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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6296
Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 4


nanAnd the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering.,Thus shall he do with the bullock; as he did with the bullock of the sin-offering, so shall he do with this; and the priest shall make atonement for them, and they shall be forgiven.,And the priest shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the LORD, which is in the tent of meeting; and all the remaining blood of the bullock shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting.,And if he bring a lamb as his offering for a sin-offering, he shall bring it a female without blemish.,And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and all the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar.,And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD; and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD.,And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; and the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven.,And all the fat thereof shall he take off from it, and make it smoke upon the altar.,And the anointed priest shall take of the blood of the bullock, and bring it to the tent of meeting.,And all the fat of the bullock of the sin-offering he shall take off from it; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards,,And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt-offering before the LORD; it is a sin-offering.,as it is taken off from the ox of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke upon the altar of burnt-offering.,if the anointed priest shall sin so as to bring guilt on the people, then let him offer for his sin, which he hath sinned, a young bullock without blemish unto the LORD for a sin-offering.,if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, be known to him, he shall bring for his offering a goat, a male without blemish.,And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tent of meeting before the LORD; and he shall lay his hand upon the head of the bullock, and kill the bullock before the LORD.,And if any one of the common people sin through error, in doing any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and be guilty:,And all the fat thereof shall he make smoke upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin, and he shall be forgiven.,Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If any one shall sin through error, in any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and shall do any one of them:,And the anointed priest shall bring of the blood of the bullock to the tent of meeting.,and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the loins, and the lobe above the liver, which he shall take away by kidneys,,And he shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar which is before the LORD, that is in the tent of meeting, and all the remaining blood shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting.,And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be forgiven.,And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bullock; it is the sin-offering for the assembly.,But the skin of the bullock, and all its flesh, with its head, and with its legs, and its inwards, and its dung,,if his sin, which he hath sinned, be known to him, then he shall bring for his offering a goat, a female without blemish, for his sin which he hath sinned.,And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:,even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire; where the ashes are poured out shall it be burnt.,And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and kill the sin-offering in the place of burnt-offering.,when the sin wherein they have sinned is known, then the assembly shall offer a young bullock for a sin-offering, and bring it before the tent of meeting.,When a ruler sinneth, and doeth through error any one of all the things which the LORD his God hath commanded not to be done, and is guilty:,And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil.,And if the whole congregation of Israel shall err, the thing being hid from the eyes of the assembly, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and are guilty:,And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and all the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar.,And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil of the sanctuary.,And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and kill it for a sin-offering in the place where they kill the burnt-offering.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

45 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.12-5.14, 14.3-14.20, 16.7, 24.8, 30.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 5.13. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ׃ 5.14. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ־וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְשׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרְךָ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ כָּמוֹךָ׃ 14.3. לֹא תֹאכַל כָּל־תּוֹעֵבָה׃ 14.4. זֹאת הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכֵלוּ שׁוֹר שֵׂה כְשָׂבִים וְשֵׂה עִזִּים׃ 14.5. אַיָּל וּצְבִי וְיַחְמוּר וְאַקּוֹ וְדִישֹׁן וּתְאוֹ וָזָמֶר׃ 14.6. וְכָל־בְּהֵמָה מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע שְׁתֵּי פְרָסוֹת מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה בַּבְּהֵמָה אֹתָהּ תֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 14.7. אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה הַשְּׁסוּעָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶבֶת וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָן כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הֵמָּה וּפַרְסָה לֹא הִפְרִיסוּ טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם׃ 14.8. וְאֶת־הַחֲזִיר כִּי־מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא וְלֹא גֵרָה טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָם לֹא תִגָּעוּ׃ 14.9. אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת תֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 14.11. כָּל־צִפּוֹר טְהֹרָה תֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 14.12. וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֹאכְלוּ מֵהֶם הַנֶּשֶׁר וְהַפֶּרֶס וְהָעָזְנִיָּה׃ 14.13. וְהָרָאָה וְאֶת־הָאַיָּה וְהַדַּיָּה לְמִינָהּ׃ 14.14. וְאֵת כָּל־עֹרֵב לְמִינוֹ׃ 14.15. וְאֵת בַּת הַיַּעֲנָה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁחַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּץ לְמִינֵהוּ׃ 14.16. אֶת־הַכּוֹס וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשׁוּף וְהַתִּנְשָׁמֶת׃ 14.17. וְהַקָּאָת וְאֶת־הָרָחָמָה וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָךְ׃ 14.18. וְהַחֲסִידָה וְהָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְהַדּוּכִיפַת וְהָעֲטַלֵּף׃ 14.19. וְכֹל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם לֹא יֵאָכֵלוּ׃ 16.7. וּבִשַּׁלְתָּ וְאָכַלְתָּ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ וּפָנִיתָ בַבֹּקֶר וְהָלַכְתָּ לְאֹהָלֶיךָ׃ 24.8. הִשָּׁמֶר בְּנֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת לִשְׁמֹר מְאֹד וְלַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יוֹרוּ אֶתְכֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִם תִּשְׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 30.4. אִם־יִהְיֶה נִדַּחֲךָ בִּקְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם מִשָּׁם יְקַבֶּצְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּמִשָּׁם יִקָּחֶךָ׃ 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 5.13. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 5.14. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; that thy man-servant and thy maid-servant may rest as well as thou." 14.3. Thou shalt not eat any abominable thing." 14.4. These are the beasts which ye may eat: the ox, the sheep, and the goat," 14.5. the hart, and the gazelle, and the roebuck, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the antelope, and the mountain-sheep." 14.6. And every beast that parteth the hoof, and hath the hoof wholly cloven in two, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that ye may eat." 14.7. Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of them that only chew the cud, or of them that only have the hoof cloven: the camel, and the hare, and the rock-badger, because they chew the cud but part not the hoof, they are unclean unto you;" 14.8. and the swine, because he parteth the hoof but cheweth not the cud, he is unclean unto you; of their flesh ye shall not eat, and their carcasses ye shall not touch." 14.9. These ye may eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales may ye eat;" 14.10. and whatsoever hath not fins and scales ye shall not eat; it is unclean unto you." 14.11. of all clean birds ye may eat." 14.12. But these are they of which ye shall not eat: the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the ospray;" 14.13. and the glede, and the falcon, and the kite after its kinds;" 14.14. and every raven after its kinds;" 14.15. and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the sea-mew, and the hawk after its kinds;" 14.16. the little owl, and the great owl, and the horned owl;" 14.17. and the pelican, and the carrion-vulture, and the cormorant;" 14.18. and the stork, and the heron after its kinds, and the hoopoe, and the bat." 14.19. And all winged swarming things are unclean unto you; they shall not be eaten." 14.20. of all clean winged things ye may eat." 16.7. And thou shalt roast and eat it in the place which the LORD thy God shall choose; and thou shalt turn in the morning, and go unto thy tents." 24.8. Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that thou observe diligently, and do according to all that the priests the Levites shall teach you, as I commanded them, so ye shall observe to do." 30.4. If any of thine that are dispersed be in the uttermost parts of heaven, from thence will the LORD thy God gather thee, and from thence will He fetch thee."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.9, 19.6, 21.2-21.17, 31.12-31.17, 40.34-40.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.9. אַל־תֹּאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ נָא וּבָשֵׁל מְבֻשָּׁל בַּמָּיִם כִּי אִם־צְלִי־אֵשׁ רֹאשׁוֹ עַל־כְּרָעָיו וְעַל־קִרְבּוֹ׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.2. כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְּׁבִעִת יֵצֵא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם׃ 21.2. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם׃ 21.3. אִם־כֹּפֶר יוּשַׁת עָלָיו וְנָתַן פִּדְיֹן נַפְשׁוֹ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יוּשַׁת עָלָיו׃ 21.3. אִם־בְּגַפּוֹ יָבֹא בְּגַפּוֹ יֵצֵא אִם־בַּעַל אִשָּׁה הוּא וְיָצְאָה אִשְׁתּוֹ עִמּוֹ׃ 21.4. אִם־אֲדֹנָיו יִתֶּן־לוֹ אִשָּׁה וְיָלְדָה־לוֹ בָנִים אוֹ בָנוֹת הָאִשָּׁה וִילָדֶיהָ תִּהְיֶה לַאדֹנֶיהָ וְהוּא יֵצֵא בְגַפּוֹ׃ 21.5. וְאִם־אָמֹר יֹאמַר הָעֶבֶד אָהַבְתִּי אֶת־אֲדֹנִי אֶת־אִשְׁתִּי וְאֶת־בָּנָי לֹא אֵצֵא חָפְשִׁי׃ 21.6. וְהִגִּישׁוֹ אֲדֹנָיו אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וְהִגִּישׁוֹ אֶל־הַדֶּלֶת אוֹ אֶל־הַמְּזוּזָה וְרָצַע אֲדֹנָיו אֶת־אָזְנוֹ בַּמַּרְצֵעַ וַעֲבָדוֹ לְעֹלָם׃ 21.7. וְכִי־יִמְכֹּר אִישׁ אֶת־בִּתּוֹ לְאָמָה לֹא תֵצֵא כְּצֵאת הָעֲבָדִים׃ 21.8. אִם־רָעָה בְּעֵינֵי אֲדֹנֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] יְעָדָהּ וְהֶפְדָּהּ לְעַם נָכְרִי לֹא־יִמְשֹׁל לְמָכְרָהּ בְּבִגְדוֹ־בָהּ׃ 21.9. וְאִם־לִבְנוֹ יִיעָדֶנָּה כְּמִשְׁפַּט הַבָּנוֹת יַעֲשֶׂה־לָּהּ׃ 21.11. וְאִם־שְׁלָשׁ־אֵלֶּה לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה לָהּ וְיָצְאָה חִנָּם אֵין כָּסֶף׃ 21.12. מַכֵּה אִישׁ וָמֵת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 21.13. וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא צָדָה וְהָאֱלֹהִים אִנָּה לְיָדוֹ וְשַׂמְתִּי לְךָ מָקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יָנוּס שָׁמָּה׃ 21.14. וְכִי־יָזִד אִישׁ עַל־רֵעֵהוּ לְהָרְגוֹ בְעָרְמָה מֵעִם מִזְבְּחִי תִּקָּחֶנּוּ לָמוּת׃ 21.15. וּמַכֵּה אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 21.16. וְגֹנֵב אִישׁ וּמְכָרוֹ וְנִמְצָא בְיָדוֹ מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 21.17. וּמְקַלֵּל אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 31.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 31.13. וְאַתָּה דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אַךְ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ כִּי אוֹת הִוא בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם לָדַעַת כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃ 31.14. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת כִּי קֹדֶשׁ הִוא לָכֶם מְחַלְלֶיהָ מוֹת יוּמָת כִּי כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה בָהּ מְלָאכָה וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִקֶּרֶב עַמֶּיהָ׃ 31.15. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים יֵעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 31.16. וְשָׁמְרוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לְדֹרֹתָם בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 31.17. בֵּינִי וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹת הִוא לְעֹלָם כִּי־שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שָׁבַת וַיִּנָּפַשׁ׃ 40.34. וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.35. וְלֹא־יָכֹל מֹשֶׁה לָבוֹא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד כִּי־שָׁכַן עָלָיו הֶעָנָן וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 12.9. Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; its head with its legs and with the inwards thereof." 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’" 21.2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing." 21.3. If he come in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he be married, then his wife shall go out with him." 21.4. If his master give him a wife, and she bear him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself." 21.5. But if the servant shall plainly say: I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free;" 21.6. then his master shall bring him unto God, and shall bring him to the door, or unto the door-post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl; and he shall serve him for ever." 21.7. And if a man sell his daughter to be a maid-servant, she shall not go out as the men-servants do." 21.8. If she please not her master, who hath espoused her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed; to sell her unto a foreign people he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her." 21.9. And if he espouse her unto his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters." 21.10. If he take him another wife, her food, her raiment, and her conjugal rights, shall he not diminish." 21.11. And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out for nothing, without money." 21.12. He that smiteth a man, so that he dieth, shall surely be put to death." 21.13. And if a man lie not in wait, but God cause it to come to hand; then I will appoint thee a place whither he may flee." 21.14. And if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from Mine altar, that he may die." 21.15. And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death. ." 21.16. And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death." 21.17. And he that curseth his father or his mother, shall surely be put to death." 31.12. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 31.13. ’Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying: Verily ye shall keep My sabbaths, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, that ye may know that I am the LORD who sanctify you." 31.14. Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore, for it is holy unto you; every one that profaneth it shall surely be put to death; for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people." 31.15. Six days shall work be done; but on the seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the LORD; whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death." 31.16. Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covet." 31.17. It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He ceased from work and rested.’" 40.34. Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle." 40.35. And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.—"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 30.1-30.16, 30.18, 30.22, 30.24, 32.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.1. וַתֵּרֶא רָחֵל כִּי לֹא יָלְדָה לְיַעֲקֹב וַתְּקַנֵּא רָחֵל בַּאֲחֹתָהּ וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־יַעֲקֹב הָבָה־לִּי בָנִים וְאִם־אַיִן מֵתָה אָנֹכִי׃ 30.1. וַתֵּלֶד זִלְפָּה שִׁפְחַת לֵאָה לְיַעֲקֹב בֵּן׃ 30.2. וַיִּחַר־אַף יַעֲקֹב בְּרָחֵל וַיֹּאמֶר הֲתַחַת אֱלֹהִים אָנֹכִי אֲשֶׁר־מָנַע מִמֵּךְ פְּרִי־בָטֶן׃ 30.2. וַתֹּאמֶר לֵאָה זְבָדַנִי אֱלֹהִים אֹתִי זֵבֶד טוֹב הַפַּעַם יִזְבְּלֵנִי אִישִׁי כִּי־יָלַדְתִּי לוֹ שִׁשָּׁה בָנִים וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ זְבֻלוּן׃ 30.3. וַתֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה אֲמָתִי בִלְהָה בֹּא אֵלֶיהָ וְתֵלֵד עַל־בִּרְכַּי וְאִבָּנֶה גַם־אָנֹכִי מִמֶּנָּה׃ 30.3. כִּי מְעַט אֲשֶׁר־הָיָה לְךָ לְפָנַי וַיִּפְרֹץ לָרֹב וַיְבָרֶךְ יְהוָה אֹתְךָ לְרַגְלִי וְעַתָּה מָתַי אֶעֱשֶׂה גַם־אָנֹכִי לְבֵיתִי׃ 30.4. וַתִּתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־בִּלְהָה שִׁפְחָתָהּ לְאִשָּׁה וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ יַעֲקֹב׃ 30.4. וְהַכְּשָׂבִים הִפְרִיד יַעֲקֹב וַיִּתֵּן פְּנֵי הַצֹּאן אֶל־עָקֹד וְכָל־חוּם בְּצֹאן לָבָן וַיָּשֶׁת־לוֹ עֲדָרִים לְבַדּוֹ וְלֹא שָׁתָם עַל־צֹאן לָבָן׃ 30.5. וַתַּהַר בִּלְהָה וַתֵּלֶד לְיַעֲקֹב בֵּן׃ 30.6. וַתֹּאמֶר רָחֵל דָּנַנִּי אֱלֹהִים וְגַם שָׁמַע בְּקֹלִי וַיִּתֶּן־לִי בֵּן עַל־כֵּן קָרְאָה שְׁמוֹ דָּן׃ 30.7. וַתַּהַר עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בִּלְהָה שִׁפְחַת רָחֵל בֵּן שֵׁנִי לְיַעֲקֹב׃ 30.8. וַתֹּאמֶר רָחֵל נַפְתּוּלֵי אֱלֹהִים נִפְתַּלְתִּי עִם־אֲחֹתִי גַּם־יָכֹלְתִּי וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ נַפְתָּלִי׃ 30.9. וַתֵּרֶא לֵאָה כִּי עָמְדָה מִלֶּדֶת וַתִּקַּח אֶת־זִלְפָּה שִׁפְחָתָהּ וַתִּתֵּן אֹתָהּ לְיַעֲקֹב לְאִשָּׁה׃ 30.11. וַתֹּאמֶר לֵאָה בגד [בָּא] [גָד] וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ גָּד׃ 30.12. וַתֵּלֶד זִלְפָּה שִׁפְחַת לֵאָה בֵּן שֵׁנִי לְיַעֲקֹב׃ 30.13. וַתֹּאמֶר לֵאָה בְּאָשְׁרִי כִּי אִשְּׁרוּנִי בָּנוֹת וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ אָשֵׁר׃ 30.14. וַיֵּלֶךְ רְאוּבֵן בִּימֵי קְצִיר־חִטִּים וַיִּמְצָא דוּדָאִים בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיָּבֵא אֹתָם אֶל־לֵאָה אִמּוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר רָחֵל אֶל־לֵאָה תְּנִי־נָא לִי מִדּוּדָאֵי בְּנֵךְ׃ 30.15. וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמְעַט קַחְתֵּךְ אֶת־אִישִׁי וְלָקַחַת גַּם אֶת־דּוּדָאֵי בְּנִי וַתֹּאמֶר רָחֵל לָכֵן יִשְׁכַּב עִמָּךְ הַלַּיְלָה תַּחַת דּוּדָאֵי בְנֵךְ׃ 30.16. וַיָּבֹא יַעֲקֹב מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה בָּעֶרֶב וַתֵּצֵא לֵאָה לִקְרָאתוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלַי תָּבוֹא כִּי שָׂכֹר שְׂכַרְתִּיךָ בְּדוּדָאֵי בְּנִי וַיִּשְׁכַּב עִמָּהּ בַּלַּיְלָה הוּא׃ 30.18. וַתֹּאמֶר לֵאָה נָתַן אֱלֹהִים שְׂכָרִי אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתִּי שִׁפְחָתִי לְאִישִׁי וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ יִשָּׂשכָר׃ 30.22. וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־רָחֵל וַיִּשְׁמַע אֵלֶיהָ אֱלֹהִים וַיִּפְתַּח אֶת־רַחְמָהּ׃ 30.24. וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ יוֹסֵף לֵאמֹר יֹסֵף יְהוָה לִי בֵּן אַחֵר׃ 32.33. עַל־כֵּן לֹא־יֹאכְלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּף הַיָּרֵךְ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי נָגַע בְּכַף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּגִיד הַנָּשֶׁה׃ 30.1. And when Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children, Rachel envied her sister; and she said unto Jacob: ‘Give me children, or else I die.’" 30.2. And Jacob’s anger was kindled against Rachel; and he said: ‘Am I in God’s stead, who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the womb?’" 30.3. And she said: ‘Behold my maid Bilhah, go in unto her; that she may bear upon my knees, and I also may be builded up through her.’" 30.4. And she gave him Bilhah her handmaid to wife; and Jacob went in unto her." 30.5. And Bilhah conceived, and bore Jacob a son." 30.6. And Rachel said: ‘God hath judged me, and hath also heard my voice, and hath given me a son.’ Therefore called she his name Dan." 30.7. And Bilhah Rachel’s handmaid conceived again, and bore Jacob a second son." 30.8. And Rachel said: ‘With mighty wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister, and have prevailed.’ And she called his name Naphtali." 30.9. When Leah saw that she had left off bearing, she took Zilpah her handmaid, and gave her to Jacob to wife." 30.10. And Zilpah Leah’s handmaid bore Jacob a son." 30.11. And Leah said: ‘Fortune is come! ’ And she called his name Gad." 30.12. And Zilpah Leah’s handmaid bore Jacob a second son." 30.13. And Leah said: ‘Happy am I! for the daughters will call me happy.’ And she called his name Asher." 30.14. And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the field, and brought them unto his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah: ‘Give me, I pray thee, of thy son’s mandrakes.’" 30.15. And she said unto her: ‘Is it a small matter that thou hast taken away my husband? and wouldest thou take away my son’s mandrakes also?’ And Rachel said: ‘Therefore he shall lie with thee to-night for thy son’s mandrakes.’" 30.16. And Jacob came from the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him, and said: ‘Thou must come in unto me; for I have surely hired thee with my son’s mandrakes.’ And he lay with her that night." 30.18. And Leah said: ‘God hath given me my hire, because I gave my handmaid to my husband. And she called his name Issachar." 30.22. And God remembered Rachel, and God hearkened to her, and opened her womb." 30.24. And she called his name Joseph, saying: ‘The LORD add to me another son.’" 32.33. Therefore the children of Israel eat not the sinew of the thigh-vein which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day; because he touched the hollow of Jacob’s thigh, even in the sinew of the thigh-vein."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.4, 3.17, 4.2-4.35, 5.1-5.26, 6.2, 6.7, 6.18, 7.1, 7.11, 7.16, 7.34, 7.36-7.37, 10.1-10.3, 10.9-10.11, 10.15, 11.2-11.28, 11.39-11.40, 11.46-11.47, 12.7, 13.1-13.5, 13.59, 14.54, 14.57, 15.2-15.17, 15.19-15.31, 15.33, 16.14-16.16, 16.31, 17.14-17.20, 18.2-18.8, 18.15-18.22, 19.1-19.19, 19.23-19.27, 19.30-19.37, 20.2-20.5, 20.7-20.8, 20.10, 20.18, 21.14, 22.21, 23.39-23.43, 25.1-25.17, 25.20-25.24, 26.13, 26.31, 26.34-26.35, 26.46, 27.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הָעֹלָה וְנִרְצָה לוֹ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו׃ 3.17. חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־חֵלֶב וְכָל־דָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃ 4.2. וְעָשָׂה לַפָּר כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְפַר הַחַטָּאת כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ וְכִפֶּר עֲלֵהֶם הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לָהֶם׃ 4.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר נֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה מִכֹּל מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְעָשָׂה מֵאַחַת מֵהֵנָּה׃ 4.3. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדָּמָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָהּ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 4.3. אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶחֱטָא לְאַשְׁמַת הָעָם וְהִקְרִיב עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר תָּמִים לַיהוָה לְחַטָּאת׃ 4.4. וְהֵבִיא אֶת־הַפָּר אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 4.5. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהֵבִיא אֹתוֹ אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.6. וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־אֶצְבָּעוֹ בַּדָּם וְהִזָּה מִן־הַדָּם שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶת־פְּנֵי פָּרֹכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 4.7. וְנָתַן הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַדָּם עַל־קַרְנוֹת מִזְבַּח קְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת כָּל־דַּם הַפָּר יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.8. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֵלֶב פַּר הַחַטָּאת יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמְכַסֶּה עַל־הַקֶּרֶב וְאֵת כָּל־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַקֶּרֶב׃ 4.9. וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עֲלֵיהֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַכְּסָלִים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶרֶת עַל־הַכָּבֵד עַל־הַכְּלָיוֹת יְסִירֶנָּה׃ 4.11. וְאֶת־עוֹר הַפָּר וְאֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל־כְּרָעָיו וְקִרְבּוֹ וּפִרְשׁוֹ׃ 4.12. וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־כָּל־הַפָּר אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה אֶל־מָקוֹם טָהוֹר אֶל־שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן וְשָׂרַף אֹתוֹ עַל־עֵצִים בָּאֵשׁ עַל־שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן יִשָּׂרֵף׃ 4.13. וְאִם כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁגּוּ וְנֶעְלַם דָּבָר מֵעֵינֵי הַקָּהָל וְעָשׂוּ אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְאָשֵׁמוּ׃ 4.14. וְנוֹדְעָה הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר חָטְאוּ עָלֶיהָ וְהִקְרִיבוּ הַקָּהָל פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְהֵבִיאוּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.15. וְסָמְכוּ זִקְנֵי הָעֵדָה אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 4.16. וְהֵבִיא הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.17. וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶצְבָּעוֹ מִן־הַדָּם וְהִזָּה שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת פְּנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת׃ 4.18. וּמִן־הַדָּם יִתֵּן עַל־קַרְנֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת כָּל־הַדָּם יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.19. וְאֵת כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה׃ 4.21. וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־הַפָּר אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׂרַף אֹתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׂרַף אֵת הַפָּר הָרִאשׁוֹן חַטַּאת הַקָּהָל הוּא׃ 4.22. אֲשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא וְעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה בִּשְׁגָגָה וְאָשֵׁם׃ 4.23. אוֹ־הוֹדַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא בָּהּ וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ שְׂעִיר עִזִּים זָכָר תָּמִים׃ 4.24. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָעֹלָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הוּא׃ 4.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־דָּמוֹ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה׃ 4.26. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ יַקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה כְּחֵלֶב זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.27. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת תֶּחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ בַּעֲשֹׂתָהּ אַחַת מִמִּצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְאָשֵׁם׃ 4.28. אוֹ הוֹדַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא וְהֵבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים תְּמִימָה נְקֵבָה עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא׃ 4.29. וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הַחַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם הָעֹלָה׃ 4.31. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּהּ יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר הוּסַר חֵלֶב מֵעַל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.32. וְאִם־כֶּבֶשׂ יָבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ לְחַטָּאת נְקֵבָה תְמִימָה יְבִיאֶנָּה׃ 4.33. וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הַחַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט אֹתָהּ לְחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָעֹלָה׃ 4.34. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָהּ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 4.35. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּה יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר יוּסַר חֵלֶב־הַכֶּשֶׂב מִזֶּבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָם הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.1. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.1. וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.2. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.2. אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בְּכָל־דָּבָר טָמֵא אוֹ בְנִבְלַת חַיָּה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת שֶׁרֶץ טָמֵא וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא טָמֵא וְאָשֵׁם׃ 5.3. אוֹ כִי יִגַּע בְּטֻמְאַת אָדָם לְכֹל טֻמְאָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא בָּהּ וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם׃ 5.4. אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תִשָּׁבַע לְבַטֵּא בִשְׂפָתַיִם לְהָרַע אוֹ לְהֵיטִיב לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יְבַטֵּא הָאָדָם בִּשְׁבֻעָה וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה׃ 5.5. וְהָיָה כִי־יֶאְשַׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְהִתְוַדָּה אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עָלֶיהָ׃ 5.6. וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא נְקֵבָה מִן־הַצֹּאן כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ־שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ׃ 5.7. וְאִם־לֹא תַגִּיע יָדוֹ דֵּי שֶׂה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ־שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה לַיהוָה אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְאֶחָד לְעֹלָה׃ 5.8. וְהֵבִיא אֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־אֲשֶׁר לַחַטָּאת רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמָלַק אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ מִמּוּל עָרְפּוֹ וְלֹא יַבְדִּיל׃ 5.9. וְהִזָּה מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת עַל־קִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַנִּשְׁאָר בַּדָּם יִמָּצֵה אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ חַטָּאת הוּא׃ 5.11. וְאִם־לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ לִשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ לִשְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵפָה סֹלֶת לְחַטָּאת לֹא־יָשִׂים עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה כִּי חַטָּאת הִיא׃ 5.12. וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִמֶּנָּה מְלוֹא קֻמְצוֹ אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הִוא׃ 5.13. וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא מֵאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְנִסְלַח לוֹ וְהָיְתָה לַכֹּהֵן כַּמִּנְחָה׃ 5.14. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.15. נֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תִמְעֹל מַעַל וְחָטְאָה בִּשְׁגָגָה מִקָּדְשֵׁי יְהוָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה אַיִל תָּמִים מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ כֶּסֶף־שְׁקָלִים בְּשֶׁקֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְאָשָׁם׃ 5.16. וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן־הַקֹּדֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּם וְאֶת־חֲמִישִׁתוֹ יוֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן אֹתוֹ לַכֹּהֵן וְהַכֹּהֵן יְכַפֵּר עָלָיו בְּאֵיל הָאָשָׁם וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.17. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְלֹא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.18. וְהֵבִיא אַיִל תָּמִים מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ לְאָשָׁם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁגָג וְהוּא לֹא־יָדַע וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.19. אָשָׁם הוּא אָשֹׁם אָשַׁם לַיהוָה׃ 5.21. נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וּמָעֲלָה מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְכִחֵשׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ בְּפִקָּדוֹן אוֹ־בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד אוֹ בְגָזֵל אוֹ עָשַׁק אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ׃ 5.22. אוֹ־מָצָא אֲבֵדָה וְכִחֶשׁ בָּהּ וְנִשְׁבַּע עַל־שָׁקֶר עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה הָאָדָם לַחֲטֹא בָהֵנָּה׃ 5.23. וְהָיָה כִּי־יֶחֱטָא וְאָשֵׁם וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־הַגְּזֵלָה אֲשֶׁר גָּזָל אוֹ אֶת־הָעֹשֶׁק אֲשֶׁר עָשָׁק אוֹ אֶת־הַפִּקָּדוֹן אֲשֶׁר הָפְקַד אִתּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־הָאֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר מָצָא׃ 5.24. אוֹ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַע עָלָיו לַשֶּׁקֶר וְשִׁלַּם אֹתוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִשִׁתָיו יֹסֵף עָלָיו לַאֲשֶׁר הוּא לוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ בְּיוֹם אַשְׁמָתוֹ׃ 5.25. וְאֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ יָבִיא לַיהוָה אַיִל תָּמִים מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ לְאָשָׁם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 5.26. וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְנִסְלַח לוֹ עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה לְאַשְׁמָה בָהּ׃ 6.2. צַו אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה הִוא הָעֹלָה עַל מוֹקְדָה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כָּל־הַלַּיְלָה עַד־הַבֹּקֶר וְאֵשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ תּוּקַד בּוֹ׃ 6.2. כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע בִּבְשָׂרָהּ יִקְדָּשׁ וַאֲשֶׁר יִזֶּה מִדָּמָהּ עַל־הַבֶּגֶד אֲשֶׁר יִזֶּה עָלֶיהָ תְּכַבֵּס בְּמָקוֹם קָדֹשׁ׃ 6.7. וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת הַמִּנְחָה הַקְרֵב אֹתָהּ בְּנֵי־אַהֲרֹן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶל־פְּנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 6.18. דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר תִּשָּׁחֵט הָעֹלָה תִּשָּׁחֵט הַחַטָּאת לִפְנֵי יְהוָה קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הִוא׃ 7.1. וְכָל־מִנְחָה בְלוּלָה־בַשֶּׁמֶן וַחֲרֵבָה לְכָל־בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן תִּהְיֶה אִישׁ כְּאָחִיו׃ 7.1. וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת הָאָשָׁם קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא׃ 7.11. וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיב לַיהוָה׃ 7.16. וְאִם־נֶדֶר אוֹ נְדָבָה זֶבַח קָרְבָּנוֹ בְּיוֹם הַקְרִיבוֹ אֶת־זִבְחוֹ יֵאָכֵל וּמִמָּחֳרָת וְהַנּוֹתָר מִמֶּנּוּ יֵאָכֵל׃ 7.34. כִּי אֶת־חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְאֵת שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה לָקַחְתִּי מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִזִּבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵיהֶם וָאֶתֵּן אֹתָם לְאַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וּלְבָנָיו לְחָק־עוֹלָם מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.37. זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה לָעֹלָה לַמִּנְחָה וְלַחַטָּאת וְלָאָשָׁם וְלַמִּלּוּאִים וּלְזֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים׃ 10.1. וּלֲהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין הַחֹל וּבֵין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהוֹר׃ 10.1. וַיִּקְחוּ בְנֵי־אַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא אִישׁ מַחְתָּתוֹ וַיִּתְּנוּ בָהֵן אֵשׁ וַיָּשִׂימוּ עָלֶיהָ קְטֹרֶת וַיַּקְרִבוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵשׁ זָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא צִוָּה אֹתָם׃ 10.2. וַתֵּצֵא אֵשׁ מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וַתֹּאכַל אוֹתָם וַיָּמֻתוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 10.2. וַיִּשְׁמַע מֹשֶׁה וַיִּיטַב בְּעֵינָיו׃ 10.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן הוּא אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה לֵאמֹר בִּקְרֹבַי אֶקָּדֵשׁ וְעַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶכָּבֵד וַיִּדֹּם אַהֲרֹן׃ 10.9. יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר אַל־תֵּשְׁתְּ אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ בְּבֹאֲכֶם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְלֹא תָמֻתוּ חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 10.11. וּלְהוֹרֹת אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת כָּל־הַחֻקִּים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיהֶם בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 10.15. שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה וַחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה עַל אִשֵּׁי הַחֲלָבִים יָבִיאוּ לְהָנִיף תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהָיָה לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 11.2. כֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.2. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֹאת הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכְלוּ מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.3. כֹּל מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע פְּרָסֹת מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה בַּבְּהֵמָה אֹתָהּ תֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 11.3. וְהָאֲנָקָה וְהַכֹּחַ וְהַלְּטָאָה וְהַחֹמֶט וְהַתִּנְשָׁמֶת׃ 11.4. אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה אֵינֶנּוּ מַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.4. וְהָאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.5. וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָן כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה לֹא יַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.6. וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶבֶת כִּי־מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא וּפַרְסָה לֹא הִפְרִיסָה טְמֵאָה הִוא לָכֶם׃ 11.7. וְאֶת־הַחֲזִיר כִּי־מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא וְשֹׁסַע שֶׁסַע פַּרְסָה וְהוּא גֵּרָה לֹא־יִגָּר טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.8. מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָם לֹא תִגָּעוּ טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם׃ 11.9. אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּחָלִים אֹתָם תֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 11.11. וְשֶׁקֶץ יִהְיוּ לָכֶם מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וְאֶת־נִבְלָתָם תְּשַׁקֵּצוּ׃ 11.12. כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.13. וְאֶת־אֵלֶּה תְּשַׁקְּצוּ מִן־הָעוֹף לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ שֶׁקֶץ הֵם אֶת־הַנֶּשֶׁר וְאֶת־הַפֶּרֶס וְאֵת הָעָזְנִיָּה׃ 11.14. וְאֶת־הַדָּאָה וְאֶת־הָאַיָּה לְמִינָהּ׃ 11.15. אֵת כָּל־עֹרֵב לְמִינוֹ׃ 11.16. וְאֵת בַּת הַיַּעֲנָה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁחַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּץ לְמִינֵהוּ׃ 11.17. וְאֶת־הַכּוֹס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָךְ וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשׁוּף׃ 11.18. וְאֶת־הַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת וְאֶת־הַקָּאָת וְאֶת־הָרָחָם׃ 11.19. וְאֵת הַחֲסִידָה הָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַדּוּכִיפַת וְאֶת־הָעֲטַלֵּף׃ 11.21. אַךְ אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] כְרָעַיִם מִמַּעַל לְרַגְלָיו לְנַתֵּר בָּהֵן עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.22. אֶת־אֵלֶּה מֵהֶם תֹּאכֵלוּ אֶת־הָאַרְבֶּה לְמִינוֹ וְאֶת־הַסָּלְעָם לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַחַרְגֹּל לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הֶחָגָב לְמִינֵהוּ׃ 11.23. וְכֹל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אַרְבַּע רַגְלָיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.24. וּלְאֵלֶּה תִּטַּמָּאוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.25. וְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂא מִנִּבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.26. לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר הִוא מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֶׁסַע אֵינֶנָּה שֹׁסַעַת וְגֵרָה אֵינֶנָּה מַעֲלָה טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִטְמָא׃ 11.27. וְכֹל הוֹלֵךְ עַל־כַּפָּיו בְּכָל־הַחַיָּה הַהֹלֶכֶת עַל־אַרְבַּע טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.28. וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב טְמֵאִים הֵמָּה לָכֶם׃ 11.39. וְכִי יָמוּת מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר־הִיא לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.46. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף וְכֹל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם וּלְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶצֶת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.47. לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֹר וּבֵין הַחַיָּה הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת וּבֵין הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵאָכֵל׃ 12.7. וְהִקְרִיבוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ וְטָהֲרָה מִמְּקֹר דָּמֶיהָ זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַיֹּלֶדֶת לַזָּכָר אוֹ לַנְּקֵבָה׃ 13.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 13.1. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה שְׂאֵת־לְבָנָה בָּעוֹר וְהִיא הָפְכָה שֵׂעָר לָבָן וּמִחְיַת בָּשָׂר חַי בַּשְׂאֵת׃ 13.2. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה מַרְאֶהָ שָׁפָל מִן־הָעוֹר וּשְׂעָרָהּ הָפַךְ לָבָן וְטִמְּאוֹ הַכֹּהֵן נֶגַע־צָרַעַת הִוא בַּשְּׁחִין פָּרָחָה׃ 13.2. אָדָם כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְעוֹר־בְּשָׂרוֹ שְׂאֵת אוֹ־סַפַּחַת אוֹ בַהֶרֶת וְהָיָה בְעוֹר־בְּשָׂרוֹ לְנֶגַע צָרָעַת וְהוּבָא אֶל־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן אוֹ אֶל־אַחַד מִבָּנָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים׃ 13.3. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַנֶּגַע וְהִנֵּה מַרְאֵהוּ עָמֹק מִן־הָעוֹר וּבוֹ שֵׂעָר צָהֹב דָּק וְטִמֵּא אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן נֶתֶק הוּא צָרַעַת הָרֹאשׁ אוֹ הַזָּקָן הוּא׃ 13.3. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַנֶּגַע בְּעוֹר־הַבָּשָׂר וְשֵׂעָר בַּנֶּגַע הָפַךְ לָבָן וּמַרְאֵה הַנֶּגַע עָמֹק מֵעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ נֶגַע צָרַעַת הוּא וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן וְטִמֵּא אֹתוֹ׃ 13.4. וְאִישׁ כִּי יִמָּרֵט רֹאשׁוֹ קֵרֵחַ הוּא טָהוֹר הוּא׃ 13.4. וְאִם־בַּהֶרֶת לְבָנָה הִוא בְּעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ וְעָמֹק אֵין־מַרְאֶהָ מִן־הָעוֹר וּשְׂעָרָה לֹא־הָפַךְ לָבָן וְהִסְגִּיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַנֶּגַע שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 13.5. וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְהִנֵּה הַנֶּגַע עָמַד בְּעֵינָיו לֹא־פָשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בָּעוֹר וְהִסְגִּירוֹ הַכֹּהֵן שִׁבְעַת יָמִים שֵׁנִית׃ 13.5. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַנָּגַע וְהִסְגִּיר אֶת־הַנֶּגַע שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 13.59. זֹאת תּוֹרַת נֶגַע־צָרַעַת בֶּגֶד הַצֶּמֶר אוֹ הַפִּשְׁתִּים אוֹ הַשְּׁתִי אוֹ הָעֵרֶב אוֹ כָּל־כְּלִי־עוֹר לְטַהֲרוֹ אוֹ לְטַמְּאוֹ׃ 14.54. זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה לְכָל־נֶגַע הַצָּרַעַת וְלַנָּתֶק׃ 14.57. לְהוֹרֹת בְּיוֹם הַטָּמֵא וּבְיוֹם הַטָּהֹר זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַצָּרָעַת׃ 15.2. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ זוֹבוֹ טָמֵא הוּא׃ 15.2. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו בְּנִדָּתָהּ יִטְמָא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.3. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאֶחָד חַטָּאת וְאֶת־הָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִזּוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ׃ 15.3. וְזֹאת תִּהְיֶה טֻמְאָתוֹ בְּזוֹבוֹ רָר בְּשָׂרוֹ אֶת־זוֹבוֹ אוֹ־הֶחְתִּים בְּשָׂרוֹ מִזּוֹבוֹ טֻמְאָתוֹ הִוא׃ 15.4. כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא וְכָל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.5. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּמִשְׁכָּבוֹ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.6. וְהַיֹּשֵׁב עַל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.7. וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בִּבְשַׂר הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.8. וְכִי־יָרֹק הַזָּב בַּטָּהוֹר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.9. וְכָל־הַמֶּרְכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִרְכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא׃ 15.11. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַזָּב וְיָדָיו לֹא־שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.12. וּכְלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַזָּב יִשָּׁבֵר וְכָל־כְּלִי־עֵץ יִשָּׁטֵף בַּמָּיִם׃ 15.13. וְכִי־יִטְהַר הַזָּב מִזּוֹבוֹ וְסָפַר לוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לְטָהֳרָתוֹ וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בְּמַיִם חַיִּים וְטָהֵר׃ 15.14. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִקַּח־לוֹ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וּבָא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּנְתָנָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 15.15. וְעָשָׂה אֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן אֶחָד חַטָּאת וְהָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִזּוֹבוֹ׃ 15.16. וְאִישׁ כִּי־תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.17. וְכָל־בֶּגֶד וְכָל־עוֹר אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה עָלָיו שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְכֻבַּס בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.19. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־תִהְיֶה זָבָה דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּהְיֶה בְנִדָּתָהּ וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.21. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמִשְׁכָּבָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.22. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.23. וְאִם עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב הוּא אוֹ עַל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־הִוא יֹשֶׁבֶת־עָלָיו בְּנָגְעוֹ־בוֹ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.24. וְאִם שָׁכֹב יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ וּתְהִי נִדָּתָהּ עָלָיו וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְכָל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.25. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָזוּב זוֹב דָּמָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים בְּלֹא עֶת־נִדָּתָהּ אוֹ כִי־תָזוּב עַל־נִדָּתָהּ כָּל־יְמֵי זוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ כִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ תִּהְיֶה טְמֵאָה הִוא׃ 15.26. כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו כָּל־יְמֵי זוֹבָהּ כְּמִשְׁכַּב נִדָּתָהּ יִהְיֶה־לָּהּ וְכָל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה כְּטֻמְאַת נִדָּתָהּ׃ 15.27. וְכָל־הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּם יִטְמָא וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.28. וְאִם־טָהֲרָה מִזּוֹבָהּ וְסָפְרָה לָּהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְאַחַר תִּטְהָר׃ 15.29. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּקַּח־לָהּ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיאָה אוֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 15.31. וְהִזַּרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִטֻּמְאָתָם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ בְּטֻמְאָתָם בְּטַמְּאָם אֶת־מִשְׁכָּנִי אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָם׃ 15.33. וְהַדָּוָה בְּנִדָּתָהּ וְהַזָּב אֶת־זוֹבוֹ לַזָּכָר וְלַנְּקֵבָה וּלְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עִם־טְמֵאָה׃ 16.14. וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה בְאֶצְבָּעוֹ עַל־פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת קֵדְמָה וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת יַזֶּה שֶׁבַע־פְּעָמִים מִן־הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ׃ 16.15. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לָעָם וְהֵבִיא אֶת־דָּמוֹ אֶל־מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וְעָשָׂה אֶת־דָּמוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְדַם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה אֹתוֹ עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 16.16. וְכִפֶּר עַל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִטֻּמְאֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִפִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה לְאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד הַשֹּׁכֵן אִתָּם בְּתוֹךְ טֻמְאֹתָם׃ 16.31. שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הִיא לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם׃ 17.14. כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃ 17.15. וְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה בָּאֶזְרָח וּבַגֵּר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃ 17.16. וְאִם לֹא יְכַבֵּס וּבְשָׂרוֹ לֹא יִרְחָץ וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 18.2. וְאֶל־אֵשֶׁת עֲמִיתְךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְזָרַע לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ׃ 18.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.3. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת מֵחֻקּוֹת הַתּוֹעֵבֹת אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשׂוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.3. כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁבְתֶּם־בָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּכְמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּבְחֻקֹּתֵיהֶם לֹא תֵלֵכוּ׃ 18.4. אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי תַּעֲשׂוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לָלֶכֶת בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.6. אִישׁ אִישׁ אֶל־כָּל־שְׁאֵר בְּשָׂרוֹ לֹא תִקְרְבוּ לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָה אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.7. עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ וְעֶרְוַת אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אִמְּךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.8. עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת־אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָבִיךָ הִוא׃ 18.15. עֶרְוַת כַּלָּתְךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֵשֶׁת בִּנְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.16. עֶרְוַת אֵשֶׁת־אָחִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה עֶרְוַת אָחִיךָ הִוא׃ 18.17. עֶרְוַת אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֶת־בַּת־בְּנָהּ וְאֶת־בַּת־בִּתָּהּ לֹא תִקַּח לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ שַׁאֲרָה הֵנָּה זִמָּה הִוא 18.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחֹתָהּ לֹא תִקָּח לִצְרֹר לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ עָלֶיהָ בְּחַיֶּיהָ׃ 18.19. וְאֶל־אִשָּׁה בְּנִדַּת טֻמְאָתָהּ לֹא תִקְרַב לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.21. וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.22. וְאֶת־זָכָר לֹא תִשְׁכַּב מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה תּוֹעֵבָה הִוא׃ 19.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר 19.1. וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל וּפֶרֶט כַּרְמְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃ 19.3. אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁי תִּירָאוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.3. אִישׁ אִמּוֹ וְאָבִיו תִּירָאוּ וְאֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.4. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֱלִילִים וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.5. וְכִי תִזְבְּחוּ זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה לִרְצֹנְכֶם תִּזְבָּחֻהוּ׃ 19.6. בְּיוֹם זִבְחֲכֶם יֵאָכֵל וּמִמָּחֳרָת וְהַנּוֹתָר עַד־יוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף׃ 19.7. וְאִם הֵאָכֹל יֵאָכֵל בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי פִּגּוּל הוּא לֹא יֵרָצֶה׃ 19.8. וְאֹכְלָיו עֲוֺנוֹ יִשָּׂא כִּי־אֶת־קֹדֶשׁ יְהוָה חִלֵּל וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃ 19.9. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃ 19.11. לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ וְלֹא־תְכַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא־תְשַׁקְּרוּ אִישׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ׃ 19.12. וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.13. לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.15. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃ 19.16. לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 19.23. וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.25. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁת תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ לְהוֹסִיף לָכֶם תְּבוּאָתוֹ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.26. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַל־הַדָּם לֹא תְנַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא תְעוֹנֵנוּ׃ 19.27. לֹא תַקִּפוּ פְּאַת רֹאשְׁכֶם וְלֹא תַשְׁחִית אֵת פְּאַת זְקָנֶךָ׃ 19.31. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֹבֹת וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִים אַל־תְּבַקְשׁוּ לְטָמְאָה בָהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.32. מִפְּנֵי שֵׂיבָה תָּקוּם וְהָדַרְתָּ פְּנֵי זָקֵן וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.33. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר בְּאַרְצְכֶם לֹא תוֹנוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 19.34. כְּאֶזְרָח מִכֶּם יִהְיֶה לָכֶם הַגֵּר הַגָּר אִתְּכֶם וְאָהַבְתָּ לוֹ כָּמוֹךָ כִּי־גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.35. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט בַּמִּדָּה בַּמִּשְׁקָל וּבַמְּשׂוּרָה׃ 19.36. מֹאזְנֵי צֶדֶק אַבְנֵי־צֶדֶק אֵיפַת צֶדֶק וְהִין צֶדֶק יִהְיֶה לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 19.37. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפָּטַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 20.2. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תֹּאמַר אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ מוֹת יוּמָת עַם הָאָרֶץ יִרְגְּמֻהוּ בָאָבֶן׃ 20.2. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־דֹּדָתוֹ עֶרְוַת דֹּדוֹ גִּלָּה חֶטְאָם יִשָּׂאוּ עֲרִירִים יָמֻתוּ׃ 20.3. וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן אֶת־פָּנַי בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ כִּי מִזַּרְעוֹ נָתַן לַמֹּלֶךְ לְמַעַן טַמֵּא אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי וּלְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי׃ 20.4. וְאִם הַעְלֵם יַעְלִימוּ עַם הָאָרֶץ אֶת־עֵינֵיהֶם מִן־הָאִישׁ הַהוּא בְּתִתּוֹ מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ לְבִלְתִּי הָמִית אֹתוֹ׃ 20.5. וְשַׂמְתִּי אֲנִי אֶת־פָּנַי בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וּבְמִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְהִכְרַתִּי אֹתוֹ וְאֵת כָּל־הַזֹּנִים אַחֲרָיו לִזְנוֹת אַחֲרֵי הַמֹּלֶךְ מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃ 20.7. וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 20.8. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃ 20.18. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה דָּוָה וְגִלָּה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ אֶת־מְקֹרָהּ הֶעֱרָה וְהִיא גִּלְּתָה אֶת־מְקוֹר דָּמֶיהָ וְנִכְרְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃ 21.14. אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וַחֲלָלָה זֹנָה אֶת־אֵלֶּה לֹא יִקָּח כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלָה מֵעַמָּיו יִקַּח אִשָּׁה׃ 22.21. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יַקְרִיב זֶבַח־שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה לְפַלֵּא־נֶדֶר אוֹ לִנְדָבָה בַּבָּקָר אוֹ בַצֹּאן תָּמִים יִהְיֶה לְרָצוֹן כָּל־מוּם לֹא יִהְיֶה־בּוֹ׃ 23.39. אַךְ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאָסְפְּכֶם אֶת־תְּבוּאַת הָאָרֶץ תָּחֹגּוּ אֶת־חַג־יְהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שַׁבָּתוֹן וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי שַׁבָּתוֹן׃ 23.41. וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ חַג לַיהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי תָּחֹגּוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 23.42. בַּסֻּכֹּת תֵּשְׁבוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כָּל־הָאֶזְרָח בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשְׁבוּ בַּסֻּכֹּת׃ 23.43. לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ דֹרֹתֵיכֶם כִּי בַסֻּכּוֹת הוֹשַׁבְתִּי אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהוֹצִיאִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 25.1. וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּקְרָאתֶם דְּרוֹר בָּאָרֶץ לְכָל־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ יוֹבֵל הִוא תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם וְשַׁבְתֶּם אִישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתוֹ וְאִישׁ אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ תָּשֻׁבוּ׃ 25.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּהַר סִינַי לֵאמֹר׃ 25.2. וְכִי תֹאמְרוּ מַה־נֹּאכַל בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת הֵן לֹא נִזְרָע וְלֹא נֶאֱסֹף אֶת־תְּבוּאָתֵנוּ׃ 25.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לָכֶם וְשָׁבְתָה הָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה׃ 25.3. שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְרַע שָׂדֶךָ וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְמֹר כַּרְמֶךָ וְאָסַפְתָּ אֶת־תְּבוּאָתָהּ׃ 25.3. וְאִם לֹא־יִגָּאֵל עַד־מְלֹאת לוֹ שָׁנָה תְמִימָה וְקָם הַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] חֹמָה לַצְּמִיתֻת לַקֹּנֶה אֹתוֹ לְדֹרֹתָיו לֹא יֵצֵא בַּיֹּבֵל׃ 25.4. כְּשָׂכִיר כְּתוֹשָׁב יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ עַד־שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַעֲבֹד עִמָּךְ׃ 25.4. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה שָׂדְךָ לֹא תִזְרָע וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תִזְמֹר׃ 25.5. אֵת סְפִיחַ קְצִירְךָ לֹא תִקְצוֹר וְאֶת־עִנְּבֵי נְזִירֶךָ לֹא תִבְצֹר שְׁנַת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ׃ 25.5. וְחִשַּׁב עִם־קֹנֵהוּ מִשְּׁנַת הִמָּכְרוֹ לוֹ עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְהָיָה כֶּסֶף מִמְכָּרוֹ בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים כִּימֵי שָׂכִיר יִהְיֶה עִמּוֹ׃ 25.6. וְהָיְתָה שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה לְךָ וּלְעַבְדְּךָ וְלַאֲמָתֶךָ וְלִשְׂכִירְךָ וּלְתוֹשָׁבְךָ הַגָּרִים עִמָּךְ׃ 25.7. וְלִבְהֶמְתְּךָ וְלַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצֶךָ תִּהְיֶה כָל־תְּבוּאָתָהּ לֶאֱכֹל׃ 25.8. וְסָפַרְתָּ לְךָ שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְהָיוּ לְךָ יְמֵי שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת הַשָּׁנִים תֵּשַׁע וְאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה׃ 25.9. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ שׁוֹפַר תְּרוּעָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים תַּעֲבִירוּ שׁוֹפָר בְּכָל־אַרְצְכֶם׃ 25.11. יוֹבֵל הִוא שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם לֹא תִזְרָעוּ וְלֹא תִקְצְרוּ אֶת־סְפִיחֶיהָ וְלֹא תִבְצְרוּ אֶת־נְזִרֶיהָ׃ 25.12. כִּי יוֹבֵל הִוא קֹדֶשׁ תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־תְּבוּאָתָהּ׃ 25.13. בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל הַזֹּאת תָּשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתוֹ׃ 25.14. וְכִי־תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר לַעֲמִיתֶךָ אוֹ קָנֹה מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ אַל־תּוֹנוּ אִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו׃ 25.15. בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים אַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל תִּקְנֶה מֵאֵת עֲמִיתֶךָ בְּמִסְפַּר שְׁנֵי־תְבוּאֹת יִמְכָּר־לָךְ׃ 25.16. לְפִי רֹב הַשָּׁנִים תַּרְבֶּה מִקְנָתוֹ וּלְפִי מְעֹט הַשָּׁנִים תַּמְעִיט מִקְנָתוֹ כִּי מִסְפַּר תְּבוּאֹת הוּא מֹכֵר לָךְ׃ 25.17. וְלֹא תוֹנוּ אִישׁ אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 25.21. וְצִוִּיתִי אֶת־בִּרְכָתִי לָכֶם בַּשָּׁנָה הַשִּׁשִּׁית וְעָשָׂת אֶת־הַתְּבוּאָה לִשְׁלֹשׁ הַשָּׁנִים׃ 25.22. וּזְרַעְתֶּם אֵת הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁמִינִת וַאֲכַלְתֶּם מִן־הַתְּבוּאָה יָשָׁן עַד הַשָּׁנָה הַתְּשִׁיעִת עַד־בּוֹא תְּבוּאָתָהּ תֹּאכְלוּ יָשָׁן׃ 25.23. וְהָאָרֶץ לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת כִּי־לִי הָאָרֶץ כִּי־גֵרִים וְתוֹשָׁבִים אַתֶּם עִמָּדִי׃ 25.24. וּבְכֹל אֶרֶץ אֲחֻזַּתְכֶם גְּאֻלָּה תִּתְּנוּ לָאָרֶץ׃ 26.13. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִהְיֹת לָהֶם עֲבָדִים וָאֶשְׁבֹּר מֹטֹת עֻלְּכֶם וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם קוֹמְמִיּוּת׃ 26.31. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־עָרֵיכֶם חָרְבָּה וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִי אֶת־מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם וְלֹא אָרִיחַ בְּרֵיחַ נִיחֹחֲכֶם׃ 26.34. אָז תִּרְצֶה הָאָרֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ כֹּל יְמֵי הֳשַׁמָּה וְאַתֶּם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיכֶם אָז תִּשְׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ וְהִרְצָת אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ׃ 26.35. כָּל־יְמֵי הָשַּׁמָּה תִּשְׁבֹּת אֵת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁבְתָה בְּשַׁבְּתֹתֵיכֶם בְּשִׁבְתְּכֶם עָלֶיהָ׃ 26.46. אֵלֶּה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וְהַתּוֹרֹת אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינַי בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 27.34. אֵלֶּה הַמִּצְוֺת אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינָי׃ 1.4. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him." 3.17. It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings, that ye shall eat neither fat nor blood." 4.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If any one shall sin through error, in any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and shall do any one of them:" 4.3. if the anointed priest shall sin so as to bring guilt on the people, then let him offer for his sin, which he hath sinned, a young bullock without blemish unto the LORD for a sin-offering." 4.4. And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tent of meeting before the LORD; and he shall lay his hand upon the head of the bullock, and kill the bullock before the LORD." 4.5. And the anointed priest shall take of the blood of the bullock, and bring it to the tent of meeting." 4.6. And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil of the sanctuary." 4.7. And the priest shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the LORD, which is in the tent of meeting; and all the remaining blood of the bullock shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting." 4.8. And all the fat of the bullock of the sin-offering he shall take off from it; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards," 4.9. and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the loins, and the lobe above the liver, which he shall take away by kidneys," 4.10. as it is taken off from the ox of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke upon the altar of burnt-offering." 4.11. But the skin of the bullock, and all its flesh, with its head, and with its legs, and its inwards, and its dung," 4.12. even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire; where the ashes are poured out shall it be burnt." 4.13. And if the whole congregation of Israel shall err, the thing being hid from the eyes of the assembly, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and are guilty:" 4.14. when the sin wherein they have sinned is known, then the assembly shall offer a young bullock for a sin-offering, and bring it before the tent of meeting." 4.15. And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD; and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD." 4.16. And the anointed priest shall bring of the blood of the bullock to the tent of meeting." 4.17. And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil." 4.18. And he shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar which is before the LORD, that is in the tent of meeting, and all the remaining blood shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting." 4.19. And all the fat thereof shall he take off from it, and make it smoke upon the altar." 4.20. Thus shall he do with the bullock; as he did with the bullock of the sin-offering, so shall he do with this; and the priest shall make atonement for them, and they shall be forgiven." 4.21. And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bullock; it is the sin-offering for the assembly." 4.22. When a ruler sinneth, and doeth through error any one of all the things which the LORD his God hath commanded not to be done, and is guilty:" 4.23. if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, be known to him, he shall bring for his offering a goat, a male without blemish." 4.24. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt-offering before the LORD; it is a sin-offering." 4.25. And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering." 4.26. And all the fat thereof shall he make smoke upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin, and he shall be forgiven." 4.27. And if any one of the common people sin through error, in doing any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and be guilty:" 4.28. if his sin, which he hath sinned, be known to him, then he shall bring for his offering a goat, a female without blemish, for his sin which he hath sinned." 4.29. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and kill the sin-offering in the place of burnt-offering." 4.30. And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and all the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar." 4.31. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be forgiven." 4.32. And if he bring a lamb as his offering for a sin-offering, he shall bring it a female without blemish." 4.33. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and kill it for a sin-offering in the place where they kill the burnt-offering." 4.34. And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and all the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar." 4.35. And all the fat thereof shall he take away, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; and the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven." 5.1. And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;" 5.2. or if any one touch any unclean thing, whether it be the carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, or the carcass of unclean swarming things, and be guilty, it being hidden from him that he is unclean;" 5.3. or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsoever his uncleanness be wherewith he is unclean, and it be hid from him; and, when he knoweth of it, be guilty;" 5.4. or if any one swear clearly with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall utter clearly with an oath, and it be hid from him; and, when he knoweth of it, be guilty in one of these things;" 5.5. and it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that wherein he hath sinned;" 5.6. and he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat, for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin." 5.7. And if his means suffice not for a lamb, then he shall bring his forfeit for that wherein he hath sinned, two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD: one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering." 5.8. And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin-offering first, and pinch off its head close by its neck, but shall not divide it asunder." 5.9. And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin-offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar; it is a sin-offering." 5.10. And he shall prepare the second for a burnt-offering, according to the ordice; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin which he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven." 5.11. But if his means suffice not for two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he shall bring his offering for that wherein he hath sinned, the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin-offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon; for it is a sin-offering." 5.12. And he shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; it is a sin-offering." 5.13. And the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned in any of these things, and he shall be forgiven; and the remt shall be the priest’s, as the meal-offering." 5.14. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.15. If any one commit a trespass, and sin through error, in the holy things of the LORD, then he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of the flock, according to thy valuation in silver by shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a guilt-offering." 5.16. And he shall make restitution for that which he hath done amiss in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest; and the priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt-offering, and he shall be forgiven." 5.17. And if any one sin, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity." 5.18. And he shall bring a ram without blemish out of the flock, according to thy valuation, for a guilt-offering, unto the priest; and the priest shall make atonement for him concerning the error which he committed, though he knew it not, and he shall be forgiven." 5.19. It is a guilt-offering—he is certainly guilty before the LORD." 5.20. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.21. If any one sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and deal falsely with his neighbour in a matter of deposit, or of pledge, or of robbery, or have oppressed his neighbour;" 5.22. or have found that which was lost, and deal falsely therein, and swear to a lie; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein;" 5.23. then it shall be, if he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took by robbery, or the thing which he hath gotten by oppression, or the deposit which was deposited with him, or the lost thing which he found," 5.24. or any thing about which he hath sworn falsely, he shall even restore it in full, and shall add the fifth part more thereto; unto him to whom it appertaineth shall he give it, in the day of his being guilty." 5.25. And he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of the flock, according to thy valuation, for a guilt-offering, unto the priest." 5.26. And the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD, and he shall be forgiven, concerning whatsoever he doeth so as to be guilty thereby." 6.2. Command Aaron and his sons, saying: This is the law of the burnt-offering: it is that which goeth up on its firewood upon the altar all night unto the morning; and the fire of the altar shall be kept burning thereby." 6.7. And this is the law of the meal-offering: the sons of Aaron shall offer it before the LORD, in front of the altar." 6.18. Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, saying: This is the law of the sin-offering: in the place where the burnt-offering is killed shall the sin-offering be killed before the LORD; it is most holy." 7.1. And this is the law of the guilt-offering: it is most holy." 7.11. And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace-offerings, which one may offer unto the LORD." 7.16. But if the sacrifice of his offering be a vow, or a freewill-offering, it shall be eaten on the day that he offereth his sacrifice; and on the morrow that which remaineth of it may be eaten." 7.34. For the breast of waving and the thigh of heaving have I taken of the children of Israel out of their sacrifices of peace-offerings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest and unto his sons as a due for ever from the children of Israel." 7.37. This is the law of the burnt-offering, of the meal-offering, and of the sin-offering, and of the guilt-offering, and of the consecration-offering, and of the sacrifice of peace-offerings;" 10.1. And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took each of them his censer, and put fire therein, and laid incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the LORD, which He had not commanded them." 10.2. And there came forth fire from before the LORD, and devoured them, and they died before the LORD." 10.3. Then Moses said unto Aaron: ‘This is it that the LORD spoke, saying: Through them that are nigh unto Me I will be sanctified, and before all the people I will be glorified.’ And Aaron held his peace." 10.9. ’Drink no wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tent of meeting, that ye die not; it shall be a statute forever throughout your generations." 10.10. And that ye may put difference between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the clean;" 10.11. and that ye may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the LORD hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.’" 10.15. The thigh of heaving and the breast of waving shall they bring with the offerings of the fat made by fire, to wave it for a wave-offering before the LORD; and it shall be thine, and thy sons’with thee, as a due for ever; as the LORD hath commanded.’" 11.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: These are the living things which ye may eat among all the beasts that are on the earth." 11.3. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is wholly cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that may ye eat." 11.4. Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that only chew the cud, or of them that only part the hoof: the camel, because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean unto you." 11.5. And the rock-badger, because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean unto you." 11.6. And the hare, because she cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, she is unclean unto you" 11.7. And the swine, because he parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, but cheweth not the cud, he is unclean unto you." 11.8. of their flesh ye shall not eat, and their carcasses ye shall not touch; they are unclean unto you." 11.9. These may ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them may ye eat." 11.10. And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that swarm in the waters, and of all the living creatures that are in the waters, they are a detestable thing unto you," 11.11. and they shall be a detestable thing unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, and their carcasses ye shall have in detestation." 11.12. Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that is a detestable thing unto you." 11.13. And these ye shall have in detestation among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are a detestable thing: the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the ospray;" 11.14. and the kite, and the falcon after its kinds;" 11.15. every raven after its kinds;" 11.16. and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the sea-mew, and the hawk after its kinds;" 11.17. and the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl;" 11.18. and the horned owl, and the pelican, and the carrion-vulture;" 11.19. and the stork, and the heron after its kinds, and the hoopoe, and the bat." 11.20. All winged swarming things that go upon all fours are a detestable thing unto you." 11.21. Yet these may ye eat of all winged swarming things that go upon all fours, which have jointed legs above their feet, wherewith to leap upon the earth;" 11.22. even these of them ye may eat: the locust after its kinds, and the bald locust after its kinds, and the cricket after its kinds, and the grasshopper after its kinds." 11.23. But all winged swarming things, which have four feet, are a detestable thing unto you." 11.24. And by these ye shall become unclean; whosoever toucheth the carcass of them shall be unclean until even." 11.25. And whosoever beareth aught of the carcass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even." 11.26. Every beast which parteth the hoof, but is not cloven footed, nor cheweth the cud, is unclean unto you; every one that to toucheth them shall be unclean." 11.27. And whatsoever goeth upon its paws, among all beasts that go on all fours, they are unclean unto you; whoso toucheth their carcass shall be unclean until the even." 11.28. And he that beareth the carcass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; they are unclean unto you." 11.39. And if any beast, of which ye may eat, die, he that toucheth the carcass thereof shall be unclean until the even." 11.40. And he that eateth of the carcass of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; he also that beareth the carcass of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even." 11.46. This is the law of the beast, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that swarmeth upon the earth;" 11.47. to make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the living thing that may be eaten and the living thing that may not be eaten." 12.7. And he shall offer it before the LORD, and make atonement for her; and she shall be cleansed from the fountain of her blood. This is the law for her that beareth, whether a male or a female." 13.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying:" 13.2. When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, or a scab, or a bright spot, and it become in the skin of his flesh the plague of leprosy, then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests." 13.3. And the priest shall look upon the plague in the skin of the flesh; and if the hair in the plague be turned white, and the appearance of the plague be deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is the plague of leprosy; and the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean." 13.4. And if the bright spot be white in the skin of his flesh, and the appearance thereof be not deeper than the skin, and the hair thereof be not turned white, then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague seven days." 13.5. And the priest shall look on him the seventh day; and, behold, if the plague stay in its appearance, and the plague be not spread in the skin, then the priest shall shut him up seven days more." 13.59. This is the law of the plague of leprosy in a garment of wool or linen, or in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin, to pronounce it clean, or to pronounce it unclean." 14.54. This is the law for all manner of plague of leprosy, and for a scall;" 14.57. to teach when it is unclean, and when it is clean; this is the law of leprosy." 15.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When any man hath an issue out of his flesh, his issue is unclean." 15.3. And this shall be his uncleanness in his issue: whether his flesh run with his issue, or his flesh be stopped from his issue, it is his uncleanness." 15.4. Every bed whereon he that hath the issue lieth shall be unclean; and every thing whereon he sitteth shall be unclean. ." 15.5. And whosoever toucheth his bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.6. And he that sitteth on any thing whereon he that hath the issue sat shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.7. And he that toucheth the flesh of him that hath the issue shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.8. And if he that hath the issue spit upon him that is clean, then he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.9. And what saddle soever he that hath the issue rideth upon shall be unclean." 15.10. And whosoever toucheth any thing that was under him shall be unclean until the even; and he that beareth those things shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.11. And whomsoever he that hath the issue toucheth, without having rinsed his hands in water, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.12. And the earthen vessel, which he that hath the issue toucheth, shall be broken; and every vessel of wood shall be rinsed in water." 15.13. And when he that hath an issue is cleansed of his issue, then he shall number to himself seven days for his cleansing, and wash his clothes; and he shall bathe his flesh in running water, and shall be clean." 15.14. And on the eighth day he shall take to him two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and come before the LORD unto the door of the tent of meeting, and give them unto the priest." 15.15. And the priest shall offer them, the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD for his issue." 15.16. And if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.17. And every garment, and every skin, whereon is the flow of seed, shall be washed with water, and be unclean until the even." 15.19. And if a woman have an issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be in her impurity seven days; and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even." 15.20. And every thing that she lieth upon in her impurity shall be unclean; every thing also that she sitteth upon shall be unclean." 15.21. And whosoever toucheth her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.22. And whosoever toucheth any thing that she sitteth upon shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.23. And if he be on the bed, or on any thing whereon she sitteth, when he toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the even." 15.24. And if any man lie with her, and her impurity be upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; and every bed whereon he lieth shall be unclean. ." 15.25. And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days not in the time of her impurity, or if she have an issue beyond the time of her impurity; all the days of the issue of her uncleanness she shall be as in the days of her impurity: she is unclean." 15.26. Every bed whereon she lieth all the days of her issue shall be unto her as the bed of her impurity; and every thing whereon she sitteth shall be unclean, as the uncleanness of her impurity." 15.27. And whosoever toucheth those things shall be unclean, and shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.28. But if she be cleansed of her issue, then she shall number to herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean." 15.29. And on the eighth day she shall take unto her two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tent of meeting." 15.30. And the priest shall offer the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for her before the LORD for the issue of her uncleanness." 15.31. Thus shall ye separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness; that they die not in their uncleanness, when they defile My tabernacle that is in the midst of them." 15.33. and of her that is sick with her impurity, and of them that have an issue, whether it be a man, or a woman; and of him that lieth with her that is unclean." 16.14. And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the ark-cover on the east; and before the ark-cover shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times." 16.15. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the veil, and do with his blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the ark-cover, and before the ark-cover." 16.16. And he shall make atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleannesses of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions, even all their sins; and so shall he do for the tent of meeting, that dwelleth with them in the midst of their uncleannesses." 16.31. It is a sabbath of solemn rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls; it is a statute for ever." 17.14. For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off." 17.15. And every soul that eateth that which dieth of itself, or that which is torn of beasts, whether he be home-born or a stranger, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean." 17.16. But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh, then he shall bear his iniquity." 18.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: I am the LORD your God." 18.3. After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do; and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do; neither shall ye walk in their statutes." 18.4. Mine ordices shall ye do, and My statutes shall ye keep, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 18.6. None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness. I am the LORD." 18.7. The nakedness of thy father, and the nakedness of thy mother, shalt thou not uncover: she is thy mother; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness." 18.8. The nakedness of thy father’s wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father’s nakedness." 18.15. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter-in-law: she is thy son’wife; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness." 18.16. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother’s wife: it is thy brother’s nakedness." 18.17. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter; thou shalt not take her son’s daughter, or her daughter’s daughter, to uncover her nakedness: they are near kinswomen; it is lewdness." 18.18. And thou shalt not take a woman to her sister, to be a rival to her, to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her lifetime." 18.19. And thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is impure by her uncleanness." 18.20. And thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour’s wife, to defile thyself with her." 18.21. And thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 18.22. Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind; it is abomination." 19.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 19.2. Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy." 19.3. Ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father, and ye shall keep My sabbaths: I am the LORD your God." 19.4. Turn ye not unto the idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God." 19.5. And when ye offer a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the LORD, ye shall offer it that ye may be accepted." 19.6. It shall be eaten the same day ye offer it, and on the morrow; and if aught remain until the third day, it shall be burnt with fire." 19.7. And if it be eaten at all on the third day, it is a vile thing; it shall not be accepted." 19.8. But every one that eateth it shall bear his iniquity, because he hath profaned the holy thing of the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from his people." 19.9. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest." 19.10. And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God." 19.11. Ye shall not steal; neither shall ye deal falsely, nor lie one to another." 19.12. And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 19.13. Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning." 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD." 19.15. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor favour the person of the mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour." 19.16. Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD." 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." 19.23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 19.25. But in the fifth year may ye eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you more richly the increase thereof: I am the LORD your God." 19.26. Ye shall not eat with the blood; neither shall ye practise divination nor soothsaying." 19.27. Ye shall not round the corners of your heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard." 19.30. Ye shall keep My sabbaths, and reverence My sanctuary: I am the LORD." 19.31. Turn ye not unto the ghosts, nor unto familiar spirits; seek them not out, to be defiled by them: I am the LORD your God." 19.32. Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honour the face of the old man, and thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD." 19.33. And if a stranger sojourn with thee in your land, ye shall not do him wrong." 19.34. The stranger that sojourneth with you shall be unto you as the home-born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God." 19.35. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard, in weight, or in measure." 19.36. Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall ye have: I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt." 19.37. And ye shall observe all My statutes, and all Mine ordices, and do them: I am the LORD." 20.2. Moreover, thou shalt say to the children of Israel: Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth of his seed unto Molech; he shall surely be put to death; the people of the land shall stone him with stones." 20.3. I also will set My face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people, because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile My sanctuary, and to profane My holy name." 20.4. And if the people of the land do at all hide their eyes from that man, when he giveth of his seed unto Molech, and put him not to death;" 20.5. then I will set My face against that man, and against his family, and will cut him off, and all that go astray after him, to go astray after Molech, from among their people." 20.7. Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy; for I am the LORD your God." 20.8. And keep ye My statutes, and do them: I am the LORD who sanctify you." 20.10. And the man that committeth adultery with another man’s wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour’s wife, both the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death." 20.18. And if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, and shall uncover her nakedness—he hath made naked her fountain, and she hath uncovered the fountain of her blood—both of them shall be cut off from among their people." 21.14. A widow, or one divorced, or a profaned woman, or a harlot, these shall he not take; but a virgin of his own people shall he take to wife." 22.21. And whosoever bringeth a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the LORD in fulfilment of a vow clearly uttered, or for a freewill-offering, of the herd or of the flock, it shall be perfect to be accepted; there shall be no blemish therein." 23.39. Howbeit on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruits of the land, ye shall keep the feast of the LORD seven days; on the first day shall be a solemn rest, and on the eighth day shall be a solemn rest." 23.40. And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days." 23.41. And ye shall keep it a feast unto the LORD seven days in the year; it is a statute for ever in your generations; ye shall keep it in the seventh month." 23.42. Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are home-born in Israel shall dwell in booths;" 23.43. that your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God." 25.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses in mount Sinai, saying:" 25.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When ye come into the land which I give you, then shall the land keep a sabbath unto the LORD." 25.3. Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the produce thereof." 25.4. But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath unto the LORD; thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard." 25.5. That which groweth of itself of thy harvest thou shalt not reap, and the grapes of thy undressed vine thou shalt not gather; it shall be a year of solemn rest for the land." 25.6. And the sabbath-produce of the land shall be for food for you: for thee, and for thy servant and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant and for the settler by thy side that sojourn with thee;" 25.7. and for thy cattle, and for the beasts that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be for food." 25.8. And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; and there shall be unto thee the days of seven sabbaths of years, even forty and nine years." 25.9. Then shalt thou make proclamation with the blast of the horn on the tenth day of the seventh month; in the day of atonement shall ye make proclamation with the horn throughout all your land." 25.10. And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout the land unto all the inhabitants thereof; it shall be a jubilee unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family." 25.11. A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you; ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of the undressed vines." 25.12. For it is a jubilee; it shall be holy unto you; ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field." 25.13. In this year of jubilee ye shall return every man unto his possession." 25.14. And if thou sell aught unto thy neighbour, or buy of thy neighbour’s hand, ye shall not wrong one another." 25.15. According to the number of years after the jubilee thou shalt buy of thy neighbour, and according unto the number of years of the crops he shall sell unto thee." 25.16. According to the multitude of the years thou shalt increase the price thereof, and according to the fewness of the years thou shalt diminish the price of it; for the number of crops doth he sell unto thee." 25.17. And ye shall not wrong one another; but thou shalt fear thy God; for I am the LORD your God." 25.20. And if ye shall say: ‘What shall we eat the seventh year? behold, we may not sow, nor gather in our increase’;" 25.21. then I will command My blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth produce for the three years." 25.22. And ye shall sow the eighth year, and eat of the produce, the old store; until the ninth year, until her produce come in, ye shall eat the old store." 25.23. And the land shall not be sold in perpetuity; for the land is Mine; for ye are strangers and settlers with Me." 25.24. And in all the land of your possession ye shall grant a redemption for the land." 26.13. I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen; and I have broken the bars of your yoke, and made you go upright." 26.31. And I will make your cities a waste, and will bring your sanctuaries unto desolation, and I will not smell the savour of your sweet odours." 26.34. Then shall the land be paid her sabbaths, as long as it lieth desolate, and ye are in your enemies’land; even then shall the land rest, and repay her sabbaths." 26.35. As long as it lieth desolate it shall have rest; even the rest which it had not in your sabbaths, when ye dwelt upon it." 26.46. These are the statutes and ordices and laws, which the LORD made between Him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses." 27.34. These are the commandments, which the LORD commanded Moses for the children of Israel in mount Sinai."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 1.1, 15.3, 15.22-15.31, 15.37-15.41 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. לִבְנֵי יוֹסֵף לְאֶפְרַיִם אֱלִישָׁמָע בֶּן־עַמִּיהוּד לִמְנַשֶּׁה גַּמְלִיאֵל בֶּן־פְּדָהצוּר׃ 1.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּמִדְבַּר סִינַי בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר׃ 15.3. וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תַּעֲשֶׂה בְּיָד רָמָה מִן־הָאֶזְרָח וּמִן־הַגֵּר אֶת־יְהוָה הוּא מְגַדֵּף וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּהּ׃ 15.3. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה עֹלָה אוֹ־זֶבַח לְפַלֵּא־נֶדֶר אוֹ בִנְדָבָה אוֹ בְּמֹעֲדֵיכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה מִן־הַבָּקָר אוֹ מִן־הַצֹּאן׃ 15.22. וְכִי תִשְׁגּוּ וְלֹא תַעֲשׂוּ אֵת כָּל־הַמִּצְוֺת הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה׃ 15.23. אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה מִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה וָהָלְאָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 15.24. וְהָיָה אִם מֵעֵינֵי הָעֵדָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה לִשְׁגָגָה וְעָשׂוּ כָל־הָעֵדָה פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד לְעֹלָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה וּמִנְחָתוֹ וְנִסְכּוֹ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּת׃ 15.25. וְכִפֶּר הַכֹּהֵן עַל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִסְלַח לָהֶם כִּי־שְׁגָגָה הִוא וְהֵם הֵבִיאוּ אֶת־קָרְבָּנָם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה וְחַטָּאתָם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־שִׁגְגָתָם׃ 15.26. וְנִסְלַח לְכָל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם כִּי לְכָל־הָעָם בִּשְׁגָגָה׃ 15.27. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת תֶּחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה וְהִקְרִיבָה עֵז בַּת־שְׁנָתָהּ לְחַטָּאת׃ 15.28. וְכִפֶּר הַכֹּהֵן עַל־הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁגֶגֶת בְּחֶטְאָה בִשְׁגָגָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 15.29. הָאֶזְרָח בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָכֶם לָעֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁגָגָה׃ 15.31. כִּי דְבַר־יְהוָה בָּזָה וְאֶת־מִצְוָתוֹ הֵפַר הִכָּרֵת תִּכָּרֵת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא עֲוֺנָה בָהּ׃ 15.37. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 15.38. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃ 15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 15.41. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 1.1. AND THE LORD spoke unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tent of meeting, on the first day of the second month, in the second year after the were come out of the land of Egypt, saying:" 15.3. and will make an offering by fire unto the LORD, a burnt-offering, or a sacrifice, in fulfilment of a vow clearly uttered, or as a freewill-offering, or in your appointed seasons, to make a sweet savour unto the LORD, of the herd, or of the flock;" 15.22. And when ye shall err, and not observe all these commandments, which the LORD hath spoken unto Moses," 15.23. even all that the LORD hath commanded you by the hand of Moses, from the day that the LORD gave commandment, and onward throughout your generations;" 15.24. then it shall be, if it be done in error by the congregation, it being hid from their eyes, that all the congregation shall offer one young bullock for a burnt-offering, for a sweet savour unto the LORD—with the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof, according to the ordice—and one he-goat for a sin-offering." 15.25. And the priest shall make atonement for all the congregation of the children of Israel, and they shall be forgiven; for it was an error, and they have brought their offering, an offering made by fire unto the LORD, and their sin-offering before the LORD, for their error." 15.26. And all the congregation of the children of Israel shall be forgiven, and the stranger that sojourneth among them; for in respect of all the people it was done in error." 15.27. And if one person sin through error, then he shall offer a she-goat of the first year for a sin-offering." 15.28. And the priest shall make atonement for the soul that erreth, when he sinneth through error, before the LORD, to make atonement for him; and he shall be forgiven," 15.29. both he that is home-born among the children of Israel, and the stranger that sojourneth among them: ye shall have one law for him that doeth aught in error." 15.30. But the soul that doeth aught with a high hand, whether he be home-born or a stranger, the same blasphemeth the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people." 15.31. Because he hath despised the word of the LORD, and hath broken His commandment; that soul shall utterly be cut off, his iniquity shall be upon him." 15.37. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 15.38. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue." 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 15.40. that ye may remember and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God." 15.41. I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD your God.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 102.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

102.1. כִּי־אֵפֶר כַּלֶּחֶם אָכָלְתִּי וְשִׁקֻּוַי בִּבְכִי מָסָכְתִּי׃ 102.1. תְּפִלָּה לְעָנִי כִי־יַעֲטֹף וְלִפְנֵי יְהוָה יִשְׁפֹּךְ שִׂיחוֹ׃ 102.1. A Prayer of the afflicted, when he fainteth, and poureth out his complaint before the LORD. "
8. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 3.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.4. נְבִיאֶיהָ פֹּחֲזִים אַנְשֵׁי בֹּגְדוֹת כֹּהֲנֶיהָ חִלְּלוּ־קֹדֶשׁ חָמְסוּ תּוֹרָה׃ 3.4. Her prophets are wanton And treacherous persons; Her priests have profaned that which is holy, They have done violence to the law.
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.15. וַתַּעַן חַנָּה וַתֹּאמֶר לֹא אֲדֹנִי אִשָּׁה קְשַׁת־רוּחַ אָנֹכִי וְיַיִן וְשֵׁכָר לֹא שָׁתִיתִי וָאֶשְׁפֹּךְ אֶת־נַפְשִׁי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 1.15. And Ĥanna answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the Lord."
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 14.1, 53.7, 53.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.1. כֻּלָּם יַעֲנוּ וְיֹאמְרוּ אֵלֶיךָ גַּם־אַתָּה חֻלֵּיתָ כָמוֹנוּ אֵלֵינוּ נִמְשָׁלְתָּ׃ 14.1. כִּי יְרַחֵם יְהוָה אֶת־יַעֲקֹב וּבָחַר עוֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִנִּיחָם עַל־אַדְמָתָם וְנִלְוָה הַגֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם וְנִסְפְּחוּ עַל־בֵּית יַעֲקֹב׃ 53.7. נִגַּשׂ וְהוּא נַעֲנֶה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח־פִּיו כַּשֶּׂה לַטֶּבַח יוּבָל וּכְרָחֵל לִפְנֵי גֹזְזֶיהָ נֶאֱלָמָה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח פִּיו׃ 53.12. לָכֵן אֲחַלֶּק־לוֹ בָרַבִּים וְאֶת־עֲצוּמִים יְחַלֵּק שָׁלָל תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱרָה לַמָּוֶת נַפְשׁוֹ וְאֶת־פֹּשְׁעִים נִמְנָה וְהוּא חֵטְא־רַבִּים נָשָׂא וְלַפֹּשְׁעִים יַפְגִּיעַ׃ 14.1. For the LORD will have compassion on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land; and the stranger shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob." 53.7. He was oppressed, though he humbled himself And opened not his mouth; As a lamb that is led to the slaughter, And as a sheep that before her shearers is dumb; Yea, he opened not his mouth." 53.12. Therefore will I divide him a portion among the great, And he shall divide the spoil with the mighty; Because he bared his soul unto death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet he bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors."
11. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.3, 17.21-17.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. לַשָּׁוְא הִכֵּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם מוּסָר לֹא לָקָחוּ אָכְלָה חַרְבְּכֶם נְבִיאֵיכֶם כְּאַרְיֵה מַשְׁחִית׃ 2.3. קֹדֶשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה רֵאשִׁית תְּבוּאָתֹה כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יֶאְשָׁמוּ רָעָה תָּבֹא אֲלֵיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 17.21. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִשָּׁמְרוּ בְּנַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם וְאַל־תִּשְׂאוּ מַשָּׂא בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַהֲבֵאתֶם בְּשַׁעֲרֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 17.22. וְלֹא־תוֹצִיאוּ מַשָּׂא מִבָּתֵּיכֶם בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וְכָל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 2.3. Israel is the LORD’S hallowed portion, His first-fruits of the increase; all that devour him shall be held guilty, evil shall come upon them, saith the LORD." 17.21. thus saith the LORD: Take heed for the sake of your souls, and bear no burden on the sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem;" 17.22. neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the sabbath day, neither do ye any work; but hallow ye the sabbath day, as I commanded your fathers;"
12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 22.26, 23.2-23.4 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.26. כֹּהֲנֶיהָ חָמְסוּ תוֹרָתִי וַיְחַלְּלוּ קָדָשַׁי בֵּין־קֹדֶשׁ לְחֹל לֹא הִבְדִּילוּ וּבֵין־הַטָּמֵא לְטָהוֹר לֹא הוֹדִיעוּ וּמִשַׁבְּתוֹתַי הֶעְלִימוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וָאֵחַל בְּתוֹכָם׃ 23.2. וַתַּעְגְּבָה עַל פִּלַגְשֵׁיהֶם אֲשֶׁר בְּשַׂר־חֲמוֹרִים בְּשָׂרָם וְזִרְמַת סוּסִים זִרְמָתָם׃ 23.2. בֶּן־אָדָם שְׁתַּיִם נָשִׁים בְּנוֹת אֵם־אַחַת הָיוּ׃ 23.3. וַתִּזְנֶינָה בְמִצְרַיִם בִּנְעוּרֵיהֶן זָנוּ שָׁמָּה מֹעֲכוּ שְׁדֵיהֶן וְשָׁם עִשּׂוּ דַּדֵּי בְּתוּלֵיהֶן׃ 23.3. עָשֹׂה אֵלֶּה לָךְ בִּזְנוֹתֵךְ אַחֲרֵי גוֹיִם עַל אֲשֶׁר־נִטְמֵאת בְּגִלּוּלֵיהֶם׃ 23.4. וּשְׁמוֹתָן אָהֳלָה הַגְּדוֹלָה וְאָהֳלִיבָה אֲחוֹתָהּ וַתִּהְיֶינָה לִי וַתֵּלַדְנָה בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת וּשְׁמוֹתָן שֹׁמְרוֹן אָהֳלָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם אָהֳלִיבָה׃ 23.4. וְאַף כִּי תִשְׁלַחְנָה לַאֲנָשִׁים בָּאִים מִמֶּרְחָק אֲשֶׁר מַלְאָךְ שָׁלוּחַ אֲלֵיהֶם וְהִנֵּה־בָאוּ לַאֲשֶׁר רָחַצְתְּ כָּחַלְתְּ עֵינַיִךְ וְעָדִית עֶדִי׃ 22.26. Her priests have done violence to My law, and have profaned My holy things; they have put no difference between the holy and the common, neither have they taught difference between the unclean and the clean, and have hid their eyes from My sabbaths, and I am profaned among them." 23.2. ’Son of man, there were two women, the daughters of one mother;" 23.3. and they committed harlotries in Egypt; they committed harlotries in their youth; there were their bosoms pressed, and there their virgin breasts were bruised." 23.4. And the names of them were Oholah the elder, and Oholibah her sister; and they became Mine, and they bore sons and daughters. And as for their names, Samaria is Oholah, and Jerusalem Oholibah."
13. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 2.11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.11. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁאַל־נָא אֶת־הַכֹּהֲנִים תּוֹרָה לֵאמֹר׃ 2.11. ’Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Ask now the priests for instruction, saying:"
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 35.13 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

35.13. וַיְבַשְּׁלוּ הַפֶּסַח בָּאֵשׁ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְהַקֳּדָשִׁים בִּשְּׁלוּ בַּסִּירוֹת וּבַדְּוָדִים וּבַצֵּלָחוֹת וַיָּרִיצוּ לְכָל־בְּנֵי הָעָם׃ 35.13. And they roasted the passover with fire according to the ordice; and the holy offerings sod they in pots, and in caldrons, and in pans, and carried them quickly to all the children of the people."
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 1.1-1.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.1. כְּפוֹרֵי זָהָב שְׁלֹשִׁים כְּפוֹרֵי כֶסֶף מִשְׁנִים אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה כֵּלִים אֲחֵרִים אָלֶף׃ 1.1. וּבִשְׁנַת אַחַת לְכוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס לִכְלוֹת דְּבַר־יְהוָה מִפִּי יִרְמְיָה הֵעִיר יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחַ כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ־פָּרַס וַיַּעֲבֶר־קוֹל בְּכָל־מַלְכוּתוֹ וְגַם־בְּמִכְתָּב לֵאמֹר׃ 1.2. כֹּה אָמַר כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס כֹּל מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ נָתַן לִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהוּא־פָקַד עָלַי לִבְנוֹת־לוֹ בַיִת בִּירוּשָׁלִַם אֲשֶׁר בִּיהוּדָה׃ 1.3. מִי־בָכֶם מִכָּל־עַמּוֹ יְהִי אֱלֹהָיו עִמּוֹ וְיַעַל לִירוּשָׁלִַם אֲשֶׁר בִּיהוּדָה וְיִבֶן אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 1.4. וְכָל־הַנִּשְׁאָר מִכָּל־הַמְּקֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר הוּא גָר־שָׁם יְנַשְּׂאוּהוּ אַנְשֵׁי מְקֹמוֹ בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב וּבִרְכוּשׁ וּבִבְהֵמָה עִם־הַנְּדָבָה לְבֵית הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 1.1. NOW IN the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying:" 1.2. ’Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia: All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD, the God of heaven, given me; and He hath charged me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah." 1.3. Whosoever there is among you of all His people—his God be with him—let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and build the house of the LORD, the God of Israel, He is the God who is in Jerusalem." 1.4. And whosoever is left, in any place where he sojourneth, let the men of his place help him with silver, and with gold, and with goods, and with beasts, beside the freewill-offering for the house of God which is in Jerusalem.’"
16. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.13-8.18, 10.32 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.13. וּבַיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי נֶאֶסְפוּ רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת לְכָל־הָעָם הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם אֶל־עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל אֶל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.14. וַיִּמְצְאוּ כָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר יֵשְׁבוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּסֻּכּוֹת בֶּחָג בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.15. וַאֲשֶׁר יַשְׁמִיעוּ וְיַעֲבִירוּ קוֹל בְּכָל־עָרֵיהֶם וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר צְאוּ הָהָר וְהָבִיאוּ עֲלֵי־זַיִת וַעֲלֵי־עֵץ שֶׁמֶן וַעֲלֵי הֲדַס וַעֲלֵי תְמָרִים וַעֲלֵי עֵץ עָבֹת לַעֲשֹׂת סֻכֹּת כַּכָּתוּב׃ 8.16. וַיֵּצְאוּ הָעָם וַיָּבִיאוּ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם סֻכּוֹת אִישׁ עַל־גַּגּוֹ וּבְחַצְרֹתֵיהֶם וּבְחַצְרוֹת בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים וּבִרְחוֹב שַׁעַר הַמַּיִם וּבִרְחוֹב שַׁעַר אֶפְרָיִם׃ 8.17. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כָל־הַקָּהָל הַשָּׁבִים מִן־הַשְּׁבִי סֻכּוֹת וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בַסֻּכּוֹת כִּי לֹא־עָשׂוּ מִימֵי יֵשׁוּעַ בִּן־נוּן כֵּן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד הַיּוֹם הַהוּא וַתְּהִי שִׂמְחָה גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד׃ 8.18. וַיִּקְרָא בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים יוֹם בְּיוֹם מִן־הַיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן עַד הַיּוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן וַיַּעֲשׂוּ־חָג שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 10.32. וְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ הַמְבִיאִים אֶת־הַמַּקָּחוֹת וְכָל־שֶׁבֶר בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לִמְכּוֹר לֹא־נִקַּח מֵהֶם בַּשַּׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם קֹדֶשׁ וְנִטֹּשׁ אֶת־הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִית וּמַשָּׁא כָל־יָד׃ 8.13. And on the second day were gathered together the heads of fathers’houses of all the people, the priests, and the Levites, unto Ezra the scribe, even to give attention to the words of the Law." 8.14. And they found written in the Law, how that the LORD had commanded by Moses, that the children of Israel should dwell in booths in the feast of the seventh month;" 8.15. and that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying: ‘Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and branches of wild olive, and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as it is written.’" 8.16. So the people went forth, and brought them, and made themselves booths, every one upon the roof of his house, and in their courts, and in the courts of the house of God, and in the broad place of the water gate, and in the broad place of the gate of Ephraim." 8.17. And all the congregation of them that were come back out of the captivity made booths, and dwelt in the booths; for since the days of Joshua the son of Nun unto that day had not the children of Israel done so. And there was very great gladness." 8.18. Also day by day, from the first day unto the last day, he read in the book of the Law of God. And they kept the feast seven days;" 10.32. and if the peoples of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath day to sell, that we would not buy of them on the sabbath, or on a holy day; and that we would forego the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt."
17. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 4, 3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 14.18-14.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.28-6.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.28. Release the sons of the almighty and living God of heaven, who from the time of our ancestors until now has granted an unimpeded and notable stability to our government. 6.29. These then were the things he said; and the Jews, immediately released, praised their holy God and Savior, since they now had escaped death.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 176 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

176. Now by the two expressions suddenly and immediately, the involuntary character of the deviation of the soul is manifested. For with reference to intentional sins there is need of time to consider where, and when, and how a thing is to be done. But unintentional sins are committed suddenly, without any consideration, and, if it be possible to say such a thing they strike upon the man without any time at all.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.224, 1.226-1.235, 1.259 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.224. To this species of sacrifice for preservation that other sacrifice also belongs, which is called the sacrifice of praise, and which rests on the following Principle.{27}{#le 19:1.} The man who has never fallen into any unexpected disaster whatever, neither as to his body nor as to his external circumstances, but who has passed a tranquil and peaceful life, living in happiness and prosperity, being free from all calamity and all mishap, steering through the long voyage of life in calmness and serenity of circumstances, good fortune always blowing upon the stern of his vessel, is, of necessity, bound to requite God, who has been the pilot of his voyage, who has bestowed upon him untroubled salvation and unalloyed benefits, and, in short, all sorts of blessings unmingled with any evil, with hymns, and songs, an prayers, and also with sacrifices, and all other imaginable tokens of gratitude in a holy manner; all which things taken together have received the one comprehensive name of praise. 1.226. This is sufficient to say on these subjects. We must now proceed, in due order, to consider the third sacrifice, which is called the sinoffering. This is varied in many ways, both in respect to the persons and to the description of victims offered; in respect of persons, that is, of the high priest, and of the whole nation, and of the ruler in his turn, and of the private individual; in respect of the victim offered, whether it be a calf, or a kid, or a she-goat, or a lamb. 1.227. Also there is a distinction made, which is very necessary, as to whether they are voluntary or involuntary, with reference to those who, after they have erred, change for the better, confessing that they have sinned, and reproaching themselves for the offences that they have committed, and turning, for the future, to an irreproachable way of life. 1.228. The sins therefore of the high priest, and of the whole nation, are atoned for by animals of equal value, for the priest is commanded to offer up a calf for each. The sins of the ruler are atoned for by an inferior animal, but still a male, for a kid is the appointed victim. The sins of the private individual by a victim of an inferior species, for it is a female, not a male, a she-goat, that is sacrificed; 1.229. for it was fitting that a ruler should be ranked above a private individual, even in his performance of sacred ceremonies also: but the nation is superior to the ruler, since the whole must, at all times, be superior to the part. But the high priest is accounted worthy of the same honour as the whole nation, in respect of purification and of entreating a forgiveness of his sins from the merciful power of God. And he receives an equality of honour, not so much as it appears for his own sake, as because he is a servant of the nation, offering up a common thank-offering for them all in his most sacred prayers and most holy sacrifices. 1.230. And the commandment given respecting these matters is one of great dignity and admirable solemnity. "If," says the law, "the high priest have sinned unintentionally," and then it adds, "so that the people has sinned too," all but affirming in express words that the true high priest, not the one incorrectly called so, has no participation in sin; and if ever he stumble, this will happen to him, not for his own sake, but for the common errors of the nation, and this error is not incurable, but is one which easily admits of a remedy. 1.231. When, therefore, the calf has been sacrificed, the lawgiver commands the sacrificer to sprinkle some of the blood with his finger seven times in front of the veil which is before the holy of holies, within the former veil, in which place the sacred vessels are placed; and after that to smear and anoint the four horns of the altar, for it is square; and to pour out the rest of the blood at the foot of the altar, which is in the open air. 1.232. And to this altar they are commanded to bring three things, the fat, and the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys, in accordance with the commandment given with reference to the sacrifice for preservation; but the skin and the flesh, and all the rest of the body of the calf, from the head to the feet, with the entrails, they are commanded to carry out and to turn in an open place, to which the sacred ashes from the altar have been conveyed. The lawgiver also gives the same command with respect to the whole nation when it has sinned. 1.233. But if any ruler has sinned he makes his purification with a kid, {29}{#le 4:22.} as I have said before; and if a private individual has sinned, he must offer a she-goat or a lamb; and for the ruler he appoints a male victim, but to the private individual a female, making all his other injunctions the same in both cases, to anoint the horns of the altar in the open air with blood, to bring the fat and the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys, and to give the rest of the victim to the priests to eat.XLIII. 1.234. But since, of offences some are committed against men, and some against holy and sacred things; he has hitherto been speaking with reference to those which are unintentionally committed against men; but for the purification of such as have been committed against sacred things he commands a ram to be offered up, after the offender has first paid the value of the thing to which the offence related, adding one fifth to the exact value. 1.235. And after having put forth these and similar enactments with reference to sins committed unintentionally, he proceeds to lay down rules respecting intentional offences. "If any one," says the law, "shall speak falsely concerning a partnership, or about a deposit, or about a theft, or about the finding of something which another has lost, and being suspected and having had an oath proposed to him, shall swear, and when he appears to have escaped all conviction at the hands of this accusers, shall himself become his own accuser, being convicted by his own conscience residing within, and shall reproach himself for the things which he has denied, and as to which he has sworn falsely, and shall come and openly confess the sin which he has committed, and implore pardon; 1.259. What, then, is the mode of purifying the soul? "Look," says the law, "take care that the victim which thou bringest to the altar is perfect, wholly without participation in any kind of blemish, selected from many on account of its excellence, by the uncorrupted judgments of the priests, and by their most acute sight, and by their continual practice derived from being exercised in the examination of faultless victims. For if you do not see this with your eyes more than with your reason, you will not wash off all the imperfections and stains which you have imprinted on your whole life, partly in consequence of unexpected events, and partly by deliberate purpose;
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.48. for he was not like any ordinary compiler of history, studying to leave behind him records of ancient transactions as memorials to future ages for the mere sake of affording pleasure without any advantage; but he traced back the most ancient events from the beginning of the world, commencing with the creation of the universe, in order to make known two most necessary principles. First, that the same being was the father and creator of the world, and likewise the lawgiver of truth; secondly, that the man who adhered to these laws, and clung closely to a connection with and obedience to nature, would live in a manner corresponding to the arrangement of the universe with a perfect harmony and union, between his words and his actions and between his actions and his words.
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.159-3.187, 3.216 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.159. 4. The high priest is indeed adorned with the same garments that we have described, without abating one; only over these he puts on a vestment of a blue color. This also is a long robe, reaching to his feet, [in our language it is called Meeir,] and is tied round with a girdle, embroidered with the same colors and flowers as the former, with a mixture of gold interwoven. 3.161. Now this vesture was not composed of two pieces, nor was it sewed together upon the shoulders and the sides, but it was one long vestment so woven as to have an aperture for the neck; not an oblique one, but parted all along the breast and the back. A border also was sewed to it, lest the aperture should look too indecently: it was also parted where the hands were to come out. 3.162. 5. Besides these, the high priest put on a third garment, which was called the Ephod, which resembles the Epomis of the Greeks. Its make was after this manner: it was woven to the depth of a cubit, of several colors, with gold intermixed, and embroidered, but it left the middle of the breast uncovered: it was made with sleeves also; nor did it appear to be at all differently made from a short coat. 3.163. But in the void place of this garment there was inserted a piece of the bigness of a span, embroidered with gold, and the other colors of the ephod, and was called Essen, [the breastplate,] which in the Greek language signifies the Oracle. 3.164. This piece exactly filled up the void space in the ephod. It was united to it by golden rings at every corner, the like rings being annexed to the ephod, and a blue riband was made use of to tie them together by those rings; 3.165. and that the space between the rings might not appear empty, they contrived to fill it up with stitches of blue ribands. There were also two sardonyxes upon the ephod, at the shoulders, to fasten it in the nature of buttons, having each end running to the sardonyxes of gold, that they might be buttoned by them. 3.166. On these were engraven the names of the sons of Jacob, in our own country letters, and in our own tongue, six on each of the stones, on either side; and the elder sons’ names were on the right shoulder. Twelve stones also there were upon the breast-plate, extraordinary in largeness and beauty; and they were an ornament not to be purchased by men, because of their immense value. 3.167. These stones, however, stood in three rows, by four in a row, and were inserted into the breastplate itself, and they were set in ouches of gold, that were themselves inserted in the breastplate, and were so made that they might not fall out. 3.168. Now the first three stones were a sardonyx, a topaz, and an emerald. The second row contained a carbuncle, a jasper, and a sapphire. The first of the third row was a ligure, then an amethyst, and the third an agate, being the ninth of the whole number. The first of the fourth row was a chrysolite, the next was an onyx, and then a beryl, which was the last of all. 3.169. Now the names of all those sons of Jacob were engraven in these stones, whom we esteem the heads of our tribes, each stone having the honor of a name, in the order according to which they were born. 3.171. and this was for the security of the breastplate, that it might not fall out of its place. There was also a girdle sewed to the breastplate, which was of the forementioned colors, with gold intermixed, which, when it had gone once round, was tied again upon the seam, and hung down. There were also golden loops that admitted its fringes at each extremity of the girdle, and included them entirely. 3.172. 6. The high priest’s mitre was the same that we described before, and was wrought like that of all the other priests; above which there was another, with swathes of blue embroidered, and round it was a golden crown polished, of three rows, one above another; out of which arose a cup of gold, which resembled the herb which we call Saccharus; but those Greeks that are skillful in botany call it Hyoscyamus. 3.173. Now, lest any one that has seen this herb, but has not been taught its name, and is unacquainted with its nature, or, having known its name, knows not the herb when he sees it, I shall give such as these are a description of it. 3.174. This herb is oftentimes in tallness above three spans, but its root is like that of a turnip (for he that should compare it thereto would not be mistaken); but its leaves are like the leaves of mint. Out of its branches it sends out a calyx, cleaving to the branch; and a coat encompasses it, which it naturally puts off when it is changing, in order to produce its fruit. This calyx is of the bigness of the bone of the little finger, but in the compass of its aperture is like a cup. This I will further describe, for the use of those that are unacquainted with it. 3.175. Suppose a sphere be divided into two parts, round at the bottom, but having another segment that grows up to a circumference from that bottom; suppose it become narrower by degrees, and that the cavity of that part grow decently smaller, and then gradually grow wider again at the brim, such as we see in the navel of a pomegranate, with its notches. 3.176. And indeed such a coat grows over this plant as renders it a hemisphere, and that, as one may say, turned accurately in a lathe, and having its notches extant above it, which, as I said, grow like a pomegranate, only that they are sharp, and end in nothing but prickles. 3.177. Now the fruit is preserved by this coat of the calyx, which fruit is like the seed of the herb Sideritis: it sends out a flower that may seem to resemble that of poppy. 3.178. of this was a crown made, as far from the hinder part of the head to each of the temples; but this Ephielis, for so this calyx may be called, did not cover the forehead, but it was covered with a golden plate, which had inscribed upon it the name of God in sacred characters. And such were the ornaments of the high priest. 3.179. 7. Now here one may wonder at the ill-will which men bear to us, and which they profess to bear on account of our despising that Deity which they pretend to honor; 3.181. When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. 3.182. And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number. 3.183. The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, because that color is dyed by the blood of a sea shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire. 3.184. Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened. 3.185. He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders. 3.186. And for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue color, it seems to me to mean heaven; 3.187. for how otherwise could the name of God be inscribed upon it? That it was also illustrated with a crown, and that of gold also, is because of that splendor with which God is pleased. Let this explication suffice at present, since the course of my narration will often, and on many occasions, afford me the opportunity of enlarging upon the virtue of our legislator. 3.216. This has appeared a wonderful thing to such as have not so far indulged themselves in philosophy, as to despise Divine revelation. Yet will I mention what is still more wonderful than this: for God declared beforehand, by those twelve stones which the high priest bare on his breast, and which were inserted into his breastplate, when they should be victorious in battle;
25. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.228-5.236 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.228. 7. Now all those of the stock of the priests that could not minister by reason of some defect in their bodies, came within the partition, together with those that had no such imperfection, and had their share with them by reason of their stock, but still made use of none except their own private garments; for nobody but he that officiated had on his sacred garments; 5.229. but then those priests that were without any blemish upon them went up to the altar clothed in fine linen. They abstained chiefly from wine, out of this fear, lest otherwise they should transgress some rules of their ministration. 5.231. When he officiated, he had on a pair of breeches that reached beneath his privy parts to his thighs, and had on an inner garment of linen, together with a blue garment, round, without seam, with fringework, and reaching to the feet. There were also golden bells that hung upon the fringes, and pomegranates intermixed among them. The bells signified thunder, and the pomegranates lightning. 5.232. But that girdle that tied the garment to the breast was embroidered with five rows of various colors, of gold, and purple, and scarlet, as also of fine linen and blue, with which colors we told you before the veils of the temple were embroidered also. 5.233. The like embroidery was upon the ephod; but the quantity of gold therein was greater. Its figure was that of a stomacher for the breast. There were upon it two golden buttons like small shields, which buttoned the ephod to the garment; in these buttons were enclosed two very large and very excellent sardonyxes, having the names of the tribes of that nation engraved upon them: 5.234. on the other part there hung twelve stones, three in a row one way, and four in the other; a sardius, a topaz, and an emerald; a carbuncle, a jasper, and a sapphire; an agate, an amethyst, and a ligure; an onyx, a beryl, and a chrysolite; upon every one of which was again engraved one of the forementioned names of the tribes. 5.235. A mitre also of fine linen encompassed his head, which was tied by a blue ribbon, about which there was another golden crown, in which was engraven the sacred name [of God]: it consists of four vowels. 5.236. However, the high priest did not wear these garments at other times, but a more plain habit; he only did it when he went into the most sacred part of the temple, which he did but once in a year, on that day when our custom is for all of us to keep a fast to God.
26. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.196-2.197 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.196. And for our duty at the sacrifices themselves, we ought in the first place to pray for the common welfare of all, and after that our own; for we are made for fellowship one with another; and he who prefers the common good before what is peculiar to himself, is above all acceptable to God. 2.197. And let our prayers and supplications be made humbly to God, not [so much] that he would give us what is good (for he hath already given that of his own accord, and hath proposed the same publicly to all), as that we may duly receive it, and when we have received it, may preserve it.
27. Mishnah, Horayot, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. If they transgressed before they were appointed, and afterwards they were appointed, they are regarded as regular people. Rabbi Shimon said: if their sin came to their knowledge before they were appointed they are liable, but if after they were appointed they are exempt. Who is meant by a ruler? A king; for it says, “Any of all the commandments of the Lord his God” (Leviticus 4:22), a ruler (king) who has none above him save the Lord his God."
28. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. The king can neither judge nor be judged, he cannot testify and others cannot testify against him. He may not perform halitzah, nor may others perform halitzah for his wife. He may not contract levirate marriage nor may his brothers contract levirate marriage with his wife. Rabbi Judah says: “If he wished to perform halitzah or to contract levirate marriage his memory is a blessing.” They said to him: “They should not listen to him.” None may marry his widow. Rabbi Judah says: “The king may marry the widow of a king, for so have we found it with David, who married the widow of Saul, as it says, “And I gave you my master’s house and my master’s wives into your embrace” (II Samuel 12:8)."
30. Mishnah, Shevuot, 1.2-1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Where there is knowledge at the beginning and at the end but forgetfulness between, a “sliding scales” sacrifice is brought. Where there is knowledge at the beginning but not at the end, the goat which is [sacrificed and its blood sprinkled] within [the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement] together with the Day of Atonement itself hold the sin in suspense until it become known to the sinner, and he brings the “sliding scale” sacrifice." 1.3. Where there is no knowledge at the beginning but there is knowledge at the end, the goat sacrificed on the outer altar together with the day of atonement bring atonement, for it says: “[one he-goat for a sin-offering] beside the sin-offering of atonement” (Numbers 29:1: for that which this goat [prepared inside the Holy of Holies] atones this goat [prepared outside] atones: just as the ‘inner’ goat atones only for a sin where there was knowledge [at the beginning], so the “outer” goat atones only for a sin where there was knowledge [at the end]." 1.4. Where there is no knowledge [of the impurity] either at the beginning or at the end, the goats offered as sin-offerings on festivals and new months bring atonement, the words of Rabbi Judah. Rabbi Shimon says: “The festival goats atone [for such sins] and not the new moon goats. And for what do the new month goats bring atonement? For a pure man who ate impure holy food.” Rabbi Meir says: “All the goats have equal powers of atonement for imparting impurity to the Temple and holy food. Rabbi Shimon used to say: “The new month goats bring atonement for a pure man who ate impure holy food; and the festival goats atone for transgression of the laws of impurity where there was no knowledge either at the beginning or at the end; and the ‘outer’ goat of the Day of Atonement atones for transgression of these laws where there was no knowledge at the beginning but there was knowledge at the end. They said to him: “Is it permitted to offer up the goat set apart for one day on another?” He said to them: “Let it be offered.” They said to him: “Since they are not equal in the atonement they bring how can they take each other's place?” He replied: “They are all at least equal [in the wider sense] in that they bring atonement for transgressions of the laws of impurity in connection with the temple and holy food.”"
31. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.5, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. You also, as living stones, are built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. 2.9. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God's own possession, that you may show forth the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light:
32. New Testament, Acts, 14.13, 15.28-15.29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14.13. The priest of Jupiter, whose temple was in front of their city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates, and would have made a sacrifice with the multitudes. 15.28. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay no greater burden on you than these necessary things: 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell.
33. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.5, 5.10, 20.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; 5.10. And made them kings and priests to our God, And they reign on earth. 20.6. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over these, the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with him one thousand years.
34. New Testament, Hebrews, 9.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.22. According to the law, nearly everything is cleansed with blood, and apart from shedding of blood there is no remission.
35. New Testament, John, 1.19-1.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. This is John's testimony, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you? 1.20. He confessed, and didn't deny, but he confessed, "I am not the Christ. 1.21. They asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?"He said, "I am not.""Are you the Prophet?"He answered, "No. 1.22. They said therefore to him, "Who are you? Give us an answer to take back to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself? 1.23. He said, "I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make straight the way of the Lord,' as Isaiah the prophet said. 1.24. The ones who had been sent were from the Pharisees. 1.25. They asked him, "Why then do you baptize, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet? 1.26. John answered them, "I baptize in water, but among you stands one whom you don't know. 1.27. He is the one who comes after me, who has come to be before me, whose sandal strap I'm not worthy to untie. 1.28. These things were done in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing.
36. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Tertullian, On The Apparel of Women, 1.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

58a. אמר רבי ירמיה בן אלעזר נתקללה בבל נתקללו שכניה נתקללה שומרון נתברכו שכניה נתקללה בבל נתקללו שכניה דכתיב (ישעיהו יד, כג) ושמתיה למורש קפוד ואגמי מים נתקללה שומרון נתברכו שכניה דכתיב (מיכה א, ו) ושמתי שומרון לעי השדה למטעי כרם וגו',ואמר רב המנונא הרואה אוכלוסי ישראל אומר ברוך חכם הרזים אוכלוסי עובדי כוכבים אומר (ירמיהו נ, יב) בושה אמכם וגו',ת"ר הרואה אוכלוסי ישראל אומר ברוך חכם הרזים שאין דעתם דומה זה לזה ואין פרצופיהן דומים זה לזה בן זומא ראה אוכלוסא על גב מעלה בהר הבית אמר ברוך חכם הרזים וברוך שברא כל אלו לשמשני,הוא היה אומר כמה יגיעות יגע אדם הראשון עד שמצא פת לאכול חרש וזרע וקצר ועמר ודש וזרה וברר וטחן והרקיד ולש ואפה ואח"כ אכל ואני משכים ומוצא כל אלו מתוקנין לפני וכמה יגיעות יגע אדם הראשון עד שמצא בגד ללבוש גזז ולבן ונפץ וטוה וארג ואחר כך מצא בגד ללבוש ואני משכים ומוצא כל אלו מתוקנים לפני כל אומות שוקדות ובאות לפתח ביתי ואני משכים ומוצא כל אלו לפני,הוא היה אומר אורח טוב מהו אומר כמה טרחות טרח בעל הבית בשבילי כמה בשר הביא לפני כמה יין הביא לפני כמה גלוסקאות הביא לפני וכל מה שטרח לא טרח אלא בשבילי אבל אורח רע מהו אומר מה טורח טרח בעל הבית זה פת אחת אכלתי חתיכה אחת אכלתי כוס אחד שתיתי כל טורח שטרח בעל הבית זה לא טרח אלא בשביל אשתו ובניו,על אורח טוב מהו אומר (איוב לו, כד) זכור כי תשגיא פעלו אשר שוררו אנשים על אורח רע כתיב (איוב לז, כד) לכן יראוהו אנשים וגו',(שמואל א יז, יב) והאיש בימי שאול זקן בא באנשים אמר רבא ואיתימא רב זביד ואיתימא רב אושעיא זה ישי אבי דוד שיצא באוכלוסא ונכנס באוכלוסא ודרש באוכלוסא אמר עולא נקיטינן אין אוכלוסא בבבל תנא אין אוכלוסא פחותה מששים רבוא,ת"ר הרואה חכמי ישראל אומר ברוך שחלק מחכמתו ליראיו חכמי עובדי כוכבים אומר ברוך שנתן מחכמתו לבריותיו הרואה מלכי ישראל אומר ברוך שחלק מכבודו ליראיו מלכי עובדי כוכבים אומר ברוך שנתן מכבודו לבריותיו,א"ר יוחנן לעולם ישתדל אדם לרוץ לקראת מלכי ישראל ולא לקראת מלכי ישראל בלבד אלא אפי' לקראת מלכי עובדי כוכבים שאם יזכה יבחין בין מלכי ישראל למלכי עובדי כוכבים,רב ששת סגי נהור הוה הוו קאזלי כולי עלמא לקבולי אפי מלכא וקם אזל בהדייהו רב ששת אשכחיה ההוא צדוקי אמר ליה חצבי לנהרא כגני לייא אמר ליה תא חזי דידענא טפי מינך חלף גונדא קמייתא כי קא אוושא אמר ליה ההוא צדוקי אתא מלכא אמר ליה רב ששת לא קאתי חלף גונדא תניינא כי קא אוושא אמר ליה ההוא צדוקי השתא קא אתי מלכא אמר ליה רב ששת לא קא אתי מלכא חליף תליתאי כי קא שתקא אמר ליה רב ששת ודאי השתא אתי מלכא,אמר ליה ההוא צדוקי מנא לך הא אמר ליה דמלכותא דארעא כעין מלכותא דרקיעא דכתיב (מלכים א יט, יא) צא ועמדת בהר לפני ה' והנה ה' עובר ורוח גדולה וחזק מפרק הרים ומשבר סלעים לפני ה' לא ברוח ה' ואחר הרוח רעש לא ברעש ה' ואחר הרעש אש לא באש ה' ואחר האש קול דממה דקה,כי אתא מלכא פתח רב ששת וקא מברך ליה אמר ליה ההוא צדוקי למאן דלא חזית ליה קא מברכת ומאי הוי עליה דההוא צדוקי איכא דאמרי חברוהי כחלינהו לעיניה ואיכא דאמרי רב ששת נתן עיניו בו ונעשה גל של עצמות,ר' שילא נגדיה לההוא גברא דבעל מצרית אזל אכל ביה קורצי בי מלכא אמר איכא חד גברא ביהודאי דקא דיין דינא בלא הרמנא דמלכא שדר עליה פריסתקא כי אתא אמרי ליה מה טעמא נגדתיה להאי אמר להו דבא על חמרתא אמרי ליה אית לך סהדי אמר להו אין אתא אליהו אדמי ליה כאיניש ואסהיד אמרי ליה אי הכי בר קטלא הוא אמר להו אנן מיומא דגלינן מארעין לית לן רשותא למקטל אתון מאי דבעיתון עבידו ביה,עד דמעייני ביה בדינא פתח ר' שילא ואמר (דברי הימים א כט, יא) לך ה' הגדולה והגבורה וגו' אמרי ליה מאי קאמרת אמר להו הכי קאמינא בריך רחמנא דיהיב מלכותא בארעא כעין מלכותא דרקיעא ויהב לכו שולטנא ורחמי דינא אמרו חביבא עליה יקרא דמלכותא כולי האי יהבי ליה קולפא אמרו ליה דון דינא,כי הוה נפיק אמר ליה ההוא גברא עביד רחמנא ניסא לשקרי הכי אמר ליה רשע לאו חמרי איקרו דכתיב (יחזקאל כג, כ) אשר בשר חמורים בשרם חזייה דקאזיל למימרא להו דקרינהו חמרי אמר האי רודף הוא והתורה אמרה אם בא להרגך השכם להרגו מחייה בקולפא וקטליה,אמר הואיל ואתעביד לי ניסא בהאי קרא דרשינא ליה לך ה' הגדולה זו מעשה בראשית וכן הוא אומר (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר והגבורה זו יציאת מצרים שנאמר (שמות יד, לא) וירא ישראל את היד הגדולה וגו' והתפארת זו חמה ולבנה שיעמדו לו ליהושע שנאמר (יהושע י, יג) וידום השמש וירח עמד וגו' והנצח זו מפלתה של רומי וכן הוא אומר (ישעיהו סג, ג) ויז נצחם על בגדי וגו' וההוד זו מלחמת נחלי ארנון שנאמר (במדבר כא, יד) על כן יאמר בספר מלחמות ה' את והב בסופה וגו' כי כל בשמים ובארץ זו מלחמת סיסרא שנאמר (שופטים ה, כ) מן שמים נלחמו הכוכבים ממסלותם וגו' לך ה' הממלכה זו מלחמת עמלק וכן הוא אומר (שמות יז, טז) כי יד על כס יה והמתנשא זו מלחמת גוג ומגוג וכן הוא אומר (יחזקאל לח, ג) הנני אליך גוג נשיא ראש משך ותובל לכל לראש אמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר ר' יוחנן אפילו ריש גרגיתא מן שמיא מנו ליה,במתניתא תנא משמיה דרבי עקיבא לך ה' הגדולה זו קריעת ים סוף והגבורה זו מכת בכורות והתפארת זו מתן תורה והנצח זו ירושלים וההוד זו בית המקדש: 58a. With regard to Babylonia, the Gemara cites what bRabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said:When bBabylonia was cursed, its neighbors were cursedalong with it. When bSamaria was cursed, its neighbors were blessed.When bBabylonia was cursed its neighbors were cursedalong with it, bas it is written: “I will also make it a possession for the bittern,a wading bird, band pools of water”(Isaiah 14:23); not only will it be destroyed, but the site will become a habitat for destructive, environmentally harmful creatures. When bSamaria was cursed,however, bits neighbors were blessed, as it is written: “Therefore I will make Samaria a heap in the field, a place for the planting of vineyards”(Micah 1:6); although destroyed, it will serve a beneficial purpose., bAnd Rav Hamnuna said: One who sees multitudes of Israel,six hundred thousand Jews, brecites: Blessed…Who knows all secrets.One who sees bmultitudes of gentiles recites: “Your mother shall be sore ashamed,she that bore you shall be confounded; behold, the hindermost of the nations shall be a wilderness, a dry land, and a desert” (Jeremiah 50:12)., bThe Sages taughtin a iTosefta /i: bOne who sees multitudes of Israel recites: Blessed…Who knows all secrets.Why is this? He sees a whole nation bwhose minds are unlike each other and whose faces are unlike each other,and He Who knows all secrets, God, knows what is in each of their hearts. The Gemara relates: bBen Zoma once saw a multitude [ iokhlosa /i] of Israelwhile standing bon a stair on the Temple Mount.He immediately brecited: Blessed…Who knows all secrets and Blessed…Who created all these to serve me. /b,Explaining his custom, bhe would say: How much effort did Adam the firstman bexert before he found bread to eat:He bplowed, sowed, reaped, sheaved, threshed, winnowedin the wind, bseparatedthe grain from the chaff, bgroundthe grain into flour, bsifted, kneaded, and baked andonly bthereafter he ate. And I,on the other hand, bwake up and find all of these prepared for me.Human society employs a division of labor, and each individual benefits from the service of the entire world. Similarly, bhow much effort did Adam the firstman bexert before he found a garment to wear?He bsheared, laundered, combed, spun and wove, andonly bthereafter he found a garment to wear. And I,on the other hand, bwake up and find all of these prepared for me.Members of ball nations,merchants and craftsmen, bdiligently come to the entrance of my home, and I wake up and find all of these before me. /b,Ben Zoma bwould say: A good guest, what does he say? How much effort did the host expend on my behalf, how much meat didthe host bbring before me. How much wine did he bring before me. How many loaves [ igeluskaot /i] did he bring before me. All theeffort bthat he expended, he expended only for me. However, a bad guest, what does he say? What effort did the host expend? I ateonly bonepiece of bbread, I ateonly bone piece of meatand bI drankonly bone cupof wine. bAll the effort that the home owner expended he only expended on behalf of his wife and children. /b, bWith regard to a good guest, what does he say? “Remember that you magnify his work, whereof men have sung”(Job 36:24); he praises and acknowledges those who helped him. bWith regard to a bad guest it is written: “Men do therefore fear him;he regards not any who are wise of heart” (Job 37:24).,On the topic of multitudes, the Gemara cites another verse: b“And the man in the days of Saul was old, and came among men”(I Samuel 17:12). bRava, and some say Rav Zevid, and some say Rav Oshaya, said: Thisrefers to bYishai, father of David, whoalways bwent out with multitudes, and entered with multitudes, and taught Torah with multitudes. Ulla said: We hold there is no multitude in Babylonia.The Sage btaught: A multitude is no fewer than six hundred thousandpeople., bThe Sages taught: One who sees the Sages of Israel recites: Blessed…Who has shared of His wisdom with those who revere Him.One who sees bSages of the nations of the world recites: Blessed…Who has given of His wisdom to flesh and blood. One who sees kings of Israel recites: Blessed…Who has shared of His glory with those who revere Him.One who sees bkings of theother bnations of the world recites: Blessed…Who has given of His glory to flesh and blood. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: One should always strive to run toward kings of Israelto greet them. bAnd not onlyshould he run btoward kings of Israel, but also toward kings of the nations of the world, so that if he will be privilegedto witnesses the glory of the Messiah (Rashi) and the World-to-Come, bhe will distinguish between the kings of Israel and the kings of the nations of the world. /b,The Gemara relates: bRav Sheshet was blind. Everyone was going to greet the king and Rav Sheshet stood up and went along with them. This heretic found himthere and bsaid to him:The intact bjugsgo bto the river, where do the brokenjugs bgo?Why is a blind person going to see the king? Rav Sheshet bsaid to him: Come see that I know more than youdo. bThe first troop passed,and bwhen the noise grew louder, this heretic said to him: The king is coming. Rav Sheshet said to him:The king bis not coming. The second troop passed,and bwhen the noise grew louder, this heretic said to him: Now the king is coming. Rav Sheshet said to him: The king is not coming. The thirdtroop bpassed,and bwhen there was silence, Rav Sheshet said to him: Certainly now the king is coming. /b, bThis heretic said to him: How do you know this?Rav Sheshet bsaid to him: Royalty on earth is like royalty in the heavens, as it is writtenwith regard to God’s revelation to Elijah the Prophet on Mount Horeb: br b“And He said: Go forth, and stand upon the mount before the Lord.br bAnd, behold, the Lord passed by, and a great and strong wind rent the mountains, and broke in pieces the rocks before the Lord;br bbut the Lord was not in the wind;br band after the wind an earthquake;br bbut the Lord was not in the earthquake;br band after the earthquake a fire;br bbut the Lord was not in the fire;br band after the fire a still small voice.brAnd it was so, when Elijah heard it, that he wrapped his face in his mantle and went out, and stood in the entrance of the cave” (I Kings 19:11–13). God’s revelation was specifically at the moment of silence., bWhen the king came, Rav Sheshet began to bless him. The hereticmockingly bsaid to him: Do you bless someone you do not see?The Gemara asks: bAnd what ultimately happened to this heretic? Some saythat bhis friends gouged out his eyes, and some saythat bRav Sheshet fixed his gaze upon him, andthe heretic bbecame a pile of bones. /b,As for the connection between divine and earthly royalty, the Gemara cites another story: bRabbi Sheilaordered that ba man who had relations with a gentile woman be flogged.That man bwent to inform the king and said: There is one man among the Jews who renders judgment without the king’s authority [ iharmana /i].The king bsent a messenger [ iperistaka /i] forRabbi Sheila to bring him to trial. bWhenRabbi Sheila bcame, they said to him: Why did youorder bflogging for this man? He said to them:Because bhe had relations with a female donkey.According to Persian law this was an extremely heinous crime, so bthey said to him: Do you have witnessesthat he did so? bHe replied: Yes,and bElijah the prophet cameand bappeared as a person and testified. They said toRabbi Sheila: bIf so, he is liable for the death penalty;why did you not sentence him to death? bHe replied: Since the day we were exiled from our land we do not have the authority to execute,but byou, do with him as you wish. /b, bAsthey bconsidered the sentence,Rabbi Sheila praised God for saving him from danger: b“Yours, O Lord, is the greatness, power,glory, triumph, and majesty; for all that is in heaven and on earth is Yours; Yours is the kingdom, O Lord, and You are exalted as head above all” (I Chronicles 29:11). bThey asked him: What did you say? He told them: This is what I said: Blessed is Merciful One who grants kingdom on earththat is a bmicrocosm of the kingdom in heaven, and granted you dominion and love of justice. They said to him:Indeed, the bhonor of royalty is so dear to you. They gave him a staffto symbolize his license to sit in judgment and bsaid to him: Judge. /b, bAs he was leaving, that man said toRabbi Sheila: bDoes God perform such miracles for liars? He replied: Scoundrel! Aren’tgentiles bcalled donkeys? As it is written: “Whose flesh is as the flesh of donkeys”(Ezekiel 23:20). Rabbi Sheila bsaw that he was going to tellthe Persian authorities bthat he called them donkeys. He said:This man has the legal status of ba pursuer.He seeks to have me killed. bAnd the Torah said: If one comes to kill you, kill him first. He struck him with the staff and killed him. /b,Rabbi Sheila bsaid: Since a miracle was performed on my behalf with this versethat I cited, bI will interpret it homiletically: Yours, O Lord, is the greatness; that is the act of creation, and so it says: “Who does great things past finding out”(Job 9:10); br bAnd the power; that is the exodus from Egypt, as it is stated: “And Israel saw the great workwhich the Lord did to the bEgyptians”(Exodus 14:31); br bAnd the glory; that is the sun and the moon that stood still for Joshua, as it is stated: “And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed,until the nation had avenged themselves of their enemies” (Joshua 10:13); br bAnd the triumph; that is the downfall of Rome, and so it saysdescribing the downfall of Edom, whom the Sages identified as the forefather of Rome: b“Their lifeblood is dashed against My garmentsand I have stained all My raiment” (Isaiah 63:3); br bAnd the majesty; this is the war of the valleys of Arnon, as it is stated: “Wherefore it is said in the book of the Wars of the Lord: Vahev in Sufa,and the valleys of Arnon” (Numbers 21:14); br bFor all that is in the heaven and in the earth is Yours; this is the war of Sisera, as it is stated: “They fought from heaven, the stars in their coursesfought against Sisera” (Judges 5:20). br bYours is the kingdom, O Lord; this is the war of Amalek, and so it says:“And he said: bThe hand upon the throne of the Lord:the Lord will have war with Amalek from generation to generation” (Exodus 17:16), as then God will sit on His throne. br bAnd you are exalted; this is the war of Gog and Magog, and so it says: “I am against you, O Gog, the chief prince of Meshekh and Tubal”(Ezekiel 38:3); and: br bAs head above all; Rav Ḥa bar Rava saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:All leadership and authority, beventhe most insignificant, the bone responsible for distributing water, is appointed by heaven. /b, bIt was taught in a ibaraitain the name of Rabbi Akiva: br bYours, O Lord, is the greatness; this is the splitting of the Red Sea;br bthe power; this is the plague of the firstborn;br bthe glory; this is the giving of the Torah;br bthe triumph; this is Jerusalem; brand bthe majesty; this is the Temple. /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

48a. בזמן שהיובל נוהג ר' יוחנן אמר מביא וקורא ר"ל אמר מביא ואינו קורא,רבי יוחנן אמר מביא וקורא קנין פירות כקנין הגוף דמי ר"ל אמר מביא ואינו קורא קנין פירות לאו כקנין הגוף דמי,וצריכא דאי איתמר בההיא בההיא קאמר ריש לקיש דכי קא נחית אדעתא דפירא קא נחית אבל בהך דאדעתא דגופיה קא נחית אימא מודי ליה לר' יוחנן,ואי איתמר בהא בהא קאמר רבי יוחנן אבל בהך אימא מודי ליה לריש לקיש צריכא,ת"ש הקונה אילן וקרקעו מביא וקורא הכא במאי עסקינן בזמן שאין היובל נוהג,ת"ש הקונה שני אילנות בתוך שדהו של חבירו מביא ואינו קורא הא שלשה מביא וקורא ה"נ בזמן שאין היובל נוהג,והשתא דאמר רב חסדא מחלוקת ביובל שני אבל ביובל ראשון דברי הכל מביא וקורא דאכתי לא סמך דעתייהו ל"ק הא ביובל ראשון הא ביובל שני,לימא כתנאי מנין ללוקח שדה מאביו והקדישה ואח"כ מת אביו מניין שתהא לפניו כשדה אחוזה,ת"ל (ויקרא כז, כב) אם את שדה מקנתו אשר לא משדה אחוזתו שדה שאינה ראויה להיות שדה אחוזה יצתה זו שראויה להיות שדה אחוזה דברי ר' יהודה ור"ש,ר"מ אומר מניין ללוקח שדה מאביו ומת אביו ואח"כ הקדישה מניין שתהא לפניו כשדה אחוזה ת"ל אם את שדה מקנתו אשר לא משדה אחוזתו שדה שאינה שדה אחוזה יצתה זו שהיא שדה אחוזה ואילו לרבי יהודה ור"ש מת אביו ואח"כ הקדישה לא צריכא קרא,מאי לאו בהא קמיפלגי דר"מ סבר קנין פירות כקנין הגוף דמי ובהא במיתת אביו הוא דלא ירית ולא מידי והלכך מת אביו ואח"כ הקדישה צריך קרא,רבי יהודה ור"ש סברי קנין פירות לאו כקנין הגוף דמי ובהא במיתת אביו השתא הוא דקא ירית והלכך מת אביו ואח"כ הקדישה לא צריכא קרא וכי איצטריך קרא להקדישה ואח"כ מת אביו הוא דאיצטריך,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק לעולם אימא לך בעלמא קסברי ר' יהודה ור"ש קנין פירות כקנין הגוף דמי והכא רבי יהודה ור"ש קרא אשכחו ודרוש לכתוב רחמנא אם את שדה מקנתו אשר לא אחוזתו מאי משדה אחוזתו שדה שאינה ראויה להיות שדה אחוזה יצתה זו שראויה להיות שדה אחוזה,א"ר יוסף אי לאו דא"ר יוחנן קנין פירות כקנין הגוף דמי לא מצא ידיו ורגליו בבית המדרש דא"ר אסי א"ר יוחנן האחין שחלקו לקוחות הן ומחזירין זה לזה ביובל,ואי ס"ד לאו כקנין הגוף דמי לא משכחת דמייתי ביכורים אלא חד בר חד עד יהושע בן נון,אמר רבא קרא ומתניתא מסייעי ליה לר"ל קרא 48a. binthe btime when the JubileeYear bis practiced,and every sale of land is only for its produce, because the land returns to its original owners in the Jubilee Year, bRabbi Yoḥa says:The purchaser bbringsthe first fruits band recitesthe verses. bReish Lakish says:The purchaser bbringsthe first fruits bbuthe bdoes not recitethe verses.,The Gemara explains: bRabbi Yoḥa saysthat the purchaser bbringsthe first fruits band recitesthe verses, because he holds that the bacquisition ofan item for bits produce is consideredto be blikethe bacquisition of the item itself.Consequently, the one bringing the fruits can truthfully recite: “The land which You, Lord, have given me” (Deuteronomy 26:10). bReish Lakish saysthat the purchaser bbringsthe first fruits bbuthe bdoes not recitethe verses, because he holds that the bacquisition ofan item for bits produce is not consideredto be blikethe bacquisition of the item itself. /b,The Gemara comments: bAndit is bnecessaryto state the dispute between Rabbi Yoḥa and Reish Lakish in both cases. bBecause if it was statedonly bin thatcase, with regard to one who acquires a field for its produce, one might say that it is only bin thatcase bthat Reish Lakish saysthat he does not recite the verses, bsincealready bwhenhe bdescendedto the field, i.e., took possession of the land, bhe descended with the intention ofacquiring only bthe produce,as stipulated at the time of the sale; bbut in thiscase, with regard to one who purchases the field when the Jubilee Year is practiced, bwhen he descendedto the field bwith the intentionof acquiring the land bitself, saythat bhe concedes to Rabbi Yoḥathat he recites the verses. Therefore, it is necessary to state explicitly that Reish Lakish holds that he does not recite the verses in this case as well., bAnd if it was statedonly bin thiscase, with regard to one who purchases the field when the Jubilee Year is practiced, one might say that it is only bin thiscase that bRabbi Yoḥa saysthat it is like the acquisition of the item itself and recites the verses, as he purchased the field to fully own it; bbut in thatcase, where the sale was only with regard to the produce, bsaythat bhe concedes to Reish Lakishthat he does not recite the verses. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto state the dispute in both cases.,The Gemara offers a proof in support of Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion: bComeand bheara proof from the mishna ( iBikkurim1:11): bOne who acquires a tree and itssurrounding bland bringsthe first fruits of those trees band recitesthe verses, even though he is required to return the land in the Jubilee Year. The Gemara responds: bWith what are we dealing hereaccording to the opinion of Reish Lakish? The mishna is referring to one who acquires a tree and its surrounding land binthe btime when the JubileeYear bis not practiced,so the acquisition is permanent.,The Gemara suggests another proof in support of Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion: bComeand bheara proof from the mishna ( iBikkurim1:16): bOne who acquires two trees in another’s field bringsthe first fruits of those trees bbut does not recitethe verses, as he acquires only the trees but not the land. bButif one acquires bthreetrees, he bbringsthe first fruits of those trees band recitesthe verses, because he also acquires the land surrounding the trees, despite the fact that the land is returned in the Jubilee Year. The Gemara rejects this: bHere too,Reish Lakish would explain that the mishna is referring to one who acquires three trees binthe btime when the JubileeYear bis not practiced. /b,The Gemara comments: bAnd now that Rav Ḥisda said:The bdisputebetween Rabbi Yoḥa and Reish Lakish is with regard to land sold bduring the second Jubilee,after the Jewish people already practiced the Jubilee Year once and people could trust that the land would be returned in the Jubilee Year, bbutwith regard to land sold bduring the first Jubilee,which was practiced by the Jews immediately following their entry into Eretz Yisrael, beveryone agreesthat bhe bringsthe first fruits band recitesthe verses, bas they did not yet relyon the fact that the fields would be returned, there is no need to claim that according to Reish Lakish these imishnayotare referring to when the Jubilee Year was not practiced. Instead, one could answer that it is bnot difficult: This,the imishnayotthat state that he brings the first fruits and recites the verses, are referring to land sold bduring the first Jubilee. That,where Reish Lakish rules that he brings the first fruits but does not recite the verses, is referring to land sold bduring the second Jubilee. /b,The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat the dispute between Rabbi Yoḥa and Reish Lakish is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i.The ihalakhais that if one consecrated but did not redeem his ancestral field, and the Temple treasury sold it to another Jew, it becomes the property of the priesthood in the Jubilee Year. However, if one purchases a field from another Jew and consecrates it, it reverts back to the original owner in the Jubilee Year. The ibaraitataught: bFrom whereis it derived bthat one who purchases a field from his fatherin the time when the Jubilee Year was practiced band consecrated it, and afterward his father died, from whereis it derived bthat it should beconsidered bbefore him like an ancestral field,and it does not revert to the son’s ownership in the Jubilee Year?,The ibaraitacontinues: bThe verse states:“And bifhe sanctify to the Lord ba field which he has bought, which is not of the field of his ancestral field”(Leviticus 27:22). The addition of the phrase: “Which is not of the field of his ancestral field,” teaches that the ihalakhathat the field reverts to the original owner applies specifically to ba field that is not fit to be an ancestral field,meaning that he would not inherit it in the future. bThisfield, which the son was entitled to inherit after he had consecrated it, bis excluded, as it is fit to be an ancestral field,although the son had purchased it. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bRabbi Meir says: From whereis it derived bthat one who purchases a field from his fatherat the time when the Jubilee Year was practiced band his father died, and afterward he consecrated it, from whereis it derived bthat it should beconsidered bbefore him like an ancestral field,and does not revert to the son in the Jubilee Year? bThe verse states:“And bifhe sanctify to the Lord ba field which he has bought, which is not of the field of his ancestral field.”The addition of the phrase: “Which is not of the field of his ancestral field,” teaches that the ihalakhathat the field reverts to the original owner applies specifically to ba field that is not an ancestral field,meaning that he did not inherit it. bThisfield, which the son inherited before he consecrated it, bis excluded, as it is an ancestral field, while according tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon, a verse is not requiredto teach that in a case where bhis father died, and he consecrated it afterward,it is considered an ancestral field, as this is obvious. The Gemara explains why the other itanna’imdo not require a verse to teach the ihalakhain the case discussed by Rabbi Meir:,The Gemara clarifies: bWhat, is it notthat bthey disagree about this, as Rabbi Meir holds:The bacquisition ofan item for bits produce is consideredto be blikethe bacquisition of the item itself, and in thiscase, when he purchased the field, i.e., the rights to the produce, from his father before his death, bit isthe case bthat he inherits nothing when his father dies,as he had already taken ownership of the field when he purchased it from his father, and nothing changed with his father’s death; band therefore,if bhis father died and he consecrated it afterward,then ba verse is necessaryto teach that it is treated like an ancestral field, as one might have thought that the field is his entirely as a result of the purchase, and not because of an ancestral inheritance.,While bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon holdthat the bacquisition ofan item for bits produce is not consideredto be blikethe bacquisition of the item itself, and in thiscase, when he had purchased the field from his father before his father died, bwith the death of his father he now inheritsthe field as well, since until now he owned only the rights to the produce; band thereforeif bhis father died and he consecratedthe field bafterward, a verse is not necessaryto teach that it is an ancestral field, as it is obvious that he now owns it due to his inheritance. bAnd when a verse was necessary,it is bfora case where bhe consecratedthe field band his father died afterward that it was necessary. /b,The Gemara rejects this explanation of the dispute. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Actually, Icould bsay to youthat bin general Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon holdthat the bacquisition ofan item for bits produce is consideredto be blikethe bacquisition of the item itself,and they agree that the verse is necessary to teach the ihalakhaconcerning a case where he consecrated the field after his father’s death. bAnd here, Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon foundanother element of the bverse andthey bexpoundedit. They maintain that if the verse is teaching the ihalakhaonly in the case where he consecrated the field after his father’s death, then blet the Merciful One writein the Torah: And bifhe sanctify to the Lord ba field which he has bought, which is not his ancestral field. Whatis the meaning of the expression: b“of his ancestral field”(Leviticus 27:22)? This emphasizes: bA field that is not fit to be an ancestral field,meaning that he would not inherit it in the future. bThisfield, which the son was entitled to inherit after he had consecrated it, bis excluded, as it is fit to be an ancestral field,although the son had purchased it., bRav Yosef said: If notfor the fact bthat Rabbi Yoḥa saidthat the bacquisition ofan item for bits produce is consideredto be blikethe bacquisition of the item itself, he would not find his hands or his feet in the study hall,i.e., there would be a contradiction between Rabbi Yoḥa’s statements. bAs Rav Asi saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Brothers who dividedproperty received as an inheritance bareconsidered to be bpurchasersfrom one another, bandas purchasers of land bthey must returnthe portions bto each other in the JubileeYear, at which point they may redistribute the property., bAnd if it enters your mindto say that the legal status of the acquisition of an item for its produce bis not likethat of the bacquisition of the item itself,then according to Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion byou will find thatone bbrings first fruitsby Torah law bonlywhen he is ban onlychild bthe son of an onlychild, and so forth, dating back btothe time of bJoshua, son of Nun.Only in such a case does the child fully inherit the land. In any other case, the children inherit only the rights to the produce, as they must return the actual land to each other in the Jubilee Year, and would not be able to recite the verses connected with the first fruits, since they could not refer to the land that the Lord has given them. Since Rabbi Yoḥa holds that the acquisition of an item for its produce is considered to be like the acquisition of the item itself, anyone who inherits land may recite the verses., bRava said: A verse and a ibaraitasupportthe opinion of bReish Lakish. A verse,as it is written:
40. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

21b. על הייחוד ועל הפנויה,יחוד דאורייתא הוא דאמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יהוצדק רמז לייחוד מן התורה מניין שנאמר (דברים יג, ז) כי יסיתך אחיך בן אמך וכי בן אם מסית בן אב אינו מסית אלא לומר לך בן מתייחד עם אמו ואין אחר מתייחד עם כל עריות שבתורה,אלא אימא גזרו על ייחוד דפנויה,(מלכים א א, ה) ואדניה בן חגית מתנשא לאמר אני אמלוך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מלמד שביקש להולמו ולא הולמתו,(מלכים א א, ה) ויעש לו רכב ופרשים וחמשים איש רצים לפניו מאי רבותא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כולן נטולי טחול וחקוקי כפות רגלים היו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big לא ירבה לו סוסים אלא כדי מרכבתו וכסף וזהב לא ירבה לו מאד אלא כדי ליתן אספניא וכותב לו ס"ת לשמו יוצא למלחמה מוציאה עמה נכנס הוא מכניסה עמו יושב בדין היא עמו מיסב היא כנגדו שנאמר (דברים יז, יט) והיתה עמו וקרא בו כל ימי חייו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן (דברים יז, טז) לא ירבה לו סוסים יכול אפילו כדי מרכבתו ופרשיו תלמוד לומר לו לו אינו מרבה אבל מרבה הוא כדי רכבו ופרשיו הא מה אני מקיים סוסים סוסים הבטלנין מניין שאפילו סוס א' והוא בטל שהוא בלא ירבה ת"ל (דברים יז, טז) למען הרבות סוס,וכי מאחר דאפילו סוס אחד והוא בטל קאי בלא ירבה סוסים למה לי לעבור בל"ת על כל סוס וסוס,טעמא דכתב רחמנא לו הא לאו הכי ה"א אפילו כדי רכבו ופרשיו נמי לא לא צריכא לאפושי:,וכסף וזהב לא ירבה לו אלא כדי ליתן אספניא: ת"ר (דברים יז, יז) וכסף וזהב לא ירבה לו יכול אפילו כדי ליתן אספניא ת"ל לו לו אינו מרבה אבל מרבה הוא כדי ליתן אספניא,טעמא דכתב רחמנא לו הא לאו הכי הוה אמינא אפילו כדי ליתן אספניא נמי לא לא צריכא להרווחה,השתא דאמרת לו לדרשה (דברים יז, יז) לא ירבה לו נשים מאי דרשת ביה למעוטי הדיוטות,רב יהודה רמי כתיב (מלכים א ה, ו) ויהי לשלמה ארבעים אלף ארוות סוסים למרכבתו וכתיב (דברי הימים ב ט, כה) ויהי לשלמה ארבעת אלפים (ארוות) סוסים הא כיצד אם ארבעים אלף איצטבלאות היו כל אחד ואחד היו בו ד' אלפים ארוות סוסים ואם ד' אלפים איצטבלאות היו כל אחד ואחד היו בו ארבעים אלף ארוות סוסים,(רבי) יצחק רמי כתיב (דברי הימים ב ט, כ) אין כסף נחשב בימי שלמה למאומה וכתיב (מלכים א י, כז) ויתן) שלמה את הכסף בירושלים כאבנים לא קשיא כאן קודם שנשא שלמה את בת פרעה כאן לאחר שנשא שלמה את בת פרעה,אמר רבי יצחק בשעה שנשא שלמה את בת פרעה ירד גבריאל ונעץ קנה בים והעלה שירטון ועליו נבנה כרך גדול שברומי,ואמר ר' יצחק מפני מה לא נתגלו טעמי תורה שהרי שתי מקראות נתגלו טעמן נכשל בהן גדול העולם כתיב (דברים יז, יז) לא ירבה לו נשים אמר שלמה אני ארבה ולא אסור וכתיב (מלכים א יא, ד) ויהי לעת זקנת שלמה נשיו הטו את לבבו,וכתיב (דברים יז, טז) לא ירבה לו סוסים ואמר שלמה אני ארבה ולא אשיב וכתיב (מלכים א י, כט) ותצא מרכבה ממצרים בשש וגו':,וכותב ספר תורה לשמו: תנא ובלבד שלא יתנאה בשל אבותיו,אמר (רבא) אף על פי שהניחו לו אבותיו לאדם ספר תורה מצוה לכתוב משלו שנאמר (דברים לא, יט) ועתה כתבו לכם את השירה איתיביה אביי וכותב לו ספר תורה לשמו שלא יתנאה בשל אחרים מלך אין הדיוט לא,לא צריכא לשתי תורות וכדתניא (דברים יז, יח) וכתב לו את משנה וגו' כותב לשמו שתי תורות אחת שהיא יוצאה ונכנסת עמו ואחת שמונחת לו בבית גנזיו,אותה שיוצאה ונכנסת עמו (עושה אותה כמין קמיע ותולה בזרועו שנאמר (תהלים טז, ח) שויתי ה' לנגדי תמיד כי מימיני בל אמוט) אינו נכנס בה לא לבית המרחץ ולא לבית הכסא שנאמר (דברים יז, יט) והיתה עמו וקרא בו מקום הראוי לקראות בו,אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא מר עוקבא בתחלה ניתנה תורה לישראל בכתב עברי ולשון הקודש חזרה וניתנה להם בימי עזרא בכתב אשורית ולשון ארמי ביררו להן לישראל כתב אשורית ולשון הקודש והניחו להדיוטות כתב עברית ולשון ארמי,מאן הדיוטות אמר רב חסדא כותאי מאי כתב עברית אמר רב חסדא כתב ליבונאה,תניא רבי יוסי אומר ראוי היה עזרא שתינתן תורה על ידו לישראל אילמלא (לא) קדמו משה במשה הוא אומר (שמות יט, ג) ומשה עלה אל האלהים בעזרא הוא אומר (עזרא ז, ו) הוא עזרא עלה מבבל מה עלייה האמור כאן תורה אף עלייה האמור להלן תורה,במשה הוא אומר (דברים ד, יד) ואותי צוה ה' בעת ההיא ללמד אתכם חקים ומשפטים בעזרא הוא אומר (עזרא ז, י) כי עזרא הכין לבבו לדרוש את תורת ה' (אלהיו) ולעשות וללמד בישראל חוק ומשפט ואף על פי שלא ניתנה תורה על ידו נשתנה על ידו הכתב שנאמר 21b. babout seclusion,that a man should not be secluded with women who are forbidden to him, band about a single woman. /b,The Gemara objects: bSeclusionwith a woman forbidden by familial ties bisprohibited bby Torahlaw, and was not a rabbinic decree issued in the time of David. bAs Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: From whereis there ban allusion tothe ihalakhathat bseclusionis forbidden bby Torahlaw? bAs it is stated: “If your brother, the son of your mother, entices you”(Deuteronomy 13:7). One can ask: bBut does the son of a mother entice, and does the son of a father not entice?Why mention only the son of a mother? bRather,this verse serves bto tell youthat only ba sonmay bbe secluded with his mother.Sons are frequently with their mother, and two half-brothers of one mother consequently have the opportunity to grow close to one another. bBut anotherindividual bmay not be secluded with those with whom relations are forbidden by the Torah,including a stepmother. Therefore, half-brothers of one father spend less time together.,Since seclusion, then, is prohibited by Torah law, how did Rav say that it was prohibited by a decree issued in King David’s time? bRather, saythat bthey decreed against seclusionof a man bwith a single woman,to prevent occurrences like that of Amnon and Tamar.,Apropos Amnon, the Gemara cites traditions about another son of David: b“Now Adonijah, son of Haggith, exalted himself, saying: I will be king”(I Kings 1:5). bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The term “exalted himself” bteaches that he soughtfor the monarchy bto fit him, but it did not fit him. /b,The verse continues: b“And he prepared for himself chariots and riders and fifty people to run before him”(I Kings 1:5). The Gemara asks: bWhat is the noveltyof these actions, since other wealthy people do the same, even if they are not the sons of kings, with designs on the throne? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:What was unique was that the runners ball hadtheir bspleens removed and had the soles of their feet hollowed,removing the flesh of their feet, and these two procedures enhanced their speed., strongMISHNA: /strong The king b“shall not accumulate many horses for himself”(Deuteronomy 17:16), but bonlyenough bfor his chariotin war and in peace. b“Neither shall he greatly accumulate silver and gold for himself”(Deuteronomy 17:17), but bonly enough to providehis bsoldiers’ sustece [ iaspanya /i]. Andthe king bwrites himself a Torah scroll for his sake,as stipulated in Deuteronomy 17:18. When bhe goes out to war, he brings it out with him.When bhe comes infrom war, bhe brings it in with him.When bhe sits in judgment, it is with him.When bhe reclinesto eat, bit is opposite him, as it is stated: “And it shall be with him and he shall read it all the days of his life”(Deuteronomy 17:19)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“He shall not accumulate many horses [ isusim /i] for himselfnor return the people to Egypt for the sake of accumulating horses [ isus /i]” (Deuteronomy 17:16): One bmighthave thought that he shall not have bevenenough horses bfor his chariot and riders.Therefore, bthe verse states: “For himself,”teaching that only if the horses are bfor himself,for personal pleasure, bhe shall not accumulatethem, bbut he may accumulatehorses bfor his chariot and riders. How, then, do I realizethe meaning of b“horses [ isusim /i]”in the verse? It is referring to bidle horses,which serve no purpose other than glorifying the king. bFrom whereis it derived bthat evenif the king has bone horse that is idle, that hetransgresses b“he shall not accumulate”? The verse states: “For the sake of accumulating horses [ isus /i],”with the term for horses written in the singular.,The Gemara asks: bBut oncethe verse taught bthat even one horse that is idle standsto be included in the prohibition of b“he shall not accumulate,” why do Ineed the plural form b“horses”in the first clause of the verse? The Gemara responds: Its purpose is btoteach that a king would btransgressthe bprohibitionan additional time bfor each and everyidle bhorse. /b,The Gemara questions this ruling: The specific breasonfor limiting the prohibition to idle horses is bthat the Merciful One writes:“He shall not accumulate bfor himself,”which indicates, bconsequently,that if the Torah had bnotwritten bthis, I would saythat bevenenough horses bfor his chariot and ridersare bnotpermitted; and this is unreasonable, since the king needs an army. The Gemara responds: bNo,the term “for himself” is bnecessaryto teach that it is permitted for the king bto adda reasonable number of horses beyond the necessary minimum, and it is only strictly personal use that is prohibited.,The mishna teaches: b“Neither shall he greatly accumulate silver and gold for himself”(Deuteronomy 17:17), but bonly enough to providehis bsoldiers’ sustece. The Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: From the command b“neither shall he greatly accumulate silver and gold for himself,”one bmighthave thought that he should not have beven enough to providehis bsoldiers’ sustece.To counter this, bthe verse states: “For himself,”teaching that only if the silver and gold is bfor himself,for personal pleasure, bhe shall not accumulateit, bbut he may accumulate enoughsilver and gold bto providehis bsoldiers’ sustece. /b,The Gemara questions this ruling: The specific breasonfor limiting the prohibition to personal wealth accumulation is bthat the Merciful One writes:“Neither shall he greatly accumulate silver and gold bfor himself,”which indicates, bconsequently,that if the Torah had bnotwritten bthis, I would saythat it bis notpermitted for the king to accumulate beven enoughsilver and gold bto providehis bsoldiers’ sustece;this is unreasonable, since the king needs an army. The Gemara responds: bNo,the term “for himself” is bnecessaryto teach that the king is permitted btoallow for ba liberal appropriationto the military budget, so that the army has a comfortable ficial cushion.,The Gemara asks: bNow that you have saidthat the term b“for himself”in the verse is stated bforthe purpose of ba derivationfor practical ihalakha /i, which limits and narrows the verse’s scope, bwhat do you derive fromthe next phrase in the verse: b“He shall not add many wives for himself”?The Gemara answers: That usage of “for himself” serves bto exclude ordinarypeople, to specify that only the king is restricted from having many wives, but a civilian may marry as many women as he wants, provided he can support them ficially.,§ bRav Yehuda raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one verse: b“And Solomon had forty thousand stalls of horses for his chariots”(I Kings 5:6), band it is writtenin another verse: b“And Solomon had four thousand stalls for horsesand chariots” (II Chronicles 9:25). bHowcan bthesetexts be reconciled? bIf there were forty thousand large stables [ iitztablaot /i], each and every oneof them bhad in it four thousand stalls,or rows, bfor horses. Andalternatively, bif there were four thousand large stables, each and every one had in it forty thousand stalls for horses.Therefore the two verses are reconciled., bRabbi Yitzḥak raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one verse: b“Silver was not worth anything in the days of Solomon”(II Chronicles 9:20), band it is writtenin another verse: b“And the king made silver in Jerusalem as stones”(I Kings 10:27), i.e., gems. The Gemara responds: It is bnot difficult: Here,where silver was worthless, this was bbefore Solomonsinfully bmarried Pharaoh’s daughter. There,where the silver was valuable, this was bafter Solomon married Pharaoh’s daughter. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says: When Solomon married Pharaoh’s daughter,the angel bGabriel descendedfrom Heaven band implanted a pole in the sea. Andit gradually braised up a sandbar [ isirton /i]around it, creating new, dry land, band on it the great city of Rome was built.This shows that the beginning of the Jewish people’s downfall to Rome came with Solomon’s marriage to Pharaoh’s daughter., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: For whatreason bwere the rationales of Torahcommandments bnot revealed?It was bbecause the rationales of two verses were revealed,and bthe greatest in the world,King Solomon, bfailed inthose matters. bIt is writtenwith regard to a king: b“He shall not add many wives for himself,that his heart should not turn away” (Deuteronomy 17:17). bSolomon said: I will add many, but I will not turn away,as he thought that it is permitted to have many wives if one is otherwise meticulous not to stray. bAndlater, bit is written: “For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heartafter other gods” (I Kings 11:4)., bAnd it isalso bwritten:“Only bhe shall not accumulate many horses for himselfnor return the people to Egypt for the sake of accumulating horses” (Deuteronomy 17:16), band Solomon said: I will accumulate many, but I will not return. And it is written: “And a chariotcame up band went out of Egypt for sixhundred shekels of silver” (I Kings 10:29), teaching that not only did Solomon violate the Torah, but he also failed in applying the rationale given for its commandments. This demonstrates the wisdom in the Torah’s usual silence as to the rationale for its mitzvot, as individuals will not mistakenly rely on their own wisdom to reason that the mitzvot are inapplicable in some circumstances.,§ The mishna teaches that the king bwrites a Torah scroll for his sake.The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta4:4): The king fulfills the mitzva bprovided that he does not beautify himself withthe Torah scroll bof his ancestorsfor this purpose, i.e., he must write his own scroll., bRava says:With regard to the mitzva for every Jew to write himself a Torah scroll, beven if a person’s ancestors left him a Torah scroll,it is ba mitzva to writea scroll bof one’s own, as it is stated: “Now, therefore, write for yourselvesthis bsongand teach it to the children of Israel” (Deuteronomy 31:19). bAbaye raised an objection to himfrom a ibaraitaconcerning the king’s Torah scroll: bAnd he writes himself a Torah scroll for his sake, so that he does not beautify himself withthe Torah scroll bof others.Read precisely, this indicates that ba king, yes,he is included in the ihalakhanot to have a scroll inherited from his ancestors suffice, but ban ordinaryperson is bnot. /b,The Gemara dismisses Abaye’s objection: bNo,the ruling of that ibaraitais bnecessaryto teach that the king is commanded to write btwo Torahscrolls; he writes one scroll as does any Jew, and he writes an additional scroll because he is king. bAndthis is bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“That he shall write for himself a secondTorah in a scroll, out of that which is before the priests the Levites” (Deuteronomy 17:18). This teaches that bhe writes for his sake two Torahscrolls, bone that goes out and comes in with himat all times, band one that is placed in his treasury. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: With regard to bthe one that goes out and comes in with him, he makes itvery small, blike an amulet, and he hangsit bon his arm, as it is stated: “I have set the Lord always before me; He is at my right hand, that I shall not be moved”(Psalms 16:8). This alludes to the small Torah scroll that is always on his right hand. bHe does not go into the bathhouse with it, nor into the bathroom, as it is stated: “And it shall be with him and he shall read from it”(Deuteronomy 17:19), meaning, it shall remain in ba place that is appropriate for reading from it. /b,§ bMar Zutra says, and some saythat it is bMar Ukvawho says: bInitially,the bTorah was given to the Jewish people in iIvritscript,the original form of the written language, band the sacred tongue,Hebrew. bIt was given to them again in the days of Ezra in iAshuritscript andthe bAramaic tongue. The Jewish people selected iAshuritscript and the sacred tonguefor the Torah scroll band left iIvritscript andthe bAramaic tongue for the commoners. /b,The Gemara asks: bWho arethese bcommoners? Rav Ḥisda said: The Samaritans [ iKutim /i].The Gemara asks: bWhat is iIvritscript? Rav Ḥisda says: iLibona’ascript. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta4:5): bRabbi Yosei says: Ezra was suitable,given his greatness, bforthe bTorah to be given by him to the Jewish people, had Moses not come firstand received the Torah already. bWith regard to Mosesthe verse bstates: “And Moses went up to God”(Exodus 19:3), and bwith regard to Ezrathe verse bstates: “This Ezra went up from Babylonand he was a ready scribe in the Torah of Moses, which the Lord, the God of Israel, had given” (Ezra 7:6). bJust asthe bgoing up stated here,with regard to Moses, is for the bTorah,which he received from God and transmitted to the Jewish people, bso too,the bgoing up stated there,with regard to Ezra, is for the bTorah,as he taught Torah to the Jewish people and was suitable to have originally merited to give it.,The ibaraitacontinues: bWith regard to Mosesthe verse bstates: “And the Lord commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and ordices”(Deuteronomy 4:14), and bwith regard to Ezrathe verse bstates: “For Ezra had set his heart to seek the Torah of the Lord his God and to do it and to teach in Israel statutes and ordices”(Ezra 7:10). bAnd even thoughthe bTorah was not givenliterally bby him, the scriptof the Torah bwas changed by him, as it is stated: /b
41. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20a. והכי קאמר מחצלת הקנים גדולה עשאה לשכיבה מקבלת טומאה ואין מסככין בה טעמא דעשאה לשכיבה הא סתמא נעשה כמי שעשאה לסיכוך מסככין בה (קטנה עשאה לסיכוך מסככין בה טעמא דעשאה לסיכוך הא סתמא נעשה כמי שעשאה לשכיבה ואין מסככין בה) ואתא ר' אליעזר למימר אחת קטנה ואחת גדולה סתמא כשרה לסיכוך,אמר ליה אביי אי הכי ר' אליעזר אומר אחת קטנה ואחת גדולה אחת גדולה ואחת קטנה מיבעי ליה,ועוד כי פליגי בגדולה הוא דפליגי ורבי אליעזר לחומרא דתניא מחצלת הקנים בגדולה מסככין בה ר' אליעזר אומר אם אינה מקבלת טומאה מסככין בה,אלא אמר רב פפא בקטנה כולי עלמא לא פליגי דסתמא לשכיבה כי פליגי בגדולה ת"ק סבר סתם גדולה לסיכוך ורבי אליעזר סבר סתם גדולה נמי לשכיבה,ומאי עשאה לשכיבה דקאמר הכי קאמר סתם עשייתה נמי לשכיבה עד דעביד לסיכוך,ת"ר מחצלת של שיפה ושל גמי גדולה מסככין בה קטנה אין מסככין בה של קנים ושל חילת גדולה מסככין בה ארוגה אין מסככין בה,רבי ישמעאל בר' יוסי אומר משום אביו אחת זו ואחת זו מסככין בה וכן היה רבי דוסא אומר כדבריו,תנן התם כל החוצלות מטמאין טמא מת דברי ר' דוסא וחכמים אומרים מדרס,מדרס אין טמא מת לא והא אנן תנן כל המטמא מדרס מטמא טמא מת אימא אף מדרס,מאי חוצלות אמר רב אבדימי בר המדורי מרזובלי מאי מרזובלי אמר ר' אבא מזבלי ר' שמעון בן לקיש אומר מחצלות ממש,ואזדא ריש לקיש לטעמיה דאמר ריש לקיש הריני כפרת רבי חייא ובניו שבתחלה כשנשתכחה תורה מישראל עלה עזרא מבבל ויסדה חזרה ונשתכחה עלה הלל הבבלי ויסדה חזרה ונשתכחה עלו רבי חייא ובניו ויסדוה וכן אמר רבי חייא ובניו לא נחלקו רבי דוסא וחכמים על מחצלות של אושא 20a. bAnd this is whatthe mishna bis saying:With regard to ba large mat of reeds,if bone produced it forthe purpose of blyingupon it, bit is susceptible to ritual impurity, and onemay bnot roofa isukka bwith it.The breasonis that bone produced itspecifically bforthe purpose of blyingupon it; however, by inference, a mat that one produced bwithout designation becomes asa mat bproduced for roofing,and one may broofa isukka bwith it.With regard to ba small mat of reeds,if bone produced it for roofing, onemay broofa isukka bwith it.The breasonis that bone produced itspecifically bfor roofing;however, by inference, a mat that one produced bwithout designation becomes asa mat bproduced forthe purpose of blyingupon it, bandone may bnot roofa isukka bwith it. And Rabbi Eliezer comes to saythat bboth a smallmat band a largeone produced bwithout designationare bfitfor roofing., bAbaye said to him: If so,if their dispute is only with regard to a small mat, then instead of saying: bRabbi Eliezer says: Both a smallmat band a largemat, the mishna bneededto say: bBoth a largemat band a smallmat. In a phrase with the format: Both this and that, one typically mentions the more obvious item first. Why then, does Rabbi Eliezer mention the small mat first, if it is with regard to the small mat that they disagree?, bAnd furthermore,there is proof that bwhen they disagree,it bis with regard to a largemat, band Rabbi Eliezer’sopinion is ba stringencyand not a leniency, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba reed mat, with a largemat bonemay broofa isukka /i. bRabbi Eliezer says: If it is not susceptible to ritual impurity, onemay broofhis isukka bwith it.Apparently, Rabbi Eliezer holds that without designation, one may not roof his isukkawith a large mat., bRather, Rav Pappa said:Rava’s proposed resolution is rejected. Rather, bwith regard to a smallmat, beveryone agrees thatif it was produced bwithout designation,presumably it is bforthe purpose of blyingupon it. bWhen they disagree, is with regard to a largemat: bThe first itannaholdsthat ba largemat produced bwithout designationis presumably bfor roofing, and Rabbi Eliezer holdsthat ba largemat produced bwithout designationis balsopresumably bforthe purpose of blyingupon it., bWhat,then, is the meaning of: If bone produced it forthe purpose of blyingupon it, bthatRabbi Eliezer bstates? This is whathe bis saying: Making mats without designation is also forthe purpose of blyingupon it, buntil one makesit specifically bfor roofing. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: In the case of ba mat [ imaḥatzelet /i]woven bof papyrus or bulrushes,if it is ba largemat, bonemay broofa isukka bwith it,as it is not typically produced for the purpose of lying upon it. If it is ba smallmat, bonemay bnot roofa isukka bwith it,as it is typically produced for the purpose of lying upon it. However, with regard to a mat produced bofordinary breeds or reedsspecifically used bfor plaiting,if the mat is plaited with ba large,coarse weave, bonemay broofa isukka bwith it,as it was certainly not produced for the purpose of lying upon it. If it is bwovenwith a small, fine weave, bonemay bnot roofthe isukka bwith it,as typically mats of this sort are woven only for the purpose of lying upon them., bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said in the name of his father: Both with thisplaited mat band with thatwoven mat, bonemay broofa isukka /i, as without specific designation otherwise they are not produced for the purpose of lying upon them, and therefore they are ritually pure. bAnd likewise, Rabbi Dosa would say in accordance with his statement. /b, bWe learnedin a mishna bthere: Alltypes of iḥotzalotcan become ritually impurewith bimpurityimparted by ba corpse.Since their legal status is that of a vessel, they become a primary source of ritual impurity. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Dosa. And the Rabbis say:They become impure with the impurity imparted by btreading.If a izavlies or sits on one of the iḥotzalot /i, they become a primary source of ritual impurity, like a chair or bed of a izav /i.,The Gemara asks: Impurity imparted by btreading, yes; impurityimparted by ba corpse, no? But didn’t we learnin a mishna: bAny item that becomes ritually impurewith impurity imparted bby treadingalso bbecomes ritually impurewith other types of impurity, including impurity bimparted by a corpse,although the reverse is not necessarily so. The opinion of the Rabbis is difficult. The Gemara explains: Emend the mishna and bsay:They become ritually impure bevenwith the impurity imparted by btreading.These mats are not merely nondescript vessels, which become primary sources of ritual impurity through exposure to a corpse, they are vessels designated for sitting and lying upon them, and therefore they also become primary sources of ritual impurity if a izavsits or lies upon them.,The Gemara asks about the term used in the mishna: bWhatis the meaning of iḥotzalot /i? Rav Avdimi bar Hamduri said:They are imarzovelei /i.The Gemara is unfamiliar with the term and asks: bWhatis the meaning of imarzovelei /i? Rabbi Abba said:They are called imezablei /iin Babylonia. They are leather sacks used by shepherds to feed their animals. Shepherds place them under their heads when lying down. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: iḤotzalotare a different term for bactual mats. /b,The Gemara notes: bAnd Reish Lakish follows hisline of breasoningstated elsewhere, bas Reish Lakish said: I am the atonement for Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons, as initially, whensome of the bTorahlaws were bforgotten fromthe bJewish peoplein Eretz Yisrael, bEzra ascended from Babylonia and reestablishedthe forgotten laws. Parts of the Torah were bagain forgottenin Eretz Yisrael, and bHillel the Babylonian ascended and reestablishedthe forgotten sections. When parts of the Torah were bagain forgottenin Eretz Yisrael, bRabbi Ḥiyya and his sons ascended and reestablishedthe forgotten sections. This expression of deference toward Rabbi Ḥiyya introduces the ihalakhathat Reish Lakish is citing in his name. bAnd so said Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons: Rabbi Dosa and the Rabbis did not disagree concerning thesoft bmats of Usha, /b
42. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

47b. לא רוב טובה ולא רוב פורענות ואין מרבין עליו ואין מדקדקין עליו,קיבל מלין אותו מיד נשתיירו בו ציצין המעכבין את המילה חוזרים ומלין אותו שניה נתרפא מטבילין אותו מיד ושני ת"ח עומדים על גביו ומודיעין אותו מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות טבל ועלה הרי הוא כישראל לכל דבריו,אשה נשים מושיבות אותה במים עד צוארה ושני ת"ח עומדים לה מבחוץ ומודיעין אותה מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות,אחד גר ואחד עבד משוחרר ובמקום שנדה טובלת שם גר ועבד משוחרר טובלין וכל דבר שחוצץ בטבילה חוצץ בגר ובעבד משוחרר ובנדה,אמר מר גר שבא להתגייר אומרים לו מה ראית שבאת להתגייר ומודיעים אותו מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות מ"ט דאי פריש נפרוש דא"ר חלבו קשים גרים לישראל כספחת דכתיב (ישעיהו יד, א) ונלוה הגר עליהם ונספחו על בית יעקב:,ומודיעים אותו עון לקט שכחה ופאה ומעשר עני: מ"ט א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן בן נח נהרג על פחות משוה פרוטה ולא ניתן להשבון,(ומודיעים אותו עון שכחה ופאה): ואין מרבים עליו ואין מדקדקים עליו: אמר רבי אלעזר מאי קראה דכתיב (רות א, יח) ותרא כי מתאמצת היא ללכת אתה ותחדל לדבר אליה,אמרה לה אסיר לן תחום שבת (רות א, טז) באשר תלכי אלך אסיר לן יחוד (רות א, טז) באשר תליני אלין,מפקדינן שש מאות וי"ג מצות (רות א, טז) עמך עמי אסיר לן עבודת כוכבים (רות א, טז) ואלהיך אלהי ארבע מיתות נמסרו לב"ד (רות א, יז) באשר תמותי אמות ב' קברים נמסרו לב"ד (רות א, יז) ושם אקבר,מיד ותרא כי מתאמצת היא וגו':,קיבל מלין אותו מיד: מ"ט שהויי מצוה לא משהינן:,נשתיירו בו ציצין המעכבין המילה וכו': כדתנן אלו הן ציצין המעכבין המילה בשר החופה את רוב העטרה ואינו אוכל בתרומה וא"ר ירמיה בר אבא אמר רב בשר החופה רוב גובהה של עטרה:,נתרפא מטבילין אותו מיד: נתרפא אין לא נתרפא לא מאי טעמא משום דמיא מרזו מכה:,ושני ת"ח עומדים על גביו: והא א"ר חייא א"ר יוחנן גר צריך שלשה הא א"ר יוחנן לתנא תני שלשה:,טבל ועלה הרי הוא כישראל לכל דבריו: למאי הלכתא דאי הדר ביה ומקדש בת ישראל ישראל מומר קרינא ביה וקידושיו קידושין:,אחד גר ואחד עבד משוחרר: קסלקא דעתך לקבל עליו עול מצות ורמינהו במה דברים אמורים בגר אבל בעבד משוחרר אין צריך לקבל,אמר רב ששת לא קשיא הא ר"ש בן אלעזר הא רבנן,דתניא (דברים כא, יג) ובכתה את אביה ואת אמה וגו' בד"א שלא קבלה עליה אבל קבלה עליה מטבילה ומותר בה מיד,ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר אע"פ שלא קבלה עליה כופה ומטבילה לשם שפחות וחוזר ומטבילה לשם שחרור ומשחררה 47b. they are bnotable to receive either ban abundance of good nor an abundance of calamities,since the primary place for reward and punishment is in the World-to-Come. bAnd they do not overwhelm himwith threats, band they are not exacting with himabout the details of the mitzvot.,If bhe acceptsupon himself all of these ramifications, then bthey circumcise him immediately.If btherestill bremain on him shredsof flesh from the foreskin bthat invalidate the circumcision, they circumcise him again a secondtime to remove them. When bhe is healedfrom the circumcision, bthey immerse him immediately, and two Torah scholars stand over himat the time of his immersion band inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot.Once bhe has immersed and emerged, he is likea born bJew in every sense. /b,For the immersion of ba woman: Womenappointed by the court bseat her in the waterof the ritual bath bup to her neck, and two Torah scholars stand outsidethe bath house so as not to compromise her modesty, bandfrom there bthey inform her of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot. /b,The procedure applies for bboth a convert and an emancipated slavewho, upon immersion at the time of his emancipation, becomes a Jew in every sense. bAnd in the same place that a menstruating woman immerses,i.e., in a ritual bath of forty ise’aof water, bthere a convert and an emancipated slave also immerse. And anything that interposesbetween one’s body and the water of the ritual bath bwith regard to immersionof a ritually impure person, in a manner that would invalidate the immersion, also binterposesand invalidates the immersion bfor a convert, and for an emancipated slave, and for a menstruating woman. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master saidin the ibaraita /i: With regard to a potential bconvert who comes toa court in order to bconvert,the judges of the court bsay to him: What did you see thatmotivated byouto bcome to convert? And they inform himof bsome of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonto say this to him? It is so bthat if heis going to bwithdrawfrom the conversion process, blet him withdrawalready at this stage. He should not be convinced to continue, bas Rabbi Ḥelbo said: Converts are as harmful to the Jewish people as aleprous bscab [ isappaḥat /i]on the skin, bas it is written: “And the convert shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave [ ivenispeḥu /i] to the house of Jacob”(Isaiah 14:1). This alludes to the fact that the cleaving of the convert to the Jewish people is like a scab.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd they inform himof bthe sinof neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take bgleanings, forgotten sheaves, andproduce in the bcornerof one’s field, bandabout the bpoor man’s tithe.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonto specifically mention these mitzvot? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:Because ba gentile is executedeven bon account ofstealing bless than the value of a iperuta /i,since gentiles are particular about even such a small loss, bandan item that a gentile steals bis not subject to being returned,i.e., he is not obligated to return it to its owner. Since gentiles are unwilling to separate even from items of little value, a potential convert must be made aware that he if converts, he will be required to relinquish some of his property to others.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd they inform himof bthe sinof neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take bgleanings, forgotten sheaves, andproduce in the bcornerof one’s field. bAnd they do not overwhelm himwith threats, band they are not exacting with himabout the details of the mitzvot, i.e., the court should not overly dissuade the convert from converting. bRabbi Elazar said: What is the versefrom which this ruling is derived? bAs it is written: “And when she saw that she was steadfastly minded to go with her, she left off speaking with her”(Ruth 1:18). When Naomi set out to return to Eretz Yisrael, Ruth insisted on joining her. The Gemara understands this to mean that Ruth wished to convert. Naomi attempted to dissuade her, but Ruth persisted. The verse states that once Naomi saw Ruth’s resolve to convert, she desisted from her attempts to dissuade her. The Gemara infers from here that the same approach should be taken by a court in all cases of conversion.,The Gemara reconstructs the original dialogue in which Naomi attempted to dissuade Ruth from converting: Naomi bsaid to her:On Shabbat, bit is prohibited for usto go beyond bthe Shabbat limit.Ruth responded: b“Where you go, I shall go”(Ruth 1:16), and no further. Naomi said to her: bIt is forbidden for us to be alone togetherwith a man with whom it is forbidden to engage in relations. Ruth responded: b“Where you lodge, I shall lodge”(Ruth 1:16), and in the same manner.,Naomi said to her: bWe are commandedto observe bsix hundred and thirteen mitzvot.Ruth responded: b“Your people are my people”(Ruth 1:16). Naomi said to her: bIdolatrous worship is forbidden to us.Ruth responded: b“Your God is my God”(Ruth 1:16). Naomi said to her: bFour types of capital punishment were handed over to a courtwith which to punish those who transgress the mitzvot. Ruth responded: b“Where you die, I shall die”(Ruth 1:17). Naomi said to her: bTwo burial grounds were handed over to the court,one for those executed for more severe crimes and another for those executed for less severe crimes. Ruth responded: b“And there I shall be buried”(Ruth 1:17)., bImmediatelyfollowing this dialogue, the verse states: b“And when she saw that she was steadfastly mindedshe left off speaking with her” (Ruth 1:18). Once Naomi saw Ruth’s resolve to convert, she desisted from her attempts to dissuade her.,The ibaraitacontinues: If bhe acceptsupon himself all of these ramifications, then bthey circumcise him immediately.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonto act immediately? It is that bwe do not delaythe performance of ba mitzva. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: If btherestill bremain on him shredsof flesh from the foreskin bthat invalidate the circumcision,he is circumcised a second time to remove them. The Gemara explains: This is bas we learnedin a mishna ( iShabbat137a): bThese are the shredsof flesh bthat invalidate the circumcisionif they are not cut: Any fragments of bthe flesh that cover the greater part of the corona.If such shreds remain, the child is considered uncircumcised, band he may not partake of iteruma /i. Andin explanation of this mishna, bRav Yirmeya bar Abba saidthat bRav said:This also includes bthe flesh that covers the greater part of the height of the corona. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: When bhe is healedfrom the circumcision, bthey immerse him immediately.The Gemara infers from the precise formulation of the ibaraitathat when bhe has healed,then byes,he is immersed, but as long as bhe has not healed,then bno,he is not. bWhat is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause water agitates a wound. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd two Torah scholars stand over himat the time of his immersion. The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya saythat bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat ba convert requiresa court of bthreeto be present at his conversion? The Gemara answers: In fact, bRabbi Yoḥa said to the itanna /ireciting the mishna: Do not teach that there are two Torah scholars; rather, bteachthat there are bthree. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: Once bhe has immersed and emerged he is a Jew in every sense.The Gemara asks: bWith regard to what ihalakha /iis this said? It is bthat if he reverts backto behaving as a gentile, he nevertheless remains Jewish, bandso if bhe betroths a Jewish woman,although bhe is considered to be an apostate Jew, his betrothal isa valid bbetrothal. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: This applies bboth for a convert and for an emancipated slave.The Gemara considers the meaning of this clause: If bit enters your mindto interpret the ibaraitato mean that a convert and an emancipated slave are the same bwith regard to accepting upon oneself the yoke of mitzvot,then one could braise a contradictionfrom that which is taught in another ibaraita /i: bIn whatcase bis this statementthat there is a need to accept the yoke of mitzvot bsaid?It is bwith respect to a convert; however, an emancipated slave does not need to acceptupon himself the yoke of mitzvot when he immerses for the sake of emancipation. Rather, the immersion alone is sufficient to emancipate him and thereby render him a Jew., bRav Sheshet said:This is bnot difficult,as bthis ibaraitathat states that an emancipated slave is not required to accept the yoke of mitzvot bisin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar,whereas bthat ibaraitathat implies he is required to do so bisin accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,the first itannaof the following ibaraita /i., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The Torah permits a Jewish soldier to take a beautiful female prisoner of war out of her captivity in order to marry her. Before he may do so, she must first undergo the process that the Torah describes: “And she shall shave her head, and do her nails; and she shall remove the raiment of her captivity from upon her, and she shall remain in your house band bewail her father and her mothera month of days” (Deuteronomy 21:12–13). She may then be immersed for the sake of conversion, even though she does not accept upon herself the yoke of mitzvot. At that point it is permitted to marry her. The ibaraitaasks: bUnder whatcircumstance bare these matters stated?It is bwhen she did not accept upon herselfthe yoke of mitzvot; bhowever,if bshewillingly baccepted upon herselfthe yoke of mitzvot, bhe may immerse herfor the sake of conversion, band he is permitted tomarry bher immediatelywithout the need for her to undergo the process described in the Torah., bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Even if she did not accept upon herselfthe yoke of mitzvot, the need for the process can still be circumvented if bhe forcesher band immerses her for the sake of slavery, and then he again immerses her for the sake of emancipation andthereby bemancipates her,rendering her a Jewess. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar holds that the immersion of a slave for the sake of emancipation is effective even if the slave does not accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot.
43. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.87 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.87. This is why Zeno was the first (in his treatise On the Nature of Man) to designate as the end life in agreement with nature (or living agreeably to nature), which is the same as a virtuous life, virtue being the goal towards which nature guides us. So too Cleanthes in his treatise On Pleasure, as also Posidonius, and Hecato in his work On Ends. Again, living virtuously is equivalent to living in accordance with experience of the actual course of nature, as Chrysippus says in the first book of his De finibus; for our individual natures are parts of the nature of the whole universe.
44. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4, 14

45. Ctesias, Fragments, 1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
\ufeffaaronide hierocracy, scriptural reinforcement of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 353
aaron Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 80; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
adda b. ahava, rav Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 171
adultery Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 80
agency Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
allegorical interpretation of cult Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41
alon, gedalyahu Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 308
altar Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 346
and blood, through congregational sacrifice Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 126
and blood Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 87
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 227
asaph Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
ascending and descending offering Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 104
ashi, rav Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 171
atonement, as medium of life-for-life exchange nan
atonement, lexical issues surrounding nan
atonement, new nan
atonement Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97; Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 208
awareness Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 99
babylonia Heymans, The Origins of Money in the Iron Age Mediterranean World (2021) 140
birth Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
blood Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 346
burnt offering (olah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34; Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 96
celebration Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34
circumcision Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 80
cognitive load/overload Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 24, 98, 99
coinage Heymans, The Origins of Money in the Iron Age Mediterranean World (2021) 140
commandment, commandments Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 24
community, jewish Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
community/communities Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
concealment (heelem) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 24, 99, 104
conditional vow (neder) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34
conversion Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 171
covenant, new Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
cult of ištar, non-alignment with priestly sabbath Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 61
david Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
day of atonement Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 208; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 345
de abrahamo, inconsistencies in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153
de abrahamo, prologue of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153
decision to offer Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34
devotion Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 24
dietary laws Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 80
diversity, canonical and textual Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24
doubt Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 24
douglas, m Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 67
durkheim, e Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 67
eleazar Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 208
episodic memory Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 24
epithaphios logos Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 208
exegesis, inner-biblical interpretation Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 191
experience, religious, personal Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
extirpation (karet) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 99
faith, christian Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
fast, fasting Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 99
food regulations Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 313
forgiveness Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 87; Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153
forgiveness prayer scriptural echoes Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 105
freewill offering (nedavah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
genitals Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 322
genre, complaint Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
god, forgiveness from Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153
guilt Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 126; Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97, 104; Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 243
guilt offering (asham) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97, 98, 99
hannah Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
hebrew bible/old testament, inner-biblical interpretation in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 191
hellenistic judaism Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
hellenistic period Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
heman Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 345
high priests of jerusalem, clothing of Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41
high priests of jerusalem, in josephus Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41
high priests of jerusalem Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41
humanity, compound nature of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153
impure, impurity Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 104
impurity Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 126
inauguration (of the covenant, temple) Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
individual Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
inner-biblical interpretation Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 191
intention, intentionality Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 98
intention Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 348
intertextuality Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 292
ishmael (rabbi) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 96
israel, collective identity of, funding by Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 126
israel/israelite Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
israel Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 314, 315
issur the convert Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 171
jerusalem, second temple of, cult objects of Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41
jerusalem, second temple of Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41
jerusalem Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 313
jesus, vicarious death of Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 208
josephus Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
judaism Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
judean calendar plaques Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 61
kingship, mishnahs conception of Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 123, 124
kletter, raz Heymans, The Origins of Money in the Iron Age Mediterranean World (2021) 140
knowledge, wisdom Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
korah Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
kosher Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 99
kpr(-rite) Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 345, 346
kpr Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 346
law, dead sea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24
law, second temple judaism Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24
law Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 314
law of nature, stoic concept of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153
laws, unwritten Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153
learning and teaching Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153
literary history of hebrew bible, p Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 353
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
lorberbaum, yair Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 298
luke, gospel of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 126
marcionite thinking, on divine judgment Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 105
marriage, marrying Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 67
marriage, human Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 227
marriage Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 234
maḥoza Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 171
means of payment, terms for Heymans, The Origins of Money in the Iron Age Mediterranean World (2021) 140
men Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 322
menstruation, menstruant Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 322
messiah, messianic expectations Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
messiah, purification/sin nan
metaphor, metaphorical language Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 227
midrash halakhah Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24
milgrom, j Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 67
mishnah conception of kingship Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 123, 124
mishnah horayot Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 123, 124
monarchy, mishnah horayot Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124
money, cash Heymans, The Origins of Money in the Iron Age Mediterranean World (2021) 140
moral impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 348, 349
moses, as legal authority Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24, 243
moses Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 126; Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
myth(ological), mythology Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 227
nasi, referred to as king Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 123, 124
nasi Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 123
non-pentateuchal scripture, appeal to Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 234, 243
norms, behavior Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
obligation, to sacrifice Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34
oracles, by oracular stones Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41
p Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 353
passover Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 99
paul, andvicarious death Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 208
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
penner, todd Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 105
pentateuch Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 96; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 315, 316
pentateuchal Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 243
pentateuchal instructions for using pentateuchal texts, persian empire, official temple law in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 353
permission (hatarah) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 87
persian empire. see under specific rulers, official temple law in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 353
philo, kinds of sacrifice in Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 176
philo Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 176; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
political and legal uses of hebrew scripture, aaronide hierocracy Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 353
political and legal uses of hebrew scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 353
pollution Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 98
praise offering Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 176
prayer, of forgiveness for enemies Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 126
prayer, personal intention Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
prayer Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 99; Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
priest, priesthood Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 67
priest, priests Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 104
priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 313
priesthood Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
priestly code Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 24, 96, 97, 98, 99, 104
priestly code (p) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34
priestly material (p), aaronide hierocracy, scriptural reinforcement of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 353
priestly material (p) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 353
priests Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 234, 243
priests adolescent, clothing of Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41
priests adolescent, jewish, memory of after the destruction of the second temple Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41
priests adolescent, of the second temple in jerusalem Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41
prologue of de abrahamo Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153
proof from prophecy Matthews, Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity (2010) 105
prooftexts, non-pentateuchal Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 234, 243
property Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34
prophecy, prophets, prophetic books Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 227
prospective memory Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 24
pseudepigrapha, christian signature features Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 80
purification Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97, 98
purification offering (hạ ttat) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 87, 126
purification ritual Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 345, 354
purity nan
purity and impurity Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 80
purpose of sacrifice, atonement as Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 87
qumran literature on, tannaitic literature Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 123, 124
rabbi ismael, mishnah horayot Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 123, 124
rabbi ismael, royalty and judicial authority in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 123, 124
rabbinic exegesis Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 191
rabbinic law Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 171
ransom (kofer) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 126
rava Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 171
reparation/guilt nan
repentance Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34
rite/rites, babylonian Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
ritual, performance Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
ritual impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 348, 349
ritual narrative Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34, 87
ritual system Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 348, 349, 354
sabbath, in h Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 61
sabbath, in p Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 61
sabbath Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 99
sabbath observance Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 80
sacrifice, animal, in judaism v, vi Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 176
sacrifice, human sacrifice Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 80
sacrifice Dignas Parker and Stroumsa, Priests and Prophets Among Pagans, Jews and Christians (2013) 41; Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 243; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 80; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
samaria Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 313, 315
sanctuary Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 345, 349; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
scapegoat Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 208
scripture, normative laws in Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 1
second temple Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
secularisation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
semen Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 322
sin Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 126; Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97; Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 176; Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
sin offering Petropoulou, Animal Sacrifice in Ancient Greek Religion, Judaism, and Christianity, 100 BC to AD 200 (2012) 176
sin offering (hattat) Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 24, 96, 97, 99, 104
sin offering (hạ ttat) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 87, 126
sinai Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
social order/structure Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 346
sources of pollution Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 322
stephen Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 126
tannaitic literature alternative juridical models, kingship and law in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 123, 124
temple Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 96; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 25
textual authority, in the hebrew bible Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24
theology, biblical' Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 292
tithe Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 99
torah Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 126; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 313
tosefta horayot Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 124
transgression, accidental vs. purposeful Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153
transgression, inadvertent Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 96, 97, 98, 104
transgression, intentional Balberg, Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture (2023) 97, 98
transgression Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 346
transmission of impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 322, 348, 349
vicarious death in iv maccabees; in paul Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 208
vicarious death in iv maccabees Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 208
violence mob Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 126
votive offering (neder) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34
votive offerings Rüpke, The individual in the religions of the ancient Mediterranean (2014) 308
wellbeing offering (shelamim) Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 34
wergeld Heymans, The Origins of Money in the Iron Age Mediterranean World (2021) 140
wilderness, census of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 126
women Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 322
worship/worshipers Bergmann et al., The Power of Psalms in Post-Biblical Judaism: Liturgy, Ritual and Community (2023) 31
yosef, rav Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 171
zeno Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153
ḥelbo, rabbi Secunda, The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context (2020), 171
ḥṭ Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 346, 348
ṭmʾt Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 345
ἄγραφος νόμος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 153