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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6296
Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 25.35-25.48


וְכִי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ וּמָטָה יָדוֹ עִמָּךְ וְהֶחֱזַקְתָּ בּוֹ גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב וָחַי עִמָּךְ׃And if thy brother be waxen poor, and his means fail with thee; then thou shalt uphold him: as a stranger and a settler shall he live with thee.


אַל־תִּקַּח מֵאִתּוֹ נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ׃Take thou no interest of him or increase; but fear thy God; that thy brother may live with thee.


אֶת־כַּסְפְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וּבְמַרְבִּית לֹא־תִתֵּן אָכְלֶךָ׃Thou shalt not give him thy money upon interest, nor give him thy victuals for increase.


אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לָתֵת לָכֶם אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, to be your God.


וְכִי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ וְנִמְכַּר־לָךְ לֹא־תַעֲבֹד בּוֹ עֲבֹדַת עָבֶד׃And if thy brother be waxen poor with thee, and sell himself unto thee, thou shalt not make him to serve as a bondservant.


nanAs a hired servant, and as a settler, he shall be with thee; he shall serve with thee unto the year of jubilee.


וְיָצָא מֵעִמָּךְ הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמּוֹ וְשָׁב אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְאֶל־אֲחֻזַּת אֲבֹתָיו יָשׁוּב׃Then shall he go out from thee, he and his children with him, and shall return unto his own family, and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return.


כִּי־עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לֹא יִמָּכְרוּ מִמְכֶּרֶת עָבֶד׃For they are My servants, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt; they shall not be sold as bondmen.


לֹא־תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ׃Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour; but shalt fear thy God.


וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיוּ־לָךְ מֵאֵת הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתֵיכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ עֶבֶד וְאָמָה׃And as for thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, whom thou mayest have: of the nations that are round about you, of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids.


וְגַם מִבְּנֵי הַתּוֹשָׁבִים הַגָּרִים עִמָּכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ וּמִמִּשְׁפַּחְתָּם אֲשֶׁר עִמָּכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹלִידוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם וְהָיוּ לָכֶם לַאֲחֻזָּה׃Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them may ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they have begotten in your land; and they may be your possession.


וְהִתְנַחֲלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם לָרֶשֶׁת אֲחֻזָּה לְעֹלָם בָּהֶם תַּעֲבֹדוּ וּבְאַחֵיכֶם בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו לֹא־תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ׃And ye may make them an inheritance for your children after you, to hold for a possession: of them may ye take your bondmen for ever; but over your brethren the children of Israel ye shall not rule, one over another, with rigour.


וְכִי תַשִּׂיג יַד גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב עִמָּךְ וּמָךְ אָחִיךָ עִמּוֹ וְנִמְכַּר לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב עִמָּךְ אוֹ לְעֵקֶר מִשְׁפַּחַת גֵּר׃And if a stranger who is a settler with thee be waxen rich, and thy brother be waxen poor beside him, and sell himself unto the stranger who is a settler with thee, or to the offshoot of a stranger’s family


אַחֲרֵי נִמְכַּר גְּאֻלָּה תִּהְיֶה־לּוֹ אֶחָד מֵאֶחָיו יִגְאָלֶנּוּ׃after that he is sold he may be redeemed; one of his brethren may redeem him;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

16 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 15.8, 23.19-23.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.8. כִּי־פָתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח אֶת־יָדְךָ לוֹ וְהַעֲבֵט תַּעֲבִיטֶנּוּ דֵּי מַחְסֹרוֹ אֲשֶׁר יֶחְסַר לוֹ׃ 23.19. לֹא־תָבִיא אֶתְנַן זוֹנָה וּמְחִיר כֶּלֶב בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְכָל־נֶדֶר כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶם׃ 15.8. but thou shalt surely open thy hand unto him, and shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need in that which he wanteth." 23.19. Thou shalt not bring the hire of a harlot, or the price of a dog, into the house of the LORD thy God for any vow; for even both these are an abomination unto the LORD thy God. ." 23.20. Thou shalt not lend upon interest to thy brother: interest of money, interest of victuals, interest of any thing that is lent upon interest."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 25.9-25.11, 25.13, 25.23, 25.25-25.34, 25.36-25.47, 25.51-25.52, 25.55 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.9. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ שׁוֹפַר תְּרוּעָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים תַּעֲבִירוּ שׁוֹפָר בְּכָל־אַרְצְכֶם׃ 25.11. יוֹבֵל הִוא שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם לֹא תִזְרָעוּ וְלֹא תִקְצְרוּ אֶת־סְפִיחֶיהָ וְלֹא תִבְצְרוּ אֶת־נְזִרֶיהָ׃ 25.13. בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל הַזֹּאת תָּשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתוֹ׃ 25.23. וְהָאָרֶץ לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת כִּי־לִי הָאָרֶץ כִּי־גֵרִים וְתוֹשָׁבִים אַתֶּם עִמָּדִי׃ 25.25. כִּי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ וּמָכַר מֵאֲחֻזָּתוֹ וּבָא גֹאֲלוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו וְגָאַל אֵת מִמְכַּר אָחִיו׃ 25.26. וְאִישׁ כִּי לֹא יִהְיֶה־לּוֹ גֹּאֵל וְהִשִּׂיגָה יָדוֹ וּמָצָא כְּדֵי גְאֻלָּתוֹ׃ 25.27. וְחִשַּׁב אֶת־שְׁנֵי מִמְכָּרוֹ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־הָעֹדֵף לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר מָכַר־לוֹ וְשָׁב לַאֲחֻזָּתוֹ׃ 25.28. וְאִם לֹא־מָצְאָה יָדוֹ דֵּי הָשִׁיב לוֹ וְהָיָה מִמְכָּרוֹ בְּיַד הַקֹּנֶה אֹתוֹ עַד שְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל וְיָצָא בַּיֹּבֵל וְשָׁב לַאֲחֻזָּתוֹ׃ 25.29. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִמְכֹּר בֵּית־מוֹשַׁב עִיר חוֹמָה וְהָיְתָה גְּאֻלָּתוֹ עַד־תֹּם שְׁנַת מִמְכָּרוֹ יָמִים תִּהְיֶה גְאֻלָּתוֹ׃ 25.31. וּבָתֵּי הַחֲצֵרִים אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם חֹמָה סָבִיב עַל־שְׂדֵה הָאָרֶץ יֵחָשֵׁב גְּאֻלָּה תִּהְיֶה־לּוֹ וּבַיֹּבֵל יֵצֵא׃ 25.32. וְעָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם בָּתֵּי עָרֵי אֲחֻזָּתָם גְּאֻלַּת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה לַלְוִיִּם׃ 25.33. וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן־הַלְוִיִּם וְיָצָא מִמְכַּר־בַּיִת וְעִיר אֲחֻזָּתוֹ בַּיֹּבֵל כִּי בָתֵּי עָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם הִוא אֲחֻזָּתָם בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.34. וּשְׂדֵה מִגְרַשׁ עָרֵיהֶם לֹא יִמָּכֵר כִּי־אֲחֻזַּת עוֹלָם הוּא לָהֶם׃ 25.36. אַל־תִּקַּח מֵאִתּוֹ נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ׃ 25.37. אֶת־כַּסְפְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וּבְמַרְבִּית לֹא־תִתֵּן אָכְלֶךָ׃ 25.38. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לָתֵת לָכֶם אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃ 25.39. וְכִי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ וְנִמְכַּר־לָךְ לֹא־תַעֲבֹד בּוֹ עֲבֹדַת עָבֶד׃ 25.41. וְיָצָא מֵעִמָּךְ הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמּוֹ וְשָׁב אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְאֶל־אֲחֻזַּת אֲבֹתָיו יָשׁוּב׃ 25.42. כִּי־עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לֹא יִמָּכְרוּ מִמְכֶּרֶת עָבֶד׃ 25.43. לֹא־תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 25.44. וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיוּ־לָךְ מֵאֵת הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתֵיכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ עֶבֶד וְאָמָה׃ 25.45. וְגַם מִבְּנֵי הַתּוֹשָׁבִים הַגָּרִים עִמָּכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ וּמִמִּשְׁפַּחְתָּם אֲשֶׁר עִמָּכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹלִידוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם וְהָיוּ לָכֶם לַאֲחֻזָּה׃ 25.46. וְהִתְנַחֲלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם לָרֶשֶׁת אֲחֻזָּה לְעֹלָם בָּהֶם תַּעֲבֹדוּ וּבְאַחֵיכֶם בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו לֹא־תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ׃ 25.47. וְכִי תַשִּׂיג יַד גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב עִמָּךְ וּמָךְ אָחִיךָ עִמּוֹ וְנִמְכַּר לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב עִמָּךְ אוֹ לְעֵקֶר מִשְׁפַּחַת גֵּר׃ 25.51. אִם־עוֹד רַבּוֹת בַּשָּׁנִים לְפִיהֶן יָשִׁיב גְּאֻלָּתוֹ מִכֶּסֶף מִקְנָתוֹ׃ 25.52. וְאִם־מְעַט נִשְׁאַר בַּשָּׁנִים עַד־שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְחִשַּׁב־לוֹ כְּפִי שָׁנָיו יָשִׁיב אֶת־גְּאֻלָּתוֹ׃ 25.55. כִּי־לִי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדִים עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 25.9. Then shalt thou make proclamation with the blast of the horn on the tenth day of the seventh month; in the day of atonement shall ye make proclamation with the horn throughout all your land." 25.10. And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout the land unto all the inhabitants thereof; it shall be a jubilee unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family." 25.11. A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you; ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of the undressed vines." 25.13. In this year of jubilee ye shall return every man unto his possession." 25.23. And the land shall not be sold in perpetuity; for the land is Mine; for ye are strangers and settlers with Me." 25.25. If thy brother be waxen poor, and sell some of his possession, then shall his kinsman that is next unto him come, and shall redeem that which his brother hath sold." 25.26. And if a man have no one to redeem it, and he be waxen rich and find sufficient means to redeem it;" 25.27. then let him count the years of the sale thereof, and restore the overplus unto the man to whom he sold it; and he shall return unto his possession." 25.28. But if he have not sufficient means to get it back for himself, then that which he hath sold shall remain in the hand of him that hath bought it until the year of jubilee; and in the jubilee it shall go out, and he shall return unto his possession." 25.29. And if a man sell a dwelling-house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold; for a full year shall he have the right of redemption." 25.30. And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that is in the walled city shall be made sure in perpetuity to him that bought it, throughout his generations; it shall not go out in the jubilee." 25.31. But the houses of the villages which have no wall round about them shall be reckoned with the fields of the country; they may be redeemed, and they shall go out in the jubilee." 25.32. But as for the cities of the Levites, the houses of the cities of their possession, the Levites shall have a perpetual right of redemption." 25.33. And if a man purchase of the Levites, then the house that was sold in the city of his possession, shall go out in the jubilee; for the houses of the cities of the Levites are their possession among the children of Israel." 25.34. But the fields of the open land about their cities may not be sold; for that is their perpetual possession." 25.36. Take thou no interest of him or increase; but fear thy God; that thy brother may live with thee." 25.37. Thou shalt not give him thy money upon interest, nor give him thy victuals for increase." 25.38. I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, to be your God." 25.39. And if thy brother be waxen poor with thee, and sell himself unto thee, thou shalt not make him to serve as a bondservant." 25.40. As a hired servant, and as a settler, he shall be with thee; he shall serve with thee unto the year of jubilee." 25.41. Then shall he go out from thee, he and his children with him, and shall return unto his own family, and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return." 25.42. For they are My servants, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt; they shall not be sold as bondmen." 25.43. Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour; but shalt fear thy God." 25.44. And as for thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, whom thou mayest have: of the nations that are round about you, of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids." 25.45. Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them may ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they have begotten in your land; and they may be your possession." 25.46. And ye may make them an inheritance for your children after you, to hold for a possession: of them may ye take your bondmen for ever; but over your brethren the children of Israel ye shall not rule, one over another, with rigour." 25.47. And if a stranger who is a settler with thee be waxen rich, and thy brother be waxen poor beside him, and sell himself unto the stranger who is a settler with thee, or to the offshoot of a stranger’s family," 25.51. If there be yet many years, according unto them he shall give back the price of his redemption out of the money that he was bought for." 25.52. And if there remain but few years unto the year of jubilee, then he shall reckon with him; according unto his years shall he give back the price of his redemption." 25.55. For unto Me the children of Israel are servants; they are My servants whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God."
3. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 2.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.13. עָלָה הַפֹּרֵץ לִפְנֵיהֶם פָּרְצוּ וַיַּעֲבֹרוּ שַׁעַר וַיֵּצְאוּ בוֹ וַיַּעֲבֹר מַלְכָּם לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיהוָה בְּרֹאשָׁם׃ 2.13. The breaker is gone up before them; They have broken forth and passed on, By the gate, and are gone out thereat; And their king is passed on before them, And the LORD at the head of them."
4. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 4.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.7. וְזֹאת לְפָנִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־הַגְּאוּלָּה וְעַל־הַתְּמוּרָה לְקַיֵּם כָּל־דָּבָר שָׁלַף אִישׁ נַעֲלוֹ וְנָתַן לְרֵעֵהוּ וְזֹאת הַתְּעוּדָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 4.7. Now this was the custom in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm all things: a man drew off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour; and this was the attestation in Israel.—"
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 21.2, 43.14, 47.4, 52.2, 58.7, 61.1-61.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.2. חָזוּת קָשָׁה הֻגַּד־לִי הַבּוֹגֵד בּוֹגֵד וְהַשּׁוֹדֵד שׁוֹדֵד עֲלִי עֵילָם צוּרִי מָדַי כָּל־אַנְחָתָה הִשְׁבַּתִּי׃ 43.14. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה גֹּאַלְכֶם קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַעַנְכֶם שִׁלַּחְתִּי בָבֶלָה וְהוֹרַדְתִּי בָרִיחִים כֻּלָּם וְכַשְׂדִּים בָּאֳנִיּוֹת רִנָּתָם׃ 47.4. גֹּאֲלֵנוּ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 52.2. הִתְנַעֲרִי מֵעָפָר קוּמִי שְּׁבִי יְרוּשָׁלִָם התפתחו [הִתְפַּתְּחִי] מוֹסְרֵי צַוָּארֵךְ שְׁבִיָּה בַּת־צִיּוֹן׃ 58.7. הֲלוֹא פָרֹס לָרָעֵב לַחְמֶךָ וַעֲנִיִּים מְרוּדִים תָּבִיא בָיִת כִּי־תִרְאֶה עָרֹם וְכִסִּיתוֹ וּמִבְּשָׂרְךָ לֹא תִתְעַלָּם׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 21.2. A grievous vision is declared unto me: ‘The treacherous dealer dealeth treacherously, and the spoiler spoileth. Go up, O Elam! besiege, O Media! All the sighing thereof have I made to cease.’" 43.14. Thus saith the LORD, your Redeemer, The Holy One of Israel: For your sake I have sent to Babylon, And I will bring down all of them as fugitives, even the Chaldeans, in the ships of their shouting." 47.4. Our Redeemer, the LORD of hosts is His name, The Holy One of Israel." 52.2. Shake thyself from the dust; Arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem; Loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion." 58.7. Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, And that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house? When thou seest the naked, that thou cover him, And that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh?" 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 14.1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.1. וְנָשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם כַּעֲוֺן הַדֹּרֵשׁ כַּעֲוֺן הַנָּבִיא יִהְיֶה׃ 14.1. וַיָּבוֹא אֵלַי אֲנָשִׁים מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ לְפָנָי׃ 14.1. Then came certain of the elders of Israel unto me, and sat before me."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.24 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.24. וּלְכֹם מְהוֹדְעִין דִּי כָל־כָּהֲנַיָּא וְלֵוָיֵא זַמָּרַיָּא תָרָעַיָּא נְתִינַיָּא וּפָלְחֵי בֵּית אֱלָהָא דְנָה מִנְדָּה בְלוֹ וַהֲלָךְ לָא שַׁלִּיט לְמִרְמֵא עֲלֵיהֹם׃ 7.24. Also we announce to you, that touching any of the priests and Levites, the singers, porters, Nethinim, or servants of this house of God, it shall not be lawful to impose tribute, impost, or toll, upon them."
8. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 5.1-5.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5.1. וַתְּהִי צַעֲקַת הָעָם וּנְשֵׁיהֶם גְּדוֹלָה אֶל־אֲחֵיהֶם הַיְּהוּדִים׃ 5.1. וְגַם־אֲנִי אַחַי וּנְעָרַי נֹשִׁים בָּהֶם כֶּסֶף וְדָגָן נַעַזְבָה־נָּא אֶת־הַמַּשָּׁא הַזֶּה׃ 5.2. וְיֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר אֹמְרִים בָּנֵינוּ וּבְנֹתֵינוּ אֲנַחְנוּ רַבִּים וְנִקְחָה דָגָן וְנֹאכְלָה וְנִחְיֶה׃ 5.3. וְיֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר אֹמְרִים שְׂדֹתֵינוּ וּכְרָמֵינוּ וּבָתֵּינוּ אֲנַחְנוּ עֹרְבִים וְנִקְחָה דָגָן בָּרָעָב׃ 5.4. וְיֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר אֹמְרִים לָוִינוּ כֶסֶף לְמִדַּת הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׂדֹתֵינוּ וּכְרָמֵינוּ׃ 5.5. וְעַתָּה כִּבְשַׂר אַחֵינוּ בְּשָׂרֵנוּ כִּבְנֵיהֶם בָּנֵינוּ וְהִנֵּה אֲנַחְנוּ כֹבְשִׁים אֶת־בָּנֵינוּ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵינוּ לַעֲבָדִים וְיֵשׁ מִבְּנֹתֵינוּ נִכְבָּשׁוֹת וְאֵין לְאֵל יָדֵנוּ וּשְׂדֹתֵינוּ וּכְרָמֵינוּ לַאֲחֵרִים׃ 5.6. וַיִּחַר לִי מְאֹד כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת־זַעֲקָתָם וְאֵת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 5.7. וַיִּמָּלֵךְ לִבִּי עָלַי וָאָרִיבָה אֶת־הַחֹרִים וְאֶת־הַסְּגָנִים וָאֹמְרָה לָהֶם מַשָּׁא אִישׁ־בְּאָחִיו אַתֶּם נשאים [נֹשִׁים] וָאֶתֵּן עֲלֵיהֶם קְהִלָּה גְדוֹלָה׃ 5.8. וָאֹמְרָה לָהֶם אֲנַחְנוּ קָנִינוּ אֶת־אַחֵינוּ הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְכָּרִים לַגּוֹיִם כְּדֵי בָנוּ וְגַם־אַתֶּם תִּמְכְּרוּ אֶת־אֲחֵיכֶם וְנִמְכְּרוּ־לָנוּ וַיַּחֲרִישׁוּ וְלֹא מָצְאוּ דָּבָר׃ 5.9. ויאמר [וָאוֹמַר] לֹא־טוֹב הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם עֹשִׂים הֲלוֹא בְּיִרְאַת אֱלֹהֵינוּ תֵּלֵכוּ מֵחֶרְפַּת הַגּוֹיִם אוֹיְבֵינוּ׃ 5.11. הָשִׁיבוּ נָא לָהֶם כְּהַיּוֹם שְׂדֹתֵיהֶם כַּרְמֵיהֶם זֵיתֵיהֶם וּבָתֵּיהֶם וּמְאַת הַכֶּסֶף וְהַדָּגָן הַתִּירוֹשׁ וְהַיִּצְהָר אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם נֹשִׁים בָּהֶם׃ 5.12. וַיֹּאמְרוּ נָשִׁיב וּמֵהֶם לֹא נְבַקֵּשׁ כֵּן נַעֲשֶׂה כַּאֲשֶׁר אַתָּה אוֹמֵר וָאֶקְרָא אֶת־הַכֹּהֲנִים וָאַשְׁבִּיעֵם לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 5.1. Then there arose a great cry of the people and of their wives against their brethren the Jews." 5.2. For there were that said: ‘We, our sons and our daughters, are many; let us get for them corn, that we may eat and live.’" 5.3. Some also there were that said: ‘We are mortgaging our fields, and our vineyards, and our houses; let us get corn, because of the dearth.’" 5.4. There were also that said: ‘We have borrowed money for the king’s tribute upon our fields and our vineyards." 5.5. Yet now our flesh is as the flesh of our brethren, our children as their children; and, lo, we bring into bondage our sons and our daughters to be servants, and some of our daughters are brought into bondage already; neither is it in our power to help it; for other men have our fields and our vineyards.’" 5.6. And I was very angry when I heard their cry and these words." 5.7. Then I consulted with myself, and contended with the nobles and the rulers, and said unto them: ‘Ye lend upon pledge, every one to his brother.’ And I held a great assembly against them." 5.8. And I said unto them: ‘We after our ability have redeemed our brethren the Jews, that sold themselves unto the heathen; and would ye nevertheless sell your brethren, and should they sell themselves unto us?’ Then held they their peace, and found never a word." 5.9. Also I said: ‘The thing that ye do is not good; ought ye not to walk in the fear of our God, because of the reproach of the heathen our enemies?" 5.10. And I likewise, my brethren and my servants, have lent them money and corn. I pray you, let us leave off this exaction." 5.11. Restore, I pray you, to them, even this day, their fields, their vineyards, their oliveyards, and their houses, also the hundred pieces of silver, and the corn, the wine, and the oil, that ye exact of them.’" 5.12. Then said they: ‘We will restore them, and will require nothing of them; so will we do, even as thou sayest.’ Then I called the priests, and took an oath of them, that they should do according to this promise."
9. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 2.17, 4.2, 9.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.17. הַס כָּל־בָּשָׂר מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה כִּי נֵעוֹר מִמְּעוֹן קָדְשׁוֹ׃ 4.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה ויאמר [וָאֹמַר] רָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה מְנוֹרַת זָהָב כֻּלָּהּ וְגֻלָּהּ עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ וְשִׁבְעָה נֵרֹתֶיהָ עָלֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה וְשִׁבְעָה מוּצָקוֹת לַנֵּרוֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ׃ 9.14. וַיהוָה עֲלֵיהֶם יֵרָאֶה וְיָצָא כַבָּרָק חִצּוֹ וַאדֹנָי יְהֹוִה בַּשּׁוֹפָר יִתְקָע וְהָלַךְ בְּסַעֲרוֹת תֵּימָן׃ 2.17. Be silent, all flesh, before the LORD; for He is aroused out of His holy habitation." 4.2. And he said unto me: ‘What seest thou?’ And I said: ‘I have seen, and behold a candlestick all of gold, with a bowl upon the top of it, and its seven lamps thereon; there are seven pipes, yea, seven, to the lamps, which are upon the top thereof;" 9.14. And the LORD shall be seen over them, And His arrow shall go forth as the lightning; And the Lord GOD will blow the horn, And will go with whirlwinds of the south."
10. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 17.5-17.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 10.22, 22.19, 22.22-22.23, 29.2, 29.10, 29.14, 33.31, 45.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.22. The rich, and the eminent, and the poor -- their glory is the fear of the Lord. 10.22. The blessing of the Lord is the reward of the godly,and quickly God causes his blessing to flourish. 22.19. A man who pricks an eye will make tears fall,and one who pricks the heart makes it show feeling. 22.19. His fear is confined to the eyes of men,and he does not realize that the eyes of the Lord are ten thousand times brighter than the sun;they look upon all the ways of men,and perceive even the hidden places. 22.22. If you have opened your mouth against your friend,do not worry, for reconciliation is possible;but as for reviling, arrogance, disclosure of secrets, or a treacherous blow -- in these cases any friend will flee. 22.22. So it is with a woman who leaves her husband and provides an heir by a stranger. 22.23. Gain the trust of your neighbor in his poverty,that you may rejoice with him in his prosperity;stand by him in time of affliction,that you may share with him in his inheritance. 22.23. For first of all, she has disobeyed the law of the Most High;second, she has committed an offense against her husband;and third, she has committed adultery through harlotry and brought forth children by another man. 29.2. Lend to your neighbor in the time of his need;and in turn, repay your neighbor promptly. 29.2. Assist your neighbor according to your ability,but take heed to yourself lest you fall. 29.14. A good man will be surety for his neighbor,but a man who has lost his sense of shame will fail him. 33.31. If you have a servant, treat him as a brother,for as your own soul you will need him. 45.22. But in the land of the people he has no inheritance,and he has no portion among the people;for the Lord himself is his portion and inheritance.
12. Septuagint, Judith, 4.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.1. By this time the people of Israel living in Judea heard of everything that Holofernes, the general of Nebuchadnezzar the king of the Assyrians, had done to the nations, and how he had plundered and destroyed all their temples;
13. Mishnah, Peah, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.9. One who has fifty zuz and he is using them for his business, he must not take. And anyone who does not need to take [charity] and yet takes, will not depart from this world before he actually needs [charity] from others. And anyone who needs to take and does not take, will not die of old age until he supports others with his own money. Concerning him the verse says: “Blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord and whose hope is the Lord” (Jeremiah 17:7). And so too a judge who judges in truth according to its truth. And anyone who is not lame or blind but pretends to be as one of these, he will not die of old age before he actually becomes one of these, as it is said, “He who searches for evil, it shall come upon him” (Proverbs 11:27) and it is also said: “Righteousness, righteousness shall you pursue.” And any judge who accepts a bribe or who perverts justice will not die in old age before his eyes have become dim, as it is said: “And you shall not accept a bribe, for a bribe blinds the eyes of those who have sight.” Congratulations! We have finished Peah! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. You have now finished an entire tractate that is about a subject you probably knew almost nothing about before you began. The tractates of Seder Zeraim are much less learned than those of Moed, Nashim and Nezikin, the seders that we have learned up until now. Neverthless, I, and I hope you, found the tractate to be a fascinating attempt by the rabbis to work out the meaning of many biblical verses, as well as important issues such as fair ownership over property and how to take care of the poor. Along the way we have begun to learn a little about how agriculture worked in the Mishnaic period. This is a topic we will continue to address throughout the seder. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Demai."
14. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.4-7.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.4. Now consider how great this man was, to whom even Abraham, the patriarch, gave a tenth out of the best spoils. 7.5. They indeed of the sons of Levi who receive the priest's office have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law, that is, of their brothers, though these have come out of the loins of Abraham 7.6. but he whose genealogy is not counted from them has taken tithes of Abraham, and has blessed him who has the promises. 7.7. But without any dispute the less is blessed by the better. 7.8. Here people who die receive tithes, but there one receives tithes of whom it is testified that he lives. 7.9. So to say, through Abraham even Levi, who receives tithes, has paid tithes 7.10. for he was yet in the loins of his father when Melchizedek met him.
15. New Testament, Luke, 15.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.17. But when he came to himself he said, 'How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough to spare, and I'm dying with hunger!
16. New Testament, Mark, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208
abraham Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 122
afterlife Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208
aliens Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 206
anthropomorphism, age Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 357
anthropomorphism, sympathy/engagement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143, 357
antiochus iii Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208
azriel (r.), babylon Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143, 357
azriel (r.), exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143, 357
babylonia Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78
begging, by wellborn poor Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 141
belial Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 122
brothers/sisters Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208, 209
consecration, of a field Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 66
consecration, to secure a loan Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 66
danby, h. Porton, Gentiles and Israelites in Mishnah-Tosefta (1988) 230
death Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208
debt-slavery Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78, 79, 103
debt Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 103; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 206, 207
divine/god, assembly Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
divine/god, exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 357
divine/god, retinue Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
drought Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 103
edom Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
egypt Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
elam Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
elijah Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 13
elisha Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 13
elites, creditors Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 103
estates, royal Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 79
exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 357
exodus Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
faithfulness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208
fear of god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 209
foreigners Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 209
friendship Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 206
god, determines wealth and poverty Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 142
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 209
good Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 209
greece Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
greed Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 206
hanina ben dosa, rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 13
holiness legislation Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78, 79
honor Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 209
humanity Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 206, 207
hypothecation Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 66
inheritance Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208, 209
isaiah Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 357
israel, land of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
israel/israelite Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 209
jerusalem Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208
jubilee Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
jubilee year Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208, 209
justice Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208, 209
land, consecration of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 66
land Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208
landlessness Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 206
landowners, tenants Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78, 103
landowners Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 79
law of moses Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208
lending Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 206, 207
levant Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78
loans Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208, 209
media Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
melchizedek Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 209
melchizedek (melkisedek) Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 122
merit Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 142
michael Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 122
myth, condensed Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
nations Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 357
nebuchadnezzar Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 357
nehemiah, and impoverishment of farmers Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 66
nehemiah, fiscal reforms of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 66
neighbors Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208
old age Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 209
persian imperial authorities, and fiscal reforms of nehemiah Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 66
pledge Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 66
poor, conjunctural Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 141, 142
poor, wellborn Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 141
poor Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208, 209
poverty, conjunctural Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 141, 142
poverty, defined Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 141
priesthood Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208, 209
priests, in judea, as creditors Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 66
qumran Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 209
redemption, divine Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143, 357
redemption Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 357
righteousness Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 142
ritual/law, and mythmaking Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
rostovtzeff, m. i. Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 141
samuel b. gedaliah (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
satan Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 13
shame Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 209
sharing (goods in common) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 209
shekhinah, enslavement of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
shekhinah, exile of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143, 357
shekhinah, redemption of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 143
silver, loans of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 66
simeon b. lakish (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 357
simeon b. yanni (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 357
slaves' Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 79
slaves Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 78
social justice/ethics Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 208, 209
torah Keddie, Class and Power in Roman Palestine: The Socioeconomic Setting of Judaism and Christian Origins (2019) 79, 103
wealth Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 141, 142
zealot Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 13