Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 128
rabbi simeon ben lakish (resh lakish) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 176
rabbi yose bar hanina Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 127
rabbis, rabbinic literature Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 86, 112, 114, 116, 125, 126, 127
rebuke/ἐπιτιμάω/ רעג Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 19
repentance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116
reproof Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 101, 112
responsum Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116
ritual impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 348
ritual system Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 348
rituals Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 19
sacrifice, animal, in judaism v, vi Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 177
sacrifice Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 243; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 114, 116
sacrifices, qorban oleh we-yored, variable offering Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 114
samaritan pentateuch Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 101
sanhedrin Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 180
schools Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 125
scribal error Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86, 101, 125
scribes, medieval Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 123
second commonwealth period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
sect, expulsion from Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 176
sect, history of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 123
sect, new member of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
sectarian settlements' "267.0_114.0@sifra'" Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
sermon on the mount Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 18
sin Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97; Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 177
sin and atonement Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116
sin offering Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 177
sin offering (hattat) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97, 104
sinai Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 19
sotah Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 20
soul Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 137
speciation Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 55
spielberg, steven Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 13
stain Feder, Purity and Pollution in the Hebrew Bible: From Embodied Experience to Moral Metaphor (2022) 137
superspeciation Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 55
susanna Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81
synagogue Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 114, 116, 125
synonymous variants Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 114, 116, 176
talmud Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 180
talmudic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 114, 123, 125, 126, 128
taxonomy, unity of being and Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 55
temple, cult, jerusalem Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 125
temple, cult Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 112, 114
temple, jerusalem Amsler, Knowledge Construction in Late Antiquity (2023) 44
testimony, combination of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 86
testimony, law of, (zadokite fragments) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 86
testimony Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86, 114, 126, 127, 175
tetragrammaton Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 101
textual interpretation, midrashic procedure of Hasan Rokem, Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity (2003) 18
theft Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 112, 116, 126
thief Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116, 123, 125, 126
tosefta Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 180
transgression, inadvertent Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97, 104
transgression, intentional Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97
transmission of impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 348
uncleanness, cultic Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 55
unity of being, taxonomy and Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 55
vengeance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 101
victim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 116
violation of the law Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 111, 123
visions/vision accounts Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 19
vows, annulment of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 112
wadi murabaat Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 101
water, of bitterness Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 112
witnesses, (crime commited with) no Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 112
witnesses, number required Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81
witnesses, recalcitrant Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 114, 127
witnesses, reliability of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81
witnesses, single (one) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81
witnesses, three Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 86
witnesses, two Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 86
witnesses Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 198; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 86, 112, 116
women, in mixed associations Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 72
yohanan b. zakkai, rabban Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 198
zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 81, 101, 111, 114, 116, 175
zechariah, scroll Amsler, Knowledge Construction in Late Antiquity (2023) 43, 44
zechariah, vision (of the scroll) Amsler, Knowledge Construction in Late Antiquity (2023) 44
ḥṭ Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 348