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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6296
Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.43


לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ דֹרֹתֵיכֶם כִּי בַסֻּכּוֹת הוֹשַׁבְתִּי אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהוֹצִיאִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃that your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

47 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.4, 3.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. מָשְׁכֵנִי אַחֲרֶיךָ נָּרוּצָה הֱבִיאַנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ חֲדָרָיו נָגִילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָה בָּךְ נַזְכִּירָה דֹדֶיךָ מִיַּיִן מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 3.1. עַמּוּדָיו עָשָׂה כֶסֶף רְפִידָתוֹ זָהָב מֶרְכָּבוֹ אַרְגָּמָן תּוֹכוֹ רָצוּף אַהֲבָה מִבְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 3.1. עַל־מִשְׁכָּבִי בַּלֵּילוֹת בִּקַּשְׁתִּי אֵת שֶׁאָהֲבָה נַפְשִׁי בִּקַּשְׁתִּיו וְלֹא מְצָאתִיו׃ 1.4. Draw me, we will run after thee; The king hath brought me into his chambers; We will be glad and rejoice in thee, We will find thy love more fragrant than wine! Sincerely do they love thee. 3.1. By night on my bed I sought him whom my soul loveth; I sought him, but I found him not.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.27, 5.27, 8.4, 16.13-16.15, 32.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.27. וַתֵּרָגְנוּ בְאָהֳלֵיכֶם וַתֹּאמְרוּ בְּשִׂנְאַת יְהוָה אֹתָנוּ הוֹצִיאָנוּ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לָתֵת אֹתָנוּ בְּיַד הָאֱמֹרִי לְהַשְׁמִידֵנוּ׃ 5.27. לֵךְ אֱמֹר לָהֶם שׁוּבוּ לָכֶם לְאָהֳלֵיכֶם׃ 8.4. שִׂמְלָתְךָ לֹא בָלְתָה מֵעָלֶיךָ וְרַגְלְךָ לֹא בָצֵקָה זֶה אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה׃ 16.13. חַג הַסֻּכֹּת תַּעֲשֶׂה לְךָ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בְּאָסְפְּךָ מִגָּרְנְךָ וּמִיִּקְבֶךָ׃ 16.14. וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְּחַגֶּךָ אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְהַלֵּוִי וְהַגֵּר וְהַיָּתוֹם וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 16.15. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תָּחֹג לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה כִּי יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל תְּבוּאָתְךָ וּבְכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ וְהָיִיתָ אַךְ שָׂמֵחַ׃ 1.27. and ye murmured in your tents, and said: ‘Because the LORD hated us, He hath brought us forth out of the land of Egypt, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites, to destroy us." 5.27. Go say to them: Return ye to your tents." 8.4. Thy raiment waxed not old upon thee, neither did thy foot swell, these forty years." 16.13. Thou shalt keep the feast of tabernacles seven days, after that thou hast gathered in from thy threshing-floor and from thy winepress." 16.14. And thou shalt rejoice in thy feast, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy man-servant, and thy maid-servant, and the Levite, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that are within thy gates." 16.15. Seven days shalt thou keep a feast unto the LORD thy God in the place which the LORD shall choose; because the LORD thy God shall bless thee in all thine increase, and in all the work of thy hands, and thou shalt be altogether joyful." 32.10. He found him in a desert land, and in the waste, a howling wilderness; He compassed him about, He cared for him, He kept him as the apple of His eye."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.37, 13.21-13.22, 14.19-14.20, 16.1-16.10, 16.16, 18.27, 19.1, 32.26, 33.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.37. וַיִּסְעוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵרַעְמְסֵס סֻכֹּתָה כְּשֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף רַגְלִי הַגְּבָרִים לְבַד מִטָּף׃ 13.21. וַיהוָה הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם יוֹמָם בְּעַמּוּד עָנָן לַנְחֹתָם הַדֶּרֶךְ וְלַיְלָה בְּעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לְהָאִיר לָהֶם לָלֶכֶת יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 13.22. לֹא־יָמִישׁ עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן יוֹמָם וְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ לָיְלָה לִפְנֵי הָעָם׃ 14.19. וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 16.1. וַיִּסְעוּ מֵאֵילִם וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־מִדְבַּר־סִין אֲשֶׁר בֵּין־אֵילִם וּבֵין סִינָי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 16.1. וַיְהִי כְּדַבֵּר אַהֲרֹן אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּפְנוּ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר וְהִנֵּה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה נִרְאָה בֶּעָנָן׃ 16.2. וילינו [וַיִּלּוֹנוּ] כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 16.2. וְלֹא־שָׁמְעוּ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיּוֹתִרוּ אֲנָשִׁים מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר וַיָּרֻם תּוֹלָעִים וַיִּבְאַשׁ וַיִּקְצֹף עֲלֵהֶם מֹשֶׁה׃ 16.3. וַיִּשְׁבְּתוּ הָעָם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִעִי׃ 16.3. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֲלֵהֶם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִי־יִתֵּן מוּתֵנוּ בְיַד־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בְּשִׁבְתֵּנוּ עַל־סִיר הַבָּשָׂר בְּאָכְלֵנוּ לֶחֶם לָשֹׂבַע כִּי־הוֹצֵאתֶם אֹתָנוּ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית אֶת־כָּל־הַקָּהָל הַזֶּה בָּרָעָב׃ 16.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנְנִי מַמְטִיר לָכֶם לֶחֶם מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם וְיָצָא הָעָם וְלָקְטוּ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ לְמַעַן אֲנַסֶּנּוּ הֲיֵלֵךְ בְּתוֹרָתִי אִם־לֹא׃ 16.5. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי וְהֵכִינוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יָבִיאוּ וְהָיָה מִשְׁנֶה עַל אֲשֶׁר־יִלְקְטוּ יוֹם יוֹם׃ 16.6. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֶל־כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֶרֶב וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי יְהוָה הוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 16.7. וּבֹקֶר וּרְאִיתֶם אֶת־כְּבוֹד יְהוָה בְּשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם עַל־יְהוָה וְנַחְנוּ מָה כִּי תלונו [תַלִּינוּ] עָלֵינוּ׃ 16.8. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה בְּתֵת יְהוָה לָכֶם בָּעֶרֶב בָּשָׂר לֶאֱכֹל וְלֶחֶם בַּבֹּקֶר לִשְׂבֹּעַ בִּשְׁמֹעַ יְהוָה אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מַלִּינִם עָלָיו וְנַחְנוּ מָה לֹא־עָלֵינוּ תְלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם כִּי עַל־יְהוָה׃ 16.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אֱמֹר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל קִרְבוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי שָׁמַע אֵת תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם׃ 16.16. זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה לִקְטוּ מִמֶּנּוּ אִישׁ לְפִי אָכְלוֹ עֹמֶר לַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת מִסְפַּר נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם אִישׁ לַאֲשֶׁר בְּאָהֳלוֹ תִּקָּחוּ׃ 18.27. וַיְשַׁלַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־חֹתְנוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ לוֹ אֶל־אַרְצוֹ׃ 19.1. בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְצֵאת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה בָּאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינָי׃ 19.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵךְ אֶל־הָעָם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּם הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר וְכִבְּסוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם׃ 32.26. וַיַּעֲמֹד מֹשֶׁה בְּשַׁעַר הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיֹּאמֶר מִי לַיהוָה אֵלָי וַיֵּאָסְפוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־בְּנֵי לֵוִי׃ 12.37. And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, beside children." 13.21. And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; that they might go by day and by night:" 13.22. the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night, departed not from before the people." 14.19. And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;" 14.20. and it came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel; and there was the cloud and the darkness here, yet gave it light by night there; and the one came not near the other all the night." 16.1. And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt." 16.2. And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron in the wilderness;" 16.3. and the children of Israel said unto them: ‘Would that we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh-pots, when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger.’" 16.4. Then said the LORD unto Moses: ‘Behold, I will cause to rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a day’s portion every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in My law, or not." 16.5. And it shall come to pass on the sixth day that they shall prepare that which they bring in, and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.’" 16.6. And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel: ‘At even, then ye shall know that the LORD hath brought you out from the land of Egypt;" 16.7. and in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that He hath heard your murmurings against the LORD; and what are we, that ye murmur against us?’" 16.8. And Moses said: ‘This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against Him; and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.’" 16.9. And Moses said unto Aaron: ‘Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel: Come near before the LORD; for He hath heard your murmurings.’" 16.10. And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud." 16.16. This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded: Gather ye of it every man according to his eating; an omer a head, according to the number of your persons, shall ye take it, every man for them that are in his tent.’" 18.27. And Moses let his father-in-law depart; and he went his way into his own land." 19.1. In the third month after the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai." 32.26. then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said: ‘Whoso is on the LORD’S side, let him come unto me.’ And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him." 33.10. And when all the people saw the pillar of cloud stand at the door of the Tent, all the people rose up and worshipped, every man at his tent door."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.21, 15.1, 23.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.21. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵׁם׃ 15.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם בַּמַּחֲזֶה לֵאמֹר אַל־תִּירָא אַבְרָם אָנֹכִי מָגֵן לָךְ שְׂכָרְךָ הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 15.1. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה וַיְבַתֵּר אֹתָם בַּתָּוֶךְ וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ־בִּתְרוֹ לִקְרַאת רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַצִפֹּר לֹא בָתָר׃ 23.16. וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָהָם אֶל־עֶפְרוֹן וַיִּשְׁקֹל אַבְרָהָם לְעֶפְרֹן אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּאָזְנֵי בְנֵי־חֵת אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שֶׁקֶל כֶּסֶף עֹבֵר לַסֹּחֵר׃ 3.21. And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them." 15.1. After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying: ‘Fear not, Abram, I am thy shield, thy reward shall be exceeding great.’" 23.16. And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver, which he had named in the hearing of the children of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant."
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 14.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.2. שׁוּבָה יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי כָשַׁלְתָּ בַּעֲוֺנֶךָ׃ 14.2. Return, O Israel, unto the LORD thy God; For thou hast stumbled in thine iniquity."
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 26.8-26.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.8. צֹרֵר־מַיִם בְּעָבָיו וְלֹא־נִבְקַע עָנָן תַּחְתָּם׃ 26.9. מְאַחֵז פְּנֵי־כִסֵּה פַּרְשֵׁז עָלָיו עֲנָנוֹ׃ 26.8. He bindeth up the waters in His thick clouds; And the cloud is not rent under them." 26.9. He closeth in the face of His throne, And spreadeth His cloud upon it."
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.1, 23.4, 23.33-23.42, 23.44 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אַחֲרֵי מוֹת שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן בְּקָרְבָתָם לִפְנֵי־יְהוָה וַיָּמֻתוּ׃ 16.1. וְהַשָּׂעִיר אֲשֶׁר עָלָה עָלָיו הַגּוֹרָל לַעֲזָאזֵל יָעֳמַד־חַי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו לְשַׁלַּח אֹתוֹ לַעֲזָאזֵל הַמִּדְבָּרָה׃ 23.4. וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן פְּרִי עֵץ הָדָר כַּפֹּת תְּמָרִים וַעֲנַף עֵץ־עָבֹת וְעַרְבֵי־נָחַל וּשְׂמַחְתֶּם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 23.4. אֵלֶּה מוֹעֲדֵי יְהוָה מִקְרָאֵי קֹדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְאוּ אֹתָם בְּמוֹעֲדָם׃ 23.33. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 23.34. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הַזֶּה חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לַיהֹוָה׃ 23.35. בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ׃ 23.36. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תַּקְרִיבוּ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה עֲצֶרֶת הִוא כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ׃ 23.37. אֵלֶּה מוֹעֲדֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־תִּקְרְאוּ אֹתָם מִקְרָאֵי קֹדֶשׁ לְהַקְרִיב אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה עֹלָה וּמִנְחָה זֶבַח וּנְסָכִים דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ׃ 23.38. מִלְּבַד שַׁבְּתֹת יְּהוָה וּמִלְּבַד מַתְּנוֹתֵיכֶם וּמִלְּבַד כָּל־נִדְרֵיכֶם וּמִלְּבַד כָּל־נִדְבוֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר תִּתְּנוּ לַיהוָה׃ 23.39. אַךְ בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאָסְפְּכֶם אֶת־תְּבוּאַת הָאָרֶץ תָּחֹגּוּ אֶת־חַג־יְהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שַׁבָּתוֹן וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי שַׁבָּתוֹן׃ 23.41. וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ חַג לַיהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי תָּחֹגּוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 23.42. בַּסֻּכֹּת תֵּשְׁבוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כָּל־הָאֶזְרָח בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשְׁבוּ בַּסֻּכֹּת׃ 23.44. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶת־מֹעֲדֵי יְהוָה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 16.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they drew near before the LORD, and died;" 23.4. These are the appointed seasons of the LORD, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their appointed season." 23.33. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 23.34. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: On the fifteenth day of this seventh month is the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the LORD." 23.35. On the first day shall be a holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work." 23.36. Seven days ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto the LORD; on the eighth day shall be a holy convocation unto you; and ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto the LORD; it is a day of solemn assembly; ye shall do no manner of servile work." 23.37. These are the appointed seasons of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to bring an offering made by fire unto the LORD, a burnt-offering, and a meal-offering, a sacrifice, and drink-offerings, each on its own day;" 23.38. beside the sabbaths of the LORD, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill-offerings, which ye give unto the LORD." 23.39. Howbeit on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruits of the land, ye shall keep the feast of the LORD seven days; on the first day shall be a solemn rest, and on the eighth day shall be a solemn rest." 23.40. And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days." 23.41. And ye shall keep it a feast unto the LORD seven days in the year; it is a statute for ever in your generations; ye shall keep it in the seventh month." 23.42. Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are home-born in Israel shall dwell in booths;" 23.44. And Moses declared unto the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the LORD."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.10, 14.1-14.10, 16.19, 16.27, 24.5, 29.12-29.39 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.1. וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָּל־הָעֵדָה לִרְגּוֹם אֹתָם בָּאֲבָנִים וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה נִרְאָה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֶל־כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 14.1. וַתִּשָּׂא כָּל־הָעֵדָה וַיִּתְּנוּ אֶת־קוֹלָם וַיִּבְכּוּ הָעָם בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא׃ 14.2. וַיִּלֹּנוּ עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן כֹּל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֲלֵהֶם כָּל־הָעֵדָה לוּ־מַתְנוּ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם אוֹ בַּמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה לוּ־מָתְנוּ׃ 14.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה סָלַחְתִּי כִּדְבָרֶךָ׃ 14.3. וְלָמָה יְהוָה מֵבִיא אֹתָנוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לִנְפֹּל בַּחֶרֶב נָשֵׁינוּ וְטַפֵּנוּ יִהְיוּ לָבַז הֲלוֹא טוֹב לָנוּ שׁוּב מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 14.3. אִם־אַתֶּם תָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָשָׂאתִי אֶת־יָדִי לְשַׁכֵּן אֶתְכֶם בָּהּ כִּי אִם־כָּלֵב בֶּן־יְפֻנֶּה וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן׃ 14.4. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו נִתְּנָה רֹאשׁ וְנָשׁוּבָה מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 14.4. וַיַּשְׁכִּמוּ בַבֹּקֶר וַיַּעֲלוּ אֶל־רֹאשׁ־הָהָר לֵאמֹר הִנֶּנּוּ וְעָלִינוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־אָמַר יְהוָה כִּי חָטָאנוּ׃ 14.5. וַיִּפֹּל מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם לִפְנֵי כָּל־קְהַל עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 14.6. וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן־נוּן וְכָלֵב בֶּן־יְפֻנֶּה מִן־הַתָּרִים אֶת־הָאָרֶץ קָרְעוּ בִּגְדֵיהֶם׃ 14.7. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר עָבַרְנוּ בָהּ לָתוּר אֹתָהּ טוֹבָה הָאָרֶץ מְאֹד מְאֹד׃ 14.8. אִם־חָפֵץ בָּנוּ יְהוָה וְהֵבִיא אֹתָנוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וּנְתָנָהּ לָנוּ אֶרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־הִוא זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 14.9. אַךְ בַּיהוָה אַל־תִּמְרֹדוּ וְאַתֶּם אַל־תִּירְאוּ אֶת־עַם הָאָרֶץ כִּי לַחְמֵנוּ הֵם סָר צִלָּם מֵעֲלֵיהֶם וַיהוָה אִתָּנוּ אַל־תִּירָאֻם׃ 16.19. וַיַּקְהֵל עֲלֵיהֶם קֹרַח אֶת־כָּל־הָעֵדָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיֵּרָא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶל־כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃ 16.27. וַיֵּעָלוּ מֵעַל מִשְׁכַּן־קֹרֶח דָּתָן וַאֲבִירָם מִסָּבִיב וְדָתָן וַאֲבִירָם יָצְאוּ נִצָּבִים פֶּתַח אָהֳלֵיהֶם וּנְשֵׁיהֶם וּבְנֵיהֶם וְטַפָּם׃ 24.5. מַה־טֹּבוּ אֹהָלֶיךָ יַעֲקֹב מִשְׁכְּנֹתֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 29.12. וּבַחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וְחַגֹּתֶם חַג לַיהוָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 29.13. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פָּרִים בְּנֵי־בָקָר שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ׃ 29.14. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר הָאֶחָד לִשְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר פָּרִים שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל הָאֶחָד לִשְׁנֵי הָאֵילִם׃ 29.15. וְעִשָּׂרוֹן עִשָּׂרוֹן לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד לְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר כְּבָשִׂים׃ 29.16. וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.17. וּבַיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי פָּרִים בְּנֵי־בָקָר שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.18. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.19. וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם׃ 29.21. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.22. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.23. וּבַיּוֹם הָרְבִיעִי פָּרִים עֲשָׂרָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.24. מִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.25. וּשְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.26. וּבַיּוֹם הַחֲמִישִׁי פָּרִים תִּשְׁעָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.27. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.28. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.29. וּבַיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי פָּרִים שְׁמֹנָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.31. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וּנְסָכֶיהָ׃ 29.32. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי פָּרִים שִׁבְעָה אֵילִם שְׁנָיִם כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר תְּמִימִם׃ 29.33. וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּהֶם לַפָּרִים לָאֵילִם וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כְּמִשְׁפָּטָם׃ 29.34. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד מִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.35. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ׃ 29.36. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פַּר אֶחָד אַיִל אֶחָד כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שִׁבְעָה תְּמִימִם׃ 29.37. מִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם לַפָּר לָאַיִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂים בְּמִסְפָּרָם כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 29.38. וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכָּהּ׃ 29.39. אֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַיהוָה בְּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם לְבַד מִנִּדְרֵיכֶם וְנִדְבֹתֵיכֶם לְעֹלֹתֵיכֶם וּלְמִנְחֹתֵיכֶם וּלְנִסְכֵּיכֶם וּלְשַׁלְמֵיכֶם׃ 12.10. And when the cloud was removed from over the Tent, behold, Miriam was leprous, as white as snow; and Aaron looked upon Miriam; and, behold, she was leprous." 14.1. And all the congregation lifted up their voice, and cried; and the people wept that night." 14.2. And all the children of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron; and the whole congregation said unto them: ‘Would that we had died in the land of Egypt! or would we had died in this wilderness!" 14.3. And wherefore doth the LORD bring us unto this land, to fall by the sword? Our wives and our little ones will be a prey; were it not better for us to return into Egypt?’" 14.4. And they said one to another: ‘Let us make a captain, and let us return into Egypt.’" 14.5. Then Moses and Aaron fell on their faces before all the assembly of the congregation of the children of Israel." 14.6. And Joshua the son of Nun and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, who were of them that spied out the land, rent their clothes." 14.7. And they spoke unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying: ‘The land, which we passed through to spy it out, is an exceeding good land." 14.8. If the LORD delight in us, then He will bring us into this land, and give it unto us—a land which floweth with milk and honey." 14.9. Only rebel not against the LORD, neither fear ye the people of the land; for they are bread for us; their defence is removed from over them, and the LORD is with us; fear them not.’" 14.10. But all the congregation bade stone them with stones, when the glory of the LORD appeared in the tent of meeting unto all the children of Israel." 16.19. And Korah assembled all the congregation against them unto the door of the tent of meeting; and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the congregation." 16.27. So they got them up from the dwelling of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, on every side; and Dathan and Abiram came out, and stood at the door of their tents, with their wives, and their sons, and their little ones." 24.5. How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, Thy dwellings, O Israel!" 29.12. And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month ye shall have a holy convocation: ye shall do no manner of servile work, and ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days;" 29.13. and ye shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: thirteen young bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year; they shall be without blemish;" 29.14. and their meal-offering, fine flour mingled with oil, three tenth parts for every bullock of the thirteen bullocks, two tenth parts for each ram of the two rams," 29.15. and a several tenth part for every lamb of the fourteen lambs;" 29.16. and one he-goat for a sin-offering beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.17. And on the second day ye shall present twelve young bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.18. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.19. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and their drink-offerings." 29.20. And on the third day eleven bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.21. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.22. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.23. And on the fourth day ten bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.24. their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.25. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.26. And on the fifth day nine bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.27. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.28. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.29. And on the sixth day eight bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.30. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.31. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offerings thereof." 29.32. And on the seventh day seven bullocks, two rams, fourteen he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.33. and their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the lambs, according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.34. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.35. On the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly: ye shall do no manner of servile work;" 29.36. but ye shall present a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD: one bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year without blemish;" 29.37. their meal-offering and their drink-offerings for the bullock, for the ram, and for the lambs, shall be according to their number, after the ordice;" 29.38. and one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 29.39. These ye shall offer unto the LORD in your appointed seasons, beside your vows, and your freewill-offerings, whether they be your burnt-offerings, or your meal-offerings, or your drink-offerings, or your peace-offerings."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 18.12, 91.4, 105.39 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.12. יָשֶׁת חֹשֶׁךְ סִתְרוֹ סְבִיבוֹתָיו סֻכָּתוֹ חֶשְׁכַת־מַיִם עָבֵי שְׁחָקִים׃ 91.4. בְּאֶבְרָתוֹ יָסֶךְ לָךְ וְתַחַת־כְּנָפָיו תֶּחְסֶה צִנָּה וְסֹחֵרָה אֲמִתּוֹ׃ 105.39. פָּרַשׂ עָנָן לְמָסָךְ וְאֵשׁ לְהָאִיר לָיְלָה׃ 18.12. He made darkness His hiding-place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies." 91.4. He will cover thee with His pinions, And under His wings shalt thou take refuge; His truth is a shield and a buckler." 105.39. He spread a cloud for a screen; And fire to give light in the night."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.12. אָז אָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה יְהוָה אָמַר לִשְׁכֹּן בָּעֲרָפֶל׃ 8.12. Then spoke Solomon: The LORD hath said that He would dwell in the thick darkness."
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 25.6, 49.14-49.15, 51.13, 54.1, 54.11-54.14, 60.1-60.3, 60.19, 61.10-61.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.6. וְעָשָׂה יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת לְכָל־הָעַמִּים בָּהָר הַזֶּה מִשְׁתֵּה שְׁמָנִים מִשְׁתֵּה שְׁמָרִים שְׁמָנִים מְמֻחָיִם שְׁמָרִים מְזֻקָּקִים׃ 49.14. וַתֹּאמֶר צִיּוֹן עֲזָבַנִי יְהוָה וַאדֹנָי שְׁכֵחָנִי׃ 49.15. הֲתִשְׁכַּח אִשָּׁה עוּלָהּ מֵרַחֵם בֶּן־בִּטְנָהּ גַּם־אֵלֶּה תִשְׁכַּחְנָה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אֶשְׁכָּחֵךְ׃ 51.13. וַתִּשְׁכַּח יְהוָה עֹשֶׂךָ נוֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם וְיֹסֵד אָרֶץ וַתְּפַחֵד תָּמִיד כָּל־הַיּוֹם מִפְּנֵי חֲמַת הַמֵּצִיק כַּאֲשֶׁר כּוֹנֵן לְהַשְׁחִית וְאַיֵּה חֲמַת הַמֵּצִיק׃ 54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 54.11. עֲנִיָּה סֹעֲרָה לֹא נֻחָמָה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מַרְבִּיץ בַּפּוּךְ אֲבָנַיִךְ וִיסַדְתִּיךְ בַּסַּפִּירִים׃ 54.12. וְשַׂמְתִּי כַּדְכֹד שִׁמְשֹׁתַיִךְ וּשְׁעָרַיִךְ לְאַבְנֵי אֶקְדָּח וְכָל־גְּבוּלֵךְ לְאַבְנֵי־חֵפֶץ׃ 54.13. וְכָל־בָּנַיִךְ לִמּוּדֵי יְהוָה וְרַב שְׁלוֹם בָּנָיִךְ׃ 54.14. בִּצְדָקָה תִּכּוֹנָנִי רַחֲקִי מֵעֹשֶׁק כִּי־לֹא תִירָאִי וּמִמְּחִתָּה כִּי לֹא־תִקְרַב אֵלָיִךְ׃ 60.1. וּבָנוּ בְנֵי־נֵכָר חֹמֹתַיִךְ וּמַלְכֵיהֶם יְשָׁרְתוּנֶךְ כִּי בְקִצְפִּי הִכִּיתִיךְ וּבִרְצוֹנִי רִחַמְתִּיךְ׃ 60.1. קוּמִי אוֹרִי כִּי בָא אוֹרֵךְ וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה עָלַיִךְ זָרָח׃ 60.2. לֹא־יָבוֹא עוֹד שִׁמְשֵׁךְ וִירֵחֵךְ לֹא יֵאָסֵף כִּי יְהוָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ לְאוֹר עוֹלָם וְשָׁלְמוּ יְמֵי אֶבְלֵךְ׃ 60.2. כִּי־הִנֵּה הַחֹשֶׁךְ יְכַסֶּה־אֶרֶץ וַעֲרָפֶל לְאֻמִּים וְעָלַיִךְ יִזְרַח יְהוָה וּכְבוֹדוֹ עָלַיִךְ יֵרָאֶה׃ 60.3. וְהָלְכוּ גוֹיִם לְאוֹרֵךְ וּמְלָכִים לְנֹגַהּ זַרְחֵךְ׃ 60.19. לֹא־יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ עוֹד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם וּלְנֹגַהּ הַיָּרֵחַ לֹא־יָאִיר לָךְ וְהָיָה־לָךְ יְהוָה לְאוֹר עוֹלָם וֵאלֹהַיִךְ לְתִפְאַרְתֵּךְ׃ 61.11. כִּי כָאָרֶץ תּוֹצִיא צִמְחָהּ וּכְגַנָּה זֵרוּעֶיהָ תַצְמִיחַ כֵּן אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַצְמִיחַ צְדָקָה וּתְהִלָּה נֶגֶד כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם׃ 25.6. And in this mountain will the LORD of hosts make unto all peoples A feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of marrow, of wines on the lees well refined." 49.14. But Zion said: ‘The LORD hath forsaken me, And the Lord hath forgotten me.’" 49.15. Can a woman forget her sucking child, That she should not have compassion on the son of her womb? Yea, these may forget, Yet will not I forget thee." 51.13. And hast forgotten the LORD thy Maker, That stretched forth the heavens, And laid the foundations of the earth; And fearest continually all the day Because of the fury of the oppressor, As he maketh ready to destroy? And where is the fury of the oppressor?" 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD." 54.11. O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will set thy stones in fair colours, And lay thy foundations with sapphires." 54.12. And I will make thy pinnacles of rubies, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy border of precious stones." 54.13. And all thy children shall be taught of the LORD; and great shall be the peace of thy children." 54.14. In righteousness shalt thou be established; be thou far from oppression, for thou shalt not fear, And from ruin, for it shall not come near thee." 60.1. Arise, shine, for thy light is come, And the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee." 60.2. For, behold, darkness shall cover the earth, And gross darkness the peoples; But upon thee the LORD will arise, And His glory shall be seen upon thee." 60.3. And nations shall walk at thy light, And kings at the brightness of thy rising." 60.19. The sun shall be no more thy light by day, Neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee; But the LORD shall be unto thee an everlasting light, And thy God thy glory." 61.10. I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels." 61.11. For as the earth bringeth forth her growth, And as the garden causeth the things that are sown in it to spring forth; So the Lord GOD will cause victory and glory To spring forth before all the nations."
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.4-2.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.4. שִׁמְעוּ דְבַר־יְהוָה בֵּית יַעֲקֹב וְכָל־מִשְׁפְּחוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 2.5. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה מַה־מָּצְאוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בִּי עָוֶל כִּי רָחֲקוּ מֵעָלָי וַיֵּלְכוּ אַחֲרֵי הַהֶבֶל וַיֶּהְבָּלוּ׃ 2.4. Hear ye the word of the LORD, O house of Jacob, and all the families of the house of Israel;" 2.5. Thus saith the LORD: What unrighteousness have your fathers found in Me, that they are gone far from Me, and have walked after things of nought, and are become nought?"
13. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 21.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.21. וּרְאִיתֶם וְהִנֵּה אִם־יֵצְאוּ בְנוֹת־שִׁילוֹ לָחוּל בַּמְּחֹלוֹת וִיצָאתֶם מִן־הַכְּרָמִים וַחֲטַפְתֶּם לָכֶם אִישׁ אִשְׁתּוֹ מִבְּנוֹת שִׁילוֹ וַהֲלַכְתֶּם אֶרֶץ בִּנְיָמִן׃ 21.21. and see, and, behold, if the daughters of Shilo come out to dance in the dances, then come out of the vineyards, and catch you every man his wife of the daughters of Shilo, and go to the land of Binyamin."
14. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.1-1.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.1. יָדוֹ פָּרַשׂ צָר עַל כָּל־מַחֲמַדֶּיהָ כִּי־רָאֲתָה גוֹיִם בָּאוּ מִקְדָּשָׁהּ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָה לֹא־יָבֹאוּ בַקָּהָל לָךְ׃ 1.1. אֵיכָה יָשְׁבָה בָדָד הָעִיר רַבָּתִי עָם הָיְתָה כְּאַלְמָנָה רַּבָּתִי בַגּוֹיִם שָׂרָתִי בַּמְּדִינוֹת הָיְתָה לָמַס׃ 1.2. רְאֵה יְהוָה כִּי־צַר־לִי מֵעַי חֳמַרְמָרוּ נֶהְפַּךְ לִבִּי בְּקִרְבִּי כִּי מָרוֹ מָרִיתִי מִחוּץ שִׁכְּלָה־חֶרֶב בַּבַּיִת כַּמָּוֶת׃ 1.2. בָּכוֹ תִבְכֶּה בַּלַּיְלָה וְדִמְעָתָהּ עַל לֶחֱיָהּ אֵין־לָהּ מְנַחֵם מִכָּל־אֹהֲבֶיהָ כָּל־רֵעֶיהָ בָּגְדוּ בָהּ הָיוּ לָהּ לְאֹיְבִים׃ 1.1. O how has the city that was once so populous remained lonely! She has become like a widow! She that was great among the nations, a princess among the provinces, has become tributary. 1.2. She weeps, yea, she weeps in the night, and her tears are on her cheek; she has no comforter among all her lovers; all her friends have betrayed her; they have become her enemies."
15. Homer, Odyssey, 7.114-7.132 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

16. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 3.4-3.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.4. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת כַּכָּתוּב וְעֹלַת יוֹם בְּיוֹם בְּמִסְפָּר כְּמִשְׁפַּט דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ׃ 3.5. וְאַחֲרֵיכֵן עֹלַת תָּמִיד וְלֶחֳדָשִׁים וּלְכָל־מוֹעֲדֵי יְהוָה הַמְקֻדָּשִׁים וּלְכֹל מִתְנַדֵּב נְדָבָה לַיהוָה׃ 3.6. מִיּוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הֵחֵלּוּ לְהַעֲלוֹת עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה וְהֵיכַל יְהוָה לֹא יֻסָּד׃ 3.4. And they kept the feast of tabernacles, as it is written, and offered the daily burnt-offerings by number, according to the ordice, as the duty of every day required;" 3.5. and afterward the continual burnt-offering, and the offerings of the new moons, and of all the appointed seasons of the LORD that were hallowed, and of every one that willingly offered a freewill-offering unto the LORD." 3.6. From the first day of the seventh month began they to offer burnt-offerings unto the LORD; but the foundation of the temple of the LORD was not yet laid."
17. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.9, 8.13-8.18, 9.13, 9.20 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.9. וַיֹּאמֶר נְחֶמְיָה הוּא הַתִּרְשָׁתָא וְעֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן הַסֹּפֵר וְהַלְוִיִּם הַמְּבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לְכָל־הָעָם הַיּוֹם קָדֹשׁ־הוּא לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אַל־תִּתְאַבְּלוּ וְאַל־תִּבְכּוּ כִּי בוֹכִים כָּל־הָעָם כְּשָׁמְעָם אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.13. וּבַיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי נֶאֶסְפוּ רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת לְכָל־הָעָם הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם אֶל־עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל אֶל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.14. וַיִּמְצְאוּ כָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר יֵשְׁבוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּסֻּכּוֹת בֶּחָג בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.15. וַאֲשֶׁר יַשְׁמִיעוּ וְיַעֲבִירוּ קוֹל בְּכָל־עָרֵיהֶם וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר צְאוּ הָהָר וְהָבִיאוּ עֲלֵי־זַיִת וַעֲלֵי־עֵץ שֶׁמֶן וַעֲלֵי הֲדַס וַעֲלֵי תְמָרִים וַעֲלֵי עֵץ עָבֹת לַעֲשֹׂת סֻכֹּת כַּכָּתוּב׃ 8.16. וַיֵּצְאוּ הָעָם וַיָּבִיאוּ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם סֻכּוֹת אִישׁ עַל־גַּגּוֹ וּבְחַצְרֹתֵיהֶם וּבְחַצְרוֹת בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים וּבִרְחוֹב שַׁעַר הַמַּיִם וּבִרְחוֹב שַׁעַר אֶפְרָיִם׃ 8.17. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כָל־הַקָּהָל הַשָּׁבִים מִן־הַשְּׁבִי סֻכּוֹת וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בַסֻּכּוֹת כִּי לֹא־עָשׂוּ מִימֵי יֵשׁוּעַ בִּן־נוּן כֵּן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד הַיּוֹם הַהוּא וַתְּהִי שִׂמְחָה גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד׃ 8.18. וַיִּקְרָא בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים יוֹם בְּיוֹם מִן־הַיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן עַד הַיּוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן וַיַּעֲשׂוּ־חָג שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת כַּמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 9.13. וְעַל הַר־סִינַי יָרַדְתָּ וְדַבֵּר עִמָּהֶם מִשָּׁמָיִם וַתִּתֵּן לָהֶם מִשְׁפָּטִים יְשָׁרִים וְתוֹרוֹת אֱמֶת חֻקִּים וּמִצְוֺת טוֹבִים׃ 8.9. And Nehemiah, who was the Tirshatha, and Ezra the priest the scribe, and the Levites that taught the people, said unto all the people: ‘This day is holy unto the LORD your God; mourn not, nor weep.’ For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the Law." 8.13. And on the second day were gathered together the heads of fathers’houses of all the people, the priests, and the Levites, unto Ezra the scribe, even to give attention to the words of the Law." 8.14. And they found written in the Law, how that the LORD had commanded by Moses, that the children of Israel should dwell in booths in the feast of the seventh month;" 8.15. and that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying: ‘Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and branches of wild olive, and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as it is written.’" 8.16. So the people went forth, and brought them, and made themselves booths, every one upon the roof of his house, and in their courts, and in the courts of the house of God, and in the broad place of the water gate, and in the broad place of the gate of Ephraim." 8.17. And all the congregation of them that were come back out of the captivity made booths, and dwelt in the booths; for since the days of Joshua the son of Nun unto that day had not the children of Israel done so. And there was very great gladness." 8.18. Also day by day, from the first day unto the last day, he read in the book of the Law of God. And they kept the feast seven days;" 9.13. Thou camest down also upon mount Sinai, and spokest with them from heaven, and gavest them right ordices and laws of truth, good statutes and commandments;" 9.20. Thou gavest also Thy good spirit to instruct them, and withheldest not Thy manna from their mouth, and gavest them water for their thirst."
18. Plato, Axiochus (Spuria), None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

19. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.4. I dwelt in high places,and my throne was in a pillar of cloud.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 5-6, 4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4. And the fact of God's having passions like unto those of man follows of necessity from the fact of his having a form like that of man: since all those limbs are not superfluous and mere exuberances, but have been made by nature as assistants of the weakness of those who possess them, and she has adapted them in a manner suitable to and consistent with their natural necessities and offices. But the living God has need of nothing; so that as he does not at all require the assistance to be derived from the parts of the body, he cannot possibly have such parts at all. II.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.67-1.68, 2.205-2.209, 2.211-2.212 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.67. But the other temple is made with hands; for it was desirable not to cut short the impulses of men who were eager to bring in contributions for the objects of piety, and desirous either to show their gratitude by sacrifices for such good fortune as had befallen them, or else to implore pardon and forgiveness for whatever errors they might have committed. He moreover foresaw that there could not be any great number of temples built either in many different places, or in the same place, thinking it fitting that as God is one, his temple also should be one. 1.68. In the next place, he does not permit those who desire to perform sacrifices in their own houses to do so, but he orders all men to rise up, even from the furthest boundaries of the earth, and to come to this temple, by which command he is at the same time testing their dispositions most severely; for he who was not about to offer sacrifice in a pure and holy spirit would never endure to quit his country, and his friends, and relations, and emigrate into a distant land, but would be likely, being under the influence of a more powerful attraction than that towards piety, to continue attached to the society of his most intimate friends and relations as portions of himself, to which he was most closely attached. 2.205. For the autumn (metopoµron 2.206. And, indeed, the people are commanded to pass the whole period of the feast under tents, either because there is no longer any necessity for remaining in the open air labouring at the cultivation of the land, since there is nothing left in the land, but all ... is stored up in the barns, on account of the injuries which otherwise might be likely to visit it from the burning of the sun or the violence of the Rains.{33}{portions of sections 207, 209, 212, 213 were omitted in Yonge's translation because the edition on which Yonge based his translation, Mangey, lacked this material. These lines have been newly translated for this volume.} 2.207. For when the crops which provide nourishment are in the fields, you act as a manager and guard of those necessities not by having cooped yourself up like a woman who belongs at home, but by having gone out to the fields. If severe cold or summer heat befalls you as you live in the open air, the overgrowths of the trees are handy shelters. If you get under their protection, you will be able to escape easily the harm from each. But when all the crops are in, go in with them to look for a more substantial abode for rest in place of the toils which you endured as you worked the land. Or again, it may be a reminder of the long journey of our ancestors which they made through a wide desert, living in tents for many years at each station. 2.208. And it is proper in the time of riches to remember one's poverty, and in an hour of glory to recollect the days of one's disgrace, and at a season of peace to think upon the dangers that are past. 2.209. In addition to the pleasure it provides, a not inconsiderable advantage for the practice of virtue comes from this. For people who have had prosperity and adversity before their eyes and have pushed the latter away and are enjoying the free use of the better, of necessity become thankful in disposition and are being urged on to piety by fear of a change of state to the contrary condition. As a result they honor God in songs and words for their present wealth and persistently entreat and conciliate him with supplications that they will no longer be tested with calamities. 2.211. And after the festival has lasted seven days, he adds an eighth as a seal, calling it a kind of crowning feast, not only as it would seem to this festival, but also to all the feasts of the year which we have enumerated; for it is the last feast of the year, and is a very stable and holy sort of conclusion, befitting men who have now received all the produce from the land, and who are no longer in perplexity and apprehension respecting any barrenness or scarcity. 2.212. Perhaps, however, the first cubic number, the number eight, was assigned to the feast for the following reason. It is in its Capacity{34}{the term dynamei is problematic here. It normally means "squared"--as Colson recognized--but is here understood more generally.} the beginning of solid substance at the transition from the incorporeal, the end of the intelligible. The intelligible [make the Transition]{35}{there is no verb in the text. The translation follows one of Cohn's conjectures [metabainei] which matches metabasin nicely.} to a solid nature through the scale of ascending powers.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.167-2.168 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.167. And when he came into the middle of the camp, and marvelled at the sudden way in which the multitude had forsaken all their ancient habits, and at the vast amount of falsehood which they had embraced instead of truth, he, seeing that the disease had not extended among them all, but that some were still sound, and still cherished a disposition which loathed wickedness; wishing to distinguish those who were incurable from those who felt indignation at what had taken place, and to know also whether any of those who had offended repented them of their sin, caused a proclamation to be made; and it was indeed a shrewd test of the inclination of each individual, to see how he was disposed to holiness, or to the contrary. 2.168. Whoever," said he, "is on the side of the Lord, let him come to me." It was but a brief sentence which he thus uttered, but the meaning concealed under it was important; for what was intimated by his words was the following sense: "If any one does not think anything whatever that is made by hands, or anything that is created, a god, but believes that there is one ruler of the universe only, let him come to me.
23. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.162-3.168 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.203, 3.244-3.248, 4.260-4.263, 4.265-4.266, 4.269, 4.275, 4.288, 13.303-13.308 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.203. The sky was clear, but there was a mist over the tabernacle only, encompassing it, but not with such a very deep and thick cloud as is seen in the winter season, nor yet in so thin a one as men might be able to discern any thing through it, but from it there dropped a sweet dew, and such a one as showed the presence of God to those that desired and believed it. 3.244. 4. Upon the fifteenth day of the same month, when the season of the year is changing for winter, the law enjoins us to pitch tabernacles in every one of our houses, so that we preserve ourselves from the cold of that time of the year; 3.245. as also that when we should arrive at our own country, and come to that city which we should have then for our metropolis, because of the temple therein to be built, and keep a festival for eight days, and offer burnt-offerings, and sacrifice thank-offerings, that we should then carry in our hands a branch of myrtle, and willow, and a bough of the palm-tree, with the addition of the pome citron: 3.246. That the burnt-offering on the first of those days was to be a sacrifice of thirteen bulls, and fourteen lambs, and fifteen rams, with the addition of a kid of the goats, as an expiation for sins; and on the following days the same number of lambs, and of rams, with the kids of the goats; but abating one of the bulls every day till they amounted to seven only. 3.247. On the eighth day all work was laid aside, and then, as we said before, they sacrificed to God a bullock, a ram, and seven lambs, with a kid of the goats, for an expiation of sins. And this is the accustomed solemnity of the Hebrews, when they pitch their tabernacles. 3.248. 5. In the month of Xanthicus, which is by us called Nisan, and is the beginning of our year, on the fourteenth day of the lunar month, when the sun is in Aries, (for in this month it was that we were delivered from bondage under the Egyptians,) the law ordained that we should every year slay that sacrifice which I before told you we slew when we came out of Egypt, and which was called the Passover; and so we do celebrate this passover in companies, leaving nothing of what we sacrifice till the day following. 4.261. and let them say thus to them:—That they cohabited together, not for the sake of pleasure, nor for the augmentation of their riches, by joining both their stocks together, but that they might have children to take care of them in their old age, and might by them have what they then should want. And say further to him, “That when thou wast born, we took thee up with gladness, and gave God the greatest thanks for thee, and brought time up with great care, and spared for nothing that appeared useful for thy preservation, and for thy instruction in what was most excellent. 4.262. And now, since it is reasonable to forgive the sins of those that are young, let it suffice thee to have given so many indications of thy contempt of us; reform thyself, and act more wisely for the time to come; considering that God is displeased with those that are insolent towards their parents, because he is himself the Father of the whole race of mankind, and seems to bear part of that dishonor which falls upon those that have the same name, when they do not meet with dire returns from their children. And on such the law inflicts inexorable punishment; of which punishment mayst thou never have the experience.” 4.263. Now if the insolence of young men be thus cured, let them escape the reproach which their former errors deserved; for by this means the lawgiver will appear to be good, and parents happy, while they never behold either a son or a daughter brought to punishment. 4.265. And thus it is that we bury all whom the laws condemn to die, upon any account whatsoever. Let our enemies that fall in battle be also buried; nor let any one dead body lie above the ground, or suffer a punishment beyond what justice requires. 4.266. 25. Let no one lend to any one of the Hebrews upon usury, neither usury of what is eaten or what is drunken, for it is not just to make advantage of the misfortunes of one of thy own countrymen; but when thou hast been assistant to his necessities, think it thy gain if thou obtainest their gratitude to thee; and withal that reward which will come to thee from God, for thy humanity towards him. 4.269. And if he that gave the pledge be rich, let the creditor retain it till what he lent be paid him again; but if he be poor, let him that takes it return it before the going down of the sun, especially if the pledge be a garment, that the debtor may have it for a covering in his sleep, God himself naturally showing mercy to the poor. 4.275. 30. It is not lawful to pass by any beast that is in distress, when in a storm it is fallen down in the mire, but to endeavor to preserve it, as having a sympathy with it in its pain. 4.288. After the same manner as in these trusts it is to be, if any one defraud those that undergo bodily labor for him. And let it be always remembered, that we are not to defraud a poor man of his wages, as being sensible that God has allotted these wages to him instead of land and other possessions; nay, this payment is not at all to be delayed, but to be made that very day, since God is not willing to deprive the laborer of the immediate use of what he hath labored for. 13.303. nay, he was alienated from his brother Antigonus by calumnies, and added him to the rest whom he slew; yet he seemed to have an affection for him, and made him above the rest a partner with him in the kingdom. Those calumnies he at first did not give credit to, partly because he loved him, and so did not give heed to what was said against him, and partly because he thought the reproaches were derived from the envy of the relaters. 13.304. But when Antigonus was once returned from the army, and that feast was then at hand when they make tabernacles to [the honor of God,] it happened that Arlstobulus was fallen sick, and that Antigonus went up most splendidly adorned, and with his soldiers about him in their armor, to the temple to celebrate the feast, and to put up many prayers for the recovery of his brother 13.305. when some wicked persons, who had a great mind to raise a difference between the brethren, made use of this opportunity of the pompous appearance of Antigonus, and of the great actions which he had done, and went to the king, and spitefully aggravated the pompous show of his at the feast 13.306. and pretended that all these circumstances were not like those of a private person; that these actions were indications of an affectation of royal authority; and that his coming with a strong body of men must be with an intention to kill him; and that his way of reasoning was this: That it was a silly thing in him, while it was in his power to reign himself, to look upon it as a great favor that he was honored with a lower dignity by his brother. 13.307. 2. Aristobulus yielded to these imputations, but took care both that his brother should not suspect him, and that he himself might not run the hazard of his own safety; so he ordered his guards to lie in a certain place that was under ground, and dark; (he himself then lying sick in the tower which was called Antonia;) and he commanded them, that in case Antigonus came in to him unarmed, they should not touch any body, but if armed, they should kill him; 13.308. yet did he send to Antigonus, and desired that he would come unarmed; but the queen, and those that joined with her in the plot against Antigonus, persuaded the messenger to tell him the direct contrary: how his brother had heard that he had made himself a fine suit of armor for war, and desired him to come to him in that armor, that he might see how fine it was.
25. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.73, 6.301 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.73. however, as Antigonus came once in a splendid manner from the army to that festival, wherein our ancient custom is to make tabernacles for God, it happened, in those days, that Aristobulus was sick, and that, at the conclusion of the feast, Antigonus came up to it, with his armed men about him; and this when he was adorned in the finest manner possible; and that, in a great measure, to pray to God on the behalf of his brother. 6.301. began on a sudden to cry aloud, “A voice from the east, a voice from the west, a voice from the four winds, a voice against Jerusalem and the holy house, a voice against the bridegrooms and the brides, and a voice against this whole people!” This was his cry, as he went about by day and by night, in all the lanes of the city.
26. New Testament, Apocalypse, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.1. I saw a mighty angel coming down out of the sky, clothed with a cloud. A rainbow was on his head. His face was like the sun, and his feet like pillars of fire.
27. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Tosefta, Sotah, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Anon., Deuteronomy Rabbah, 7.11 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7.11. מַהוּ (דברים כט, ד): לֹא בָלוּ שַׂלְמֹתֵיכֶם מֵעֲלֵיכֶם. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא, מַה שֶּׁהָיָה עֲלֵיהֶן לֹא בָלוּ, אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁהָיָה לָהֶן בְּתוֹךְ הַתֵּבוֹת, נִתְבַּלּוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לֹא בָלוּ שַׂלְמֹתֵיכֶם, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּנוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹסֵי חָמָיו, כְּלֵי קוּרִיָּס יָצְאוּ עִם יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר, אָמַר לוֹ אוֹתָן הַבְּגָדִים שֶׁהָיוּ עֲלֵיהֶן מַה שֶּׁהִלְבִּישׁוּ אוֹתָן מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת בְּסִינַי, לְפִיכָךְ לֹא נִתְבָּלוּ. אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא הָיוּ גְּדֵלִין, וְהָיוּ הַבְּגָדִים קְטַנִּים לָהֶם. אָמַר לוֹ אַל תִּתְמַהּ עַל זוֹ, הַחִלָּזוֹן הַזֶּה כְּשֶׁגָּדֵל מַלְבּוּשׁוֹ גָּדֵל עִמּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא הָיוּ צְרִיכִין תִּכְבֹּסֶת, אָמַר לוֹ הֶעָנָן הָיָה שָׁף בָּהֶן וּמְלַבְּנָן. אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא הָיוּ נִשְׂרָפִים מִן הֶעָנָן שֶׁהוּא אֵשׁ, אָמַר לוֹ אַל תִּתְמַהּ עַל זוֹ, אֲסִיטוֹן הַזֶּה, אֵין מְגַהֲצִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בָּאֵשׁ, אַף בִּגְדֵיהֶם שֶׁהָיוּ מַעֲשֵׂה שָׁמַיִם, הָיָה הֶעָנָן שָׁף בָּהֶן וְאֵינוֹ מַזִּיקָן. אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין מַאֲכֹלֶת, אָמַר לוֹ בְּמִיתָתָן לֹא נָגְעָה בָּהֶן רִמָּה בְּחַיֵיהֶן עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא הָיָה רֵיחָן רַע מִכֹּחַ הַזֵּעָה, אָמַר לוֹ הָיוּ מִתְעַנְּגִים בִּנְאוֹת דְּשָׁאִים שֶׁל בְּאֵר, וְהָיָה רֵיחָן מְפַעְפֵּעַ בְּכָל הָעוֹלָם, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שיר השירים ד, יא): וְרֵיחַ שַׂלְמֹתַיִךְ כְּרֵיחַ לְבָנוֹן. וְכָל הַשֶּׁבַח הַזֶּה מְהֵיכָן, (שיר השירים ד, טו): מִמַּעֲיַן גַּנִּים בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים.
30. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 56.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

56.2. אָמַר לְיִצְחָק, בְּנִי, רוֹאֶה אַתָּה מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי רוֹאֶה, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן. אָמַר לִשְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו, רוֹאִים אַתֶּם מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי רוֹאֶה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ לַאו. אָמַר הוֹאִיל וַחֲמוֹר אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה וְאַתֶּם אֵין אַתֶּם רוֹאִים (בראשית כב, ה): שְׁבוּ לָכֶם פֹּה עִם הַחֲמוֹר. וּמִנַּיִין שֶׁהָעֲבָדִים דּוֹמִין לִבְהֵמָה, מֵהָכָא, שְׁבוּ לָכֶם פֹּה עִם הַחֲמוֹר, עַם הַחֲמוֹר. רַבָּנָן מַיְתֵי לֵיהּ מֵהָכָא מִמַּתַּן תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ט י): שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל מְלַאכְתֶּךָ וגו' אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק עָתִיד הַמָּקוֹם לִרָחֵק מִבְּעָלָיו, וּלְעוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלב, יד): זֹאת מְנוּחָתִי עֲדֵי עַד פֹּה אֵשֵׁב, לִכְשֶׁיָּבוֹא אוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (זכריה ט, ט): עָנִי וְרֹכֵב עַל חֲמוֹר. (בראשית כב, ה): וַאֲנִי וְהַנַּעַר נֵלְכָה עַד כֹּה, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי נֵלֵךְ וְנִרְאֶה מַה יִּהְיֶה בְּסוֹפוֹ שֶׁל כֹּה. (בראשית כב, ה): וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנָשׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם, בִּשְֹּׂרוֹ שֶׁהוּא חוֹזֵר מֵהַר הַמּוֹרִיָה בְּשָׁלוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק הַכֹּל בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, וְאַבְרָהָם לֹא חָזַר מֵהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה בְּשָׁלוֹם אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנָשׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם. יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא נִגְאֲלוּ אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ד, לא): וַיַּאֲמֵן הָעָם וגו' וַיִקְדּוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ. הַתּוֹרָה לֹא נִתְּנָה אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כד, א): וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם מֵרָחֹק. חַנָּה לֹא נִפְקְדָה אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א א, כח): וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ שָׁם לַה': הַגָּלֻיּוֹת אֵינָן מִתְכַּנְסוֹת אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כז, יג): וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל וגו' וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַה' בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא נִבְנָה אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צט, ט): רוֹמְמוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְהַר קָדְשׁוֹ. הַמֵּתִים אֵינָן חַיִּין אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צה, ו): בֹּאוּ נִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנִכְרָעָה נִבְרְכָה לִפְנֵי ה' עֹשֵׂנוּ. 56.2. He then said to him [Itzchak]: ‘Itzchak, my son do you what I see?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied. He said to his two servants: ‘Do you see what I see?’ ‘No,’ they answered. ‘Since you do not see it, “stay here with the donkey,” (Gen. 22:5), he bade them, because you are like the donkey, it follows that slaves are like cattle. The Rabbis proved [it from this verse spoken at] the Revelation: Six days you shall labor, and do all your work … you, nor your daughter, nor your man-servant, nor your maid-servant, nor your cattle (Ex. 20:10). R. Itzchak said: This place shall one day be alienated from its Owner. For ever? [No], for it is stated, “This is My resting-place forever; here will I dwell for I have desired it” (Ps. 132:14) — when he comes of whom it is written, “Lowly, and riding upon a donkey” (Zech. 1:9). “And I and the lad will go just there” — Ad Koh. Said R. Joshua b. Levi: We will go and see what is to be the eventual outcome of Koh. “And we will worship, and we will come back to you.” He informed him [through these words] that he [Itzchak] would return safely from Mount Moriah. R. Itzchak said: Everything happened as a reward for worshipping. Abraham returned in peace from Mount Moriah only as a reward for worshipping. “And we will worship, and we will come back to you.” Israel were redeemed only as a reward for worshipping: “And the people believed … then they bowed their heads and worshipped” (Ex. 4:31). The Torah was given only as a reward for worshipping: “And worship y’all afar off” (Ex. 24:1). Hannah was remembered only as a reward for worshipping: “And they worshipped before the Lord” (I Sam. 1:19). The exiles will be reassembled only as a reward for worshipping: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great horn shall be blown; and they shall come that were lost … and that were dispersed … and they shall worship Ad-nai in the holy mountain at Jerusalem” (Isa. 27:13). The Temple was built only as a reward for worshipping: “Exalt y’all Ad-nai our God, and worship at His holy mountain” (Ps. 99:9). The dead will come to life again only as a reward for worshipping: “O come, let us worship and bend the knee; let us kneel before Ad-nai our Maker (Ps 95:6)."
31. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 9.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9.9. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי גָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת כְּלוּלוֹת בּוֹ, (תהלים כט, יא): ה' עֹז לְעַמּוֹ יִתֵּן ה' יְבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמּוֹ בַשָּׁלוֹם. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר תַּרְתֵּי, חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכָּל הַמִּצְווֹת כְּתִיב בְּהוּ (שמות כג, ד ה): כִּי תִרְאֶה, כִּי תִפְגַע, (דברים כב, ו): כִּי יִקָּרֵא, אִם בָּאת מִצְוָה לְיָדְךָ אַתָּה זָקוּק לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ וְאִם לָאו אִי אַתָּה זָקוּק לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ, בְּרַם הָכָא (תהלים לד, טו): בַּקֵּשׁ שָׁלוֹם וְרָדְפֵהוּ, בַּקְשֵׁהוּ לִמְקוֹמְךָ וְרָדְפֵהוּ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר. חִזְקִיָּה אָמַר חוֹרֵי, גָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם שֶׁבְּכָל הַמַּסָּעוֹת כְּתִיב (במדבר לג, ה): וַיִּסְעוּ וַיַּחֲנוּ, נוֹסְעִים בְּמַחְלֹקֶת וְחוֹנִים בְּמַחְלֹקֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּאוּ כֻלָּם לִפְנֵי הַר סִינַי נַעֲשׂוּ כֻּלָּם חֲנָיָה אַחַת, הֲדָא דִּכְתִיב (שמות יט, ב): וַיִּחַן שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל, וַיַּחֲנוּ שָׁם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא וַיִּחַן שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי שָׁעָה שֶׁאֲנִי נוֹתֵן תּוֹרָה לְבָנָי. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר תְּלַת, בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים דִּבְרֵי בַּדָּאוּת בַּתּוֹרָה בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אַבְרָהָם לְשָׂרָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית יח, יב): אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה לִי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן, אֲבָל לְאַבְרָהָם לֹא אָמַר כֵּן אֶלָּא (בראשית יח, יג): וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר חוֹרֵי, גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים לָשׁוֹן בָּדוּי בַּנְּבִיאִים בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים יג, ג): הִנֵּה נָא אַתְּ עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן, אֲבָל לְמָנוֹחַ לֹא אָמַר כֵּן אֶלָּא (שופטים יג, יג): מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי אֶל הָאִשָּׁה תִּשָּׁמֵר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם סַמָּנִים הִיא צְרִיכָה. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר חוֹרֵי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם, מַה אִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם לֹא קִנְאָה וְלֹא שִׂנְאָה וְלֹא תַּחְרוּת וְלֹא מַצּוֹת וְרִיבוֹת וְלֹא מַחְלֹקֶת וְלֹא עַיִן רָעָה צְרִיכִין שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כה, ב): עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם בִּמְרוֹמָיו, הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם כָּל הַמִּדּוֹת הַלָּלוּ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ הַכְּתוּבִים לְשׁוֹן בַּדָּיוּת בַּתּוֹרָה לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין יוֹסֵף לְאֶחָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית נ, יז): כֹּה תֹאמְרוּן לְיוֹסֵף אָנָא שָׂא נָא, וְלֹא אַשְׁכְּחָן בְּיַעֲקֹב דְּפַקַד כְּלוּם, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה אֵין פּוֹתְחִין אֶלָּא בְּשָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברים כ, י): כִּי תִקְרַב אֶל עִיר וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נִקְרָא שָׁלוֹם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שופטים ו, כד): וַיִּקְרָא לוֹ ה' שָׁלוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בַּר יוּדָן, מִכָּאן שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לְאָדָם לִשְׁאֹל בִּשְׁלוֹם חֲבֵרוֹ בְּמָקוֹם מְטֻנָּף. תָּנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשֵּׁם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּקְדֻשָּׁה אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִמָּחֶה בַּמַּיִם כְּדֵי לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר הֲוָה יָתִיב וְדָרִישׁ בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבַּתָּא הֲוָה תַּמָּן חָדָא אִתְּתָא יַצִּיבָא וְשָׁמְעָה לֵיהּ תָּנְתָא מִדְרָשָׁא, אַמְתִּינַת עַד דִּיחֲסַל מִמִּדְרָשׁ, אָזְלָה לְבֵיתָהּ אַשְׁכְּחָא בּוּצִינָא טָפֵי, אֲמַר לָהּ בַּעְלָהּ אָן הֲוֵית, אָמְרָה לֵיהּ אֲנָא יָתִיבָא וְשָׁמְעָה קָלֵיהּ דָּרוֹשָׁה, אֲמַר לָהּ כֵּן וְכֵן לָא אִעַיַּלְתְּ לְהָכָא עַד דַּאֲזַלְתְּ וְרוֹקַת בְּאַנְפֵּי דָרוֹשָׁה, יְתִיבָא שַׁבַּתָּא קַמַּיְיתָא תִּנְיָנָא וּתְלִיתָא, אֲמָרִין לָהּ מְגֵירָתָא כַּדּוּ אַתּוּן צְהִיבִין, אֲתֵינָן עִמָּךְ לְגַבֵּי דָּרוֹשָׁה, כֵּיוָן דְּחָמֵי יַתְהוֹן רַבִּי מֵאִיר צָפָה בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, אֲמַר לְהוֹ אִית מִנְּכוֹן אִתְּתָא דְּחַכִּימָא לְמִלְחַשׁ בְּעֵינָא, אֲמָרִין לָהּ מְגֵירָתָא כַּדּוּ אַתְּ אָזְלַת וְרוֹקַת בְּאַנְפֵּיהּ וְתִשְׁרֵי לְבַעֲלִךְ, כֵּיוָן דְּיָתְבָא קַמֵּי אִידְחִילַת מִינֵיהּ, אֲמָרָה לֵיהּ רַבִּי לֵית אֲנָא חַכִּימָא לְמִילְחַשׁ עֵינָא, אֲמַר לָהּ אֲפִלּוּ הָכֵי רוֹקִי בְּאַנְפִּי שְׁבַע זִמְנִין וַאֲנָא מִינְשִׁים, עָבְדָה הָכִין. אֲמַר לָהּ אִיזִילִי אִמְרִי לְבַעֲלִיךָ אַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ חָדָא זִימְנָא וַאֲנָא רָקֵית שְׁבַע זִימְנִין. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבִּי כָּךְ מְבַזִּין אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לָא הֲוָה לָךְ לְמֵימַר לְחַד מִינָן לְמִלְחַשׁ לָךְ, אֲמַר לְהוֹ לָא דַּיּוֹ לְמֵאִיר לִהְיוֹת שָׁוֶה לְקוֹנוֹ, דְּתָנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁשֵּׁם הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁנִּכְתַּב בִּקְדֻשָּׁה אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יִמָּחֶה עַל הַמַּיִם בִּשְׁבִיל לְהַטִּיל שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אִישׁ לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכְּשֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ עָשָׂה שָׁלוֹם בֵּין הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, א): בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ, בַּשֵּׁנִי בָּרָא מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, ו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ, בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, ט): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם, בָּרְבִיעִי מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, (בראשית א, יד): יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם, בַּחֲמִישִׁי בָּרָא מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, בַּשִּׁשִּׁי בָּא לִבְראוֹת אָדָם, אָמַר אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים הֲרֵי הָעֶלְיוֹנִים רַבִּים מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים בְּרִיאָה אַחַת, אִם אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הֲרֵי הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים רַבִּים עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנִים בְּרִיאָה אַחַת, מֶה עָשָׂה בְּרָאוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּיצֶר ה' אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן הָאֲדָמָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, (בראשית ב, ז): וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, רַבִּי מָנֵי דִּשְׁאַב וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי, גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכָּל הַבְּרָכוֹת וְטוֹבוֹת וְנֶחָמוֹת שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְבִיאָן עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, חוֹתְמִין בְּשָׁלוֹם, בִּקְרִיאַת שְׁמַע פּוֹרֵס סֻכַּת שָׁלוֹם, בַּתְּפִלָּה עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם, בְּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים (במדבר ו, כו): וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם. וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בַּבְּרָכוֹת בַּקָּרְבָּנוֹת מִנַיִן, (ויקרא ז, לז): זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה לָעֹלָה לַמִּנְחָה וְלַחַטָּאת וְלָאָשָׁם וְלַמִּלּוּאִים וּלְזֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים. אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בַּכְּלָל, בַּפְּרָט מִנַּיִן, (ויקרא ו, ב): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה, (ויקרא ו, ז): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַמִּנְחָה, (ויקרא ו, יח): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַחַטָּאת, (ויקרא ז, א): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָאָשָׁם, (ויקרא ז, יא): זֹאת תּוֹרַת זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים, וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת יָחִיד, בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר מִנַּיִן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (במדבר כט, לט): אֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַה' בְּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם, וּמְסַיֵּם בִּשְׁלָמִים. וְאֵין לִי אֶלָּא בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא מִנַּיִן, (ישעיה סו, יב): הִנְנִי נֹטֶה אֵלֶיהָ כְּנָהָר שָׁלוֹם. רַבָּנָן אָמְרוּ גָּדוֹל שָׁלוֹם שֶׁכְּשֶׁמֶּלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ בָּא אֵינוֹ פּוֹתֵחַ אֶלָּא בְּשָׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נב, ז): מַה נָּאווּ עַל הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלוֹם. 9.9. Said Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai: Peace is so great that all blessings are included in it (Ps. 29:11) “Hashem will give strength to His people, Hashem will bless His people with peace”. Hizkiah said two things. Hizkiah said: Peace is so great that all mitzvot are written [in the conditional form] (Exodus 23:4-5) “If you see” “If you encounter” (Deut. 22:6) “If you happen by” – if a mitzvah came to your hand, you are bound to do it. However, here (Ps. 34:15) “Seek peace and pursue it.” Seek – [this word applies] in your own place; pursue – [this word applies] in any other place. Hizkiah said gave another explanation: Peace is so great that about every travelling of the children of Israel it is written ‘and they travelled’ ‘and they encamped’ they travelled disputing [with each other] and encamped disputing. But when they arrived at Mount Sinai they did one single encampment, as it is written ‘and Israel encamped [verb in singular] there’ – it is not written ‘they encamped there’, rather, it is written ‘he encamped there.’ At the moment the Holy One of Blessing said ‘this is the moment I will give Torah to the children of Israel’"
32. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 213 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

34. Tertullian, On The Apparel of Women, 1.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

35. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. אמר ליה קיסר לר' יהושע בר' (חנינא) אמריתו דחכמיתו טובא אימא לי מאי חזינא בחלמאי אמר ליה חזית דמשחרי לך פרסאי וגרבי בך ורעיי בך שקצי בחוטרא דדהבא הרהר כוליה יומא ולאורתא חזא אמר ליה שבור מלכא לשמואל אמריתו דחכמיתו טובא אימא לי מאי חזינא בחלמאי אמר ליה חזית דאתו רומאי ושבו לך וטחני בך קשייתא ברחייא דדהבא הרהר כוליה יומא ולאורתא חזא,בר הדיא מפשר חלמי הוה מאן דיהיב ליה אגרא מפשר ליה למעליותא ומאן דלא יהיב ליה אגרא מפשר ליה לגריעותא אביי ורבא חזו חלמא אביי יהיב ליה זוזא ורבא לא יהיב ליה אמרי ליה אקרינן בחלמין (דברים כח, לא) שורך טבוח לעיניך וגו' לרבא אמר ליה פסיד עסקך ולא אהני לך למיכל מעוצבא דלבך לאביי א"ל מרווח עסקך ולא אהני לך למיכל מחדוא דלבך,אמרי ליה אקרינן (דברים כח, מא) בנים ובנות תוליד וגו' לרבא אמר ליה כבישותיה לאביי א"ל בנך ובנתך נפישי ומינסבן בנתך לעלמא ומדמיין באפך כדקא אזלן בשביה,אקריין (דברים כח, לב) בניך ובנותיך נתונים לעם אחר לאביי א"ל בנך ובנתך נפישין את אמרת לקריבך והיא אמרה לקריבה ואכפה לך ויהבת להון לקריבה דהוי כעם אחר לרבא א"ל דביתהו שכיבא ואתו בניה ובנתיה לידי איתתא אחריתי דאמר רבא אמר ר' ירמיה בר אבא אמר רב מאי דכתיב בניך ובנותיך נתונים לעם אחר זו אשת האב,אקרינן בחלמין (קהלת ט, ז) לך אכול בשמחה לחמך לאביי אמר ליה מרווח עסקך ואכלת ושתית וקרית פסוקא מחדוא דלבך לרבא אמר ליה פסיד עסקך טבחת ולא אכלת ושתית וקרית לפכוחי פחדך,אקרינן (דברים כח, לח) זרע רב תוציא השדה לאביי א"ל מרישיה לרבא א"ל מסיפיה,אקרינן (דברים כח, מ) זיתים יהיו לך בכל גבולך וגו' לאביי א"ל מרישיה לרבא א"ל מסיפיה,אקרינן (דברים כח, י) וראו כל עמי הארץ וגו' לאביי א"ל נפק לך שמא דריש מתיבתא הוית אימתך נפלת בעלמא לרבא אמר ליה בדיינא דמלכא אתבר ומתפסת בגנבי ודייני כולי עלמא קל וחומר מינך למחר אתבר בדיינא דמלכא ואתו ותפשי ליה לרבא.,אמרי ליה חזן חסא על פום דני לאביי א"ל עיף עסקך כחסא לרבא א"ל מריר עסקך כי חסא,אמרי ליה חזן בשרא על פום דני לאביי אמר ליה בסים חמרך ואתו כולי עלמא למזבן בשרא וחמרא מינך לרבא אמר ליה תקיף חמרך ואתו כולי עלמא למזבן בשרא למיכל ביה,אמרי ליה חזן חביתא דתלי בדיקלא לאביי אמר ליה מדלי עסקך כדיקלא לרבא אמר ליה חלי עסקך כתמרי,אמרי ליה חזן רומנא דקדחי אפום דני לאביי אמר ליה עשיק עסקך כרומנא לרבא אמר ליה קאוי עסקך כרומנא,אמרי ליה חזן חביתא דנפל לבירא לאביי א"ל מתבעי עסקך כדאמר נפל פתא בבירא ולא אשתכח לרבא א"ל פסיד עסקך ושדי' ליה לבירא,אמרי ליה חזינן בר חמרא דקאי אאיסדן ונוער לאביי אמר ליה מלכא הוית וקאי אמורא עלך לרבא א"ל פטר חמור גהיט מתפילך א"ל לדידי חזי לי ואיתיה אמר ליה וא"ו דפטר חמור ודאי גהיט מתפילך,לסוף אזל רבא לחודיה לגביה אמר ליה חזאי דשא ברייתא דנפל אמר ליה אשתך שכבא אמר ליה חזיא ככי ושני דנתור א"ל בנך ובנתך שכבן אמר ליה חזאי תרתי יוני דפרחן א"ל תרי נשי מגרשת אמר ליה חזאי תרי גרגלידי דלפתא אמר ליה תרין קולפי בלעת אזל רבא ההוא יומא ויתיב בי מדרשא כוליה יומא אשכח הנהו תרי סגי נהורי דהוו קמנצו בהדי הדדי אזל רבא לפרוקינהו ומחוהו לרבא תרי דלו למחוייה אחריתי אמר מסתיי תרין חזאי,לסוף אתא רבא ויהיב ליה אגרא א"ל חזאי אשיתא דנפל א"ל נכסים בלא מצרים קנית א"ל חזאי אפדנא דאביי דנפל וכסיין אבקיה א"ל אביי שכיב ומתיבתיה אתיא לגבך א"ל חזאי אפדנא דידי דנפיל ואתו כולי עלמא שקיל לבינתא לבינתא א"ל שמעתתך מבדרן בעלמא א"ל חזאי דאבקע רישי ונתר מוקרי א"ל אודרא מבי סדיא נפיק א"ל אקריון הללא מצראה בחלמא א"ל ניסא מתרחשי לך,הוה קא אזיל בהדיה בארבא אמר בהדי גברא דמתרחיש ליה ניסא למה לי בהדי דקא סליק נפל סיפרא מיניה אשכחיה רבא וחזא דהוה כתיב ביה כל החלומות הולכין אחר הפה רשע בדידך קיימא וצערתן כולי האי כולהו מחילנא לך בר מברתיה דרב חסדא יהא רעוא דלמסר ההוא גברא לידי דמלכותא דלא מרחמו עליה,אמר מאי אעביד גמירי דקללת חכם אפילו בחנם היא באה וכ"ש רבא דבדינא קא לייט אמר איקום ואגלי דאמר מר גלות מכפרת עון,קם גלי לבי רומאי אזל יתיב אפתחא דריש טורזינא דמלכא ריש טורזינא חזא חלמא א"ל חזאי חלמא דעייל מחטא באצבעתי א"ל הב לי זוזא ולא יהב ליה לא א"ל ולא מידי א"ל חזאי דנפל תכלא בתרתין אצבעתי א"ל הב לי זוזא ולא יהב ליה ולא א"ל א"ל חזאי דנפל תכלא בכולה ידא א"ל נפל תכלא בכולהו שיראי שמעי בי מלכא ואתיוה לריש טורזינא קא קטלי ליה א"ל אנא אמאי אייתו להאי דהוה ידע ולא אמר אייתוהו לבר הדיא אמרי ליה אמטו זוזא דידך חרבו 56a. On a similar note, the Gemara relates that the Roman bemperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua, son of Rabbi Ḥaya: YouJews bsay that you are extremely wise.If that is so, btell me what I will see in my dream.Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: You will see the Persians capture you, and enslave you, and force you to herd unclean animals with a golden staff. He thought the entire dayabout the images described to him by Rabbi Yehoshua band that night he sawit in his dream. bKing Shapurof Persia bsaid to Shmuel: YouJews bsay that you are extremely wise.If that is so, btell me what I will see in my dream. Shmuel said to him: You will see the Romans come and take you into captivityand force you bto grind date pits in mills of gold. He thought the entire dayabout the images described to him by Shmuel, band that night he sawit in his dream.,The Gemara relates: bBar Haddaya was an interpreter of dreams.For bone who gave him a fee, he would interpretthe dream bfavorably, andfor bone who did not give him a fee, he would interpretthe dream bunfavorably.The Gemara relates: There was an incident in which both bAbaye and Rava saw anidentical bdreamand they asked bar Haddaya to interpret it. bAbaye gave him moneyand paid his fee, bwhile Rava did not give himmoney. bThey said to him:The verse: b“Your ox shall be slain before your eyesand you shall not eat thereof” (Deuteronomy 28:31) bwas read to us in our dream. Heinterpreted their dream and bto Rava he said: Your business will be lost and you will derive no pleasure from eating because of theextreme bsadness of your heart. To Abaye he said: Your business will profit and you will be unable to eat due to the joy in your heart. /b, bThey said to him:The verse, b“You shall beget sons and daughters, but they shall not be yours; for they shall go into captivity”(Deuteronomy 28:41), bwas read to usin our dream. He interpreted their dreams, and bto Rava he said itsliteral, badversesense. bTo Abaye he said: Your sons and daughters will be numerous, and your daughters will be married to outsiders and it will seem to you as if they were taken in captivity. /b,They said to him: bThe verse: “Your sons and your daughters shall be given unto another people”(Deuteronomy 28:32), bwas read to usin our dream. bTo Abaye he said: Your sons and daughters will be numerous. You say,that they should marry byour relatives andyour wife bsaysthat they should marry bher relatives and she will imposeher will bupon you and they will be givenin marriage bto her relatives, which is like another nationas far as you are concerned. bTo Rava he said: Your wife will die and your sons and daughters will come into the hands of another woman. As Rava saidthat bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba saidthat bRav said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenin the verse: b“Your sons and your daughters shall be given unto another people”? Thisrefers to bthe father’s wife,the stepmother.,They said to him: The verse: b“Go your way, eat your bread with joy,and drink your wine with a merry heart” (Ecclesiastes 9:7) bwas read to us in our dream. To Abaye he said: Your business will profit and you will eat and drink and read the verse out of the joy of your heart. To Rava he said: Your business will be lost, you will slaughter but not eat, you will drinkwine and breadpassages from the Bible in order bto allay your fears. /b,They said to him: The verse: b“You shall carry much seed out into the field,and shall gather little in; for the locust shall consume it” (Deuteronomy 28:38), bwas read to usin our dream. bTo Abaye he said from the beginningof the verse, that he will enjoy an abundant harvest. bTo Rava he said from the endof the verse, that his harvest will be destroyed.,They said to him: The verse: b“You shall have olive-trees throughout all your borders,but you shall not anoint yourself with the oil; for your olives shall drop off” (Deuteronomy 28:40), bwas read to usin our dream. And again, bto Abaye he said from the beginningof the verse. bTo Rava he said from the endof the verse.,They said to him: The verse: b“All the peoples of the earth shall seethat the name of the Lord is called upon you; and they shall be afraid of you” (Deuteronomy 28:10), bwas read to usin our dream. bTo Abaye he said: Your name will become well-known as head of the yeshiva, and you will be feared by all. To Rava he said: The king’s treasury was brokeninto band you will be apprehended as a thief, and everyone will draw an ia fortioriinference from you:If Rava who is wealthy and of distinguished lineage can be arrested on charges of theft, what will become of the rest of us? Indeed, bthe next day, the king’s treasury was burglarized, and they came and apprehended Rava. /b,Abaye and Rava bsaid to him: We saw lettuce on the mouth of the barrels. To Abaye he said: Your business will double like lettucewhose leaves are wide and wrinkled. bTo Rava he said: Your work will be bitter likea blettucestalk., bThey said to him: We saw meat on the mouth of barrels. To Abaye he said: Your wine will be sweet and everyone will come to buy meat and wine from you. To Rava he said: Your wine will spoil, and everyone will go to buy meat in order to eat with it,to dip the meat in your vinegar., bThey said to him: We saw a barrel hanging from a palm tree. To Abaye he said: Your business will rise like a palm tree. To Rava he said: Your work will be sweet like dateswhich are very cheap in Babylonia, indicating that you will be compelled to sell your merchandise at a cheap price., bThey said to him: We saw a pomegranate taking root on the mouth of barrels. To Abaye he said: Your business will increase in value like a pomegranate. To Rava he said: Your work will go sour like a pomegranate. /b, bThey said to him: We saw a barrel fall into a pit. To Abaye he said: Your merchandise will be in demand asthe adage bsays: Bread falls in a pit and is not found.In other words, everyone will seek your wares and they will not find them due to increased demand. bTo Rava he said: Your merchandise will be ruined and you will throw itaway binto a pit. /b, bThey said to him: We saw a donkey-foal standing near our heads, braying. To Abaye he said: You will be a king,that is to say, bhead of the yeshiva, and an interpreter will stand near youto repeat your teachings to the masses out loud. bTo Rava he said:I see the words ipeter ḥamor /i, first-born donkey, erased from your phylacteries.Rava bsaid to him: I myself saw it and it is there.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him:The letter ivavofthe word ipeter ḥamoris certainly erased from your phylacteries. /b, bUltimately, Rava went tobar Haddaya balone.Rava bsaid to him: I saw the outer door of my house fall.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Your wife will die,as she is the one who protects the house. Rava bsaid to him: I saw my front and back teeth fall out. He said to him: Your sons and daughters will die.Rava bsaid to him: I saw two doves that were flying. He said to him: You will divorce two women.Rava bsaid to him: I saw two turnip-heads [ igargelidei /i]. He said to him: You will receive two blows with a clubshaped like a turnip. bThat same day Rava went and sat in the study hall the entire day. He discovered these two blind people who were fighting with each other. Rava went to separate them and they struck Rava twoblows. When bthey raisedtheir staffs bto strike him an additional blow, he said:That is benough for me, Ionly bsaw two. /b, bUltimately, Rava came and gave him,bar Haddaya, ba fee. Andthen Rava, bsaid to him: I saw my wall fall.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: You will acquire property without limits.Rava bsaid to him: I saw Abaye’s house [ iappadna /i] fall and its dust covered me.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Abaye will die and his yeshiva will come to you.Rava bsaid to him: I saw my house fall, and everyone came and took the bricks. He said to him: Your teachings will be disseminated throughout the world.Rava bsaid to him: I saw that my head split and my brain fell out. He said to him: A feather will fall out of the pillownear your head. Rava bsaid to him: The Egyptian ihallel /i,the ihallelthat celebrates the Exodus, bwas read to me in a dream. He said to him: Miracles will be performed for you. /b,Bar Haddaya bwas going withRava bon a ship;bar Haddaya bsaid: Why am Igoing bwith a person for whom miracles will be performed,lest the miracle will be that the ship will sink and he alone will be saved. bAsbar Haddaya bwas climbingonto the ship ba book fell from him. Rava foundit band saw: All dreams follow the mouth, written therein. He saidto bar Haddaya: bScoundrel. It wasdependent bon you, and you caused me so much suffering. I forgive you for everything except for the daughterof bRav Ḥisda,Rava’s wife, whom bar Haddaya predicted would die. bMay it beYour bwill that this man be delivered into the hands of a kingdom that has no compassion on him. /b,Bar Haddaya bsaidto himself: bWhat will I do? We learnedthrough tradition bthat the curse of a Sage,even if bbaseless, comestrue? bAnd all the more soin the case of bRava, as he cursedme bjustifiably. He saidto himself: bI will get up and go into exile,as bthe Master said: Exile atones for transgression. /b, bHe arose and exiled himself to the seat of the Romangovernment. bHe went and sat by the entrance,where bthe keeper of the king’s wardrobestood. bThe wardrobe guard dreamed a dream.He bsaid tobar Haddaya: bI saw in the dream that a needle pierced my finger.Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Give me a izuz /i. He did not give himthe coin bsobar Haddaya bsaid nothing to him.Again, the guard bsaid to him: I saw a worm that fellbetween bmy two fingers,eating them. Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: Give me a izuz /i. He did not give himthe coin, bsobar Haddaya bsaid nothing to him.Again, the guard bsaid to him: I saw that a worm fellupon bmy entire hand,eating it. Bar Haddaya bsaid to him: A worm fellupon and ate ball the silkgarments. bThey heardof this bin the king’s palace and they brought the wardrobe keeper and werein the process of bexecuting him. He said to them: Why me? Bring the one who knew and did not saythe information that he knew. bThey broughtbar Haddaya band said to him: Because of your izuz /i, ruincame upon
36. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3a. בנס היו עומדין,אין מהוה הוו ולא הוו ידעי הי באמצע תיבה והי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים ותקינו פתוחין באמצע תיבה וסתומין בסוף תיבה,סוף סוף אלה המצות שאין נביא עתיד לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,וא"ר ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא תרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו מפי ר' אליעזר ור' יהושע תרגום של נביאים יונתן בן עוזיאל אמרו מפי חגי זכריה ומלאכי ונזדעזעה ארץ ישראל ארבע מאות פרסה על ארבע מאות פרסה יצתה בת קול ואמרה מי הוא זה שגילה סתריי לבני אדם,עמד יונתן בן עוזיאל על רגליו ואמר אני הוא שגליתי סתריך לבני אדם גלוי וידוע לפניך שלא לכבודי עשיתי ולא לכבוד בית אבא אלא לכבודך עשיתי שלא ירבו מחלוקת בישראל,ועוד ביקש לגלות תרגום של כתובים יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו דייך מ"ט משום דאית ביה קץ משיח,ותרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו והא אמר רב איקא בר אבין אמר רב חננאל אמר רב מאי דכתיב (נחמיה ח, ח) ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים מפורש ושום שכל ויבינו במקרא ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים זה מקרא מפורש זה תרגום,ושום שכל אלו הפסוקין ויבינו במקרא אלו פיסקי טעמים ואמרי לה אלו המסורת שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,מאי שנא דאורייתא דלא אזדעזעה ואדנביאי אזדעזעה דאורייתא מיפרשא מלתא דנביאי איכא מילי דמיפרשן ואיכא מילי דמסתמן דכתיב (זכריה יב, יא) ביום ההוא יגדל המספד בירושלם כמספד הדדרימון בבקעת מגידון,ואמר רב יוסף אלמלא תרגומא דהאי קרא לא ידענא מאי קאמר ביומא ההוא יסגי מספדא בירושלים כמספדא דאחאב בר עמרי דקטל יתיה הדדרימון בן טברימון ברמות גלעד וכמספדא דיאשיה בר אמון דקטל יתיה פרעה חגירא בבקעת מגידו,(דניאל י, ז) וראיתי אני דניאל לבדי את המראה והאנשים אשר היו עמי לא ראו את המראה אבל חרדה גדולה נפלה עליהם ויברחו בהחבא מאן נינהו אנשים אמר ר' ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא זה חגי זכריה ומלאכי,אינהו עדיפי מיניה ואיהו עדיף מינייהו אינהו עדיפי מיניה דאינהו נביאי ואיהו לאו נביא איהו עדיף מינייהו דאיהו חזא ואינהו לא חזו,וכי מאחר דלא חזו מ"ט איבעיתו אע"ג דאינהו לא חזו מזלייהו חזו,אמר רבינא שמע מינה האי מאן דמיבעית אע"ג דאיהו לא חזי מזליה חזי מאי תקנתיה ליקרי ק"ש ואי קאים במקום הטנופת לינשוף מדוכתיה ארבע גרמידי ואי לא לימא הכי עיזא דבי טבחי שמינא מינאי:,והשתא דאמרת מדינה ומדינה ועיר ועיר לדרשה משפחה ומשפחה למאי אתא אמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא להביא משפחות כהונה ולויה שמבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה,דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב כהנים בעבודתן ולוים בדוכנן וישראל במעמדן כולן מבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה,תניא נמי הכי כהנים בעבודתן ולוים בדוכנן וישראל במעמדן כולן מבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה מכאן סמכו של בית רבי שמבטלין תלמוד תורה ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה קל וחומר מעבודה ומה עבודה שהיא חמורה מבטלינן תלמוד תורה לא כל שכן,ועבודה חמורה מתלמוד תורה והכתיב (יהושע ה, יג) ויהי בהיות יהושע ביריחו וישא עיניו וירא והנה איש עומד לנגדו [וגו'] וישתחו (לאפיו),והיכי עביד הכי והאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי אסור לאדם שיתן שלום לחבירו בלילה חיישינן שמא שד הוא שאני התם דאמר ליה כי אני שר צבא ה',ודלמא משקרי גמירי דלא מפקי שם שמים לבטלה,אמר לו אמש בטלתם תמיד של בין הערבים ועכשיו בטלתם תלמוד תורה אמר לו על איזה מהן באת אמר לו עתה באתי מיד (יהושע ח, ט) וילן יהושע בלילה ההוא בתוך העמק אמר רבי יוחנן 3a. bstood by way of a miracle? /b,The Gemara answers: bYes,two forms of these letters bdid existat that time, bbutthe people bdid not know whichone of them was to be used bin the middle of the word and which at the end of the word, and the Seers came and establishedthat bthe openforms are to used be bin the middle of the word and the closedforms bat the end of the word. /b,The Gemara asks: bUltimately,however, doesn’t the phrase b“these are the commandments”(Leviticus 27:34) indicate bthat a prophet is not permitted to initiate any matterof ihalakha bfrom now on? Rather,it may be suggested that the final letters already existed at the time of the giving of the Torah, but over the course of time the people bforgot them,and the prophets bthencame and breestablished them. /b,§ The Gemara cites another ruling of Rabbi Yirmeya or Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba. bRabbi Yirmeya said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho said: bTheAramaic btranslation of the Torahused in the synagogues bwas composed by Onkelos the convert based onthe teachings of bRabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua. TheAramaic btranslation of the Prophets was composed by Yonatan ben Uzziel based ona tradition going back to the last prophets, bHaggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.The Gemara relates that when Yonatan ben Uzziel wrote his translation, bEretz Yisrael quakedover an area of bfour hundred parasangs [ iparsa /i] by four hundred parasangs,and ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Who is this who has revealed My secrets to mankind? /b, bYonatan ben Uzziel stood up on his feet and said: I am the one who has revealed Your secrets to mankindthrough my translation. However, bit is revealed and known to You that I did this not for myown bhonor, and not for the honor of the house ofmy bfather, but ratherit was bfor Your honorthat bI did this, so that discord not increase among the Jewish people.In the absence of an accepted translation, people will disagree about the meaning of obscure verses, but with a translation, the meaning will be clear., bAndYonatan ben Uzziel balso sought to reveal a translation of the Writings,but ba Divine Voice emerged and said to him: It is enough for youthat you translated the Prophets. The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonthat he was denied permission to translate the Writings? bBecause it has in ita revelation of bthe end,when the bMessiahwill arrive. The end is foretold in a cryptic manner in the book of Daniel, and were the book of Daniel translated, the end would become manifestly revealed to all.,The Gemara asks: bWas the translation of the Torahreally bcomposed by Onkelos the convert? Didn’t Rav Ika bar Avin saythat bRav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenwith respect to the days of Ezra: b“And they read in the book, the Torah of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and they caused them to understand the reading”(Nehemiah 8:8)? The verse should be understood as follows: b“And they read in the book, the Torah of God,” this is thescriptural btext; “distinctly,” this is the translation,indicating that they immediately translated the text into Aramaic, as was customary during public Torah readings., b“And they gave the sense,” these arethe divisions of the text into separate bverses. “And they caused them to understand the reading,” these are the cantillation notes,through which the meaning of the text is further clarified. bAnd some saythat bthese are theMasoretic btraditionswith regard to the manner in which each word is to be written. This indicates that the Aramaic translation already existed at the beginning of the Second Temple period, well before the time of Onkelos. The Gemara answers: bTheancient Aramaic translation bwas forgotten and thenOnkelos came and breestablished it. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout the translation of Prophets? Why is it that when Onkelos revealed the translation bof the Torah,Eretz Yisrael bdid not quake, andwhen he revealed the translation bof the Prophets, it quaked?The Gemara explains: bThemeaning of bmattersdiscussed bin the Torah is clear,and therefore its Aramaic translation did not reveal the meaning of passages that had not been understood previously. Conversely, in bthe Prophets, there are matters that are clear and there are matters that are obscure,and the Aramaic translation revealed the meaning of obscure passages. The Gemara cites an example of an obscure verse that is clarified by the Aramaic translation: bAs it is written: “On that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon”(Zechariah 12:11)., bAndwith regard to that verse, bRav Yosef said: Were it not for theAramaic btranslation of this verse, we would not have known what it is saying,as the Bible does not mention any incident involving Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon. The Aramaic translation reads as follows: bOn that day, the mourning in Jerusalem will be as great as the mourning for Ahab, son of Omri, who was slain by Hadadrimmon, son of Tavrimon, in Ramoth-Gilead, and like the mourning for Josiah, son of Amon, who was slain by Pharaoh the lame in the valley of Megiddon.The translation clarifies that the verse is referring to two separate incidents of mourning, and thereby clarifies the meaning of this verse.,§ The Gemara introduces another statement from the same line of tradition. The verse states: b“And I, Daniel, alone saw the vision, for the men who were with me did not see the vision; but a great trembling fell upon them, so that they fled to hide themselves”(Daniel 10:7). bWho were these men?The term “men” in the Bible indicates important people; who were they? bRabbi Yirmeya said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho said: bThese arethe prophets bHaggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. /b,The Gemara comments: In certain ways bthey,the prophets, bwere greater than him,Daniel, and in certain ways bhe,Daniel, bwas greater than them. They were greater than him, as they were prophets and he was not a prophet.Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were sent to convey the word of God to the Jewish people, while Daniel was not sent to reveal his visions to others. In another way, however, bhe was greater than them, as he sawthis vision, band they did not seethis vision, indicating that his ability to perceive obscure and cryptic visions was greater than theirs.,The Gemara asks: bSince they did not seethe vision, bwhat is the reason that they were frightened?The Gemara answers: bEven though they did not seethe vision, btheir guardian angels sawit, and therefore they sensed that there was something fearful there and they fled., bRavina said: Learn fromthis incident that with regard to bone who is frightenedfor no apparent reason, balthough he does not seeanything menacing, bhis guardian angel seesit, and therefore he should take steps in order to escape the danger. The Gemara asks: bWhat is his remedy? He should recite iShema /i,which will afford him protection. bAnd if he is standing in a place of filth,where it is prohibited to recite verses from the Torah, bhe should distance himself four cubits from hiscurrent blocationin order to escape the danger. bAnd ifhe is bnotable to do so, blet him say the followingincantation: bThe goat of the slaughterhouse is fatter than I am,and if a calamity must fall upon something, it should fall upon it.,§ After this digression, the Gemara returns to the exposition of a verse cited above. bNowthat byou have saidthat the phrases b“every province” and “every city”appear bforthe purposes of midrashic bexposition, for whatexposition do the words b“every family”appear in that same verse (Esther 9:28)? bRabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said:These words come bto include the priestly and Levitical families,and indicate bthat they cancel their servicein the Temple band come to hear the reading of the Megilla. /b, bAs Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: The priests at theirTemple bservice, the Levites on their platformin the Temple, where they sung the daily psalm, band the Israelites at their watches,i.e., the group of Israelites, corresponding to the priestly watches, who would come to Jerusalem and gather in other locations as representatives of the entire nation to observe or pray for the success of the Temple service, ball cancel their service and come to hear the reading of the Megilla. /b, bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe priests at their service, the Levites on the platform, and the Israelites at their watches, all cancel their service and come to hear the reading of the Megilla.The Sages of bthe house of RabbiYehuda HaNasi breliedupon the ihalakhastated bhereand determined bthat one cancels his Torah study and comes to hear the reading of the Megilla.They derived this principle by means of ban ia fortiori /iinference bfrom theTemple bservice: Just asone who is engaged in performing bservicein the Temple, bwhich isvery bimportant, cancelshis service in order to hear the Megilla, is it bnot all the more soobvious that one who is engaged in bTorah studycancels his study to hear the Megilla?,The Gemara asks: bIs theTemple bservice more important than Torah study? Isn’t it written: “And it came to pass when Joshua was by Jericho that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, a man stood over against himwith his sword drawn in his hand. And Joshua went over to him and said to him: Are you for us, or for our adversaries? And he said, No, but I am captain of the host of the Lord, I have come now. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, band bowed down”(Joshua 5:13–14).,The Gemara first seeks to clarify the incident described in the verse. bHow didJoshua bdo this,i.e., how could he bow to a figure he did not recognize? bDidn’t Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: It is prohibited for a person to greet his fellow at nightif he does not recognize him, as bwe are concerned that perhaps it is a demon?How did Joshua know that it was not a demon? The Gemara answers: bThere it was different, asthe visitor bsaid to him: But I am captain of the host of the Lord. /b,The Gemara asks: bPerhapsthis was a demon band he lied?The Gemara answers: It bis learnedas a tradition that demons bdo not utter the name of Heaven for naught,and therefore since the visitor had mentioned the name of God, Joshua was certain that this was indeed an angel.,As for the angel’s mission, the Gemara explains that the angel bsaid toJoshua: bYesterday,i.e., during the afternoon, byou neglected the afternoon daily offeringdue to the impending battle, band now,at night, byou have neglected Torah study,and I have come to rebuke you. Joshua bsaid to him: For which of thesesins bhave you come? He said to him: I have come now,indicating that neglecting Torah study is more severe than neglecting to sacrifice the daily offering. Joshua bimmediatelydetermined to rectify the matter, as the verses states: b“And Joshua lodged that night”(Joshua 8:9) b“in the midst of the valley[iha’emek/b]” (Joshua 8:13), and bRabbi Yoḥa said: /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

21b. על הייחוד ועל הפנויה,יחוד דאורייתא הוא דאמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יהוצדק רמז לייחוד מן התורה מניין שנאמר (דברים יג, ז) כי יסיתך אחיך בן אמך וכי בן אם מסית בן אב אינו מסית אלא לומר לך בן מתייחד עם אמו ואין אחר מתייחד עם כל עריות שבתורה,אלא אימא גזרו על ייחוד דפנויה,(מלכים א א, ה) ואדניה בן חגית מתנשא לאמר אני אמלוך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מלמד שביקש להולמו ולא הולמתו,(מלכים א א, ה) ויעש לו רכב ופרשים וחמשים איש רצים לפניו מאי רבותא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כולן נטולי טחול וחקוקי כפות רגלים היו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big לא ירבה לו סוסים אלא כדי מרכבתו וכסף וזהב לא ירבה לו מאד אלא כדי ליתן אספניא וכותב לו ס"ת לשמו יוצא למלחמה מוציאה עמה נכנס הוא מכניסה עמו יושב בדין היא עמו מיסב היא כנגדו שנאמר (דברים יז, יט) והיתה עמו וקרא בו כל ימי חייו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן (דברים יז, טז) לא ירבה לו סוסים יכול אפילו כדי מרכבתו ופרשיו תלמוד לומר לו לו אינו מרבה אבל מרבה הוא כדי רכבו ופרשיו הא מה אני מקיים סוסים סוסים הבטלנין מניין שאפילו סוס א' והוא בטל שהוא בלא ירבה ת"ל (דברים יז, טז) למען הרבות סוס,וכי מאחר דאפילו סוס אחד והוא בטל קאי בלא ירבה סוסים למה לי לעבור בל"ת על כל סוס וסוס,טעמא דכתב רחמנא לו הא לאו הכי ה"א אפילו כדי רכבו ופרשיו נמי לא לא צריכא לאפושי:,וכסף וזהב לא ירבה לו אלא כדי ליתן אספניא: ת"ר (דברים יז, יז) וכסף וזהב לא ירבה לו יכול אפילו כדי ליתן אספניא ת"ל לו לו אינו מרבה אבל מרבה הוא כדי ליתן אספניא,טעמא דכתב רחמנא לו הא לאו הכי הוה אמינא אפילו כדי ליתן אספניא נמי לא לא צריכא להרווחה,השתא דאמרת לו לדרשה (דברים יז, יז) לא ירבה לו נשים מאי דרשת ביה למעוטי הדיוטות,רב יהודה רמי כתיב (מלכים א ה, ו) ויהי לשלמה ארבעים אלף ארוות סוסים למרכבתו וכתיב (דברי הימים ב ט, כה) ויהי לשלמה ארבעת אלפים (ארוות) סוסים הא כיצד אם ארבעים אלף איצטבלאות היו כל אחד ואחד היו בו ד' אלפים ארוות סוסים ואם ד' אלפים איצטבלאות היו כל אחד ואחד היו בו ארבעים אלף ארוות סוסים,(רבי) יצחק רמי כתיב (דברי הימים ב ט, כ) אין כסף נחשב בימי שלמה למאומה וכתיב (מלכים א י, כז) ויתן) שלמה את הכסף בירושלים כאבנים לא קשיא כאן קודם שנשא שלמה את בת פרעה כאן לאחר שנשא שלמה את בת פרעה,אמר רבי יצחק בשעה שנשא שלמה את בת פרעה ירד גבריאל ונעץ קנה בים והעלה שירטון ועליו נבנה כרך גדול שברומי,ואמר ר' יצחק מפני מה לא נתגלו טעמי תורה שהרי שתי מקראות נתגלו טעמן נכשל בהן גדול העולם כתיב (דברים יז, יז) לא ירבה לו נשים אמר שלמה אני ארבה ולא אסור וכתיב (מלכים א יא, ד) ויהי לעת זקנת שלמה נשיו הטו את לבבו,וכתיב (דברים יז, טז) לא ירבה לו סוסים ואמר שלמה אני ארבה ולא אשיב וכתיב (מלכים א י, כט) ותצא מרכבה ממצרים בשש וגו':,וכותב ספר תורה לשמו: תנא ובלבד שלא יתנאה בשל אבותיו,אמר (רבא) אף על פי שהניחו לו אבותיו לאדם ספר תורה מצוה לכתוב משלו שנאמר (דברים לא, יט) ועתה כתבו לכם את השירה איתיביה אביי וכותב לו ספר תורה לשמו שלא יתנאה בשל אחרים מלך אין הדיוט לא,לא צריכא לשתי תורות וכדתניא (דברים יז, יח) וכתב לו את משנה וגו' כותב לשמו שתי תורות אחת שהיא יוצאה ונכנסת עמו ואחת שמונחת לו בבית גנזיו,אותה שיוצאה ונכנסת עמו (עושה אותה כמין קמיע ותולה בזרועו שנאמר (תהלים טז, ח) שויתי ה' לנגדי תמיד כי מימיני בל אמוט) אינו נכנס בה לא לבית המרחץ ולא לבית הכסא שנאמר (דברים יז, יט) והיתה עמו וקרא בו מקום הראוי לקראות בו,אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא מר עוקבא בתחלה ניתנה תורה לישראל בכתב עברי ולשון הקודש חזרה וניתנה להם בימי עזרא בכתב אשורית ולשון ארמי ביררו להן לישראל כתב אשורית ולשון הקודש והניחו להדיוטות כתב עברית ולשון ארמי,מאן הדיוטות אמר רב חסדא כותאי מאי כתב עברית אמר רב חסדא כתב ליבונאה,תניא רבי יוסי אומר ראוי היה עזרא שתינתן תורה על ידו לישראל אילמלא (לא) קדמו משה במשה הוא אומר (שמות יט, ג) ומשה עלה אל האלהים בעזרא הוא אומר (עזרא ז, ו) הוא עזרא עלה מבבל מה עלייה האמור כאן תורה אף עלייה האמור להלן תורה,במשה הוא אומר (דברים ד, יד) ואותי צוה ה' בעת ההיא ללמד אתכם חקים ומשפטים בעזרא הוא אומר (עזרא ז, י) כי עזרא הכין לבבו לדרוש את תורת ה' (אלהיו) ולעשות וללמד בישראל חוק ומשפט ואף על פי שלא ניתנה תורה על ידו נשתנה על ידו הכתב שנאמר 21b. babout seclusion,that a man should not be secluded with women who are forbidden to him, band about a single woman. /b,The Gemara objects: bSeclusionwith a woman forbidden by familial ties bisprohibited bby Torahlaw, and was not a rabbinic decree issued in the time of David. bAs Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: From whereis there ban allusion tothe ihalakhathat bseclusionis forbidden bby Torahlaw? bAs it is stated: “If your brother, the son of your mother, entices you”(Deuteronomy 13:7). One can ask: bBut does the son of a mother entice, and does the son of a father not entice?Why mention only the son of a mother? bRather,this verse serves bto tell youthat only ba sonmay bbe secluded with his mother.Sons are frequently with their mother, and two half-brothers of one mother consequently have the opportunity to grow close to one another. bBut anotherindividual bmay not be secluded with those with whom relations are forbidden by the Torah,including a stepmother. Therefore, half-brothers of one father spend less time together.,Since seclusion, then, is prohibited by Torah law, how did Rav say that it was prohibited by a decree issued in King David’s time? bRather, saythat bthey decreed against seclusionof a man bwith a single woman,to prevent occurrences like that of Amnon and Tamar.,Apropos Amnon, the Gemara cites traditions about another son of David: b“Now Adonijah, son of Haggith, exalted himself, saying: I will be king”(I Kings 1:5). bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The term “exalted himself” bteaches that he soughtfor the monarchy bto fit him, but it did not fit him. /b,The verse continues: b“And he prepared for himself chariots and riders and fifty people to run before him”(I Kings 1:5). The Gemara asks: bWhat is the noveltyof these actions, since other wealthy people do the same, even if they are not the sons of kings, with designs on the throne? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:What was unique was that the runners ball hadtheir bspleens removed and had the soles of their feet hollowed,removing the flesh of their feet, and these two procedures enhanced their speed., strongMISHNA: /strong The king b“shall not accumulate many horses for himself”(Deuteronomy 17:16), but bonlyenough bfor his chariotin war and in peace. b“Neither shall he greatly accumulate silver and gold for himself”(Deuteronomy 17:17), but bonly enough to providehis bsoldiers’ sustece [ iaspanya /i]. Andthe king bwrites himself a Torah scroll for his sake,as stipulated in Deuteronomy 17:18. When bhe goes out to war, he brings it out with him.When bhe comes infrom war, bhe brings it in with him.When bhe sits in judgment, it is with him.When bhe reclinesto eat, bit is opposite him, as it is stated: “And it shall be with him and he shall read it all the days of his life”(Deuteronomy 17:19)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: b“He shall not accumulate many horses [ isusim /i] for himselfnor return the people to Egypt for the sake of accumulating horses [ isus /i]” (Deuteronomy 17:16): One bmighthave thought that he shall not have bevenenough horses bfor his chariot and riders.Therefore, bthe verse states: “For himself,”teaching that only if the horses are bfor himself,for personal pleasure, bhe shall not accumulatethem, bbut he may accumulatehorses bfor his chariot and riders. How, then, do I realizethe meaning of b“horses [ isusim /i]”in the verse? It is referring to bidle horses,which serve no purpose other than glorifying the king. bFrom whereis it derived bthat evenif the king has bone horse that is idle, that hetransgresses b“he shall not accumulate”? The verse states: “For the sake of accumulating horses [ isus /i],”with the term for horses written in the singular.,The Gemara asks: bBut oncethe verse taught bthat even one horse that is idle standsto be included in the prohibition of b“he shall not accumulate,” why do Ineed the plural form b“horses”in the first clause of the verse? The Gemara responds: Its purpose is btoteach that a king would btransgressthe bprohibitionan additional time bfor each and everyidle bhorse. /b,The Gemara questions this ruling: The specific breasonfor limiting the prohibition to idle horses is bthat the Merciful One writes:“He shall not accumulate bfor himself,”which indicates, bconsequently,that if the Torah had bnotwritten bthis, I would saythat bevenenough horses bfor his chariot and ridersare bnotpermitted; and this is unreasonable, since the king needs an army. The Gemara responds: bNo,the term “for himself” is bnecessaryto teach that it is permitted for the king bto adda reasonable number of horses beyond the necessary minimum, and it is only strictly personal use that is prohibited.,The mishna teaches: b“Neither shall he greatly accumulate silver and gold for himself”(Deuteronomy 17:17), but bonly enough to providehis bsoldiers’ sustece. The Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: From the command b“neither shall he greatly accumulate silver and gold for himself,”one bmighthave thought that he should not have beven enough to providehis bsoldiers’ sustece.To counter this, bthe verse states: “For himself,”teaching that only if the silver and gold is bfor himself,for personal pleasure, bhe shall not accumulateit, bbut he may accumulate enoughsilver and gold bto providehis bsoldiers’ sustece. /b,The Gemara questions this ruling: The specific breasonfor limiting the prohibition to personal wealth accumulation is bthat the Merciful One writes:“Neither shall he greatly accumulate silver and gold bfor himself,”which indicates, bconsequently,that if the Torah had bnotwritten bthis, I would saythat it bis notpermitted for the king to accumulate beven enoughsilver and gold bto providehis bsoldiers’ sustece;this is unreasonable, since the king needs an army. The Gemara responds: bNo,the term “for himself” is bnecessaryto teach that the king is permitted btoallow for ba liberal appropriationto the military budget, so that the army has a comfortable ficial cushion.,The Gemara asks: bNow that you have saidthat the term b“for himself”in the verse is stated bforthe purpose of ba derivationfor practical ihalakha /i, which limits and narrows the verse’s scope, bwhat do you derive fromthe next phrase in the verse: b“He shall not add many wives for himself”?The Gemara answers: That usage of “for himself” serves bto exclude ordinarypeople, to specify that only the king is restricted from having many wives, but a civilian may marry as many women as he wants, provided he can support them ficially.,§ bRav Yehuda raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one verse: b“And Solomon had forty thousand stalls of horses for his chariots”(I Kings 5:6), band it is writtenin another verse: b“And Solomon had four thousand stalls for horsesand chariots” (II Chronicles 9:25). bHowcan bthesetexts be reconciled? bIf there were forty thousand large stables [ iitztablaot /i], each and every oneof them bhad in it four thousand stalls,or rows, bfor horses. Andalternatively, bif there were four thousand large stables, each and every one had in it forty thousand stalls for horses.Therefore the two verses are reconciled., bRabbi Yitzḥak raises a contradiction: It is writtenin one verse: b“Silver was not worth anything in the days of Solomon”(II Chronicles 9:20), band it is writtenin another verse: b“And the king made silver in Jerusalem as stones”(I Kings 10:27), i.e., gems. The Gemara responds: It is bnot difficult: Here,where silver was worthless, this was bbefore Solomonsinfully bmarried Pharaoh’s daughter. There,where the silver was valuable, this was bafter Solomon married Pharaoh’s daughter. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak says: When Solomon married Pharaoh’s daughter,the angel bGabriel descendedfrom Heaven band implanted a pole in the sea. Andit gradually braised up a sandbar [ isirton /i]around it, creating new, dry land, band on it the great city of Rome was built.This shows that the beginning of the Jewish people’s downfall to Rome came with Solomon’s marriage to Pharaoh’s daughter., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak says: For whatreason bwere the rationales of Torahcommandments bnot revealed?It was bbecause the rationales of two verses were revealed,and bthe greatest in the world,King Solomon, bfailed inthose matters. bIt is writtenwith regard to a king: b“He shall not add many wives for himself,that his heart should not turn away” (Deuteronomy 17:17). bSolomon said: I will add many, but I will not turn away,as he thought that it is permitted to have many wives if one is otherwise meticulous not to stray. bAndlater, bit is written: “For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heartafter other gods” (I Kings 11:4)., bAnd it isalso bwritten:“Only bhe shall not accumulate many horses for himselfnor return the people to Egypt for the sake of accumulating horses” (Deuteronomy 17:16), band Solomon said: I will accumulate many, but I will not return. And it is written: “And a chariotcame up band went out of Egypt for sixhundred shekels of silver” (I Kings 10:29), teaching that not only did Solomon violate the Torah, but he also failed in applying the rationale given for its commandments. This demonstrates the wisdom in the Torah’s usual silence as to the rationale for its mitzvot, as individuals will not mistakenly rely on their own wisdom to reason that the mitzvot are inapplicable in some circumstances.,§ The mishna teaches that the king bwrites a Torah scroll for his sake.The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta4:4): The king fulfills the mitzva bprovided that he does not beautify himself withthe Torah scroll bof his ancestorsfor this purpose, i.e., he must write his own scroll., bRava says:With regard to the mitzva for every Jew to write himself a Torah scroll, beven if a person’s ancestors left him a Torah scroll,it is ba mitzva to writea scroll bof one’s own, as it is stated: “Now, therefore, write for yourselvesthis bsongand teach it to the children of Israel” (Deuteronomy 31:19). bAbaye raised an objection to himfrom a ibaraitaconcerning the king’s Torah scroll: bAnd he writes himself a Torah scroll for his sake, so that he does not beautify himself withthe Torah scroll bof others.Read precisely, this indicates that ba king, yes,he is included in the ihalakhanot to have a scroll inherited from his ancestors suffice, but ban ordinaryperson is bnot. /b,The Gemara dismisses Abaye’s objection: bNo,the ruling of that ibaraitais bnecessaryto teach that the king is commanded to write btwo Torahscrolls; he writes one scroll as does any Jew, and he writes an additional scroll because he is king. bAndthis is bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“That he shall write for himself a secondTorah in a scroll, out of that which is before the priests the Levites” (Deuteronomy 17:18). This teaches that bhe writes for his sake two Torahscrolls, bone that goes out and comes in with himat all times, band one that is placed in his treasury. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: With regard to bthe one that goes out and comes in with him, he makes itvery small, blike an amulet, and he hangsit bon his arm, as it is stated: “I have set the Lord always before me; He is at my right hand, that I shall not be moved”(Psalms 16:8). This alludes to the small Torah scroll that is always on his right hand. bHe does not go into the bathhouse with it, nor into the bathroom, as it is stated: “And it shall be with him and he shall read from it”(Deuteronomy 17:19), meaning, it shall remain in ba place that is appropriate for reading from it. /b,§ bMar Zutra says, and some saythat it is bMar Ukvawho says: bInitially,the bTorah was given to the Jewish people in iIvritscript,the original form of the written language, band the sacred tongue,Hebrew. bIt was given to them again in the days of Ezra in iAshuritscript andthe bAramaic tongue. The Jewish people selected iAshuritscript and the sacred tonguefor the Torah scroll band left iIvritscript andthe bAramaic tongue for the commoners. /b,The Gemara asks: bWho arethese bcommoners? Rav Ḥisda said: The Samaritans [ iKutim /i].The Gemara asks: bWhat is iIvritscript? Rav Ḥisda says: iLibona’ascript. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta4:5): bRabbi Yosei says: Ezra was suitable,given his greatness, bforthe bTorah to be given by him to the Jewish people, had Moses not come firstand received the Torah already. bWith regard to Mosesthe verse bstates: “And Moses went up to God”(Exodus 19:3), and bwith regard to Ezrathe verse bstates: “This Ezra went up from Babylonand he was a ready scribe in the Torah of Moses, which the Lord, the God of Israel, had given” (Ezra 7:6). bJust asthe bgoing up stated here,with regard to Moses, is for the bTorah,which he received from God and transmitted to the Jewish people, bso too,the bgoing up stated there,with regard to Ezra, is for the bTorah,as he taught Torah to the Jewish people and was suitable to have originally merited to give it.,The ibaraitacontinues: bWith regard to Mosesthe verse bstates: “And the Lord commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and ordices”(Deuteronomy 4:14), and bwith regard to Ezrathe verse bstates: “For Ezra had set his heart to seek the Torah of the Lord his God and to do it and to teach in Israel statutes and ordices”(Ezra 7:10). bAnd even thoughthe bTorah was not givenliterally bby him, the scriptof the Torah bwas changed by him, as it is stated: /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

35a. וילכו ויבאו א"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מקיש הליכה לביאה מה ביאה בעצה רעה אף הליכה בעצה רעה,(במדבר יג, כז) ויספרו לו ויאמרו באנו וגו' וכתיב אפס כי עז העם אמר רבי יוחנן (סימן אמ"ת לבד"ו לוי"ה) משום ר"מ כל לשון הרע שאין בו דבר אמת בתחילתו אין מתקיים בסופו,(במדבר יג, ל) ויהס כלב את העם אל משה אמר רבה שהסיתן בדברים,פתח יהושע דקא משתעי אמרי ליה דין ראש קטיעה ימלל,אמר אי משתעינא אמרי בי מילתא וחסמין לי אמר להן וכי זו בלבד עשה לנו בן עמרם סברי בגנותיה קא משתעי אישתיקו,אמר להו הוציאנו ממצרים וקרע לנו את הים והאכילנו את המן אם יאמר עשו סולמות ועלו לרקיע לא נשמע לו (במדבר יג, ל) עלה נעלה וירשנו אותה וגו',והאנשים אשר עלו עמו אמרו לא נוכל וגו' אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דבר גדול דברו מרגלים באותה שעה כי חזק הוא ממנו אל תקרי ממנו אלא ממנו כביכול אפילו בעל הבית אינו יכול להוציא כליו משם,(במדבר יג, לב) ארץ אוכלת יושביה היא דרש רבא אמר הקב"ה אני חשבתיה לטובה והם חשבו לרעה אני חשבתיה לטובה דכל היכא דמטו מת חשיבא דידהו כי היכי דניטרדו ולא לשאלו אבתרייהו ואיכא דאמרי איוב נח נפשיה ואטרידו כולי עלמא בהספידא הם חשבו לרעה ארץ אוכלת יושביה היא,(במדבר יג, לג) ונהי בעינינו כחגבים וכן היינו וגו' אמר רב משרשיא מרגלים שקרי הוו בשלמא ונהי בעינינו כחגבים לחיי אלא וכן היינו בעיניהם מנא הוו ידעי,ולא היא כי הוו מברי אבילי תותי ארזי הוו מברי וכי חזינהו סלקו יתבי באילני שמעי דקאמרי קחזינן אינשי דדמו לקמצי באילני,(במדבר יד, א) ותשא כל העדה ויתנו את קולם ויבכו אמר רבה אמר רבי יוחנן אותו היום [ערב] תשעה באב היה אמר הקב"ה הן בכו בכיה של חנם ואני אקבע להם בכיה לדורות,ויאמרו כל העדה לרגום אותם באבנים וכתיב (במדבר יד, י) וכבוד ה' נראה באהל מועד אמר רבי חייא בר אבא מלמד שנטלו אבנים וזרקום כלפי מעלה,(במדבר יד, לז) וימותו האנשים מוציאי דבת הארץ רעה במגפה אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש שמתו מיתה משונה אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא מלמד שנשתרבב לשונם ונפל על טיבורם והיו תולעים יוצאות מלשונם ונכנסות בטיבורם ומטיבורם ונכנסות בלשונם ורב נחמן בר יצחק אמר באסכרה מתו,וכיון שעלה האחרון שבישראל מן הירדן חזרו מים למקומן שנאמר (יהושע ד, יח) ויהי בעלות הכהנים נושאי ארון ברית ה' מתוך הירדן נתקו כפות רגלי הכהנים אל החרבה וישובו מי הירדן למקומם וילכו כתמול שלשום על כל גדותיו,נמצא ארון ונושאיו וכהנים מצד אחד וישראל מצד אחד נשא ארון את נושאיו ועבר שנאמר (יהושע ד, יא) ויהי כאשר תם כל העם לעבור ויעבור ארון ה' והכהנים לפני העם,ועל דבר זה נענש עוזא שנאמר (דברי הימים א יג, ט) ויבאו עד גורן כידון וישלח עוזא את ידו לאחוז את הארון אמר לו הקב"ה עוזא נושאיו נשא עצמו לא כל שכן,(שמואל ב ו, ז) ויחר אף ה' בעוזא ויכהו שם על השל וגו' רבי יוחנן ור"א חד אמר על עסקי שלו וחד אמר שעשה צרכיו בפניו,(שמואל ב ו, ז) וימת שם עם ארון האלהים א"ר יוחנן עוזא בא לעוה"ב שנאמר עם ארון האלהים מה ארון לעולם קיים אף עוזא בא לעוה"ב,(שמואל ב ו, ח) ויחר לדוד על אשר פרץ ה' פרץ בעוזא א"ר אלעזר שנשתנו פניו כחררה,אלא מעתה כל היכא דכתיב ויחר ה"נ התם כתיב אף הכא לא כתיב אף,דרש רבא מפני מה נענש דוד מפני שקרא לדברי תורה זמירות שנאמר (תהלים קיט, נד) זמירות היו לי חוקיך בבית מגורי,אמר לו הקב"ה ד"ת שכתוב בהן (משלי כג, ה) התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו אתה קורא אותן זמירות הריני מכשילך בדבר שאפילו תינוקות של בית רבן יודעין אותו דכתיב (במדבר ז, ט) ולבני קהת לא נתן כי עבודת הקודש וגו' ואיהו אתייה בעגלתא,(שמואל א ו, יט) ויך באנשי בית שמש כי ראו בארון משום דראו ויך (אלהים) רבי אבהו ורבי אלעזר חד אמר קוצרין ומשתחוים היו וחד אמר מילי נמי אמור 35a. bAnd they went and they came”(Numbers 13:25–26). bRabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai:This verse blikenstheir bgoing totheir bcoming. Just astheir bcomingback was bwith wicked counsel, so too,their bgoingto Eretz Yisrael was bwith wicked counsel. /b,The Torah states: b“And they told him, and said: We cameto the land to which you sent us, and it also flows with milk and honey” (Numbers 13:27), bandthen bit is written: “However the peoplethat dwell in the land bare fierce”(Numbers 13:28). Why did the spies praise the land and then slander it? bRabbi Yoḥa saysthree statements bin the name of Rabbi Meir,represented by the bmnemonicdevice: bTruth, alone, borrowing.The first statement answers this question: bAny slander that does not begin with a truthful statement ultimately does not stand,i.e., it is not accepted by others.,The verse states: b“And Caleb stilled [ ivayyahas /i] the people toward Moses”(Numbers 13:30). bRabba says:This means bthat he persuaded them [ ihesitan /i] withhis bwords. iVayyahasand ihesitanshare the same root in Hebrew.,How did he do so? bJoshua beganto address the people, and bas he was speaking they said to him: Should thisperson, who has ba severed head,as he has no children, bspeakto the people about entering Eretz Yisrael?,Caleb bsaidto himself: bIf I speak they willalso bsay something about me and stop mefrom speaking. He began to speak and bsaid to them: Andis bthisthe bonlything that bthe son of Amram,Moses, bhas done to us? They thoughtthat he wanted bto relatesomething bto the discredit ofMoses, and bthey were silent. /b, bHethen bsaid to them: He took us out of Egypt, and split the sea for us, and fed us the manna. If he saysto us: bBuild ladders and climb to the heavens, should we not listen to him? “We should go up at once,”even to the heavens, b“and possess it”(Numbers 13:30).,The verses continue: b“But the men that went up with him said: We are not ableto go up against the people; as they are stronger than us” (Numbers 13:31). bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says: The spies said a serious statement at that moment.When they said: b“They are stronger,” do not readthe phrase as: Stronger bthan us [ imimmennu /i],but bratherread it as: Stronger bthan Him [ imimmennu /i],meaning that beven the Homeowner,God, bis unable to remove His belongings from there, as it were.The spies were speaking heresy and claiming that the Canaanites were stronger than God Himself.,The spies said: b“It is a land that consumes its inhabitants”(Numbers 13:32). bRava taught: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I intendedthe land to appear to consume its inhabitants bfortheir own bgood, but they consideredthis proof that the land was bbad. I intendedit bfortheir bgoodby causing many people to die there so bthat anywhere thatthe spies barrived, the most important of them died, so thatthe Canaanites bwould be preoccupiedwith mourning band would not inquire about them. And there arethose bwho saythat God caused bJobto bdieat that time, band everyonein Canaan bwas preoccupied withhis beulogy,and did not pay attention to the spies. However, the spies bconsideredthis proof that the land was bbadand said: b“It is a land that consumes its inhabitants.” /b,The spies said: b“And we were like grasshoppers in our own eyes, and so were wein their eyes” (Numbers 13:33). bRav Mesharshiyya says: The spies were liars. Granted,to say: b“We were like grasshoppers in our own eyes,” is well, butto say: b“And so were we in their eyes,” from wherecould btheyhave bknownthis?,The Gemara responds: bButthat bis not so,as bwhenthe Canaanites bwere having the mourners’ meal, they had the meal beneath cedar trees, and whenthe spies bsaw them they climbed upthe btreesand bsat inthem. From there bthey heardthe Canaanites bsaying: We see people wholook blike grasshoppers in the trees. /b,The verse states: b“And all the congregation lifted up their voice and cried”(Numbers 14:1). bRabba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: That day was the eve of the Ninth of Av,and bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said:On that day bthey wept a gratuitous weeping, so I will establishthat day bfor themas a day of bweeping forthe future bgenerations. /b,The verse states: b“But all the congregation bade stone them with stones”(Numbers 14:10), band it is writtenimmediately afterward: b“When the glory of the Lord appeared in the Tent of Meeting”(Numbers 14:10). bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says:This bteaches that they took stones and threw them upwardas if to throw them at God.,The verse states: b“And those men who brought out an evil report of the land, died by the plague before the Lord”(Numbers 14:37). bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says:This means bthat they died an unusual death. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa saysthat bRabbi Sheila Ish Kefar Temarta taught:This bteaches that their tongues were stretched outfrom their mouths band fell upon their navels, and worms were crawling out of their tongues and entering their navels, andworms were likewise coming bout of their navels and entering their tongues.This is the painful death that they suffered. bAnd Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: They died of diphtheria,which causes one to choke to death.,§ The Gemara returns to discuss the entry of the Jewish people into Eretz Yisrael. bAnd once the last one of the Jewish people ascended out of the Jordan, the water returned to its place, as it is stated: “And it came to pass, as the priests that bore the Ark of the Covet of the Lord came up out of the midst of the Jordan, as soon as the soles of the priests’ feet were drawn up unto the dry ground, that the waters of the Jordan returned to their place, and went over all its banks, as it had before”(Joshua 4:18). The Gemara understands that the priests who carried the Ark stood in the water until all of the Jewish people passed through the Jordan. Once all the Jewish people had reached the other side of the Jordan, the priests stepped back from the water and the Jordan returned to its natural state., bIt followsthat bthe Ark and its bearers and the priestswere bon one sideof the Jordan, the east side, bandthe rest of bthe Jewish peoplewere bon the other side,the west side. Subsequently, bthe Ark carried its bearersin the air band crossedthe Jordan, bas it is stated: “When all the people were completely passed over, the Ark of the Lord passed on, and the priests, before the people”(Joshua 4:11)., bAnd over this matter Uzzah was punishedfor not taking proper care of the Ark, bas it is stated: “And when they came to the threshing floor of Chidon, Uzzah put forth his hand to hold the Ark;for the oxen stumbled” (I Chronicles 13:9). bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Uzzah,the Ark bcarried its bearerswhen it crossed the Jordan; ball the more sois it bnotclear that it can carry bitself? /b,§ The verse states: b“And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Uzzah; andGod bsmote him there for his error [ ihashal /i]”(II Samuel 6:7). bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazardisagreed over the interpretation of this verse. bOne says:God smote him bfor his forgetfulness [ ishalo /i],because he did not remember that the Ark can carry itself. bAnd one says:God smote him bbecause helifted the edges [ ishulayyim /i] of his garment in front of the Ark and brelieved himself in its presence. /b,The verse states: b“And he died there with the Ark of God”(II Samuel 6:7). bRabbi Yoḥa says: Uzzah entered the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “With the Ark of God.” Just as the Ark exists forever, so too, Uzzah entered the World-to-Come. /b,The verse states: b“And David was displeased [ ivayyiḥar /i] because the Lord had broken forth upon Uzzah”(II Samuel 6:8). bRabbi Elazar says: iVayyiḥarmeans bthat his face changedcolors and darkened blike baked bread [ iḥarara /i]from displeasure.,The Gemara questions this statement: bIf that is so, anywhere thatthe word ivayyiḥaris written,including when it is referring to God, should it be interpreted this way bas well?The Gemara answers: bThere, it is written:“And bthe angerof the Lord was kindled [ ivayyiḥar af]” (II Samuel 6:7), whereas bhere, the anger [ iaf] is not written,but only ivayyiḥar /i. Therefore it is interpreted differently., bRava taught: For whatreason bwas David punishedwith Uzzah’s death? He was punished bbecause he called matters of Torah: Songs, as it is stated: “Your statutes have been my songs in the house of my pilgrimage”(Psalms 119:54)., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Matters of Torahare so difficult and demanding bthat it is written: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone”(Proverbs 23:5), i.e., one whose eyes stray from the Torah even for a moment will forget it, and byou callthem bsongs?For this reason bI will cause you to stumble in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is writtenwith regard to the wagons brought to the Tabernacle: b“And to the descendants of Kohath he did not give, because the service of the holy thingsbelongs to them; they carry them upon their shoulders” (Numbers 7:9). bAndalthough the Ark clearly must be carried on people’s shoulders, David erred and bbrought it in a wagon. /b,§ When the Philistines returned the Ark during the period of Samuel, it is stated: b“And He smote of the men of Beit Shemesh because they had gazed upon the Ark of the Lord”(I Samuel 6:19). The Gemara asks: bBecause they gazedupon it, bGod smotethem? Why did their action warrant this punishment? bRabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Elazardisagreed with regard to the interpretation of the verse. bOne saysthat they were punished because bthey were reapingtheir crops band prostrating themselvesat the same time; they did not stop working in reverence for the Ark. bAnd one saysthat bthey also spokedenigrating bwords: /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20a. והכי קאמר מחצלת הקנים גדולה עשאה לשכיבה מקבלת טומאה ואין מסככין בה טעמא דעשאה לשכיבה הא סתמא נעשה כמי שעשאה לסיכוך מסככין בה (קטנה עשאה לסיכוך מסככין בה טעמא דעשאה לסיכוך הא סתמא נעשה כמי שעשאה לשכיבה ואין מסככין בה) ואתא ר' אליעזר למימר אחת קטנה ואחת גדולה סתמא כשרה לסיכוך,אמר ליה אביי אי הכי ר' אליעזר אומר אחת קטנה ואחת גדולה אחת גדולה ואחת קטנה מיבעי ליה,ועוד כי פליגי בגדולה הוא דפליגי ורבי אליעזר לחומרא דתניא מחצלת הקנים בגדולה מסככין בה ר' אליעזר אומר אם אינה מקבלת טומאה מסככין בה,אלא אמר רב פפא בקטנה כולי עלמא לא פליגי דסתמא לשכיבה כי פליגי בגדולה ת"ק סבר סתם גדולה לסיכוך ורבי אליעזר סבר סתם גדולה נמי לשכיבה,ומאי עשאה לשכיבה דקאמר הכי קאמר סתם עשייתה נמי לשכיבה עד דעביד לסיכוך,ת"ר מחצלת של שיפה ושל גמי גדולה מסככין בה קטנה אין מסככין בה של קנים ושל חילת גדולה מסככין בה ארוגה אין מסככין בה,רבי ישמעאל בר' יוסי אומר משום אביו אחת זו ואחת זו מסככין בה וכן היה רבי דוסא אומר כדבריו,תנן התם כל החוצלות מטמאין טמא מת דברי ר' דוסא וחכמים אומרים מדרס,מדרס אין טמא מת לא והא אנן תנן כל המטמא מדרס מטמא טמא מת אימא אף מדרס,מאי חוצלות אמר רב אבדימי בר המדורי מרזובלי מאי מרזובלי אמר ר' אבא מזבלי ר' שמעון בן לקיש אומר מחצלות ממש,ואזדא ריש לקיש לטעמיה דאמר ריש לקיש הריני כפרת רבי חייא ובניו שבתחלה כשנשתכחה תורה מישראל עלה עזרא מבבל ויסדה חזרה ונשתכחה עלה הלל הבבלי ויסדה חזרה ונשתכחה עלו רבי חייא ובניו ויסדוה וכן אמר רבי חייא ובניו לא נחלקו רבי דוסא וחכמים על מחצלות של אושא 20a. bAnd this is whatthe mishna bis saying:With regard to ba large mat of reeds,if bone produced it forthe purpose of blyingupon it, bit is susceptible to ritual impurity, and onemay bnot roofa isukka bwith it.The breasonis that bone produced itspecifically bforthe purpose of blyingupon it; however, by inference, a mat that one produced bwithout designation becomes asa mat bproduced for roofing,and one may broofa isukka bwith it.With regard to ba small mat of reeds,if bone produced it for roofing, onemay broofa isukka bwith it.The breasonis that bone produced itspecifically bfor roofing;however, by inference, a mat that one produced bwithout designation becomes asa mat bproduced forthe purpose of blyingupon it, bandone may bnot roofa isukka bwith it. And Rabbi Eliezer comes to saythat bboth a smallmat band a largeone produced bwithout designationare bfitfor roofing., bAbaye said to him: If so,if their dispute is only with regard to a small mat, then instead of saying: bRabbi Eliezer says: Both a smallmat band a largemat, the mishna bneededto say: bBoth a largemat band a smallmat. In a phrase with the format: Both this and that, one typically mentions the more obvious item first. Why then, does Rabbi Eliezer mention the small mat first, if it is with regard to the small mat that they disagree?, bAnd furthermore,there is proof that bwhen they disagree,it bis with regard to a largemat, band Rabbi Eliezer’sopinion is ba stringencyand not a leniency, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba reed mat, with a largemat bonemay broofa isukka /i. bRabbi Eliezer says: If it is not susceptible to ritual impurity, onemay broofhis isukka bwith it.Apparently, Rabbi Eliezer holds that without designation, one may not roof his isukkawith a large mat., bRather, Rav Pappa said:Rava’s proposed resolution is rejected. Rather, bwith regard to a smallmat, beveryone agrees thatif it was produced bwithout designation,presumably it is bforthe purpose of blyingupon it. bWhen they disagree, is with regard to a largemat: bThe first itannaholdsthat ba largemat produced bwithout designationis presumably bfor roofing, and Rabbi Eliezer holdsthat ba largemat produced bwithout designationis balsopresumably bforthe purpose of blyingupon it., bWhat,then, is the meaning of: If bone produced it forthe purpose of blyingupon it, bthatRabbi Eliezer bstates? This is whathe bis saying: Making mats without designation is also forthe purpose of blyingupon it, buntil one makesit specifically bfor roofing. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: In the case of ba mat [ imaḥatzelet /i]woven bof papyrus or bulrushes,if it is ba largemat, bonemay broofa isukka bwith it,as it is not typically produced for the purpose of lying upon it. If it is ba smallmat, bonemay bnot roofa isukka bwith it,as it is typically produced for the purpose of lying upon it. However, with regard to a mat produced bofordinary breeds or reedsspecifically used bfor plaiting,if the mat is plaited with ba large,coarse weave, bonemay broofa isukka bwith it,as it was certainly not produced for the purpose of lying upon it. If it is bwovenwith a small, fine weave, bonemay bnot roofthe isukka bwith it,as typically mats of this sort are woven only for the purpose of lying upon them., bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said in the name of his father: Both with thisplaited mat band with thatwoven mat, bonemay broofa isukka /i, as without specific designation otherwise they are not produced for the purpose of lying upon them, and therefore they are ritually pure. bAnd likewise, Rabbi Dosa would say in accordance with his statement. /b, bWe learnedin a mishna bthere: Alltypes of iḥotzalotcan become ritually impurewith bimpurityimparted by ba corpse.Since their legal status is that of a vessel, they become a primary source of ritual impurity. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Dosa. And the Rabbis say:They become impure with the impurity imparted by btreading.If a izavlies or sits on one of the iḥotzalot /i, they become a primary source of ritual impurity, like a chair or bed of a izav /i.,The Gemara asks: Impurity imparted by btreading, yes; impurityimparted by ba corpse, no? But didn’t we learnin a mishna: bAny item that becomes ritually impurewith impurity imparted bby treadingalso bbecomes ritually impurewith other types of impurity, including impurity bimparted by a corpse,although the reverse is not necessarily so. The opinion of the Rabbis is difficult. The Gemara explains: Emend the mishna and bsay:They become ritually impure bevenwith the impurity imparted by btreading.These mats are not merely nondescript vessels, which become primary sources of ritual impurity through exposure to a corpse, they are vessels designated for sitting and lying upon them, and therefore they also become primary sources of ritual impurity if a izavsits or lies upon them.,The Gemara asks about the term used in the mishna: bWhatis the meaning of iḥotzalot /i? Rav Avdimi bar Hamduri said:They are imarzovelei /i.The Gemara is unfamiliar with the term and asks: bWhatis the meaning of imarzovelei /i? Rabbi Abba said:They are called imezablei /iin Babylonia. They are leather sacks used by shepherds to feed their animals. Shepherds place them under their heads when lying down. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: iḤotzalotare a different term for bactual mats. /b,The Gemara notes: bAnd Reish Lakish follows hisline of breasoningstated elsewhere, bas Reish Lakish said: I am the atonement for Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons, as initially, whensome of the bTorahlaws were bforgotten fromthe bJewish peoplein Eretz Yisrael, bEzra ascended from Babylonia and reestablishedthe forgotten laws. Parts of the Torah were bagain forgottenin Eretz Yisrael, and bHillel the Babylonian ascended and reestablishedthe forgotten sections. When parts of the Torah were bagain forgottenin Eretz Yisrael, bRabbi Ḥiyya and his sons ascended and reestablishedthe forgotten sections. This expression of deference toward Rabbi Ḥiyya introduces the ihalakhathat Reish Lakish is citing in his name. bAnd so said Rabbi Ḥiyya and his sons: Rabbi Dosa and the Rabbis did not disagree concerning thesoft bmats of Usha, /b
40. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. למתבייש מאחרים והיכא מנח להו אמר רבי יצחק במקום תפילין שנאמר (ישעיהו סא, ג) לשום לאבילי ציון לתת להם פאר תחת אפר:,רחוב תיבה ושקים אפר אפר קבורה ומוריה סימן: למה יוצאין לרחוב ר' חייא בר אבא אמר לומר זעקנו בצנעא ולא נענינו נבזה עצמנו בפרהסיא,ריש לקיש אמר גלינו גלותינו מכפרת עלינו מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דגלי מבי כנישתא לבי כנישתא,ולמה מוציאין את התיבה לרחובה של עיר אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי לומר כלי צנוע היה לנו ונתבזה בעוונינו,ולמה מתכסין בשקים אמר ר' חייא בר אבא לומר הרי אנו חשובין כבהמה ולמה נותנין אפר מקלה על גבי תיבה אמר רבי יהודה בן פזי כלומר (תהלים צא, טו) עמו אנכי בצרה ריש לקיש אמר (ישעיהו סג, ט) בכל צרתם לו צר אמר ר' זירא מריש כי הוה חזינא להו לרבנן דיהבי אפר מקלה על גבי תיבה מזדעזע לי כוליה גופאי,ולמה נותנין אפר בראש כל אחד ואחד פליגי בה ר' לוי בר חמא ור' חנינא חד אמר הרי אנו חשובין לפניך כאפר וחד אמר כדי שיזכור לנו אפרו של יצחק מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו עפר סתם,למה יוצאין לבית הקברות פליגי בה ר' לוי בר חמא ור' חנינא חד אמר הרי אנו חשובין לפניך כמתים וחד אמר כדי שיבקשו עלינו מתים רחמים מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו קברי עכו"ם,מאי (דברי הימים ב ג, א) הר המוריה פליגי בה ר' לוי בר חמא ור' חנינא חד אמר הר שיצא ממנו הוראה לישראל וחד אמר הר שיצא ממנו מורא לעובדי כוכבים:,הזקן שבהן אומר לפניהן דברי כבושין: ת"ר אם יש זקן אומר זקן ואם לאו אומר חכם ואם לאו אומר אדם של צורה אטו זקן דקאמרי אף על גב דלאו חכם הוא אמר אביי הכי קאמר אם יש זקן והוא חכם אומר זקן והוא חכם ואם לאו אומר חכם ואם לאו אומר אדם של צורה,אחינו לא שק ותענית גורמים אלא תשובה ומעשים טובים גורמים שכן מצינו באנשי נינוה שלא נאמר בהם וירא האלהים את שקם ואת תעניתם אלא (יונה ג, י) וירא האלהים את מעשיהם כי שבו מדרכם הרעה,(יונה ג, ח) ויתכסו שקים האדם והבהמה מאי הוו עבדי אסרא הבהמות לחוד ואת הוולדות לחוד אמרו לפניו רבונו של עולם אם אין אתה מרחם עלינו אין אנו מרחמים על אלו,(יונה ג, ח) ויקראו אל אלהים בחזקה מאי אמור אמרו לפניו רבונו של עולם עלוב ושאינו עלוב צדיק ורשע מי נדחה מפני מי,(יונה ג, ח) וישובו איש מדרכו הרעה ומן החמס אשר בכפיהם מאי ומן החמס אשר בכפיהם אמר שמואל אפילו גזל מריש ובנאו בבירה מקעקע כל הבירה כולה ומחזיר מריש לבעליו,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אדם שיש בידו עבירה ומתודה ואינו חוזר בה למה הוא דומה לאדם שתופס שרץ בידו שאפי' טובל בכל מימות שבעולם לא עלתה לו טבילה זרקו מידו כיון שטבל בארבעים סאה מיד עלתה לו טבילה,שנאמר (משלי כח, יג) ומודה ועוזב ירוחם ואומר (איכה ג, מא) נשא לבבינו אל כפים אל אל בשמים:,עמדו בתפלה מורידין לפני התיבה זקן כו': תנו רבנן עמדו בתפלה אע"פ שיש שם זקן וחכם אין מורידין לפני התיבה אלא אדם הרגיל (איזהו רגיל) ר' יהודה אומר מטופל ואין לו ויש לו יגיעה בשדה וביתו ריקם,ופרקו נאה ושפל ברך ומרוצה לעם ויש לו נעימה וקולו ערב ובקי לקרות בתורה ובנביאים ובכתובים ולשנות במדרש בהלכות ובאגדות ובקי בכל הברכות כולן ויהבו ביה רבנן עינייהו בר' יצחק בר אמי 16a. bone who is humiliated by others.Accordingly, ashes are placed on the heads of the leaders of the community by others, to increase the appearance of their suffering. The Gemara asks: bAnd whereexactly barethe ashes bplacedupon their heads? bRabbi Yitzḥak said: On the placeof the bphylacteriesof the head, bas it is stated: “To appoint to those who mourn in Zion, to give to them an ornament [ ipe’er /i] instead of ashes”(Isaiah 61:3). This verse likens the placement of ashes on one’s head to an ornament, and the term ipe’eris traditionally interpreted as a reference to phylacteries.,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicdevice for the forthcoming statements. bSquare; ark; and sackcloth; ashes; ashes; cemetery; and Moriah.The Gemara asks: bWhy do they go out to the square? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said:This is a symbolic action, as though bto say: We cried out in privateinside the synagogue band we were not answered. We willtherefore bdisgrace ourselves in public,so that our prayers will be heard., bReish Lakish saidthat the move into the square symbolizes exile, as though they are saying: bWe have been exiled; may our exile atone for us.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthese two explanations? The Gemara answers that the practical difference between bthemis in a case bwhere they are exiled,i.e., they move, bfromone bsynagogue toanother bsynagogue.According to the opinion of Reish Lakish, they have exiled themselves, and therefore this ceremony is adequate. Conversely, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba maintains that as the ritual is performed in private, it is insufficient.,The Gemara asks another question concerning the meaning of the ritual. bAnd why do they remove the ark to the city square? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:This is done as though bto say: We had a modest vessel,which was always kept concealed, bbut it has beenpublicly bexposed due to our transgressions. /b,The Gemara further asks: bAnd why do they cover themselves in sackcloth? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said:This is as though bto say: We are consideredbefore You blike animals,which are likewise covered with hide. bAnd why do they place burnt ashes on top of the ark? Rabbi Yehuda ben Pazi said:This is bas though to sayin God’s name: b“I will be with him in trouble”(Psalms 91:15). bReish Lakish saidthat the same idea can be derived from a different verse: b“In all their affliction, He was afflicted”(Isaiah 63:9). By placing burnt ash on the ark, which is the symbol of the Divine Presence, it is as though God Himself joins the Jews in their pain. bRabbi Zeira said: At first, when I saw the Sages place burnt ashes upon the ark, my entire body trembledfrom the intensity of the event., bAnd why do they place ashes upon the head of each and everyindividual? bRabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina disagree with regard to thismatter. bOne saidthat this is as though to say: bWe are considered like ashes before You. And one saidthat these ashes are placed bin order to remindGod of bthe ashes ofour forefather bIsaac, on our behalf.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthese two explanations? The Gemara answers that the practical difference bbetween themis in a case where one placed bordinary earthupon the heads of the individuals instead of ashes. Although earth does symbolize self-nullification and may be used according to the first explanation, it has no connection to the sacrifice of Isaac, and therefore it does not satisfy the second explanation.,The Gemara further asks: bAnd why do they go out to the cemeteryon a fast day? Again, bRabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina disagree with regard to thismatter. bOne saidthis is as though to say: bWe are like the dead before You. And one saidthat one goes out to the cemetery bin order thatthe deceased will brequest mercy on our behalf.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetween them?The Gemara answers that the practical difference bbetween themconcerns bgraves of gentiles.If the purpose of going to graves is to say that they stand before God like the dead, graves of gentiles would suffice. However, if they go to the cemetery for the deceased to ask for mercy on their behalf, they should visit specifically Jewish graves.,§ Apropos disputes between Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina, the Gemara mentions another dispute between them. bWhatis the meaning of the name bMount [ iHar /i] Moriah,the Temple Mount? bRabbi Levi bar Ḥama and Rabbi Ḥanina disagreewith regard to bthismatter. bOne saidthat the name alludes to the Great Sanhedrin that convened there, as it is the bmountain from which instruction [ ihora’a /i] went out to the Jewish people. And one saidthat it is the bmountain from which fear [ imora /i] went out to the nations of the world,as this place signifies God’s choice of the Jewish people.,§ The mishna taught: bThe eldest ofthe community bsays to them statements of reproof. The Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIf there is an elder,then bthe elder saysthe admonition, band if not, a Sage saysthe admonition. bAnd if not, a person ofimposing bappearance saysit. The Gemara asks: bIs that to saythat the belderof whom bwe spokeis preferred to a scholar simply by virtue of his age, beven though he is not a scholar? Abaye saidthat bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying: If there is an elder, and he isalso ba scholar,this belder scholar saysthe admonition. bAnd if not,even a young bscholar saysthe reproof. bAnd ifthere is bnoscholar of any kind available, ba person ofimposing bappearance saysit.,What does he say? bOur brothers,it is bnot sackcloth and fastingthat bcauseatonement for our sins. bRather, repentance and good deedswill bcauseour atonement. This is bas we find with regard to the people of Nineveh, that it is not stated about them: And God saw their sackcloth and their fasting. Rather,the verse states: b“And God saw their deeds, that they had turned from their evil way”(Jonah 3:10).,§ Apropos the repentance of the inhabitants of Nineveh, the Gemara discusses their behavior further. The verse states: b“But let them be covered with sackcloth, both man and beast”(Jonah 3:8). bWhat did they do? They confined thefemale banimals alone, andtheir byoung alone,in a different place. bTheythen bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, if You do not have mercy on us, we will not have mercy on theseanimals. Even if we are not worthy of Your mercy, these animals have not sinned.,It is further stated with regard to the people of Nineveh: b“And let them cry mightily to God”(Jonah 3:8). The Gemara asks: bWhat did they saythat could be described as calling out “mightily”? The Gemara explains that bthey said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe,if there is a dispute between ba submissive one and an intractable one,or between ba righteous one and a wicked one, who must yield before whom?Certainly the righteous forgives the wicked. Likewise, You must have mercy on us.,The verse states: b“And let them turn, every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands”(Jonah 3:8). bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase b“and from the violence that is in their hands”? Shmuel saidthat the king of Nineveh proclaimed: bEvenif bone stole a beam and built it intohis bbuilding,he must btear down the entire building and return the beam to its owner.Although the Sages decreed that one need only pay ficial compensation in a case of this kind, these people wanted to repent completely by removing any remt of stolen property from their possession.,§ Similarly, bRav Adda bar Ahava said: A person who has a transgression in his hand, and he confesses but does not repent forhis sin, bto what is he comparable? To a person who holds in his handa dead bcreeping animal,which renders one ritually impure by contact. bAsin this situation, beven if he immerses in all the waters of the world, his immersion is ineffective for him,as long as the source of ritual impurity remains in his hand. However, if he has bthrownthe animal bfrom his hand, once he has immersed ina ritual bath of bforty ise’a /i, the immersion is immediately effective for him. /b, bAs it is stated:“He who covers his transgressions shall not prosper, bbut whoever confesses and forsakes them shall obtain mercy”(Proverbs 28:13). That is, confession alone is futile, but one who also abandons his transgressions will receive mercy. bAnd it stateselsewhere: b“Let us lift up our heart with our hands to God in Heaven”(Lamentations 3:41), which likewise indicates that it is not enough to lift one’s hands in prayer; rather, one must also raise his heart and return to God.,§ The mishna teaches: bThey stood for prayer,and the congregation appoints ban elder. The Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey stood for prayer,and beven if there isa man bthere who is elderly and a scholar, theyappoint bto descend before the arkas prayer leader bonly a person who is accustomedto lead in prayer. Who is considered an accustomed prayer leader in this sense? bRabbi Yehuda says:One who has ficially bdependentchildren bbut he does not havethe means to support them, band he hasno choice but to btoil in the field, and whose house is empty,and who will therefore pray for rain with great devotion.,Rabbi Yehuda continues with his depiction of the worthy prayer leader. bAnd his youth was becoming, andhe is bhumble and accepted by the people,as he is likable. bAndfurthermore, he must be bfamiliar with songs and his voice pleasant, andhe is bexpert in reading the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings, andhe knows how bto study midrash, ihalakha /i, and iaggada /i. Andfinally, he must be bexpert in all of the blessings.Clearly, it is hard to find someone with all these qualities. bAndthe Gemara relates that when this worthy person was described, those bSagespresent bturned their eyes toward Rav Yitzḥak bar Ami,who possessed all of these virtues.
41. Methodius of Olympus, Symposium, 9.2-9.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

42. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 34 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

43. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4, 14

44. Anon., Seder Eliyahu Rabbah, 29

45. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 2.6

46. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 31, 14

47. Anon., Tanhuma, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 247, 248
abraham Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 247
akiba Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 239, 240, 241, 242, 251, 256
albeck, h. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 37, 240
allegory Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
angel Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 247, 248, 251
angels Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 231
antithesis Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 221
art Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 247
artisans, artists Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
athens König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 156
atonement Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 37
basilica-type synagogue, plan, mosaic, mosaic, artistic motifs Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
body, connection to sin Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 231
body Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
chastity Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 231
churches, byzantine period Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
clouds of glory, cloud Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28, 239, 240, 241, 242, 247, 248, 251, 256, 270, 301
commandments Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 36, 77
commemoration Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 77, 270
day of atonement Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 293
decorations (in synagogue) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
desert Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28, 71, 76, 77, 241, 242, 247, 248, 256, 270, 301
diaspora Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 71, 301
diversity, canonical and textual Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24
eating Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 270
ekphrasis König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 156
eliezer Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 239, 240, 241, 251
enthronement festival Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28
epstein, j.n. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 241
equinox Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 71
eschatology Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 256, 301
ethrog Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
etrog, citron Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 75
exodus Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 192; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28, 76, 77, 239, 240, 241, 242, 248, 251, 270
ezra Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 192; Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 36, 37, 38, 39, 77
feast of the tabernacles König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 156
fertility Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28
festival of booths Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 193
festival of tabernacles Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 293
friends, friendship Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
gardens' König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 156
goodenough, e.r. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 247
haqhel Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 15
harvest, ingathering Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 15, 28, 36, 39, 76
homily Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 247
idolatry Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
incense shovel Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
jesus Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28
josephus Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 75, 76, 77, 247, 270
joy, rejoicing Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 36, 71, 270
jubilees Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 270
judgment, eschatological Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 231
judgment Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 301
knohl, i. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 15
law, dead sea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24
law, second temple judaism Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24
lieberman, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 38
liturgical calendar Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 293
love Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 239, 251, 256
lulav, in synagogue art Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28, 38, 76, 77
menorah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
messianism Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 256
methodius, imitation of plato König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 156
methodius, millenarian character König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 156
methodius, setting König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 156
methodius, symposium König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 156
methodius of olympus Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 231
midrash halakhah Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24
millennial kingdom Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 231
moral transformation Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 231
moses, as legal authority Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24
moses Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 36, 75, 76, 77, 247, 248; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
mowinckel, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28, 37, 38
myrtle Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 38, 75
myth Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28
nations Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 248
nehemiah Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 36, 37, 38
ninth of ab Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 293
orientation of synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
parokhet (curtain, mantle, kila) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
patai, r. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28
patterson, l. Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 231
paul (st.) Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 221
pentateuch Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
pentecost Neusner, The Idea of History in Rabbinic Judaism (2004) 293
performance Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 193
pesaḥ, passover Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28, 71, 76, 77
philo Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 71, 76, 247, 270
pilgrimage Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 15, 28
pleasure Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
praise Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 71
prayer Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 270
protection Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 75, 76, 77, 239, 247, 256, 270, 301
psalms Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28, 71
qaraites Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 36, 38, 77
rain Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 28, 76
religious experience Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 239
resurrection, as eradicator of sin Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 231
sabbath Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 15
sacrifices Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 38, 75
samaritans, art Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
samaritans, inscriptions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
samaritans, proseuche, synagogues Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
sanctity of, doors, doorways Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
sepphoris synagogue, orientation Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
serpent Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
shade Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 239, 270, 301
shekhina Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 247, 256
shofar Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
sinai Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
sleeping Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 270
socrates, socratic dialogue König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 156
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
sukka Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 15, 28, 36, 37, 38, 39, 71, 75, 76, 77, 239, 240, 241, 242, 251, 256, 270, 301
sukkoth Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 192
symbol Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 240, 241, 256, 270, 301
synagogue Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 247
targum Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 240, 247, 248, 301
tel bet shean Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 216
temple Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 15, 36, 38, 39, 75, 77, 251, 256, 270
textual authority, in the hebrew bible Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 24
tolkowsky, s. Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 75
trees Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 38
virtue Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 231; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 9
wanderings Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 192, 193
willow Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 75
wine Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 15
world to come Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 256, 301
yom kippur Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 38
ḥuppa Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 242