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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6296
Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 20.18


וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה דָּוָה וְגִלָּה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ אֶת־מְקֹרָהּ הֶעֱרָה וְהִיא גִּלְּתָה אֶת־מְקוֹר דָּמֶיהָ וְנִכְרְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃And if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, and shall uncover her nakedness—he hath made naked her fountain, and she hath uncovered the fountain of her blood—both of them shall be cut off from among their people.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

40 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.3-7.4, 14.29, 17.1-17.8, 18.19, 20.14, 21.5, 21.10-21.14, 22.28-22.29, 23.10-23.15, 24.8, 26.1-26.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.3. וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם בִּתְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לִבְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ לֹא־תִקַּח לִבְנֶךָ׃ 7.4. כִּי־יָסִיר אֶת־בִּנְךָ מֵאַחֲרַי וְעָבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְהִשְׁמִידְךָ מַהֵר׃ 14.29. וּבָא הַלֵּוִי כִּי אֵין־לוֹ חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה עִמָּךְ וְהַגֵּר וְהַיָּתוֹם וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְאָכְלוּ וְשָׂבֵעוּ לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־מַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה׃ 17.1. לֹא־תִזְבַּח לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שׁוֹר וָשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בוֹ מוּם כֹּל דָּבָר רָע כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא׃ 17.1. וְעָשִׂיתָ עַל־פִּי הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יַגִּידוּ לְךָ מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה וְשָׁמַרְתָּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר יוֹרוּךָ׃ 17.2. לְבִלְתִּי רוּם־לְבָבוֹ מֵאֶחָיו וּלְבִלְתִּי סוּר מִן־הַמִּצְוָה יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיךְ יָמִים עַל־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ הוּא וּבָנָיו בְּקֶרֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.2. כִּי־יִמָּצֵא בְקִרְבְּךָ בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֶת־הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲבֹר בְּרִיתוֹ׃ 17.3. וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּעֲבֹד אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לָהֶם וְלַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹ לַיָּרֵחַ אוֹ לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צִוִּיתִי׃ 17.4. וְהֻגַּד־לְךָ וְשָׁמָעְתָּ וְדָרַשְׁתָּ הֵיטֵב וְהִנֵּה אֱמֶת נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר נֶעֶשְׂתָה הַתּוֹעֵבָה הַזֹּאת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.5. וְהוֹצֵאתָ אֶת־הָאִישׁ הַהוּא אוֹ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה הַהִוא אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הָרָע הַזֶּה אֶל־שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֶת־הָאִישׁ אוֹ אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה וּסְקַלְתָּם בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתוּ׃ 17.6. עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃ 17.7. יַד הָעֵדִים תִּהְיֶה־בּוֹ בָרִאשֹׁנָה לַהֲמִיתוֹ וְיַד כָּל־הָעָם בָּאַחֲרֹנָה וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 17.8. כִּי יִפָּלֵא מִמְּךָ דָבָר לַמִּשְׁפָּט בֵּין־דָּם לְדָם בֵּין־דִּין לְדִין וּבֵין נֶגַע לָנֶגַע דִּבְרֵי רִיבֹת בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְקַמְתָּ וְעָלִיתָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ׃ 18.19. וְהָיָה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִשְׁמַע אֶל־דְּבָרַי אֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר בִּשְׁמִי אָנֹכִי אֶדְרֹשׁ מֵעִמּוֹ׃ 20.14. רַק הַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְהַבְּהֵמָה וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בָעִיר כָּל־שְׁלָלָהּ תָּבֹז לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־שְׁלַל אֹיְבֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָךְ׃ 21.5. וְנִגְּשׁוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי כִּי בָם בָּחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשָׁרְתוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וְעַל־פִּיהֶם יִהְיֶה כָּל־רִיב וְכָל־נָגַע׃ 21.11. וְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה אֵשֶׁת יְפַת־תֹּאַר וְחָשַׁקְתָּ בָהּ וְלָקַחְתָּ לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.12. וַהֲבֵאתָהּ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְגִלְּחָה אֶת־רֹאשָׁהּ וְעָשְׂתָה אֶת־צִפָּרְנֶיהָ׃ 21.13. וְהֵסִירָה אֶת־שִׂמְלַת שִׁבְיָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וְיָשְׁבָה בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבָכְתָה אֶת־אָבִיהָ וְאֶת־אִמָּהּ יֶרַח יָמִים וְאַחַר כֵּן תָּבוֹא אֵלֶיהָ וּבְעַלְתָּהּ וְהָיְתָה לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.14. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא חָפַצְתָּ בָּהּ וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ לְנַפְשָׁהּ וּמָכֹר לֹא־תִמְכְּרֶנָּה בַּכָּסֶף לֹא־תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנִּיתָהּ׃ 22.28. כִּי־יִמְצָא אִישׁ נער [נַעֲרָה] בְתוּלָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אֹרָשָׂה וּתְפָשָׂהּ וְשָׁכַב עִמָּהּ וְנִמְצָאוּ׃ 22.29. וְנָתַן הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִמָּהּ לַאֲבִי הנער [הַנַּעֲרָה] חֲמִשִּׁים כָּסֶף וְלוֹ־תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנָּהּ לֹא־יוּכַל שַׁלְּחָה כָּל־יָמָיו׃ 23.11. כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְךָ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִהְיֶה טָהוֹר מִקְּרֵה־לָיְלָה וְיָצָא אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה לֹא יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 23.12. וְהָיָה לִפְנוֹת־עֶרֶב יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וּכְבֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 23.13. וְיָד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָצָאתָ שָׁמָּה חוּץ׃ 23.14. וְיָתֵד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ עַל־אֲזֵנֶךָ וְהָיָה בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ חוּץ וְחָפַרְתָּה בָהּ וְשַׁבְתָּ וְכִסִּיתָ אֶת־צֵאָתֶךָ׃ 23.15. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּקֶרֶב מַחֲנֶךָ לְהַצִּילְךָ וְלָתֵת אֹיְבֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהָיָה מַחֲנֶיךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹא־יִרְאֶה בְךָ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְשָׁב מֵאַחֲרֶיךָ׃ 24.8. הִשָּׁמֶר בְּנֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת לִשְׁמֹר מְאֹד וְלַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יוֹרוּ אֶתְכֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִם תִּשְׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 26.1. וְהָיָה כִּי־תָבוֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּ בָּהּ׃ 26.1. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה הֵבֵאתִי אֶת־רֵאשִׁית פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לִּי יְהוָה וְהִנַּחְתּוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 26.2. וְלָקַחְתָּ מֵרֵאשִׁית כָּל־פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר תָּבִיא מֵאַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וְשַׂמְתָּ בַטֶּנֶא וְהָלַכְתָּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם׃ 26.3. וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו הִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי־בָאתִי אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ לָתֶת לָנוּ׃ 26.4. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַטֶּנֶא מִיָּדֶךָ וְהִנִּיחוֹ לִפְנֵי מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 26.5. וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃ 26.6. וַיָּרֵעוּ אֹתָנוּ הַמִּצְרִים וַיְעַנּוּנוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃ 26.7. וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃ 26.8. וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמֹרָא גָּדֹל וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים׃ 26.9. וַיְבִאֵנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּתֶּן־לָנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 26.11. וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְכָל־הַטּוֹב אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּלְבֵיתֶךָ אַתָּה וְהַלֵּוִי וְהַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃ 26.12. כִּי תְכַלֶּה לַעְשֵׂר אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר תְּבוּאָתְךָ בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁת שְׁנַת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְנָתַתָּה לַלֵּוִי לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה וְאָכְלוּ בִשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְשָׂבֵעוּ׃ 26.13. וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בִּעַרְתִּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִן־הַבַּיִת וְגַם נְתַתִּיו לַלֵּוִי וְלַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה כְּכָל־מִצְוָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי לֹא־עָבַרְתִּי מִמִּצְוֺתֶיךָ וְלֹא שָׁכָחְתִּי׃ 26.14. לֹא־אָכַלְתִּי בְאֹנִי מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא־בִעַרְתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ בְּטָמֵא וְלֹא־נָתַתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ לְמֵת שָׁמַעְתִּי בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי עָשִׂיתִי כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי׃ 26.15. הַשְׁקִיפָה מִמְּעוֹן קָדְשְׁךָ מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבָרֵךְ אֶת־עַמְּךָ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵת הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה לָנוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 7.3. neither shalt thou make marriages with them: thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son." 7.4. For he will turn away thy son from following Me, that they may serve other gods; so will the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He will destroy thee quickly." 14.29. And the Levite, because he hath no portion nor inheritance with thee, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that are within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hand which thou doest." 17.1. Thou shalt not sacrifice unto the LORD thy God an ox, or a sheep, wherein is a blemish, even any evil thing; for that is an abomination unto the LORD thy God." 17.2. If there be found in the midst of thee, within any of thy gates which the LORD thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that doeth that which is evil in the sight of the LORD thy God, in transgressing His covet," 17.3. and hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, or the sun, or the moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have commanded not;" 17.4. and it be told thee, and thou hear it, then shalt thou inquire diligently, and, behold, if it be true, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in Israel;" 17.5. then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, who have done this evil thing, unto thy gates, even the man or the woman; and thou shalt stone them with stones, that they die." 17.6. At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death." 17.7. The hand of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterward the hand of all the people. So thou shalt put away the evil from the midst of thee." 17.8. If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, even matters of controversy within thy gates; then shalt thou arise, and get thee up unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose." 18.19. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto My words which he shall speak in My name, I will require it of him." 20.14. but the women, and the little ones, and the cattle, and all that is in the city, even all the spoil thereof, shalt thou take for a prey unto thyself; and thou shalt eat the spoil of thine enemies, which the LORD thy God hath given thee." 21.5. And the priests the sons of Levi shall come near—for them the LORD thy God hath chosen to minister unto Him, and to bless in the name of the LORD; and according to their word shall every controversy and every stroke be." 21.10. When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God delivereth them into thy hands, and thou carriest them away captive," 21.11. and seest among the captives a woman of goodly form, and thou hast a desire unto her, and wouldest take her to thee to wife;" 21.12. then thou shalt bring her home to thy house; and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails;" 21.13. and she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thy house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month; and after that thou mayest go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife." 21.14. And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not deal with her as a slave, because thou hast humbled her." 22.28. If a man find a damsel that is a virgin, that is not betrothed, and lay hold on her, and lie with her, and they be found;" 22.29. then the man that lay with her shall give unto the damsel’s father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall be his wife, because he hath humbled her; he may not put her away all his days." 23.10. When thou goest forth in camp against thine enemies, then thou shalt keep thee from every evil thing." 23.11. If there be among you any man, that is not clean by reason of that which chanceth him by night, then shall he go abroad out of the camp, he shall not come within the camp." 23.12. But it shall be, when evening cometh on, he shall bathe himself in water; and when the sun is down, he may come within the camp." 23.13. Thou shalt have a place also without the camp, whither thou shalt go forth abroad." 23.14. And thou shalt have a paddle among thy weapons; and it shall be, when thou sittest down abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, and shalt turn back and cover that which cometh from thee." 23.15. For the LORD thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall thy camp be holy; that He see no unseemly thing in thee, and turn away from thee." 24.8. Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that thou observe diligently, and do according to all that the priests the Levites shall teach you, as I commanded them, so ye shall observe to do." 26.1. And it shall be, when thou art come in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, and dost possess it, and dwell therein;" 26.2. that thou shalt take of the first of all the fruit of the ground, which thou shalt bring in from thy land that the LORD thy God giveth thee; and thou shalt put it in a basket and shalt go unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to cause His name to dwell there." 26.3. And thou shalt come unto the priest that shall be in those days, and say unto him: ‘I profess this day unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto the land which the LORD swore unto our fathers to give us.’" 26.4. And the priest shall take the basket out of thy hand, and set it down before the altar of the LORD thy God." 26.5. And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous." 26.6. And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage." 26.7. And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression." 26.8. And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders." 26.9. And He hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey." 26.10. And now, behold, I have brought the first of the fruit of the land, which Thou, O LORD, hast given me.’ And thou shalt set it down before the LORD thy God, and worship before the LORD thy God." 26.11. And thou shalt rejoice in all the good which the LORD thy God hath given unto thee, and unto thy house, thou, and the Levite, and the stranger that is in the midst of thee." 26.12. When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithe of thine increase in the third year, which is the year of tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, to the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be satisfied," 26.13. then thou shalt say before the LORD thy God: ‘I have put away the hallowed things out of my house, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, according to all Thy commandment which Thou hast commanded me; I have not transgressed any of Thy commandments, neither have I forgotten them." 26.14. I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, neither have I put away thereof, being unclean, nor given thereof for the dead; I have hearkened to the voice of the LORD my God, I have done according to all that Thou hast commanded me." 26.15. Look forth from Thy holy habitation, from heaven, and bless Thy people Israel, and the land which Thou hast given us, as Thou didst swear unto our fathers, a land flowing with milk and honey.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.1-12.28, 12.30, 12.38, 12.43-12.50, 23.18-23.19, 23.25, 29.9, 30.10, 31.14, 34.16, 34.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. וְלֹא־תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר וְהַנֹּתָר מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר בָּאֵשׁ תִּשְׂרֹפוּ׃ 12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר׃ 12.2. כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 12.2. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃ 12.3. וַיָּקָם פַּרְעֹה לַיְלָה הוּא וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וְכָל־מִצְרַיִם וַתְּהִי צְעָקָה גְדֹלָה בְּמִצְרָיִם כִּי־אֵין בַּיִת אֲשֶׁר אֵין־שָׁם מֵת׃ 12.3. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בֶּעָשֹׂר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְיִקְחוּ לָהֶם אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית־אָבֹת שֶׂה לַבָּיִת׃ 12.4. וּמוֹשַׁב בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָשְׁבוּ בְּמִצְרָיִם שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 12.4. וְאִם־יִמְעַט הַבַּיִת מִהְיֹת מִשֶּׂה וְלָקַח הוּא וּשְׁכֵנוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ בְּמִכְסַת נְפָשֹׁת אִישׁ לְפִי אָכְלוֹ תָּכֹסּוּ עַל־הַשֶּׂה׃ 12.5. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן כֵּן עָשׂוּ׃ 12.5. שֶׂה תָמִים זָכָר בֶּן־שָׁנָה יִהְיֶה לָכֶם מִן־הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן־הָעִזִּים תִּקָּחוּ׃ 12.6. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְשָׁחֲטוּ אֹתוֹ כֹּל קְהַל עֲדַת־יִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 12.7. וְלָקְחוּ מִן־הַדָּם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת וְעַל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף עַל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר־יֹאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ בָּהֶם׃ 12.8. וְאָכְלוּ אֶת־הַבָּשָׂר בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה צְלִי־אֵשׁ וּמַצּוֹת עַל־מְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ׃ 12.9. אַל־תֹּאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ נָא וּבָשֵׁל מְבֻשָּׁל בַּמָּיִם כִּי אִם־צְלִי־אֵשׁ רֹאשׁוֹ עַל־כְּרָעָיו וְעַל־קִרְבּוֹ׃ 12.11. וְכָכָה תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים נַעֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמַקֶּלְכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 12.12. וְעָבַרְתִּי בְאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה וְהִכֵּיתִי כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מֵאָדָם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־אֱלֹהֵי מִצְרַיִם אֶעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 12.13. וְהָיָה הַדָּם לָכֶם לְאֹת עַל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם שָׁם וְרָאִיתִי אֶת־הַדָּם וּפָסַחְתִּי עֲלֵכֶם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה בָכֶם נֶגֶף לְמַשְׁחִית בְּהַכֹּתִי בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 12.14. וְהָיָה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לָכֶם לְזִכָּרוֹן וְחַגֹּתֶם אֹתוֹ חַג לַיהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם תְּחָגֻּהוּ׃ 12.15. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מַצּוֹת תֹּאכֵלוּ אַךְ בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן תַּשְׁבִּיתוּ שְּׂאֹר מִבָּתֵּיכֶם כִּי כָּל־אֹכֵל חָמֵץ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִיּוֹם הָרִאשֹׁן עַד־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִעִי׃ 12.16. וּבַיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־מְלָאכָה לֹא־יֵעָשֶׂה בָהֶם אַךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הוּא לְבַדּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה לָכֶם׃ 12.17. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַמַּצּוֹת כִּי בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה הוֹצֵאתִי אֶת־צִבְאוֹתֵיכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם׃ 12.18. בָּרִאשֹׁן בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב תֹּאכְלוּ מַצֹּת עַד יוֹם הָאֶחָד וְעֶשְׂרִים לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעָרֶב׃ 12.19. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים שְׂאֹר לֹא יִמָּצֵא בְּבָתֵּיכֶם כִּי כָּל־אֹכֵל מַחְמֶצֶת וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּגֵּר וּבְאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ׃ 12.21. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה לְכָל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם מִשְׁכוּ וּקְחוּ לָכֶם צֹאן לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתֵיכֶם וְשַׁחֲטוּ הַפָּסַח׃ 12.22. וּלְקַחְתֶּם אֲגֻדַּת אֵזוֹב וּטְבַלְתֶּם בַּדָּם אֲשֶׁר־בַּסַּף וְהִגַּעְתֶּם אֶל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְאֶל־שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת מִן־הַדָּם אֲשֶׁר בַּסָּף וְאַתֶּם לֹא תֵצְאוּ אִישׁ מִפֶּתַח־בֵּיתוֹ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 12.23. וְעָבַר יְהוָה לִנְגֹּף אֶת־מִצְרַיִם וְרָאָה אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְעַל שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת וּפָסַח יְהוָה עַל־הַפֶּתַח וְלֹא יִתֵּן הַמַּשְׁחִית לָבֹא אֶל־בָּתֵּיכֶם לִנְגֹּף׃ 12.24. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְחָק־לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 12.25. וְהָיָה כִּי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן יְהוָה לָכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הָעֲבֹדָה הַזֹּאת׃ 12.26. וְהָיָה כִּי־יֹאמְרוּ אֲלֵיכֶם בְּנֵיכֶם מָה הָעֲבֹדָה הַזֹּאת לָכֶם׃ 12.27. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם זֶבַח־פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה אֲשֶׁר פָּסַח עַל־בָּתֵּי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמִצְרַיִם בְּנָגְפּוֹ אֶת־מִצְרַיִם וְאֶת־בָּתֵּינוּ הִצִּיל וַיִּקֹּד הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ׃ 12.28. וַיֵּלְכוּ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן כֵּן עָשׂוּ׃ 12.38. וְגַם־עֵרֶב רַב עָלָה אִתָּם וְצֹאן וּבָקָר מִקְנֶה כָּבֵד מְאֹד׃ 12.43. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן זֹאת חֻקַּת הַפָּסַח כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.44. וְכָל־עֶבֶד אִישׁ מִקְנַת־כָּסֶף וּמַלְתָּה אֹתוֹ אָז יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.45. תּוֹשָׁב וְשָׂכִיר לֹא־יֹאכַל־בּוֹ׃ 12.46. בְּבַיִת אֶחָד יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹצִיא מִן־הַבַּיִת מִן־הַבָּשָׂר חוּצָה וְעֶצֶם לֹא תִשְׁבְּרוּ־בוֹ׃ 12.47. כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יַעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 12.48. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה הִמּוֹל לוֹ כָל־זָכָר וְאָז יִקְרַב לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ וְהָיָה כְּאֶזְרַח הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עָרֵל לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 12.49. תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָאֶזְרָח וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 23.18. לֹא־תִזְבַּח עַל־חָמֵץ דַּם־זִבְחִי וְלֹא־יָלִין חֵלֶב־חַגִּי עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 23.19. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 23.25. וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּבֵרַךְ אֶת־לַחְמְךָ וְאֶת־מֵימֶיךָ וַהֲסִרֹתִי מַחֲלָה מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 29.9. וְחָגַרְתָּ אֹתָם אַבְנֵט אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו וְחָבַשְׁתָּ לָהֶם מִגְבָּעֹת וְהָיְתָה לָהֶם כְּהֻנָּה לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם וּמִלֵּאתָ יַד־אַהֲרֹן וְיַד־בָּנָיו׃ 31.14. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת כִּי קֹדֶשׁ הִוא לָכֶם מְחַלְלֶיהָ מוֹת יוּמָת כִּי כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה בָהּ מְלָאכָה וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִקֶּרֶב עַמֶּיהָ׃ 34.16. וְלָקַחְתָּ מִבְּנֹתָיו לְבָנֶיךָ וְזָנוּ בְנֹתָיו אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וְהִזְנוּ אֶת־בָּנֶיךָ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 34.26. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 12.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying:" 12.2. ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you." 12.3. Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’houses, a lamb for a household;" 12.4. and if the household be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbour next unto his house take one according to the number of the souls; according to every man’s eating ye shall make your count for the lamb." 12.5. Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year; ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats;" 12.6. and ye shall keep it unto the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at dusk." 12.7. And they shall take of the blood, and put it on the two side-posts and on the lintel, upon the houses wherein they shall eat it." 12.8. And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; with bitter herbs they shall eat it." 12.9. Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; its head with its legs and with the inwards thereof." 12.10. And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; but that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire." 12.11. And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste—it is the LORD’s passover." 12.12. For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the LORD." 12.13. And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and there shall no plague be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt." 12.14. And this day shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordice for ever." 12.15. Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; howbeit the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses; for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel." 12.16. And in the first day there shall be to you a holy convocation, and in the seventh day a holy convocation; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you." 12.17. And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt; therefore shall ye observe this day throughout your generations by an ordice for ever." 12.18. In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even." 12.19. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses; for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a sojourner, or one that is born in the land." 12.20. Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.’" 12.21. Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them: ‘Draw out, and take you lambs according to your families, and kill the passover lamb." 12.22. And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side-posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning." 12.23. For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when He seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side-posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you." 12.24. And ye shall observe this thing for an ordice to thee and to thy sons for ever." 12.25. And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as He hath promised, that ye shall keep this service." 12.26. And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you: What mean ye by this service?" 12.27. that ye shall say: It is the sacrifice of the LORD’s passover, for that He passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when He smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses.’ And the people bowed the head and worshipped." 12.28. And the children of Israel went and did so; as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they." 12.30. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead." 12.38. And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle." 12.43. And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron: ‘This is the ordice of the passover: there shall no alien eat thereof;" 12.44. but every man’s servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof." 12.45. A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof." 12.46. In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof." 12.47. All the congregation of Israel shall keep it." 12.48. And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof." 12.49. One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.’" 12.50. Thus did all the children of Israel; as the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they." 23.18. Thou shalt not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the fat of My feast remain all night until the morning." 23.19. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk." 23.25. And ye shall serve the LORD your God, and He will bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee." 29.9. And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and bind head-tires on them; and they shall have the priesthood by a perpetual statute; and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons." 30.10. And Aaron shall make atonement upon the horns of it once in the year; with the blood of the sin-offering of atonement once in the year shall he make atonement for it throughout your generations; it is most holy unto the LORD.’" 31.14. Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore, for it is holy unto you; every one that profaneth it shall surely be put to death; for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people." 34.16. and thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go astray after their gods, and make thy sons go astray after their gods." 34.26. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.9, 7.11, 17.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃ 7.11. בִּשְׁנַת שֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה לְחַיֵּי־נֹחַ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּשִׁבְעָה־עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִבְקְעוּ כָּל־מַעְיְנֹת תְּהוֹם רַבָּה וַאֲרֻבֹּת הַשָּׁמַיִם נִפְתָּחוּ׃ 17.14. וְעָרֵל זָכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמּוֹל אֶת־בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי הֵפַר׃ 6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God." 7.11. In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened." 17.14. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken My covet.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּאן קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִים אוֹ מִן־הָעִזִּים לְעֹלָה זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ׃ 1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֵלָיו מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר׃ 1.1. And the LORD called unto Moses, and spoke unto him out of the tent of meeting, saying:"
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 4.18, 5.1-5.4, 9.1-9.4, 9.13, 15.20, 15.30-15.31, 18.13, 18.21-18.24, 19.10, 19.14-19.15, 19.20-19.21, 29.7-29.9, 29.11, 31.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.18. אַל־תַּכְרִיתוּ אֶת־שֵׁבֶט מִשְׁפְּחֹת הַקְּהָתִי מִתּוֹךְ הַלְוִיִּם׃ 5.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.1. וְאִישׁ אֶת־קֳדָשָׁיו לוֹ יִהְיוּ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִתֵּן לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 5.2. וְאַתְּ כִּי שָׂטִית תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ וְכִי נִטְמֵאת וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ בָּךְ אֶת־שְׁכָבְתּוֹ מִבַּלְעֲדֵי אִישֵׁךְ׃ 5.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִישַׁלְּחוּ מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה כָּל־צָרוּעַ וְכָל־זָב וְכֹל טָמֵא לָנָפֶשׁ׃ 5.3. מִזָּכָר עַד־נְקֵבָה תְּשַׁלֵּחוּ אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה תְּשַׁלְּחוּם וְלֹא יְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־מַחֲנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 5.3. אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲבֹר עָלָיו רוּחַ קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהֶעֱמִיד אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְעָשָׂה לָהּ הַכֹּהֵן אֵת כָּל־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 5.4. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ־כֵן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ אוֹתָם אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֵּן עָשׂוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 9.1. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־יִהְיֶה־טָמֵא לָנֶפֶשׁ אוֹ בְדֶרֶךְ רְחֹקָה לָכֶם אוֹ לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה׃ 9.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְמִדְבַּר־סִינַי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 9.2. וְיַעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַפָּסַח בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃ 9.2. וְיֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הֶעָנָן יָמִים מִסְפָּר עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן עַל־פִּי יְהוָה יַחֲנוּ וְעַל־פִּי יְהוָה יִסָּעוּ׃ 9.3. בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר־יוֹם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ כְּכָל־חֻקֹּתָיו וּכְכָל־מִשְׁפָּטָיו תַּעֲשׂוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 9.4. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשֹׂת הַפָּסַח׃ 9.13. וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־הוּא טָהוֹר וּבְדֶרֶךְ לֹא־הָיָה וְחָדַל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַפֶּסַח וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ כִּי קָרְבַּן יְהוָה לֹא הִקְרִיב בְּמֹעֲדוֹ חֶטְאוֹ יִשָּׂא הָאִישׁ הַהוּא׃ 15.31. כִּי דְבַר־יְהוָה בָּזָה וְאֶת־מִצְוָתוֹ הֵפַר הִכָּרֵת תִּכָּרֵת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא עֲוֺנָה בָהּ׃ 18.13. בִּכּוּרֵי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר־יָבִיאוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ יִהְיֶה כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכֲלֶנּוּ׃ 18.21. וְלִבְנֵי לֵוִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְנַחֲלָה חֵלֶף עֲבֹדָתָם אֲשֶׁר־הֵם עֹבְדִים אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 18.22. וְלֹא־יִקְרְבוּ עוֹד בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לָשֵׂאת חֵטְא לָמוּת׃ 18.23. וְעָבַד הַלֵּוִי הוּא אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהֵם יִשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וּבְתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃ 18.24. כִּי אֶת־מַעְשַׂר בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ לַיהוָה תְּרוּמָה נָתַתִּי לַלְוִיִּם לְנַחֲלָה עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לָהֶם בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃ 19.14. זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה אָדָם כִּי־יָמוּת בְּאֹהֶל כָּל־הַבָּא אֶל־הָאֹהֶל וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאֹהֶל יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.15. וְכֹל כְּלִי פָתוּחַ אֲשֶׁר אֵין־צָמִיד פָּתִיל עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא׃ 19.21. וְהָיְתָה לָּהֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם וּמַזֵּה מֵי־הַנִּדָּה יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵי הַנִּדָּה יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 29.7. וּבֶעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הַזֶּה מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כָּל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ׃ 29.8. וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹלָה לַיהוָה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר אֶחָד אַיִל אֶחָד כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שִׁבְעָה תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ לָכֶם׃ 29.9. וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל הָאֶחָד׃ 29.11. שְׂעִיר־עִזִּים אֶחָד חַטָּאת מִלְּבַד חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים וְעֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתָהּ וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם׃ 31.23. כָּל־דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־יָבֹא בָאֵשׁ תַּעֲבִירוּ בָאֵשׁ וְטָהֵר אַךְ בְּמֵי נִדָּה יִתְחַטָּא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָבֹא בָּאֵשׁ תַּעֲבִירוּ בַמָּיִם׃ 4.18. ’Cut ye not off the tribe of the families of the Kohathites from among the Levites;" 5.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.2. ’Command the children of Israel, that they put out of the camp every leper, and every one that hath an issue, and whosoever is unclean by the dead;" 5.3. both male and female shall ye put out, without the camp shall ye put them; that they defile not their camp, in the midst whereof I dwell.’" 5.4. And the children of Israel did so, and put them out without the camp; as the LORD spoke unto Moses, so did the children of Israel." 9.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, saying:" 9.2. ’Let the children of Israel keep the passover in its appointed season." 9.3. In the fourteenth day of this month, at dusk, ye shall keep it in its appointed season; according to all the statutes of it, and according to all the ordices thereof, shall ye keep it.’" 9.4. And Moses spoke unto the children of Israel, that they should keep the passover." 9.13. But the man that is clean, and is not on a journey, and forbeareth to keep the passover, that soul shall be cut off from his people; because he brought not the offering of the LORD in its appointed season, that man shall bear his sin." 15.20. of the first of your dough ye shall set apart a cake for a gift; as that which is set apart of the threshing-floor, so shall ye set it apart." 15.30. But the soul that doeth aught with a high hand, whether he be home-born or a stranger, the same blasphemeth the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people." 15.31. Because he hath despised the word of the LORD, and hath broken His commandment; that soul shall utterly be cut off, his iniquity shall be upon him." 18.13. The first-ripe fruits of all that is in their land, which they bring unto the LORD, shall be thine; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof." 18.21. And unto the children of Levi, behold, I have given all the tithe in Israel for an inheritance, in return for their service which they serve, even the service of the tent of meeting." 18.22. And henceforth the children of Israel shall not come nigh the tent of meeting, lest they bear sin, and die." 18.23. But the Levites alone shall do the service of the tent of meeting, and they shall bear their iniquity; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, and among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance." 18.24. For the tithe of the children of Israel, which they set apart as a gift unto the LORD, I have given to the Levites for an inheritance; therefore I have said unto them: Among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance.’" 19.10. And he that gathereth the ashes of the heifer shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; and it shall be unto the children of Israel, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among them, for a statute for ever." 19.14. This is the law: when a man dieth in a tent, every one that cometh into the tent, and every thing that is in the tent, shall be unclean seven days." 19.15. And every open vessel, which hath no covering close-bound upon it, is unclean." 19.20. But the man that shall be unclean, and shall not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off from the midst of the assembly, because he hath defiled the sanctuary of the LORD; the water of sprinkling hath not been dashed against him: he is unclean." 19.21. And it shall be a perpetual statute unto them; and he that sprinkleth the water of sprinkling shall wash his clothes; and he that toucheth the water of sprinkling shall be unclean until even." 29.7. And on the tenth day of this seventh month ye shall have a holy convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls; ye shall do no manner of work;" 29.8. but ye shall present a burnt-offering unto the LORD for a sweet savour: one young bullock, one ram, seven he-lambs of the first year; they shall be unto you without blemish;" 29.9. and their meal-offering, fine flour mingled with oil, three tenth parts for the bullock, two tenth parts for the one ram," 29.11. one he-goat for a sin-offering; beside the sin-offering of atonement, and the continual burnt-offering, and the meal-offering thereof, and their drink-offerings." 31.23. every thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make to go through the fire, and it shall be clean; nevertheless it shall be purified with the water of sprinkling; and all that abideth not the fire ye shall make to go through the water."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 11.1-11.11, 16.30-16.31 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.1. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אָהַב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וְאֶת־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת עַמֳּנִיּוֹת אֲדֹמִיֹּת צֵדְנִיֹּת חִתִּיֹּת׃ 11.1. וְצִוָּה אֵלָיו עַל־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי־לֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא שָׁמַר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 11.2. וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ אֲחוֹת תַּחְפְּנֵיס אֵת גְּנֻבַת בְּנוֹ וַתִּגְמְלֵהוּ תַחְפְּנֵס בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי גְנֻבַת בֵּית פַּרְעֹה בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי פַרְעֹה׃ 11.2. מִן־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־תָבֹאוּ בָהֶם וְהֵם לֹא־יָבֹאוּ בָכֶם אָכֵן יַטּוּ אֶת־לְבַבְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּהֶם דָּבַק שְׁלֹמֹה לְאַהֲבָה׃ 11.3. וַיְהִי־לוֹ נָשִׁים שָׂרוֹת שְׁבַע מֵאוֹת וּפִלַגְשִׁים שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַיַּטּוּ נָשָׁיו אֶת־לִבּוֹ׃ 11.3. וַיִּתְפֹּשׂ אֲחִיָּה בַּשַּׂלְמָה הַחֲדָשָׁה אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו וַיִּקְרָעֶהָ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר קְרָעִים׃ 11.4. וַיְהִי לְעֵת זִקְנַת שְׁלֹמֹה נָשָׁיו הִטּוּ אֶת־לְבָבוֹ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְלֹא־הָיָה לְבָבוֹ שָׁלֵם עִם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו כִּלְבַב דָּוִיד אָבִיו׃ 11.4. וַיְבַקֵּשׁ שְׁלֹמֹה לְהָמִית אֶת־יָרָבְעָם וַיָּקָם יָרָבְעָם וַיִּבְרַח מִצְרַיִם אֶל־שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וַיְהִי בְמִצְרַיִם עַד־מוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 11.5. וַיֵּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה אַחֲרֵי עַשְׁתֹּרֶת אֱלֹהֵי צִדֹנִים וְאַחֲרֵי מִלְכֹּם שִׁקֻּץ עַמֹּנִים׃ 11.6. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא מִלֵּא אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה כְּדָוִד אָבִיו׃ 11.7. אָז יִבְנֶה שְׁלֹמֹה בָּמָה לִכְמוֹשׁ שִׁקֻּץ מוֹאָב בָּהָר אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם וּלְמֹלֶךְ שִׁקֻּץ בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 11.8. וְכֵן עָשָׂה לְכָל־נָשָׁיו הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת מַקְטִירוֹת וּמְזַבְּחוֹת לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 11.9. וַיִּתְאַנַּף יְהוָה בִּשְׁלֹמֹה כִּי־נָטָה לְבָבוֹ מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַנִּרְאָה אֵלָיו פַּעֲמָיִם׃ 11.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לִשְׁלֹמֹה יַעַן אֲשֶׁר הָיְתָה־זֹּאת עִמָּךְ וְלֹא שָׁמַרְתָּ בְּרִיתִי וְחֻקֹּתַי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי עָלֶיךָ קָרֹעַ אֶקְרַע אֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָה מֵעָלֶיךָ וּנְתַתִּיהָ לְעַבְדֶּךָ׃ 16.31. וַיְהִי הֲנָקֵל לֶכְתּוֹ בְּחַטֹּאות יָרָבְעָם בֶּן־נְבָט וַיִּקַּח אִשָּׁה אֶת־אִיזֶבֶל בַּת־אֶתְבַּעַל מֶלֶךְ צִידֹנִים וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּעֲבֹד אֶת־הַבַּעַל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לוֹ׃ 11.1. Now king Solomon loved many foreign women, besides the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites;" 11.2. of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel: ‘Ye shall not go among them, neither shall they come among you; for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods’; Solomon did cleave unto these in love." 11.3. And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines; and his wives turned away his heart." 11.4. For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods; and his heart was not whole with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father." 11.5. For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the detestation of the Ammonites." 11.6. And Solomon did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD, as did David his father." 11.7. Then did Solomon build a high place for Chemosh the detestation of Moab, in the mount that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech the detestation of the children of Ammon." 11.8. And so did he for all his foreign wives, who offered and sacrificed unto their gods." 11.9. And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned away from the LORD, the God of Israel, who had appeared unto him twice," 11.10. and had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods; but he kept not that which the LORD commanded." 11.11. Wherefore the LORD said unto Solomon: ‘Forasmuch as this hath been in thy mind, and thou hast not kept My covet and My statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant." 16.30. And Ahab the son of Omri did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD above all that were before him." 16.31. And it came to pass, as if it had been a light thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he took to wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal king of the Zidonians, and went and served Baal, and worshipped him."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.29. בְּיָמָיו עָלָה פַרְעֹה נְכֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם עַל־מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר עַל־נְהַר־פְּרָת וַיֵּלֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ לִקְרָאתוֹ וַיְמִיתֵהוּ בִּמְגִדּוֹ כִּרְאֹתוֹ אֹתוֹ׃ 23.29. In his days Pharaoh-necoh king of Egypt went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates; and king Josiah went against him; and he slew him at Megiddo, when he had seen him."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 3.2-3.5, 11.2-11.3, 11.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.2. וילדו [וַיִּוָּלְדוּ] לְדָוִד בָּנִים בְּחֶבְרוֹן וַיְהִי בְכוֹרוֹ אַמְנוֹן לַאֲחִינֹעַם הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִת׃ 3.2. וַיָּבֹא אַבְנֵר אֶל־דָּוִד חֶבְרוֹן וְאִתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים אֲנָשִׁים וַיַּעַשׂ דָּוִד לְאַבְנֵר וְלַאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ מִשְׁתֶּה׃ 3.3. וְיוֹאָב וַאֲבִישַׁי אָחִיו הָרְגוּ לְאַבְנֵר עַל אֲשֶׁר הֵמִית אֶת־עֲשָׂהאֵל אֲחִיהֶם בְּגִבְעוֹן בַּמִּלְחָמָה׃ 3.3. וּמִשְׁנֵהוּ כִלְאָב לאביגל [לַאֲ‍בִיגַיִל] אֵשֶׁת נָבָל הַכַּרְמְלִי וְהַשְּׁלִשִׁי אַבְשָׁלוֹם בֶּן־מַעֲכָה בַּת־תַּלְמַי מֶלֶךְ גְּשׁוּר׃ 3.4. וְהָרְבִיעִי אֲדֹנִיָּה בֶן־חַגִּית וְהַחֲמִישִׁי שְׁפַטְיָה בֶן־אֲבִיטָל׃ 3.5. וְהַשִּׁשִּׁי יִתְרְעָם לְעֶגְלָה אֵשֶׁת דָּוִד אֵלֶּה יֻלְּדוּ לְדָוִד בְּחֶבְרוֹן׃ 11.2. וְהָיָה אִם־תַּעֲלֶה חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאָמַר לְךָ מַדּוּעַ נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הָעִיר לְהִלָּחֵם הֲלוֹא יְדַעְתֶּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יֹרוּ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה׃ 11.2. וַיְהִי לְעֵת הָעֶרֶב וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵעַל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ עַל־גַּג בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּרְא אִשָּׁה רֹחֶצֶת מֵעַל הַגָּג וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה מְאֹד׃ 11.3. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיִּדְרֹשׁ לָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הֲלוֹא־זֹאת בַּת־שֶׁבַע בַּת־אֱלִיעָם אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי׃ 11.27. וַיַּעֲבֹר הָאֵבֶל וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיַּאַסְפָהּ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ בֵּן וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה דָוִד בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 3.2. And to David sons were born in Ĥevron: and his firstborn was Amnon, of Aĥino῾am the Yizre῾elite;" 3.3. and his second, Kil᾽av, of Avigayil the wife of Naval the Karmelite; and the third, Avshalom the son of Ma῾akha the daughter of Talmay king of Geshur;" 3.4. and the fourth, Adoniyya the son of Ĥaggit; and the fifth, Shefatya the son of Avital;" 3.5. and the sixth, Yitre῾am, by ῾Egla David’s wife. These were born to David in Ĥevron." 11.2. And it came to pass one evening, that David arose from his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king’s house: and from the roof he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very fair to look upon." 11.3. And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said, Is not this Bat-sheva, the daughter of Eli῾am, the wife of Uriyya the Ĥittite?" 11.27. And when the mourning was past, David sent and fetched her to his house, and she became his wife, and bore him a son. But the thing that David had done was evil in the eyes of the Lord."
9. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. חֵטְא חָטְאָה יְרוּשָׁלִַם עַל־כֵּן לְנִידָה הָיָתָה כָּל־מְכַבְּדֶיהָ הִזִּילוּהָ כִּי־רָאוּ עֶרְוָתָהּ גַּם־הִיא נֶאֶנְחָה וַתָּשָׁב אָחוֹר׃ 1.8. Jerusalem sinned grievously, therefore she became a wanderer; all who honored her despised her, for they have seen her shame; moreover, she herself sighed and turned away."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 18.6, 22.10, 44.22 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18.6. אֶל־הֶהָרִים לֹא אָכָל וְעֵינָיו לֹא נָשָׂא אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ לֹא טִמֵּא וְאֶל־אִשָּׁה נִדָּה לֹא יִקְרָב׃ 44.22. וְאַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה לֹא־יִקְחוּ לָהֶם לְנָשִׁים כִּי אִם־בְּתוּלֹת מִזֶּרַע בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר תִּהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה מִכֹּהֵן יִקָּחוּ׃ 18.6. and hath not eaten upon the mountains, neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, neither hath defiled his neighbour’s wife, neither hath come near to a woman in her impurity;" 22.10. In thee have they uncovered their fathers’nakedness; in thee have they humbled her that was unclean in her impurity." 44.22. Neither shall they take for their wives a widow, nor her that is put away; but they shall take virgins of the seed of the house of Israel, or a widow that is the widow of a priest."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 2.3, 3.1-3.2, 4.18 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. וּבְנֵי נָדָב סֶלֶד וְאַפָּיִם וַיָּמָת סֶלֶד לֹא בָנִים׃ 2.3. בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה עֵר וְאוֹנָן וְשֵׁלָה שְׁלוֹשָׁה נוֹלַד לוֹ מִבַּת־שׁוּעַ הַכְּנַעֲנִית וַיְהִי עֵר בְּכוֹר יְהוּדָה רַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וַיְמִיתֵהוּ׃ 3.1. וּבֶן־שְׁלֹמֹה רְחַבְעָם אֲבִיָּה בְנוֹ אָסָא בְנוֹ יְהוֹשָׁפָט בְּנוֹ׃ 3.1. וְאֵלֶּה הָיוּ בְּנֵי דָויִד אֲשֶׁר נוֹלַד־לוֹ בְּחֶבְרוֹן הַבְּכוֹר אַמְנֹן לַאֲחִינֹעַם הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִית שֵׁנִי דָּנִיֵּאל לַאֲבִיגַיִל הַכַּרְמְלִית׃ 3.2. הַשְּׁלִשִׁי לְאַבְשָׁלוֹם בֶּן־מַעֲכָה בַּת־תַּלְמַי מֶלֶךְ גְּשׁוּר הָרְבִיעִי אֲדֹנִיָּה בֶן־חַגִּית׃ 3.2. וַחֲשֻׁבָה וָאֹהֶל וּבֶרֶכְיָה וַחֲסַדְיָה יוּשַׁב חֶסֶד חָמֵשׁ׃ 4.18. וְאִשְׁתּוֹ הַיְהֻדִיָּה יָלְדָה אֶת־יֶרֶד אֲבִי גְדוֹר וְאֶת־חֶבֶר אֲבִי שׂוֹכוֹ וְאֶת־יְקוּתִיאֵל אֲבִי זָנוֹחַ וְאֵלֶּה בְּנֵי בִּתְיָה בַת־פַּרְעֹה אֲשֶׁר לָקַח מָרֶד׃ 2.3. The sons of Judah: Er, and O, and Shelah; which three were born unto him of Bath-shua the Canaanitess. And Er, Judah’s first-born, was wicked in the sight of the LORD; and He slew him." 3.1. Now these were the sons of David, that were born unto him in Hebron: the first-born, Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second, Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess;" 3.2. the third, Absalom the son of Maacah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur; the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith;" 4.18. and his wife Hajehudijah bore Jered the father of Gedor, and Heber the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah—and these are the sons of Bithiah the daughter of Pharaoh whom Mered took."
12. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 9.2 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.2. הַכֹּל כַּאֲשֶׁר לַכֹּל מִקְרֶה אֶחָד לַצַּדִּיק וְלָרָשָׁע לַטּוֹב וְלַטָּהוֹר וְלַטָּמֵא וְלַזֹּבֵחַ וְלַאֲשֶׁר אֵינֶנּוּ זֹבֵחַ כַּטּוֹב כַּחֹטֶא הַנִּשְׁבָּע כַּאֲשֶׁר שְׁבוּעָה יָרֵא׃ 9.2. All things come alike to all; there is one event to the righteous and to the wicked; to the good and to the clean and to the unclean; to him that sacrificeth and to him that sacrificeth not; as is the good, so is the sinner, and he that sweareth, as he that feareth an oath."
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.1-9.2, 9.15 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.1. וּכְכַלּוֹת אֵלֶּה נִגְּשׁוּ אֵלַי הַשָּׂרִים לֵאמֹר לֹא־נִבְדְּלוּ הָעָם יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹתֵיהֶם לַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי הַפְּרִזִּי הַיְבוּסִי הָעַמֹּנִי הַמֹּאָבִי הַמִּצְרִי וְהָאֱמֹרִי׃ 9.1. וְעַתָּה מַה־נֹּאמַר אֱלֹהֵינוּ אַחֲרֵי־זֹאת כִּי עָזַבְנוּ מִצְוֺתֶיךָ׃ 9.2. כִּי־נָשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לָהֶם וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְהִתְעָרְבוּ זֶרַע הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת וְיַד הַשָּׂרִים וְהַסְּגָנִים הָיְתָה בַּמַּעַל הַזֶּה רִאשׁוֹנָה׃ 9.15. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל צַדִּיק אַתָּה כִּי־נִשְׁאַרְנוּ פְלֵיטָה כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה הִנְנוּ לְפָנֶיךָ בְּאַשְׁמָתֵינוּ כִּי אֵין לַעֲמוֹד לְפָנֶיךָ עַל־זֹאת׃ 9.1. Now when these things were done, the princes drew near unto me, saying: ‘The people of Israel, and the priests and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands, doing according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites." 9.2. For they have taken of their daughters for themselves and for their sons; so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the peoples of the lands; yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been first in this faithlessness.’" 9.15. O LORD, the God of Israel, Thou art righteous; for we are left a remt that is escaped, as it is this day; behold, we are before Thee in our guiltiness; for none can stand before Thee because of this.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 13.23-13.27 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13.23. גַּם בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם רָאִיתִי אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִים הֹשִׁיבוּ נָשִׁים אשדודיות [אַשְׁדֳּדִיּוֹת] עמוניות [עַמֳּנִיּוֹת] מוֹאֲבִיּוֹת׃ 13.24. וּבְנֵיהֶם חֲצִי מְדַבֵּר אַשְׁדּוֹדִית וְאֵינָם מַכִּירִים לְדַבֵּר יְהוּדִית וְכִלְשׁוֹן עַם וָעָם׃ 13.25. וָאָרִיב עִמָּם וָאֲקַלְלֵם וָאַכֶּה מֵהֶם אֲנָשִׁים וָאֶמְרְטֵם וָאַשְׁבִּיעֵם בֵּאלֹהִים אִם־תִּתְּנוּ בְנֹתֵיכֶם לִבְנֵיהֶם וְאִם־תִּשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לִבְנֵיכֶם וְלָכֶם׃ 13.26. הֲלוֹא עַל־אֵלֶּה חָטָא־שְׁלֹמֹה מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבַגּוֹיִם הָרַבִּים לֹא־הָיָה מֶלֶךְ כָּמֹהוּ וְאָהוּב לֵאלֹהָיו הָיָה וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ אֱלֹהִים מֶלֶךְ עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל גַּם־אוֹתוֹ הֶחֱטִיאוּ הַנָּשִׁים הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת׃ 13.27. וְלָכֶם הֲנִשְׁמַע לַעֲשֹׂת אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַגְּדוֹלָה הַזֹּאת לִמְעֹל בֵּאלֹהֵינוּ לְהֹשִׁיב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת׃ 13.23. In those days also saw I the Jews that had married women of Ashdod, of Ammon, and of Moab;" 13.24. and their children spoke half in the speech of Ashdod, and could not speak in the Jews’language, but according to the language of each people." 13.25. And I contended with them, and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God: ‘Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters for your sons, or for yourselves." 13.26. Did not Solomon king of Israel sin by these things? yet among many nations was there no king like him, and he was beloved of his God, and God made him king over all Israel; nevertheless even him did the foreign women cause to sin." 13.27. Shall we then hearken unto you to do all this great evil, to break faith with our God in marrying foreign women?’"
15. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 7.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.3-3.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 192 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

192. This is that great deluge in which "the cataracts of heaven were opened"58--by heaven I here mean the mind--and the fountains of the bottomless pit were revealed; that is to say, of the outward sense; for in this way alone is the soul overwhelmed, iniquities being broken up and poured over it from above, as from the heaven of the mind, and the passions irrigating it from below, as from the earth of the outward senses.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.23-3.25 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.23. While the lawgiver of the Egyptians, ridiculing the cautious timidity of the others as if they had established imperfect ordices, gave the reins to lasciviousness, supplying in great abundance that most incurable evil of intemperance both to body and soul, and permitting men fearlessly and with impunity to marry all their sisters, whether by both parents or by one, or by either, whether father or mother, and that too not only if younger than, but even when older than, or of the same age as themselves; for twins are very often born, which nature, indeed, at their very birth has dissevered and separated, but which incontinence and love of pleasure has invited to an association which ought never to be entered into, and to a most inharmonious agreement. 3.24. But the most sacred Moses, rejecting all those ordices with detestation, as being quite inconsistent with and at variance with any praiseworthy kind of constitution, and as laws which encouraged and trained people to the most disgraceful of all habits, almost peremptorily prohibited any connection with a man's sister, whether by both parents, or whether only by one of the two; 3.25. for why should any one seek to deface the beauty of modesty? And why make virgins destitute of all modesty, to whom it is becoming to blush? And, moreover, why should one be willing to limit the associations and connections with other men, and to confine a most honourable thing within the narrow space of the walls of a single house, which ought rather to be extended and diffused over all continents, and islands, and the whole inhabited world? For the intermarriages with strangers produce new relationships, which are in no respect inferior to those which proceed from ties of blood.V.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.29-2.30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.29. Ptolemy, surnamed Philadelphus, was the third in succession after Alexander, the monarch who subdued Egypt; and he was, in all virtues which can be displayed in government, the most excellent sovereign, not only of all those of his time, but of all that ever lived; so that even now, after the lapse of so many generations, his fame is still celebrated, as having left many instances and monuments of his magimity in the cities and districts of his kingdom, so that even now it is come to be a sort of proverbial expression to call excessive magnificence, and zeal, for honour and splendour in preparation, Philadelphian, from his name; 2.30. and, in a word, the whole family of the Ptolemies was exceedingly eminent and conspicuous above all other royal families, and among the Ptolemies, Philadelphus was the most illustrious; for all the rest put together scarcely did as many glorious and praiseworthy actions as this one king did by himself, being, as it were, the leader of the herd, and in a manner the head of all the kings.
20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.258-3.275 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.258. 1. Moses took out the tribe of Levi from communicating with the rest of the people, and set them apart to be a holy tribe; and purified them by water taken from perpetual springs, and with such sacrifices as were usually offered to God on the like occasions. He delivered to them also the tabernacle, and the sacred vessels, and the other curtains, which were made for covering the tabernacle, that they might minister under the conduct of the priests, who had been already consecrated to God. 3.259. 2. He also determined concerning animals; which of them might be used for food, and which they were obliged to abstain from; which matters, when this work shall give me occasion, shall be further explained; and the causes shall be added by which he was moved to allot some of them to be our food, and enjoined us to abstain from others. 3.261. 3. He also ordered that those whose bodies were afflicted with leprosy, and that had a gonorrhea, should not come into the city; nay, he removed the women, when they had their natural purgations, till the seventh day; after which he looked on them as pure, and permitted them to come in again. 3.262. The law permits those also who have taken care of funerals to come in after the same manner, when this number of days is over; but if any continued longer than that number of days in a state of pollution, the law appointed the offering two lambs for a sacrifice; the one of which they are to purge by fire, and for the other, the priests take it for themselves. 3.263. In the same manner do those sacrifice who have had the gonorrhea. But he that sheds his seed in his sleep, if he go down into cold water, has the same privilege with those that have lawfully accompanied with their wives. 3.264. And for the lepers, he suffered them not to come into the city at all, nor to live with any others, as if they were in effect dead persons; but if any one had obtained by prayer to God, the recovery from that distemper, and had gained a healthful complexion again, such a one returned thanks to God, with several sorts of sacrifices; concerning which we will speak hereafter. 3.265. 4. Whence one cannot but smile at those who say that Moses was himself afflicted with the leprosy when he fled out of Egypt, and that he became the conductor of those who on that account left that country, and led them into the land of Canaan; 3.266. for had this been true, Moses would not have made these laws to his own dishonor, which indeed it was more likely he would have opposed, if others had endeavored to introduce them; and this the rather, because there are lepers in many nations, who yet are in honor, and not only free from reproach and avoidance, but who have been great captains of armies, and been intrusted with high offices in the commonwealth, and have had the privilege of entering into holy places and temples; 3.267. o that nothing hindered, but if either Moses himself, or the multitude that was with him, had been liable to such a misfortune in the color of his skin, he might have made laws about them for their credit and advantage, and have laid no manner of difficulty upon them. 3.268. Accordingly, it is a plain case, that it is out of violent prejudice only that they report these things about us. But Moses was pure from any such distemper, and lived with countrymen who were pure of it also, and thence made the laws which concerned others that had the distemper. He did this for the honor of God. But as to these matters, let every one consider them after what manner he pleases. 3.269. 5. As to the women, when they have born a child, Moses forbade them to come into the temple, or touch the sacrifices, before forty days were over, supposing it to be a boy; but if she hath born a girl, the law is that she cannot be admitted before twice that number of days be over. And when after the before-mentioned time appointed for them, they perform their sacrifices, the priests distribute them before God. 3.271. and enjoined her to swear that she had not at all injured her husband; and to wish that, if she had violated her chastity, her right thigh might be put out of joint; that her belly might swell; and that she might die thus: but that if her husband, by the violence of his affection, and of the jealousy which arose from it, had been rashly moved to this suspicion, that she might bear a male child in the tenth month. 3.272. Now when these oaths were over, the priest wiped the name of God out of the parchment, and wrung the water into a vial. He also took some dust out of the temple, if any happened to be there, and put a little of it into the vial, and gave it her to drink; whereupon the woman, if she were unjustly accused, conceived with child, and brought it to perfection in her womb: 3.273. but if she had broken her faith of wedlock to her husband, and had sworn falsely before God, she died in a reproachful manner; her thigh fell off from her, and her belly swelled with a dropsy. And these are the ceremonies about sacrifices, and about the purifications thereto belonging, which Moses provided for his countrymen. He also prescribed the following laws to them:— 3.274. 1. As for adultery, Moses forbade it entirely, as esteeming it a happy thing that men should be wise in the affairs of wedlock; and that it was profitable both to cities and families that children should be known to be genuine. He also abhorred men’s lying with their mothers, as one of the greatest crimes; and the like for lying with the father’s wife, and with aunts, and sisters, and sons’ wives, as all instances of abominable wickedness. 3.275. He also forbade a man to lie with his wife when she was defiled by her natural purgation: and not to come near brute beasts; nor to approve of the lying with a male, which was to hunt after unlawful pleasures on account of beauty. To those who were guilty of such insolent behavior, he ordained death for their punishment.
21. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world."
22. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.3. If he emitted thick drops from his member, he is unclean, the words of Rabbi Elazar Hisma. If one had sexual dreams in the night and arose and found his flesh heated, he is unclean. If a woman discharged semen on the third day, she is clean, the words of Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah. Rabbi Ishmael says: sometimes there are four time periods, and sometimes five, and sometimes six. Rabbi Akiva says: there are always five."
23. Mishnah, Niddah, 2.1, 3.2, 8.1, 8.3, 9.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. Every hand that makes frequent examination: In the case of women is praiseworthy, But in the case of men it ought to be cut off. In the case of a deaf, an person not of sound senses, a blind or an insane woman, if other women of sound senses are available they attend to her, and they may eat terumah. It is the custom of the daughters of Israel to have intercourse using two testing-rags, one for the man and the other for herself. Virtuous women prepare also a third rag to prepare the \"house\" [before intercourse]." 3.2. If a woman miscarried an object that was like a rind, like a hair, like earth, like red flies, let her put it in water: If it dissolves she is unclean, But if it does not she is clean. If she miscarried an object in the shape of fishes, locusts, or any forbidden things or creeping things: If there was blood with them she is unclean, If not, she is clean. If she miscarried an object in the shape of a beast, a wild animal or a bird, whether clean or unclean: If it was a male she sits in uncleanness as she would for a male; And if it was a female she sits in uncleanness as she would for a female. But if the sex is unknown she sits in uncleanness for both male and female, the words of Rabbi Meir. The sages say: anything that has not the shape of a human being cannot be regarded as a human child." 8.1. If a woman observed a bloodstain on her body: If it was opposite her genital area she is unclean; But if it was not near the genital are she remains clean. If it was on her heel or on the tip of her large toe, she is unclean. On her thigh or on her feet: If on the inner side, she is unclean; If on their outer side, she remains clean. And if on the front and back sides she remains clean. If she observed it on her garment: Below the belt, she is unclean, But if above the belt, she remains clean. If she observed it on the sleeve of her shirt: If it can reach as low as her genital area, she is unclean, But if it cannot, she remains clean. If she takes it off and covers herself with it in the night, she is unclean wherever the stain is found, since it can turn about. And the same law applies to a pallium." 8.3. It happened that a woman came in front of Rabbi Akiva and said. She said to him: I have seen a bloodstain. He said to her: Perhaps you had a wound? She said to him: Yes, but it has healed. He said to her: Perhaps it could have opened again and let out some blood.\" She said to him: Yes. And Rabbi Akiva declared her clean. He saw his disciples looked at each other in astonishment. He said to them: Why do you find this difficult, for the sages did not say this rule in order to be stringent but rather to be lenient, for it is said, \"And if a woman have issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood\" blood but not a bloodstain." 9.3. If she lent her shirt to a non-Jewish woman or to a menstruant she may attribute a stain to either. If three women had worn the same shirt or had sat on the same wooden bench and subsequently blood was found on it, all are regarded as unclean. If they had sat on a stone bench or on the projection within the colonnade of a bath House: Rabbi Nehemiah says that they are clean, for Rabbi Nehemiah says: anything that is not susceptible to uncleanness is not susceptible to stains."
24. Mishnah, Oholot, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16.1. All movable things convey uncleanness when they are of the thickness of an ox-goad. Rabbi Tarfon said: May I [see the] demise of my sons if this is [not] a demised halakhah which someone heard and misunderstood. For a farmer was passing by and over his shoulder was an ox-goad, and one end overshadowed a grave. He was declared unclean on account of vessels that were overshadowing a corpse. Rabbi Akiva said: I can fix [the halakhah] so that the words of the sages can exist [as they are]: All movable things convey uncleanness to come upon a person carrying them, when they are of the thickness of an ox-goad; Upon themselves when they are of whatever thickness; And upon other men or vessels [which they overshadow] when they are one handbreadth wide."
25. Mishnah, Toharot, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.9. If one witness says, \"You have become unclean,\" but he says, \"I have not become unclean,\" he is regarded as clean. If two witnesses say, \"You have become unclean,\" and he says, \"I have not become unclean,\" Rabbi Meir says: he is unclean. But the sages say: he may be believed on his own evidence. If one witness says, \"You have become unclean,\" and two witnesses say, \"He has not become unclean,\" whether in a private domain or in a public domain, he is regarded as clean. If two witnesses say, \"He has become unclean’, and one witness says, ‘\"He has not become unclean,\" whether in a private domain or in a public domain, he is regarded as unclean. If one witness says, \"He has become unclean,\" and another says, \"He has not become unclean,\" or if one woman says, \"He has become unclean’, and another woman says, \"He has not become unclean,\" he is regarded as unclean if in the private domain, but if in a public domain he is regarded as clean."
26. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Acts, 3.21-3.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.21. whom the heaven must receive until the times of restoration of all things, whereof God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets that have been from ancient times. 3.22. For Moses indeed said to the fathers, 'The Lord God will raise up a prophet to you from among your brothers, like me. You shall listen to him in all things whatever he says to you. 3.23. It will be, that every soul that will not listen to that prophet will be utterly destroyed from among the people.'
28. New Testament, Mark, 10.10-10.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery. 10.13. They were bringing to him little children, that he should touch them, but the disciples rebuked those who were bringing them. 10.14. But when Jesus saw it, he was moved with indignation, and said to them, "Allow the little children to come to me! Don't forbid them, for the Kingdom of God belongs to such as these. 10.15. Most assuredly I tell you, whoever will not receive the Kingdom of God like a little child, he will in no way enter into it. 10.16. He took them in his arms, and blessed them, laying his hands on them. 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 10.20. He said to him, "Teacher, I have observed all these things from my youth. 10.21. Jesus looking at him loved him, and said to him, "One thing you lack. Go, sell whatever you have, and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me, taking up the cross. 10.22. But his face fell at that saying, and he went away sorrowful, for he was one who had great possessions. 10.23. Jesus looked around, and said to his disciples, "How difficult it is for those who have riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.24. The disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus answered again, "Children, how hard is it for those who trust in riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 10.25. It is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. 10.26. They were exceedingly astonished, saying to him, "Then who can be saved? 10.27. Jesus, looking at them, said, "With men it is impossible, but not with God, for all things are possible with God.
29. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1-2.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.2. Four entered the orchard: Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, another, and Rabbi Akiva. One looked and died. One looked and was harmed. One looked and cut down the trees. And one went up in peace and went down in peace. Ben Azzai looked and died. Scripture says about him (Psalms 116, 15): \"Precious in the sight of the LORD Is the death of His saints\". Ben Zoma looked and was harmed. Scripture says about him (Proverbs 25, 16): \"Hast thou found honey? eat so much as is sufficient for thee\" and the continuation. [Cont. of the verse: \"Lest thou be filled therewith, and vomit it.\" Elisha looked and cut down the trees. Scripture says about him (Ecclesiastes 5, 5): \"Suffer not thy mouth to bring thy flesh into guilt\" etc. Rabbi Akiva went up in peace and went down in peace. Scripture says about him (Song of Songs 1, 4): \"Draw me, we will run after thee\" etc. They gave a parable: What is this similar to? To the orchard of a king and there is an attic above it. It is upon [the man] to look so long as he does not move [his eyes] from it. Another parable was given. What is this similar tp? To [a street] that passes between two paths, one of fire, and one of snow. If it leans one way, it gets burned [by the fire]. If it leans the other way it gets burned by the snow. A man must walk in the middle and not lean to or fro. A story of Rabbi Yehoshua [Who was walkin in the street and Ben Zoma came opposite him] he reached him and did not greet him. He said to him [from where and to where] Ben Zoma? He said to him: I was watching the creation, and there is not between the upper waters and the lower waters even a handbreadth. As it is written (Genesis 1, 2) \"and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters\". And it says (Deuteronomy 32, 11): \"As a vulture that stirreth up her nest\" etc. Just as the vulture flies over the nest, touching and not touching, so too there is not even a handbreadth between the upper waters and lower waters. Rabbi Yehoshua said to his students: Ben Zoma is already outside. In a few days, Ben Zoma passed away." 2.4. In their days they only argued about  laying of hands. There were five pairs. three of the first pairs said not to lay on hands and two of the other pairs said to lay on hands. Three were Nesi'im (princes) and two (of them) were the heads of courts. The words of R. Meir. R. Judah said Simon ben Shetah was Nasi (prince) and Judah ben Tabbai the head of the court....Said R. Yose: Originally there were no arguments in Israel. Rather, a 71 member court sat in the chamber of hewn stone and other courts of 23 existed in the cities of Erez Yisrael. And two courts of 3 apiece were in Jerusalem, one on the temple mount and one in Hayil. When one of them was necessary [a person] goes to the court in his city. No court (in his city)--[the person] goes to the court near his city. If they heard, they say to him; if not, he and their most distinguished member go to the court on the temple mount. If they heard, they say to him; if not, he and their most distinguished member go to the court in Hayil. If they heard they say to him; if not these and these arrive at the court in the chamber of hewn stone (And the court of the chamber of hewn stone even though it is 71, it can never have less than 23. If one of them needs to leave, he sees if there will be 23 he may leave; if not, he may not leave until there are 23. They would sit from the offering of the morning sacrifice until the offering of the afternoon sacrifice. And on sabbaths and Holidays they would enter the Beit Midrash on the temple mount.) If they heard they say to them, and if not, they establish a quorum and take a roll. If the majority says impure it is impure. If the majority says pure it is pure. From there the Halakhah (law) goes out widespread in Israel. When there increased the students of Shammai and Hillel who did not properly apprentice, conflict increased in Israel and it became as though there were two Torahs. And for there they would sit and inspect. Whoever was wise and humble and abundant and sin-fearing and mature and getting along with other people they make him a judge in his city. After being made a judge in his city they could elevate and set him on the temple mount and from there they could elevate and seat him in Hayil and from there they can elevate and seat him in the chamber of hewn stone and from there they sit and inspect the lineages of the priests and levites. A priest in whom has been found a blemish wears black and wraps in black, exits and leaves. One in whom not a blemish is found wears white and wraps in white, enters and serves with his brothers the priests. They would make a holiday that not a blemish was found among the children of Aaron. And he would bring a tenth of an Eifah of his own flour and do the service with his own hands even though it is not his priestly shift. A high priest and a regular priest who served before bringing their tenth of an Eifah their service is acceptable. 
30. Tosefta, Niddah, 4.3-4.4, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Tosefta, Oholot, 15.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 58, 56 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. And he took me unto another pit, and I stooped and looked and saw mire and worms welling up, and souls wallowing there, and a great gnashing of teeth was heard thence from them. And that man said unto me: These are the souls of women which forsook their husbands and committed adultery with others, and are brought into this torment. Another pit he showed me whereinto I stooped and looked and saw souls hanging, some by the tongue, some by the hair, some by the hands, and some head downward by the feet, and tormented (smoked) with smoke and brimstone; concerning whom that man that was with me answered me: The souls which are hanged by the tongue are slanderers, that uttered Lying and shameful words, and were not ashamed, and they that are hanged by the hair are unblushing ones which had no modesty and went about in the world bareheaded; and they that are hanged by the hands, these are they that took away and stole other men's goods, and never gave aught to the needy nor helped the afflicted, but did so, desiring to take all, and had no thought at all of justice or of the law; and they that hang upside down by the feet, these are they that lightly and readily ran in evil ways and disorderly paths, not visiting the sick nor escorting them that depart this life, and therefore each and every soul receiveth that which was done by it. (Syr. omits almost the whole section.)
33. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 7.1.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7.1.3. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, חָבִיב שֵׁם טוֹב מֵאֲרוֹן הַבְּרִית, שֶׁאֲרוֹן הַבְּרִית לֹא הָלַךְ אֶלָּא שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר י, לג): וַאֲרוֹן בְּרִית ה' נֹסֵעַ לִפְנֵיהֶם. וְשֵׁם טוֹב הוֹלֵךְ מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, מְנָא לָן, מִדָּוִד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים א יד, יז): וַיֵּצֵא שֵׁם דָּוִיד בְּכָל הָאֲרָצוֹת וַה' נָתַן אֶת פַּחְדּוֹ עַל כָּל הַגּוֹיִם, חָבִיב שֵׁם טוֹב מִכְּהֻנָּה וּמַלְכוּת, שֶׁכְּהֻנָּה וּמַלְכוּת בָּטְלוּ, וְשֵׁם טוֹב לֹא בָּטֵל. תַּלְמִידָיו דְּרַבִּי אַבָּא, וְאַבָּא צִידוֹנִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר חֲבִיבָה מִיתָתָן שֶׁל שְׁבָטִים יוֹתֵר מִבְּחַיֵּיהֶם, שֶׁבְּחַיֵּיהֶם לֹא נֶאֱמַר שִׁשָּׁה מִשְּׁמוֹתָם, וּבְמִיתָתָן נֶאֱמַר שִׁשָּׁה מִשְּׁמוֹתָם. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מִרְיָם וְיוֹכֶבֶד הֵן הֵן הָיוּ חַיּוֹתֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, דִּכְתִיב (שמות א, טו): שֵׁם הָאַחַת שִׁפְרָה וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית פּוּעָה, שִׁפְרָה זוֹ יוֹכֶבֶד שֶׁהָיְתָה מְשַׁפֶּרֶת אֶת הַיְלָדִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָה וְרָבָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרוּ וְרָבוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל יָדֶיהָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁשִּׁפְּרוּ אוֹתָן בְּמִצְווֹת וּבְמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁפְרָה לְשֵׁם שֶׁבַח, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב כו, יג): בְּרוּחוֹ שָׁמַיִם שִׁפְרָה. פּוּעָה זוֹ מִרְיָם, שֶׁהָיְתָה פּוֹעָה בָּאִשָּׁה וְהַוְלַד יוֹצֵא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פּוּעָה שֶׁהָיְתָה פּוֹעָה וּבוֹכָה עַל אָחִיהָ משֶׁה שֶׁהֻשְׁלַךְ לַיְאוֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ב, ד): וַתֵּתַצַּב אֲחֹתוֹ מֵרָחֹק. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פּוּעָה שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה אֶת מַעֲשֵֵֹה אָחִיהָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּעַת בִּפְנֵי פַּרְעֹה וְאָמְרָה לוֹ אוֹי לְךָ מִיּוֹם הַדִּין. תָּנֵי שְׁלשָׁה שֵׁמוֹת נִקְרָא לָאָדָם הַזֶּה, אֶחָד שֶׁקָּרְאוּ לוֹ אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ, וְאֶחָד שֶׁקָּרְאוּ לוֹ אֲחֵרִים, וְאֶחָד שֶׁקָּרוּי לוֹ בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹלְדוֹת בְּרִיָּתוֹ.
34. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

84b. ואפילו הכי לא סמך רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון אדעתיה קביל עליה יסורי באורתא הוו מייכי ליה שיתין נמטי לצפרא נגדי מתותיה שיתין משיכלי דמא וכיבא,למחר עבדה ליה דביתהו שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו וברי ולא הות שבקא ליה דביתהו למיפק לבי מדרשא כי היכי דלא לדחקוהו רבנן,באורתא אמר להו אחיי ורעיי בואו בצפרא אמר להו זילו מפני ביטול תורה יומא חד שמעה דביתהו אמרה ליה את קא מייתית להו עילויך כלית ממון של בית אבא אימרדה אזלה לבית נשא,סליקו ואתו הנך [שיתין] ספונאי עיילו ליה שיתין עבדי כי נקיטי שיתין ארנקי ועבדו ליה שיתין מיני לפדא ואכיל להו,יומא חד אמרה לה לברתה זילי בקי באבוך מאי קא עביד האידנא אתיא אמר לה זילי אמרי לאמך שלנו גדול משלהם קרי אנפשיה (משלי לא, יד) היתה כאניות סוחר ממרחק תביא לחמה אכל ושתי וברי נפק לבי מדרשא,אייתו לקמיה שתין מיני דמא טהרינהו הוה קא מרנני רבנן ואמרי סלקא דעתך לית בהו חד ספק אמר להו אם כמותי הוא יהיו כולם זכרים ואם לאו תהא נקבה אחת ביניהם היו כולם זכרים ואסיקו להו ר' אלעזר על שמיה,תניא אמר רבי כמה פריה ורביה ביטלה רשעה זו מישראל,כי הוה קא ניחא נפשיה אמר לה לדביתהו ידענא בדרבנן דרתיחי עלי ולא מיעסקי בי שפיר אוגנין בעיליתאי ולא תידחלין מינאי א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אישתעיא לי אימיה דרבי יונתן דאישתעיא לה דביתהו דרבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון לא פחות מתמני סרי ולא טפי מעשרין ותרין שנין אוגניתיה בעיליתא,כי הוה סליקנא מעיננא ליה במזייה כי הוה משתמטא ביניתא מיניה הוה אתי דמא יומא חד חזאי ריחשא דקא נפיק מאוניה חלש דעתאי איתחזי לי בחלמא אמר לי לא מידי הוא יומא חד שמעי בזילותא דצורבא מרבנן ולא מחאי כדבעי לי,כי הוו אתו בי תרי לדינא הוו קיימי אבבא אמר מר מילתיה ומר מילתיה נפיק קלא מעיליתיה ואמר איש פלוני אתה חייב איש פלוני אתה זכאי יומא חד הוה קא מינציא דביתהו בהדי שבבתא אמרה לה תהא כבעלה שלא ניתן לקבורה אמרי רבנן כולי האי ודאי לאו אורח ארעא,איכא דאמרי רבי שמעון בן יוחאי איתחזאי להו בחלמא אמר להו פרידה אחת יש לי ביניכם ואי אתם רוצים להביאה אצלי אזול רבנן לאעסוקי ביה לא שבקו בני עכבריא דכל שני דהוה ניים רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון בעיליתיה לא סליק חיה רעה למתייהו,יומא חד מעלי יומא דכיפורי הוה הוו טרידי שדרו רבנן לבני בירי ואסקוהו לערסיה ואמטיוה למערתא דאבוה אשכחוה לעכנא דהדרא לה למערתא אמרו לה עכנא עכנא פתחי פיך ויכנס בן אצל אביו פתח להו,שלח רבי לדבר באשתו שלחה ליה כלי שנשתמש בו קודש ישתמש בו חול תמן אמרין באתר דמרי ביתא תלא זייניה כולבא רעיא קולתיה תלא שלח לה נהי דבתורה גדול ממני אבל במעשים טובים מי גדול ממני שלחה ליה בתורה מיהא גדול ממך לא ידענא במעשים ידענא דהא קביל עליה יסורי,בתורה מאי היא דכי הוו יתבי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל ורבי יהושע בן קרחה אספסלי יתבי קמייהו רבי אלעזר בר' שמעון ורבי אארעא,מקשו ומפרקו אמרי מימיהן אנו שותים והם יושבים על גבי קרקע עבדו להו ספסלי אסקינהו,אמר להן רבן שמעון בן גמליאל פרידה אחת יש לי ביניכם ואתם מבקשים לאבדה הימני אחתוהו לרבי אמר להן רבי יהושע בן קרחה מי שיש לו אב יחיה ומי שאין לו אב ימות אחתוהו נמי לרבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון חלש דעתיה אמר קא חשביתו ליה כוותי,עד ההוא יומא כי הוה אמר רבי מילתא הוה מסייע ליה רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון מכאן ואילך כי הוה אמר רבי יש לי להשיב אמר ליה רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון כך וכך יש לך להשיב זו היא תשובתך השתא היקפתנו תשובות חבילות שאין בהן ממש,חלש דעתיה דרבי אתא א"ל לאבוה אמר ליה בני אל ירע לך שהוא ארי בן ארי ואתה ארי בן שועל,והיינו דאמר רבי שלשה ענוותנין הן ואלו הן אבא 84b. § After this digression, the Gemara returns to the story of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bAndalthough his flesh did not putrefy, beven so Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,still bdid not rely on hisown bopinion,as he was worried that he may have erred in one of his decisions. bHe accepted afflictions upon himselfas atonement for his possible sins. bAt nighthis attendants bwould spread out sixty feltbed coverings bfor him. In the morning,despite the bed coverings, bthey would remove sixty basins of blood and pus from underneath him. /b, bThe following day,i.e., every morning, bhis wife would prepare for him sixty types of relish [ ilifda /i]made from figs, band he would eat them and become healthy. His wife,concerned for his health, bwould not allow him to go to the study hall, so that the Rabbis would not push himbeyond his limits., bIn the evening, hewould bsay tohis pains: bMy brothers and my friends, come! In the morning hewould bsay to them: Goaway, bdue tothe bderelictionof bTorahstudy that you cause me. bOne day his wife heard himinviting his pains. bShe said to him: You are bringingthe pains bupon yourself. You have diminished the money ofmy bfather’s homedue to the costs of treating your self-imposed afflictions. bShe rebelledagainst him and bwentback bto her father’s home,and he was left with no one to care for him.,Meanwhile, there were bthese sixty sailorswho bcame and enteredto visit Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bThey brought him sixty servants,each bbearing sixty purses, and prepared him sixty types of relish and he ate them.When they had encountered trouble at sea, these sailors had prayed to be saved in the merit of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. Upon returning to dry land, they presented him with these gifts., bOne day,the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bsaid to her daughter: Goand bcheck on your fatherand see bwhat he is doing now.The daughter bcameto her father, who bsaid to her: Goand btell your motherthat bours is greater than theirs,i.e., my current ficial status is greater than that of your father’s household. bHe readthe verse babout himself: “She is like the merchant-ships; she brings her food from afar”(Proverbs 31:14). As he was unhindered by his wife from going to the study hall, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bate and drank and became healthy and went out to the study hall. /b,The students bbrought sixtyquestionable bsamples of blood before himfor inspection, to determine whether or not they were menstrual blood. bHe deemed themall britually pure,thereby permitting the women to engage in intercourse with their husbands. bThe Rabbisof the academy bwere murmuring aboutRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, band saying:Can it benter your mindthat bthere is not one uncertainsample bamong them?He must be mistaken. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bsaid to them: Ifthe ihalakha bisin accordance with bmyruling, blet allthe children born from these women bbe males. And if not, let there be one female among them.It turned out that ballof the children bwere males, andthey bwere called Elazar in his name. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi lamented and bsaidconcerning the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: bHow much procreationhas bthis evil woman prevented from the Jewish people.She caused women not to have children by preventing her husband from going to the study hall and rendering his halakhic rulings., bAsRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bwas dying, he said to his wife: I know that the Rabbis are angry at mefor arresting several thieves who are their relatives, bandtherefore bthey will not properly tend to myburial. When I die, blay me in my attic and do not be afraid of me,i.e., do not fear that anything will happen to my corpse. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Rabbi Yonatan’s mother told me that the wife of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, told her: I laid him in the atticfor bno less than eighteenyears bandfor bno more than twenty-two years. /b,His wife continued: bWhen I would go upto the attic bI would check his hair,and bwhen a hair would fall out fromhis head, bblood would comeand appear in its place, i.e., his corpse did not decompose. bOne day I saw a worm emerging from his ear,and bI becamevery bdistressedthat perhaps his corpse had begun to decompose. My husband bappeared to me in a dreamand bsaid to me: It is no matterfor concern. Rather, this is a consequence for a sin of mine, as bone day I heard a Torah scholar being insulted and I did not protest as I should have.Therefore, I received this punishment in my ear, measure for measure.,During this period, bwhen twopeople bwould come for adjudication ofa dispute, bthey would stand by the doorwayto the home of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bOnelitigant bwould state hisside of the bmatter, and the otherlitigant would state bhisside of the bmatter. A voice would issue forth from his attic, saying: So-and-so, you are guilty; so-and-so, you are innocent.The Gemara relates: bOne day, the wife ofRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bwas quarreling with a neighbor.The neighbor bsaid to heras a curse: This woman bshould be like her husband, who was not buried.When word spread that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried, bthe Rabbis said: This much,i.e., now that the matter is known, to continue in this state is bcertainly not proper conduct,and they decided to bury him., bThere arethose bwho saythat the Sages found out that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had not been buried when bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai,his father, bappeared to them in a dream and said to them: I have a single fledgling among you,i.e., my son, band you do not wish to bring it to meby burying him next to me. Consequently, bthe Sages went to tend tohis burial. bThe residents of Akhbaria,the town where the corpse of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, was resting, bdid not allowthem to do so, basthey realized that ball the years that Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, had been resting in his attic, no wild beast had entered their town.The townspeople attributed this phenomenon to his merit and they did not want to lose this protection., bOne day,which bwas Yom Kippur eve,everyone in the town bwas preoccupiedwith preparations for the Festival. bThe Rabbis senta message bto the residents ofthe adjacent town bof Biriinstructing them to help remove the body of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, from the attic, band they removed his bier and brought it to his father’sburial bcave. They found a serpent [ ile’akhna /i] thathad placed its tail in its mouth and completely bencircledthe entrance to bthe cave,denying them access. bThey said to it: Serpent, serpent! Open your mouth to allow a son to enter next to his father. It openedits mouth bfor themand uncoiled, and they buried Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, alongside his father.,The Gemara continues: After this incident, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsenta messenger bto speak with the wife ofRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and propose marriage. bShe senta message bto himin response: Shall ba vessel used bysomeone bsacred,i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, bbe used bysomeone who is, relative to him, bprofane? There,in Eretz Yisrael, bthey saythat she used the colloquial adage: bIn the locationwhere bthe master of the house hangs his sword,shall bthe contemptible shepherd hang his basket [ ikultei /i]?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsenta message back bto her: Granted that in Torah he was greater than I, but washe bgreater than I in pious deeds? She senta message back bto him: Whetherhe was bgreater than you in Torah I do not know;but bI do knowthat he was greater than you binpious bdeeds, as he accepted afflictions upon himself. /b,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to Torahknowledge, bwhat isthe event that demonstrated the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, over Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? The Gemara answers: bWhen Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa,the leading Sages of the generation, bwere sitting on benches [ iasafselei /i]teaching Torah along with the other Sages, the youthful pair bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould sit before them on the groundout of respect.,These two young students would engage in discussions with the Sages, in which they would braise difficulties and answerthem brilliantly. Seeing the young scholars’ brilliance, the leading Sages bsaid: From their waters we drink,i.e., we are learning from them, band they arethe ones bsitting on the ground? Benches were prepared forRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, band they were promotedto sit alongside the other Sages., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said tothe other Sages present: bI have a single fledgling among you,i.e., my son Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, band you are seeking to take it from me?By promoting my son to such a prestigious position at such a young age, his chances of being adversely affected by the evil eye are greatly increased. bThey demoted RabbiYehuda HaNasi to sit on the ground, at his father’s request. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said tothe Sages: Should bone who has a fatherto care for him, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, be demoted so that he may blive, whilethe other bone, who does not have a fatherto care for him, i.e., Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, should be allowed to bdie?Upon hearing his argument, the Sages balso demoted Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,without explaining to him the reason for his demotion. bHe became offendedand bsaidto them: bYou are equatingRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bto me,by demoting us together. In fact, I am much greater than he.,As a result of that incident, the relationship of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi changed. Up buntil that day, when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould state a matterof Torah, bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would support himby citing proofs for his opinion. bFrom thispoint bforward, whenthey were discussing a subject and bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould say: I havean argument bto respond, Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, wouldpreempt him by bsaying to him: Such and such is what you have to respond,and bthis is the refutation of yourclaim. bNowthat you asked these questions, byou have surrounded us with bundles of refutations that have no substance,i.e., you have forced us to give unnecessary answers. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, would anticipate Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s comments and immediately dismiss them as having no value., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bbecame offended. He cameand btold his fatherwhat had transpired. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel bsaidto him: bMy son, do not lethis actions boffendyou, bas he is a lion, son of a lion, and you are a lion, son of a fox.Rabbi Elazar’s father, Rabbi Shimon, was a renowned Sage, and therefore Rabbi Elazar’s sagacity is not surprising. In any event, this incident demonstrates the superiority of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to knowledge of Torah.,The Gemara concludes: bThisincident bisthe background to a statement bwhich RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: There are threeprototypical bmodestpeople, band they are: Father,i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel;
35. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

4a. בניהו בן יהוידע זה סנהדרין ואביתר אלו אורים ותומים,וכן הוא אומר (שמואל ב כ, כג) ובניהו בן יהוידע על הכרתי ועל הפלתי ולמה נקרא שמם כרתי ופלתי כרתי שכורתים דבריהם פלתי שמופלאים בדבריהם ואח"כ שר צבא למלך יואב,אמר רב יצחק בר אדא ואמרי לה אמר רב יצחק בריה דרב אידי מאי קרא (תהלים נז, ט) עורה כבודי עורה הנבל וכנור אעירה שחר.,רבי זירא אמר משה לעולם הוה ידע ודוד נמי הוה ידע,וכיון דדוד הוה ידע כנור למה ליה לאתעורי משנתיה,וכיון דמשה הוה ידע למה ליה למימר כחצות משה קסבר שמא יטעו אצטגניני פרעה ויאמרו משה בדאי הוא דאמר מר למד לשונך לומר איני יודע שמא תתבדה ותאחז,רב אשי אמר בפלגא אורתא דתליסר נגהי ארבסר הוה קאי והכי קאמר משה לישראל אמר הקב"ה למחר כחצות הלילה כי האידנא אני יוצא בתוך מצרים:,(תהלים פו, ב) לדוד שמרה נפשי כי חסיד אני לוי ור' יצחק חד אמר כך אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לא חסיד אני שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב ישנים עד שלש שעות ואני (תהלים קיט, סב) חצות לילה אקום להודות לך,ואידך כך אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לא חסיד אני שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב יושבים אגודות אגודות בכבודם ואני ידי מלוכלכות בדם ובשפיר ובשליא כדי לטהר אשה לבעלה ולא עוד אלא כל מה שאני עושה אני נמלך במפיבשת רבי ואומר לו מפיבשת רבי יפה דנתי יפה חייבתי יפה זכיתי יפה טהרתי יפה טמאתי ולא בושתי,א"ר יהושע בריה דרב אידי מאי קרא (תהלים קיט, מו) ואדברה בעדותיך נגד מלכים ולא אבוש,תנא לא מפיבשת שמו אלא איש בשת שמו ולמה נקרא שמו מפיבשת שהיה מבייש פני דוד בהלכה לפיכך זכה דוד ויצא ממנו כלאב,וא"ר יוחנן לא כלאב שמו אלא דניאל שמו ולמה נקרא שמו כלאב שהיה מכלים פני מפיבשת בהלכה,ועליו אמר שלמה בחכמתו (משלי כג, טו) בני אם חכם לבך ישמח לבי גם אני ואומר (משלי כז, יא) חכם בני ושמח לבי ואשיבה חורפי דבר.,ודוד מי קרי לנפשיה חסיד והכתיב (תהלים כז, יג) לולא האמנתי לראות בטוב ה' בארץ חיים ותנא משמיה דרבי יוסי למה נקוד על לולא אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מובטח אני בך שאתה משלם שכר טוב לצדיקים לעתיד לבוא אבל איני יודע אם יש לי חלק ביניהם אם לאו,שמא יגרום החטא,כדר' יעקב בר אידי דר' יעקב בר אידי רמי כתיב (בראשית כח, טו) והנה אנכי עמך ושמרתיך בכל אשר תלך וכתיב (בראשית לב, ח) ויירא יעקב מאד אמר שמא יגרום החטא,כדתניא (שמות טו, טז) עד יעבור עמך ה' עד יעבור עם זו קנית,עד יעבור עמך ה' זו ביאה ראשונה עד יעבור עם זו קנית זו ביאה שנייה מכאן אמרו חכמים ראוים היו ישראל ליעשות להם נס בימי עזרא כדרך שנעשה להם בימי יהושע בן נון אלא שגרם החטא:,וחכ"א עד חצות: חכמים כמאן סבירא להו אי כרבי אליעזר סבירא להו לימרו כרבי אליעזר 4a. bBenayahu ben Yehoyadacorresponds to bthe Sanhedrin,since he was the head of the Sanhedrin, and bEvyatarcorresponds to bthe iUrim VeTummim /i,as Evyatar ben Ahimelekh the priest would oversee inquiries directed to the iUrim VeTummim(see I Samuel 23:9)., bAnd so it saysregarding Benayahu ben Yehoyada’s position as head of the Sanhedrin: b“And Benayahu ben Yehoyada was over the iKeretiand over the iPeleti /i”(II Samuel 20:23). bAnd why wasthe Sanhedrin bcalled iKereti UPeleti /i?It was called iKereti /ibecause bthey were decisive [ ikoretim /i] in their pronouncements.It was called iPeleti /ibecause btheir pronouncementsand wisdom bwere wondrous [ imufla’im /i] /b. The head of the iKereti UPeletiwas the head of the Sanhedrin. According to the order of the verse, upon being instructed by King David to go to war, the Sages first consulted with Ahitophel, then with the Sanhedrin, then they would ask the iUrim VeTummim /i, bandonly bthereafterwas bthe general of the king’s army, Yoav,given the command to ready the military for battle., bRav Yitzḥak bar Adda, and some say Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Idi, said:From bwhat verseis it derived that David’s lyre would wake him at midnight? b“Awake, my glory; awake, harp and lyre; I will wake the dawn”(Psalms 57:9). This means that the playing lyre has already woken, and now I must engage in Torah study until dawn., bRabbi Zeiraoffered a different solution to the question of whether Moses and David knew exactly when it was midnight and bsaid:Moses bcertainly knewwhen it was midnight, band David also knew. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf David knew,then bwhy did he need the lyre?The Gemara answers: He needed the lyre bto wake him from his sleep. /b,Similarly with regard to Moses, bsince Moses knewthe precise moment of midnight, bwhy did he say: About midnight,instead of: At midnight? Moses did so because he bmaintained: Lest Pharaoh’s astrologers errand believe midnight to be earlier. Since no disaster would have occurred, bthey would say: Moses is a liar.Moses spoke in accordance with the principle barticulated by the Master: Accustom your tongue to say: I do not know, lest you become entangled ina web of bdeceit. /b, bRav Ashi said:This question is unfounded, as Moses bwas standing at midnight of the thirteenth, leading into the fourteenth,when he pronounced his prophecy, band Moses told Israelthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidthat btomorrow,at the exact time blike midnight tonight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt.This indicates that the passage should not be understood to mean about midnight, an approximation; but rather, like midnight, as a comparison, likening midnight tomorrow to midnight tonight.,The Gemara further explores King David’s character. It is said: “A prayer bof David…Keep my soul, for I am pious”(Psalms 86:1–2). Levi and Rabbi Yitzḥak debated the meaning of this verse and how David’s piety is manifest in the fact that he went beyond his fundamental obligations. bOne said:David’s declaration of piety referred to his awakening during the night to pray, and bso said David before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, am I not pious? As all of the kings of the East and the West sleep until the third hourof the day, bbutalthough I am a king like them, b“At midnight I rise to give thanks”(Psalms 119:62)., bAnd the otherSage said: bDavid said the following before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, am I not pious? For all of the kings of the East and the West sit in groupsbefitting btheir honoredstatus, but I sit as a judge who issues rulings for the people. Women come with questions of ritual impurity and bmy hands become soiled withtheir bbloodas I labor to determine whether or not it is blood of impurity and she has menstruating woman status, bandwith ba fetus that miscarriedat a stage of development before it was clear whether or not it is considered a birth, bandwith bplacenta,which women sometimes discharge unrelated to the birth of a child (see Leviticus 15:19–30 with regard to blood, and 12:1–8 with regard to miscarriage and placenta). King David went to all this trouble bin order to render a woman ritually pureand consequently permitted bto her husband.If, after examination, a Sage declares the woman ritually pure, she is permitted to be with her husband, which leads to increased love and affection, and ultimately to procreation (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto). bAnd not onlydo I engage in activity considered to be beneath the station of a king, bbut I consult my teacher, Mefivoshet,son of King Saul’s son, Jonathan, with regard to beverything that I do. I say to him: Mefivoshet, my teacher, did I decide properly? Did I convict properly? Did I acquit properly? Did I ruleritually bpure properly? Did I ruleritually bimpure properly? And I was not embarrassed.Forgoing royal dignity should make me worthy to be called pious., bRav Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi, said: What versealludes to this? b“And I speak Your testimonies before kings and I will not be ashamed”(Psalms 119:46). This verse alludes both to David’s commitment to Torah, in contrast to the kings of the East and the West, as well as to the fact that he was not ashamed to discuss matters of Torah with Mefivoshet, a descendant of kings. David was not afraid to have his mistakes corrected by Mefivoshet., bIt was taughtin a iToseftafrom a tannaitic tradition: bHis name was not Mefivoshet, but rather Ish Boshet was his name. Why wasIsh Boshet breferred to as Mefivoshet? Because he would embarrass [ imevayesh /i] David in matters of ihalakha/b. According to this approach, Mefivoshet is an abbreviation of iboshet panim /i, embarrassment. bBecauseDavid was not embarrassed to admit his errors, bhe merited that Kilav,who, according to tradition, was exceedingly wise, bwould descend from him. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: His name was not Kilav; rather, his name was Daniel,as it appears in a different list of David’s descendants. bWhy was he called Kilav? Because he would embarrass [ imakhlim /i] Mefivoshet,the teacher or authority figure [av] bin matters of ihalakha./b, bIn hisbook of bwisdom, Solomon saidabout this wise son: b“My son, if your heart is wise, my heart will be glad, even mine”(Proverbs 23:15), as David enjoyed witnessing his son Kilav develop into a Torah luminary to the extent that Kilav was able to respond to Mefivoshet. bAndSolomon bsaysabout Kilav: b“Be wise, my son, and make my heart glad, that I may respond to those who taunt me”(Proverbs 27:11).,With regard to David’s statement, “Keep my soul, for I am pious,” the Gemara asks: bDid David call himself pious? Isn’t it written: “If I had not [ iluleh/b] bbelieved to look upon the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living”(Psalms 27:13). The dots that appear over the word ilulehin the text indicate doubt and uncertainty of his piety, and whether he was deserving of a place in the land of the living (see iAvot DeRabbi Natan34). bIn the name of Rabbi Yosei, it was taughtin a iTosefta /i: bWhydo bdotsappear bover the word iluleh /i,as if there are some reservations? Because bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. Ihave every bconfidence in You that You grant an excellent reward to the righteous in the World-to-Comesince God’s ultimate goodness is manifest in the land of eternal life, bbutI still harbor uncertainty with regard to myself, and bI do not know whether or not Idefinitely bhave a portion among them.In any case, apparently David was uncertain whether or not he deserved to receive a portion of God’s reward for the righteous; how, then, could he characterize himself as pious?,The Gemara responds: His concern does not prove anything, as King David knew that he was pious. He was simply concerned blest a transgressionthat he might commit in the future bwill causehim to lose his opportunity to look upon the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living.,The Gemara cites a proof that there is room for one to fear lest he commit a transgression in the future bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ya’akov bar Idi, as Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is writtenthat God told Jacob in his vision of the ladder: b“Behold, I am with you and I guard you wherever you go”(Genesis 28:15), yet when Jacob returned to Canaan and realized that Esau was coming to greet him, bit is written: “And Jacob became very afraid,and he was pained” (Genesis 32:8). Why did Jacob not rely on God’s promise? Jacob had concerns and bsaidto himself: bLest a transgressionthat I might have committed after God made His promise to me bwill causeGod to revoke His promise of protection.,Apparently, at times, transgression does cause God’s promise to go unfulfilled, bas it was taughtexplicitly in a ibaraitawith regard to the ostensibly redundant language in a verse in the Song of the Sea: b“Until Your people will cross, Lord, until the people You have acquired will cross.You bring them in and plant them in the mountain of Your inheritance, the place, Lord, which You made for Your dwelling” (Exodus 15:16–17).,The Gemara interprets homiletically that buntil Your people will crossrefers to the bfirst entryinto Eretz Yisrael during the time of Joshua, while buntil the people You have acquired pass overrefers to the bsecond entryfollowing the exile in Babylonia. bBased onthe juxtaposition of these two entries in this single verse, bthe Sages said: Israel was worthy of having a miracle performed on itsbehalf bin the time of Ezrathe scribe, just basone bwas performed on theirbehalf bin the time of Joshua bin Nun. However, transgression causedthe absence of a miracle.,The Gemara returns to explain what we learned in the mishna: bAnd the Rabbis say:The time for the recitation of the evening iShemais buntil midnight.The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bdo they holdin explaining the verse: “When you lie down”? bIfthey explain this verse bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer,who says that “when you lie down” is the time when people customarily go to sleep, then bletthe Rabbis also bsaythat the time for the recitation of iShemaextends, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer,until the end of the first watch.
36. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14a. משל דאחשורוש והמן למה הדבר דומה לשני בני אדם לאחד היה לו תל בתוך שדהו ולאחד היה לו חריץ בתוך שדהו בעל חריץ אמר מי יתן לי תל זה בדמים בעל התל אמר מי יתן לי חריץ זה בדמים,לימים נזדווגו זה אצל זה אמר לו בעל חריץ לבעל התל מכור לי תילך אמר לו טול אותה בחנם והלואי,ויסר המלך את טבעתו אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא גדולה הסרת טבעת יותר מארבעים ושמונה נביאים ושבע נביאות שנתנבאו להן לישראל שכולן לא החזירום למוטב ואילו הסרת טבעת החזירתן למוטב,ת"ר ארבעים ושמונה נביאים ושבע נביאות נתנבאו להם לישראל ולא פחתו ולא הותירו על מה שכתוב בתורה חוץ ממקרא מגילה,מאי דרוש אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה ומה מעבדות לחירות אמרי' שירה ממיתה לחיים לא כל שכן,אי הכי הלל נמי נימא לפי שאין אומרים הלל על נס שבחוצה לארץ יציאת מצרים דנס שבחוצה לארץ היכי אמרינן שירה,כדתניא עד שלא נכנסו ישראל לארץ הוכשרו כל ארצות לומר שירה משנכנסו ישראל לארץ לא הוכשרו כל הארצות לומר שירה,רב נחמן אמר קרייתא זו הלילא רבא אמר בשלמא התם (תהלים קיג, א) הללו עבדי ה' ולא עבדי פרעה אלא הכא הללו עבדי ה' ולא עבדי אחשורוש אכתי עבדי אחשורוש אנן,בין לרבא בין לר"נ קשיא והא תניא משנכנסו לארץ לא הוכשרו כל הארצות לומר שירה כיון שגלו חזרו להכשירן הראשון,ותו ליכא והכתיב (שמואל א א, א) ויהי איש אחד מן הרמתים צופים אחד ממאתים צופים שנתנבאו להם לישראל,מיהוה טובא הוו כדתניא הרבה נביאים עמדו להם לישראל כפלים כיוצאי מצרים אלא נבואה שהוצרכה לדורות נכתבה ושלא הוצרכה לא נכתבה,רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אדם הבא משתי רמות שצופות זו את זו רבי חנין אמר אדם הבא מבני אדם שעומדין ברומו של עולם ומאן נינהו בני קרח דכתיב (במדבר כו, יא) ובני קרח לא מתו תנא משום רבינו מקום נתבצר להם בגיהנם ועמדו עליו,שבע נביאות מאן נינהו שרה מרים דבורה חנה אביגיל חולדה ואסתר שרה דכתיב (בראשית יא, כט) אבי מלכה ואבי יסכה ואמר ר' יצחק יסכה זו שרה ולמה נקרא שמה יסכה שסכתה ברוח הקדש שנאמר (בראשית כא, יב) כל אשר תאמר אליך שרה שמע בקולה ד"א יסכה שהכל סוכין ביופיה,מרים דכתיב (שמות טו, כ) ותקח מרים הנביאה אחות אהרן ולא אחות משה אמר ר"נ אמר רב שהיתה מתנבאה כשהיא אחות אהרן ואומרת עתידה אמי שתלד בן שיושיע את ישראל ובשעה שנולד נתמלא כל הבית כולו אורה עמד אביה ונשקה על ראשה אמר לה בתי נתקיימה נבואתיך,וכיון שהשליכוהו ליאור עמד אביה וטפחה על ראשה ואמר לה בתי היכן נבואתיך היינו דכתיב (שמות ב, ד) ותתצב אחותו מרחוק לדעה לדעת מה יהא בסוף נבואתה,דבורה דכתיב (שופטים ד, ד) ודבורה אשה נביאה אשת לפידות מאי אשת לפידות שהיתה עושה פתילות למקדש,(שופטים ד, ה) והיא יושבת תחת תומר מאי שנא תחת תומר אמר ר' שמעון בן אבשלום משום יחוד דבר אחר מה תמר זה אין לו אלא לב אחד אף ישראל שבאותו הדור לא היה להם אלא לב אחד לאביהן שבשמים,חנה דכתיב (שמואל א ב, א) ותתפלל חנה ותאמר עלץ לבי בה' רמה קרני בה' רמה קרני ולא רמה פכי דוד ושלמה שנמשחו בקרן נמשכה מלכותן שאול ויהוא שנמשחו בפך לא נמשכה מלכותן,(שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך אמר רב יהודה בר מנשיא אל תקרי בלתך אלא לבלותך שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו אבל הקדוש ברוך הוא מבלה מעשה ידיו,(שמואל א ב, ב) ואין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו אדם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים אבל הקב"ה צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים,אביגיל דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כ) והיה היא רוכבת על החמור ויורדת בסתר ההר בסתר ההר מן ההר מיבעי ליה,אמר רבה בר שמואל על עסקי דם הבא מן הסתרים נטלה דם והראתה לו אמר לה וכי מראין דם בלילה אמרה לו וכי דנין דיני נפשות בלילה אמר לה 14a. The actions of bAhasuerus and Hamancan be understood with ba parable; to what may they be compared? To two individuals, oneof whom bhad a mound in the middle of his field and the otherof whom bhad a ditch in the middle of his field,each one suffering from his own predicament. bThe owner of the ditch,noticing the other’s mound of dirt, bsaidto himself: bWho will give me this moundof dirt suitable for filling in my ditch; I would even be willing to pay bforit with bmoney,and bthe owner of the mound,noticing the other’s ditch, bsaidto himself: bWho will give me this ditch for money,so that I may use it to remove the mound of earth from my property?,At a later point, bone day, theyhappened to have bmet one another. The owner of the ditch said to the owner of the mound: Sell me your moundso I can fill in my ditch. The mound’s owner, anxious to rid himself of the excess dirt on his property, bsaid to him: Take it for free; if onlyyou had done so sooner. Similarly, Ahasuerus himself wanted to destroy the Jews. As he was delighted that Haman had similar aspirations and was willing to do the job for him, he demanded no money from him.,§ The verse states: b“And the king removed his ringfrom his hand” (Esther 3:10). bRabbi Abba bar Kahana said: The removal ofAhasuerus’s bringfor the sealing of Haman’s decree bwas more effective than the forty-eight prophets and the seven prophetesses who prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people. As, they were all unable to returnthe Jewish people bto the right way, but the removal ofAhasuerus’s bring returned them to the right way,since it brought them to repentance., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bForty-eight prophets and seven prophetesses prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people, and they neither subtracted from nor added onto what is written in the Torah,introducing no changes or additions to the mitzvot bexcept for the reading of the Megilla,which they added as an obligation for all future generations.,The Gemara asks: bWhat expositionled them to determine that this was a proper mode of action? On what basis did they add this mitzva? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa saidthat they reasoned as follows: bIf,when recalling the exodus from Egypt, in which the Jews were delivered bfrom slavery to freedom, we recite songsof praise, the Song of the Sea and the hymns of ihallel /i, then, in order to properly recall the miracle of Purim and commemorate God’s delivering us bfrom death to life,is it bnot all the more sothe case that we must sing God’s praise by reading the story in the Megilla?,The Gemara asks: bIf so,our obligation should be at least as great as when we recall the exodus from Egypt, and blet us also recite ihallel /ion Purim. The Gemara answers: iHallelis not said on Purim, bbecause ihallelis not recited on a miraclethat occurred boutside EretzYisrael. The Gemara asks: If so, with regard to bthe exodus from Egyptas well, bwhich was a miraclethat occurred boutside EretzYisrael, bhow are we able to recite songsof praise?,The Gemara answers: bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPrior tothe time when bthe Jewish people entered EretzYisrael, ball lands weredeemed bfitfor bsongsof praise bto be recitedfor miracles performed within their borders, as all lands were treated equally. But bafter the Jewish people entered EretzYisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, band all theother blands were no longerdeemed bfitfor bsongsof praise bto be recitedfor miracles performed within them., bRav Naḥman saidan alternative answer as to why ihallelis not recited on Purim: bThe reading ofthe Megilla itself bisan act of reciting ihallel /i. Rava saida third reason why ihallelis not recited on Purim: bGrantedthat ihallelis said bthere,when recalling the exodus from Egypt, as after the salvation there, they could recite the phrase in ihallel /i: b“Give praise, O servants of the Lord”(Psalms 113:1); after their servitude to Pharaoh ended with their salvation, they were truly servants of the Lord band not servants of Pharaoh. Butcan it be said bhere,after the limited salvation commemorated on Purim: b“Give praise, O servants of the Lord,”which would indicate that after the salvation the Jewish people were only servants of the Lord band not servants of Ahasuerus?No, even after the miracle of Purim, bwe were still the servants of Ahasuerus,as the Jews remained in exile under Persian rule, and consequently the salvation, which was incomplete, did not merit an obligation to say ihallel /i.,The Gemara asks: bBoth according tothe opinion of bRava and according tothe opinion of bRav Naḥman,this is bdifficult. Isn’t it taughtin the ibaraitacited earlier: bAfter the Jewish people entered EretzYisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, band all theother blands were no longerdeemed bfitfor bsongsof praise bto be recitedfor miracles performed within them. Therefore, there should be no ihallelobligation on Purim for the miracle performed outside of the land of Israel, and Rav Naḥman’s and Rava’s alternative explanations are incorrect. The Gemara answers: They understood differently, as it can be argued that bwhenthe people bwere exiledfrom Eretz Yisrael, the other lands breturned to their initial suitability,and were once again deemed fit for reciting ihallelon miracles performed within them.,With regard to the statement that forty-eight prophets and seven prophetesses prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people, the Gemara asks: bIs there no one else? Isn’t it writtenwith regard to Samuel’s father, Elkanah: b“And there was a certain [ ieḥad /i] man from Ramathaim-zophim”(I Samuel 1:1), which is expounded as follows to indicate that Elkanah was a prophet: He was bone [ ieḥad /i] of two hundred [ imata’im /i] prophets [ itzofim /i] who prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people.If so, why was it stated here that there were only forty-eight prophets?,The Gemara answers: In fact, bthere were moreprophets, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bMany prophets arose for the Jewish people,numbering bdouble thenumber of Israelites bwho left Egypt. However,only a portion of the prophecies were recorded, because only bprophecy that was needed forfuture bgenerations was writtendown in the Bible for posterity, bbut that which was not needed,as it was not pertinent to later generations, bwas not written.Therefore, the fifty-five prophets recorded in the Bible, although not the only prophets of the Jewish people, were the only ones recorded, due to their eternal messages., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidanother explanation of the verse “And there was a certain man from Ramathaim-zophim”: bA man who comes from two heights [ iramot /i] that face [ itzofot /i] one another. Rabbi Ḥanin saidan additional interpretation: bA man who descends from people who stood at the height of [ irumo /i] the world.The Gemara asks: bAnd who are thesepeople? The Gemara answers: These are the bsons of Korah, as it is written: “But the sons of Korah did not die”(Numbers 26:11), and with regard to them bit is taught in the name of our teacher,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: A high bplace was set aside for them in Gehenna,as the sons of Korah repented in their hearts, and were consequently not propelled very far down in Gehenna when the earth opened to swallow Korah and his followers; band they stood onthis high place and sung to the Lord. They alone stood at the height of the lower world.,§ The Gemara asks with regard to the prophetesses recorded in the ibaraita /i: bWho were the seven prophetesses?The Gemara answers: bSarah, Miriam, Deborah, Hannah, Abigail, Huldah, and Esther.The Gemara offers textual support: bSarah, as it is written:“Haran, bthe father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah”(Genesis 11:29). bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Iscah isin fact bSarah. And why was she called Iscah? For she saw [ isakhta /i] by means of divine inspiration, as it is stated: “In all that Sarah has said to you, hearken to her voice”(Genesis 21:12). bAlternatively,Sarah was also called bIscah, for all gazed [ isokhin /i] upon her beauty. /b, bMiriamwas a prophetess, bas it is writtenexplicitly: b“And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, tooka timbrel in her hand” (Exodus 15:20). The Gemara asks: Was she the sister only of Aaron, band not the sister of Moses?Why does the verse mention only one of her brothers? bRav Naḥman saidthat bRav said: For she prophesied when she was the sister of Aaron,i.e., she prophesied since her youth, even before Moses was born, band she would say: My mother is destined to bear a son who will deliver the Jewish peopleto salvation. bAnd at the time whenMoses bwas born the entire house was filled with light,and bher father stood and kissed her on the head,and bsaid to her: My daughter, your prophecy has been fulfilled. /b, bBut onceMoses bwas cast into the river, her father arose and rapped her on the head, saying to her: My daughter, where is your prophecynow, as it looked as though the young Moses would soon meet his end. bThis isthe meaning of bthatwhich bis writtenwith regard to Miriam’s watching Moses in the river: b“And his sister stood at a distance to knowwhat would be done to him” b( /bExodus 2:4), i.e., bto know what would be with the end of her prophecy,as she had prophesied that her brother was destined to be the savior of the Jewish people., bDeborahwas a prophetess, bas it is writtenexplicitly: b“And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth”(Judges 4:4). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“the wife of Lappidoth”?The Gemara answers: bFor she used to make wicks for the Sanctuary,and due to the flames [ ilappidot /i] on these wicks she was called the wife of Lappidoth, literally, a woman of flames.,With regard to Deborah, it says: b“And she sat under a palm tree”(Judges 4:5). The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentand unique with regard to her sitting b“under a palm tree”that there is a need for it to be written? bRabbi Shimon ben Avshalom said:It is bdue tothe prohibition against bbeing alone togetherwith a man. Since men would come before her for judgment, she established for herself a place out in the open and visible to all, in order to avoid a situation in which she would be secluded with a man behind closed doors. bAlternatively,the verse means: bJust as a palm tree has only one heart,as a palm tree does not send out separate branches, but rather has only one main trunk, bso too, the Jewish people in that generation had only one heart,directed bto their Father in Heaven. /b, bHannahwas a prophetess, bas it is written: “And Hannah prayed and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord”(I Samuel 2:1), and her words were prophecy, in that she said: b“My horn is exalted,” and not: My pitcher is exalted.As, with regard to bDavid and Solomon, who were anointedwith oil bfrom a horn, their kingship continued,whereas with regard to bSaul and Jehu, who were anointedwith oil bfrom a pitcher, their kingship did not continue.This demonstrates that Hannah was a prophetess, as she prophesied that only those anointed with oil from a horn will merit that their kingships continue.,Apropos the song of Hannah, the Gemara further explains her words: b“There is none sacred as the Lord; for there is none beside You [ ibiltekha /i]”(I Samuel 2:2). bRav Yehuda bar Menashya said: Do not readit as ibiltekha /i,“beside You,” bbut ratherread it as ilevalotekha /i,to outlast You. bAs the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is unlike the attribute of flesh and blood.It is an attribute of man that bhis handiwork outlasts himand continues to exist even after he dies, bbut the Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His handiwork,as He exists eternally.,Hannah further said: b“Neither is there any rock [ itzur /i] like our God”(I Samuel 2:1). This can be understood as saying that bthere is no artist [ itzayyar /i] like our God.How is He better than all other artists? bMan fashions a form upon a wall, but is unable to endow it with breath and a soul,or fill it with binnards and intestines, whereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, fashions a formof a fetus binside the formof its mother, rather than on a flat surface, band endows it with breath and a souland fills it with binnards and intestines. /b, bAbigailwas a prophetess, bas it is written: “And it was so, as she rode on the donkey, and came down by the covert of the mountain”(I Samuel 25:20). The Gemara asks: Why does it say: b“By the covert [ ibeseter /i] of the mountain”? It should have said: From the mountain. /b,The Gemara answers that in fact this must be understood as an allusion to something else. bRabba bar Shmuel said: Abigail,in her attempt to prevent David from killing her husband Nabal, came to David and questioned him bon account ofmenstrual bblood that comes from the hidden parts [ isetarim /i]of a body. How so? bShe tooka blood-stained cloth band showed it to him,asking him to rule on her status, whether or not she was ritually impure as a menstruating woman. bHe said to her: Is blood shown at night?One does not examine blood-stained cloths at night, as it is difficult to distinguish between the different shades by candlelight. bShe said to him:If so, you should also remember another ihalakha /i: bArecases of bcapital law tried at night?Since one does not try capital cases at night, you cannot condemn Nabal to death at night. David bsaid to her: /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20b. רבי חנינא הוא דחכים כולי עלמא לאו חכימי הכי,אמר רבי יוחנן חכמתא דרבי חנינא גרמא לי דלא אחזי דמא מטמינא מטהר מטהרנא מטמא אמר רבי אלעזר ענוותנותא דרבי חנינא גרמא לי דחזאי דמא ומה רבי חנינא דענותן הוא מחית נפשיה לספק וחזי אנא לא אחזי,אמר רבי זירא טבעא דבבל גרמא לי דלא חזאי דמא דאמינא בטבעא לא ידענא בדמא ידענא,למימרא דבטבעא תליא מלתא והא רבה הוא דידע בטבעא ולא ידע בדמא כל שכן קאמר ומה רבה דידע בטבעא לא חזא דמא ואנא אחזי,עולא אקלע לפומבדיתא אייתו לקמיה דמא ולא חזא אמר ומה רבי אלעזר דמרא דארעא דישראל הוה כי מקלע לאתרא דר' יהודה לא חזי דמא אנא אחזי,ואמאי קרו ליה מרא דארעא דישראל דההיא אתתא דאייתא דמא לקמיה דרבי אלעזר הוה יתיב רבי אמי קמיה ארחיה אמר לה האי דם חימוד הוא בתר דנפקה אטפל לה רבי אמי אמרה ליה בעלי היה בדרך וחמדתיו קרי עליה (תהלים כה, יד) סוד ה' ליראיו,אפרא הורמיז אמיה דשבור מלכא שדרה דמא לקמיה דרבא הוה יתיב רב עובדיה קמיה ארחיה אמר לה האי דם חימוד הוא אמרה ליה לבריה תא חזי כמה חכימי יהודאי א"ל דלמא כסומא בארובה,הדר שדרה ליה שתין מיני דמא וכולהו אמרינהו ההוא בתרא דם כנים הוה ולא ידע אסתייע מילתא ושדר לה סריקותא דמקטלא כלמי אמרה יהודאי בתווני דלבא יתביתו,אמר רב יהודה מרישא הוה חזינא דמא כיון דאמרה לי אמיה דיצחק ברי האי טיפתא קמייתא לא מייתינן לה קמייהו דרבנן משום דזהימא לא חזינא,בין טמאה לטהורה ודאי חזינא,ילתא אייתא דמא לקמיה דרבה בר בר חנה וטמי לה הדר אייתא לקמיה דרב יצחק בריה דרב יהודה ודכי לה,והיכי עביד הכי והתניא חכם שטימא אין חברו רשאי לטהר אסר אין חבירו רשאי להתיר,מעיקרא טמויי הוה מטמי לה כיון דא"ל דכל יומא הוה מדכי לי כי האי גונא והאידנא הוא דחש בעיניה דכי לה,ומי מהימני אין והתניא נאמנת אשה לומר כזה ראיתי ואבדתיו,איבעיא להו כזה טיהר איש פלוני חכם מהו,תא שמע נאמנת אשה לומר כזה ראיתי ואבדתיו שאני התם דליתיה לקמה,תא שמע דילתא אייתא דמא לקמיה דרבה בר בר חנה וטמי לה לקמיה דרב יצחק בריה דרב יהודה ודכי לה והיכי עביד הכי והתניא חכם שטימא אין חבירו רשאי לטהר וכו',ואמרינן טמויי הוה מטמי לה כיון דאמרה ליה דכל יומא מדכי לה כי האי גונא והאידנא הוא דחש בעיניה הדר דכי לה אלמא מהימנא לה,רב יצחק בר יהודה אגמריה סמך,רבי ראה דם בלילה וטימא ראה ביום וטיהר המתין שעה אחת חזר וטימא אמר אוי לי שמא טעיתי,שמא טעיתי ודאי טעה דתניא לא יאמר חכם אילו היה לח היה ודאי טמא,אלא אמר אין לו לדיין אלא מה שעיניו רואות מעיקרא אחזקיה בטמא כיון דחזא לצפרא דאשתני אמר (ליה) ודאי טהור הוה ובלילה הוא דלא אתחזי שפיר כיון דחזא דהדר אשתני אמר האי טמא הוא ומפכח הוא דקא מפכח ואזיל,רבי בדיק לאור הנר רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסף בדיק ביום המעונן ביני עמודי אמר רב אמי בר שמואל וכולן אין בודקין אותן אלא בין חמה לצל רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה בחמה ובצל ידו,וכמזוג שני חלקים כו' תנא 20b. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, explained: bIt isonly bRabbi Ḥaninawho is permitted to examine the blood in this fashion, bas he is wise,but beveryoneelse bis not so wisethat they can successfully perform the examination without water., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Ḥanina’s wisdom causes me not to see bloodfor a halakhic examination. When bI wouldexamine blood and bdeemit bimpure, he would deemit bpure,and when bI would deemit bpure, he would deemit bimpure.Conversely, bRabbi Elazar says: Rabbi Ḥanina’s humility causes me to see blood,as I reason to myself: bIf Rabbi Ḥanina, who is humble, places himself intoa situation of buncertainty and seesvarious types of blood to determine their status, should bI,who am not nearly as humble, bnot seeblood for an examination?, bRabbi Zeira says: Thecomplex bnatureof the residents bof Babylonia causes me not to see bloodfor a halakhic examination, bas I sayto myself: Even matters binvolving thecomplex bnatureof people bI do not know;can I then claim that bI knowabout matters bof blood? /b,The Gemara asks: bIs this to say thatthe bmatterof the appearance of blood bis dependent on the natureof people, i.e., that it changes in accordance with their nature? bBut Rabba isan example of someone bwho knew about thecomplex bnatureof the people of Babylonia, bandyet bhe did not knowhow to distinguish between different types bof blood.The Gemara answers: Rabbi Zeira took this factor into account and bsaidto himself: bAll the more so; if Rabba, who knew about thecomplex bnatureof these people, nevertheless bwould not see blood,should bI,who am unknowledgeable about the nature of these people, bseeblood for examination?,The Gemara relates that bUlla happenedto come bto Pumbedita,where bthey brought blood before himfor an examination, bbut he would not seeit, as bhe said: If Rabbi Elazar, who was the master of Eretz Yisraelin wisdom, bwhen he would happento come bto the locale of Rabbi Yehuda, he would not see blood, shall I see bloodhere?,The Gemara asks: bAnd why would they callRabbi Elazar bthe master of Eretz Yisraelin wisdom? The Gemara explains that there was an incident binvolving a certain woman who brought blood before Rabbi Elazarfor examination, and bRabbi Ami was sitting before him.Rabbi Ami observed that Rabbi Elazar bsmelledthe blood and bsaid tothe woman: bThis is blood of desire,i.e., your desire for your husband caused you to emit this blood, and it is not the blood of menstruation. bAfterthe woman bleftRabbi Elazar’s presence, bRabbi Ami caught up with herand inquired into the circumstances of her case. bShe said to him: My husband wasabsent bon a journey, and I desired him.Rabbi Ami breadthe following verse baboutRabbi Elazar: b“The counsel of the Lord is with those who fear Him;and His covet, to make them know it” (Psalms 25:14), i.e., God reveals secret matters to those who fear Him.,The Gemara further relates that bIfera Hurmiz, the mother of King Shapur, sent blood before Ravafor examination, as she sought to convert and was practicing the ihalakhotof menstruation. At that time bRav Ovadya was sitting beforeRava. Rav Ovadya observed that Rava bsmelledthe blood and later bsaid tothe woman: bThis is blood of desire. She said to her son: Comeand bsee how wise the Jewsare, as Rava is correct. Her son bsaid to her: PerhapsRava was blike a blind manwho escapes bfrom a chimney,i.e., it was a lucky guess.,Ifera Hurmiz bthen sentRava bsixtydifferent types of bblood,some impure and others pure, bandwith regard to ball of themRava accurately btold hertheir origin. The Gemara adds: bThat lastsample of blood sent by Ifera Hurmiz bwas blood of lice, andRava bdid not knowwhat it was. He received bsupportin this bmatterin the form of heavenly guidance, as he unwittingly bsent heras a gift ba comb for killing lice. She saidin exclamation: bJews, youmust bdwell in the chamber ofpeople’s bhearts. /b,§ The Gemara cites more statements of the Sages with regard to the examination of blood. bRav Yehuda says: At first I would see blood,i.e., perform examinations of blood, but I changed my conduct bwhen the mother of my son Yitzḥak,i.e., my wife, bsaid to methat she acts as follows: With regard to bthis first dropof blood that I see, bI do not bring it before the Sages, because it is not pristineblood, i.e., other substances are mixed with it. After hearing this, I decided bIwould bnolonger bseeblood, as it is possible that the first drop, which I do not get to see, was impure.,Rav Yehuda continues: But with regard to the examination of blood that a woman who gave birth emitted after the completion of her days of purity, i.e., at least forty days after giving birth to a male, or eighty after giving birth to a female (see Leviticus, chapter 12), in order to determine bwhether she is ritually impure or pure, I certainly seethis blood and determine her status based on its color. This blood is clean, as the woman has been bleeding for a long period of time.,§ The Gemara relates that bYalta,Rav Naḥman’s wife, bbrought blood before Rabba bar bar Ḥana, and he deemed her ritually impure. She then broughtit bbefore Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, and he deemed her pure. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut how couldRav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, bact in this manner? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba halakhic authority who deemedan item bimpure, anotherhalakhic authority bis not allowed to deemit bpure;if one halakhic authority bdeemeda matter bprohibited, anotherhalakhic authority bis not allowed to deemit bpermitted? /b,The Gemara explains that binitiallyRav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, bdeemed her impure,but he changed his mind bwhenYalta bsaid to him: Every daythat I bring blood bof this kindof color to Rabba bar bar Ḥana bhe deems me pure, and specifically nowhe issued a different ruling, bas he feelspain bin his eye.Upon hearing this, Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, bdeemed her pure. /b,The Gemara asks: bButare people bdeemed credibleto present claims such as the one presented by Yalta? The Gemara answers: bYes; andlikewise bit is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA woman is deemed credibleif she bsays: I sawblood blike thiscolor, bbut I lost itbefore it could be examined., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: If a woman states to her friend who showed her blood: My blood, which has an appearance blike this, so-and-so, the halakhic authority, deemedit bpure, what isthe ihalakha /i? Is she deemed credible concerning its status?,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from the ibaraitacited above: bA woman is deemed credibleif she bsays: I sawblood blike thiscolor, bbut I lost it.This demonstrates that a woman may issue claims of this kind. The Gemara rejects this proof: bThereit bis different, asin that case the blood bis not before her,and therefore the Sages were lenient. But here, the woman’s friend can take her blood to a halakhic authority for examination.,The Gemara further suggests: bComeand bhearthe incident cited above, bas Yalta brought blood before Rabba bar bar Ḥana, and he deemed her ritually impure;she then brought it bbefore Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, and he deemed her pure. Andthe Gemara asked: bHow couldRav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, bact in this manner? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba halakhic authority who deemedan item bimpure, anotherhalakhic authority bis not allowed to deemit bpure? /b, bAnd we sayin response that initially Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, bdeemed her impure,but he changed his mind bwhen she said to him that every daythat she brings blood bof this kindof color to Rabba bar bar Ḥana bhe deems her pure, and specifically nowhe issued a different ruling, bas he feelspain bin his eye.The Gemara summarizes: The conclusion of the story was that upon hearing this, Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, bthen deemed her pure. Evidently,when a woman issues claims with regard to blood that is presented, bwe deem herclaims bcredible. /b,The Gemara answers: That incident does not provide proof, as bRav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, relied on his studiesin his lenient ruling. At first, he was reluctant to issue his ruling, in deference to Rabba bar bar Ḥana, who had said the blood was impure. But when he heard Yalta’s explanation he deemed the blood pure, as he had originally thought. Therefore, there is no proof from there that a woman’s statements of this kind are accepted.,§ The Gemara further relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi once bsawa woman’s bblood at night and deemedit bimpure. Heagain bsawthat blood bin the day,after it had dried, band deemedit bpure.He bwaited one hourand then bdeemedit bimpure again.It is assumed that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did not conduct another examination at this point; rather, he reasoned that the previous night’s examination had been correct, and the blood’s color should be deemed impure because of how it had looked when it was moist. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi then bsaid: Woe is me! Perhaps I erredby declaring the blood impure, as based on its color it should be pure.,The Gemara questions this statement: bPerhaps I erred? He certainly erred, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat ba halakhic authority may not say: Ifthe blood bwere moist it would certainly have been impure,and yet here, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi deemed the blood impure based on that type of reasoning.,The Gemara explains that the incident did not unfold as initially assumed. bRather,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi examined the blood three times, as he bsaid: A judge has only what his eyes seeas the basis for his ruling. bInitially,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bestablished the presumptive statusof the blood bas ritually impure,but bwhen he saw in the morning thatits color had bchanged, he said: It was definitely purelast night as well, band onlybecause it was bat nightI thought that it was impure, bbecause it could not be seen well.Subsequently, bwhen he sawafter a short while bthatits color bagain changed,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid: Thisblood bis impure, and it is gradually becoming lighteras its color fades.,With regard to the manner in which the Sages would examine blood, the Gemara relates that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould examineblood bby candlelight. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosef, would examineblood bbetween the pillarsof the study hall even bon a cloudy day,despite the fact that it was not very light there. bRav Ami bar Shmuel says: Andin ball thesecases, bone examinesblood bonly between sunlight and shade. Rav Naḥmansays that bRabba bar Avuh says:One stands bina place lit by the bsun, andhe conducts the examination bunder the shadow of his hand,i.e., he places his hand over the blood. In this manner the color of the blood can be best discerned.,§ The mishna states: bAndwhat is the color that is blike dilutedwine that is impure? It is specifically when the dilution consists of btwo partswater and one part wine, and specifically when it is from the wine of the Sharon region in Eretz Yisrael. The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i:
38. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. בפרך רבי אלעזר אמר בפה רך רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר בפריכה,(שמות א, יד) וימררו את חייהם בעבודה קשה בחומר ובלבנים וגו' אמר רבא בתחילה בחומר ובלבנים ולבסוף ובכל עבודה בשדה,את כל עבודתם אשר עבדו בהם בפרך אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן שהיו מחליפין מלאכת אנשים לנשים ומלאכת נשים לאנשים ולמ"ד נמי התם בפה רך הכא ודאי בפריכה,דרש רב עוירא בשכר נשים צדקניות שהיו באותו הדור נגאלו ישראל ממצרים בשעה שהולכות לשאוב מים הקב"ה מזמן להם דגים קטנים בכדיהן ושואבות מחצה מים ומחצה דגים ובאות ושופתות שתי קדירות אחת של חמין ואחת של דגים,ומוליכות אצל בעליהן לשדה ומרחיצות אותן וסכות אותן ומאכילות אותן ומשקות אותן ונזקקות להן בין שפתים שנאמר (תהלים סח, יד) אם תשכבון בין שפתים וגו' בשכר תשכבון בין שפתים זכו ישראל לביזת מצרים שנאמר (תהלים סח, יד) כנפי יונה נחפה בכסף ואברותיה בירקרק חרוץ,וכיון שמתעברות באות לבתיהם וכיון שמגיע זמן מולדיהן הולכות ויולדות בשדה תחת התפוח שנאמר (שיר השירים ח, ה) תחת התפוח עוררתיך וגו',והקב"ה שולח משמי מרום מי שמנקיר ומשפיר אותן כחיה זו שמשפרת את הולד שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, ד) ומולדותיך ביום הולדת אותך לא כרת שרך ובמים לא רחצת למשעי וגו' ומלקט להן שני עגולין אחד של שמן ואחד של דבש שנאמר (דברים לב, יג) ויניקהו דבש מסלע ושמן וגו',וכיון שמכירין בהן מצרים באין להורגן ונעשה להם נס ונבלעין בקרקע ומביאין שוורים וחורשין על גבן שנאמר (תהלים קכט, ג) על גבי חרשו חורשים וגו לאחר שהולכין היו מבצבצין ויוצאין כעשב השדה שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, ז) רבבה כצמח השדה נתתיך,וכיון שמתגדלין באין עדרים עדרים לבתיהן שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, ז) ותרבי ותגדלי ותבואי בעדי עדים אל תקרי בעדי עדים אלא בעדרי עדרים,וכשנגלה הקב"ה על הים הם הכירוהו תחלה שנאמר (שמות טו, ב) זה אלי ואנוהו,(שמות א, טו) ויאמר מלך מצרים למילדות העבריות וגו' רב ושמואל חד אמר אשה ובתה וחד אמר כלה וחמותה מ"ד אשה ובתה יוכבד ומרים ומ"ד כלה וחמותה יוכבד ואלישבע,תניא כמ"ד אשה ובתה דתניא שפרה זו יוכבד ולמה נקרא שמה שפרה שמשפרת את הולד ד"א שפרה שפרו ורבו ישראל בימיה,פועה זו מרים ולמה נקרא שמה פועה שהיתה פועה (ומוציאה את הולד) ד"א פועה שהיתה פועה ברוח הקודש ואומרת עתידה אמי שתלד בן שמושיע את ישראל,(שמות א, טז) ויאמר בילדכן את העבריות וגו' מאי אבנים א"ר חנן סימן גדול מסר להן אמר להן בשעה שכורעת לילד יריכותיה מצטננות כאבנים,ואית דאמר כדכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ג) וארד בית היוצר והנה הוא עושה מלאכה על האבנים מה יוצר זה ירך מכאן וירך מכאן וסדן באמצע אף אשה ירך מכאן וירך מכאן והולד באמצע,(שמות א, טז) אם בן הוא והמתן אותו א"ר חנינא סימן גדול מסר להן בן פניו למטה בת פניה למעלה,(שמות א, יז) ותיראן המילדות את האלהים ולא עשו כאשר דבר אליהן וגו' להן מיבעי ליה א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא מלמד שתבען לדבר עבירה ולא נתבעו,(שמות א, יז) ותחיין את הילדים תנא לא דיין שלא המיתו אותן אלא שהיו מספיקות להם מים ומזון,(שמות א, יט) ותאמרן המילדות אל פרעה כי לא כנשים וגו' מאי חיות אילימא חיות ממש אטו חיה מי לא צריכה חיה אחריתי לאולודה,אלא אמרו לו אומה זו כחיה נמשלה יהודה (בראשית מט, ט) גור אריה דן יהי דן נחש נפתלי אילה שלוחה יששכר חמור גרם יוסף בכור שור בנימין זאב יטרף,דכתיב ביה כתיב ביה ודלא כתיב ביה כתיב (ביה) (יחזקאל יט, ב) מה אמך לביא בין אריות רבצה וגו',(שמות א, כא) ויהי כי יראו המילדות את האלהים ויעש להם בתים רב ושמואל חד אמר בתי כהונה ולויה וחד אמר בתי מלכות מ"ד בתי כהונה ולויה אהרן ומשה ומ"ד בתי מלכות דוד נמי ממרים קאתי דכתיב (דברי הימים א ב, יט) ותמת עזובה (אשת כלב) ויקח לו כלב את אפרת ותלד לו את חור וכתיב (שמואל א יז, יב) ודוד בן איש אפרתי וגו',(דברי הימים א ב, יח) וכלב בן חצרון הוליד את עזובה אשה ואת יריעות ואלה בניה ישר ושובב וארדון בן חצרון (במדבר יג, ו) בן יפנה הוא בן שפנה מעצת מרגלים,ואכתי בן קנז הוא דכתיב (שופטים א, יג) וילכדה עתניאל בן קנז אחי כלב אמר רבא חורגו דקנז הוה 11b. bwith rigor [ ibefarekh /i]”(Exodus 1:13). bRabbi Elazar says:The word ibefarekhis a conjugation of the words: bWith a soft mouth [ ibifeh rakh /i],as the Egyptians enticed the Jewish people into slavery, gradually subjugating them until they had lost their freedom completely. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says:The word ibefarekhshould be understood as: bWith crushing [ ibifrikha /i],as the Egyptians subjugated Israel with backbreaking labor.,The next verse states: b“And they made their lives bitter through hard service, with mortar and brick,and with every laborious service in the field” (Exodus 1:14). bRava says:The verse mentions specifically mortar and brick and then all forms of labor, as binitiallythe Egyptians had them work bwith mortar and bricks, and ultimatelythey subjugated them b“and with every laborious service in the field.” /b,The verse concludes: b“In all their service, wherein they made them serve with rigor”(Exodus 1:14). bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:The meaning of ibefarekhis that the Egyptians bwould exchangethe responsibilities of men and women, giving bmen’s work to women and women’s work to men,requiring everyone to do work to which they were unaccustomed. bAnd even according to the one who saysthat bthere,in the previous verse, ibifarekhindicates that the Egyptians enslaved the Jews bwith a soft mouth, here,in this verse, which describes the physical hardship of the labor, the word befarekh bcertainlymeans bwith crushinglabor.,§ bRav Avira taught: In the merit ofthe brighteous women that were in that generation, the Jewish people were redeemed from Egypt.He tells of their righteous actions: bAt the timewhen these women bwould goto the river bto draw water, the Holy One, Blessed be He, would materialize for them small fishthat would enter binto their pitchers, and they wouldtherefore bdrawpitchers that were bhalffilled with bwater and halffilled with bfish. And they wouldthen bcome and place two pots on the fire, onepot bof hotwater for washing their husbands band onepot bof fishwith which to feed them., bAnd they wouldthen btakewhat they prepared bto their husbands, to the field, and would bathetheir husbands band anoint themwith oil band feed themthe fish band give them to drink and bond with themin sexual intercourse bbetween the sheepfolds,i.e., between the borders and fences of the fields, bas it is stated: “When you lie among the sheepfolds,the wings of the dove are covered with silver, and her pinions with the shimmer of gold” (Psalms 68:14), which is interpreted to mean that bas a rewardfor “when you blie among the sheepfolds,” the Jewish people merited toreceive bthe plunder of Egypt, as it is statedin the continuation of the verse, as a reference to the Jewish people: b“The wings of the dove are covered with silver, and her pinions with the shimmer of gold”(Psalms 68:14)., bAnd whenthese women would bbecome pregt, they would comeback bto their homes, and when the time for them to give birthwould arrive bthey would go and give birth in the field under the apple tree, as it is stated: “Under the apple tree I awakened you;there your mother was in travail with you; there was she in travail and brought you forth” (Song of Songs 8:5)., bAnd the Holy One, Blessed be He, would send from the heavens abovean angel bwho would clean and preparethe newborns, bjust as a midwife prepares the newborn, as it is stated: “And as for your birth, on the day you were born, your navel was not cut nor were you washed with water for cleansing;you were not salted at all, nor swaddled at all” (Ezekiel 16:4). This indicates that there were no midwives to take care of the Jews born in Egypt. bAndthen, the angel bwould gather for them two roundstones from the field and the babies would nurse from that which would flow out of them. bOne ofthe stones flowed with boil and one ofthe stones flowed with bhoney, as it is stated: “And He would suckle them with honey from a crag and oilfrom a flinty rock” (Deuteronomy 32:13)., bAnd once the Egyptians would notice them,realizing that they were Jewish babies, bthey would come to kill them. But a miracle would occur for them and they would be absorbed by the earth. Andthe Egyptians bwouldthen bbring oxen and would plow upon them, as it is stated: “The plowers plowed upon my back;they made long their furrows” (Psalms 129:3). bAfterthe Egyptians bwould leave,the babies bwould emerge and exitthe ground blike grass of the field, as it is stated: “I caused you to increase even as the growth of the field”(Ezekiel 16:7)., bAnd oncethe babies bwould grow, they would come like many flocksof sheep bto their homes, as it is statedin the continuation of the verse: b“And you did increase and grow up and you came with excellent beauty [ iba’adi adayim /i]”(Ezekiel 16:7). bDo not readthe verse as: b“ iBa’adi adayim /i,”“with excellent beauty.” bRather,read it as: iBe’edrei adarim /i,meaning: As many flocks., bAnd when the Holy One, Blessed be He, revealed Himself at theRed bSea,these children brecognized Him first, as it is stated: “This is my God, and I will glorify Him”(Exodus 15:2). They recognized Him from the previous time that He revealed Himself to them in their infancy, enabling them to say: “This is my God.”,§ The verse states: b“And the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives,of whom the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah” (Exodus 1:15). bRav and Shmueldisagree as to the proper interpretation of this verse. bOne saysthat these midwives were ba woman and her daughter, and one saysthat they were ba daughter-in-law and her mother-in-law.According to the bone who saysthat they were ba woman and her daughter,the women were bJochebed,the mother of Moses and Aaron, bandher daughter, bMiriam. Andaccording to the bone who saysthat they were ba daughter-in-law and her mother-in-law,the verse is referring to bJochebed andher daughter-in-law bElisheba,the wife of Aaron.,It bis taughtin a ibaraita baccording to the one who saysthat they were ba woman and her daughter, because itis btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bShiphrah,who is referred to in the verse, bthisis really a reference to bJochebed. And why was she called Shiphrah? Because she would prepare [ imishapperet /i] the newborn. Alternatively,she is referred to as bShiphrah because the Jewish people increased and multiplied [ ishepparu verabbu /i] in her days,due to her assistance.,The ibaraitacontinues: With regard to bPuah,who is referred to in the verse, bthisis really a reference to bMiriam. And why was she called Puah? Because she would make a comforting sound [ ipo’a /i] as she would remove the childfrom the womb of the mother. bAlternatively,the word bPuahis related to one of the verbs that describe speaking, bas she would speak [ ipo’a /i] through divine inspiration and say: In the future, my mother will give birth to a son who will save the Jewish people. /b,The next verse relates the instructions of Pharaoh to the midwives: b“And he said: When you deliver the Hebrew women,and you look upon the stones [ iovnayim /i], if it be a son, then you shall kill him; but if it be a daughter, then she shall live” (Exodus 1:16). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of b“stones”? Rabbi Ḥa says:Pharaoh btransmitted a great sign to them. He said to them: At the timewhen a woman bcrouches to give birth, her thighs become as cold as stones,and, therefore, this shall be for you a sign that the woman is about to give birth., bAnd there are those who sayan alternative explanation for iovnayim /i: bAs it is written: “So I went down to the potter’s shop, and behold, he was at his work on the wheels [ iovnayim /i]”(Jeremiah 18:3). bJust as this pottersits so that one bthighis bhere andone bthighis bthere and the blockupon which he works bis in the middle, so too, a womangiving birth also has one bthigh here andone bthigh there and the newborn is in the middle. /b,The verse continues: b“If it be a son, then you shall kill him;but if it be a daughter, then she shall live” (Exodus 1:16). bRabbi Ḥanina says:Pharaoh btransmitted to them a great signto enable them to know the gender of the infant from the beginning of the birth process: bA boyis born with bhis face downward; a girlis born with bher face upward.Pharaoh provided them with this sign so that they could kill the boys secretly even before the mother realized what was happening.,The next verse states: b“But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt spoke about them [ ialeihen /i],but they kept the male children alive” (Exodus 1:17). The Gemara comments: bIt should havestated: “Spoke bto them [ ilahen /i].” Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:This bteaches thatPharaoh bproposed to them toengage in ba sinful act,i.e., sexual intercourse, with him, bbut they did not accepthis overtures. The word ialeihenis often used in reference to sexual intercourse, for example: “And brought her to him; and he consorted with her [ ieileha /i]” (Genesis 29:23), and that is its connotation here as well.,The verse concludes: b“But they kept the male children alive”(Exodus 1:17). A Sage bteaches:It is bnot only that they did not killthe children as Pharaoh had commanded them, bbut that they wouldeven bprovide for them water and food,as the phrase “But they kept the male children alive” indicates.,After being questioned by Pharaoh concerning their failure to obey his command, the midwives responded, as it is written: b“And the midwives said to Pharaoh: Becausethe Hebrew women bare not as theEgyptian bwomen,for they are lively [ iḥayot /i], and are delivered before the midwife comes to them” (Exodus 1:19). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of b“ iḥayot /i”? If we saythat the Hebrew women are like iḥayot /i, meaning bactual midwivesfor themselves, and therefore they do not need assistance from others, bis that to saythat ba midwife does not needthe assistance of banother midwifein order bto help her give birth? /b, bRather,the midwives bsaid toPharaoh: bThis nation is compared to an animal [ iḥayya /i],and animals give birth without a midwife. For example, with regard to bJudahit is written: “Judah is ba lion’s whelp”(Genesis 49:9); with regard to bDanit is written: b“Dan shall be a serpentin the way” (Genesis 49:17); with regard to bNaphtaliit is written: b“A hind let loose”(Genesis 49:21); with regard to bIssacharit is written: b“A large-boned donkey”(Genesis 49:14); with regard to bJosephit is written: “His bfirst bullock”(Deuteronomy 33:17); with regard to bBenjaminit is written: b“A ravenous wolf”(Genesis 49:27).,The Gemara comments: Concerning those individuals bwherea comparison to an animal bis written with regard to him,it bisalready bwritten with regard to him. Andconcerning those bwhere nospecific metaphor comparing them to an animal is bwritten with regard to himexplicitly, in any case a general comparison bis written aboutthe Jewish people: b“How your mother was a lioness; among lions she crouched,in the midst of the young lions she reared her whelps” (Ezekiel 19:2), indicating that all the Jewish people are compared to animals.,The verse relates the midwives’ reward: b“And it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that He made them houses”(Exodus 1:21). bRav and Shmueldisagree as to the precise interpretation of these houses: bOne saysthat God made bthe houses ofthe bpriesthood andthe bLevitesdescend from the midwives, band one saysthat God made the bhouses of royaltydescend from them. bThe one who saysthat it is referring to the bhouses ofthe bpriesthood andthe bLevitesis referring to bAaron and Moses,who were sons of Jochebed. bAnd the one who saysthat it is referring to bhouses of royaltyis referring to bDavid,who balso comes from Miriam, as it is written: “And Azubah,” the wife of Caleb, “died, and Caleb took to him Ephrath, who bore him Hur”(I Chronicles 2:19) and, as will be explained further, Ephrath is Miriam. bAnd it is written: “David was the son of that Ephrathiteof Bethlehem in Judah” (I Samuel 17:12). Therefore, he was a descendant of Miriam.,The Gemara discusses the family of Caleb: In Chronicles it says: b“And Caleb, the son of Hezron, begot children of Azubah his wife, and of Jerioth, and these were her sons: Jesher, and Shobab, and Ardon”(I Chronicles 2:18). The Gemara asks: Was Caleb actually the bson of Hezron? Wasn’t hethe bson of Jephunneh,as the verse states in Numbers 13:6? The Gemara answers: He was the son of Hezron, but he is called “son of Jephunneh” as an appellation indicating that he was ba son who turned away [ isheppana /i] from the counsel of the spies. /b,The Gemara asks: bButit is bstilldifficult. Hezron could not be his father, as Caleb bwasthe bson of Kenaz, as it is written: “And Othniel, the son of Kenaz, Caleb’syounger bbrother, took it”(Judges 1:13). This would mean that Caleb was also a son of Kenaz. bRava said:Caleb bwas the stepson of Kenaz,as he and Othniel shared a mother but had different fathers.
39. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 1.13 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

1.13. כְּשֶׁרָאָה שֶׁהֵם פָּרִים וְרָבִים, גָּזַר עַל הַזְּכָרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמות א, טו): וַיֹּאמֶר מֶלֶךְ מִצְרַיִם לַמְיַלְּדֹת וגו'. מִי הָיוּ הַמְיַלְּדוֹת, רַב אָמַר כַּלָּה וַחֲמוֹתָהּ, יוֹכֶבֶד וֶאֱלִישֶׁבַע בַּת עֲמִינָדָב. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר, אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ, יוֹכֶבֶד וּמִרְיָם. וְלֹא הָיוּ לְמִרְיָם אֶלָּא חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים, שֶׁאַהֲרֹן גָּדוֹל מִמּשֶׁה שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים. אָמְרוּ רַבּוֹתֵינוּ זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה הוֹלֶכֶת הָיְתָה עִם יוֹכֶבֶד אִמָּהּ וְעוֹשָׂה צְרָכֶיהָ, וְהָיְתָה זְרִיזָה, שֶׁעַד שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק קָטָן הוּא נִכָּר. הוּא שֶׁאָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה (משלי כ, יא): גַּם בְּמַעֲלָלָיו יִתְנַכֶּר נָעַר וגו'. אֲשֶׁר שֵׁם הָאַחַת שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מְשַׁפֶּרֶת אֶת הַתִּינוֹק, כְּשֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא מָלֵא דָּם, פּוּעָה שֶׁהָיְתָה נוֹפַעַת יַיִן בַּתִּינוֹק אַחַר אִמָּהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁפָּרוּ וְרָבוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עָלֶיהָ. פּוּעָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מַפִּיעָה אֶת הַתִּינוֹק כְּשֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים מֵת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁשִּׁפְּרָה מַעֲשֶׂיהָ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאלֹהִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד פַּרְעֹה, וְזָקְפָה חָטְמָהּ בּוֹ, וְאָמְרָה לוֹ, אוֹי לוֹ לְאוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹא הָאֱלֹהִים לִפָּרַע מִמֶּנּוּ. נִתְמַלֵּא עָלֶיהָ חֵמָה לְהָרְגָהּ. שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהָיְתָה מְשַׁפֶּרֶת עַל דִּבְרֵי בִתָּהּ וּמְפַיֶּסֶת עָלֶיהָ. אָמְרָה לוֹ, אַתָּה מַשְׁגִּיחַ עָלֶיהָ, תִּינֹקֶת הִיא וְאֵינָהּ יוֹדַעַת כְּלוּם. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר רַב יִצְחָק אָמַר, שִׁפְרָה, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאלֹהִים, שֶׁבִּשְׁבִילָם נִבְרְאוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם, שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהֶם (איוב כו, יג): בְּרוּחוֹ שָׁמַיִם שִׁפְרָה. פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד אָבִיהָ, שֶׁהָיָה עַמְרָם רֹאשׁ סַנְהֶדְּרִין בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁגָּזַר פַּרְעֹה וְאָמַר (שמות א, כב): כָּל הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד, אָמַר עַמְרָם וְלָרִיק יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹלִידִים, מִיָּד הוֹצִיא אֶת יוֹכֶבֶד וּפֵרַשׁ עַצְמוֹ מִתַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה, וְגֵרַשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ כְּשֶׁהִיא מְעֻבֶּרֶת מִשְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים, עָמְדוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֵרְשׁוּ אֶת נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶן. אָמְרָה לוֹ בִּתּוֹ גְּזֵרָתְךָ קָשָׁה מִשֶּׁל פַּרְעֹה, שֶׁפַּרְעֹה לֹא גָזַר אֶלָּא עַל הַזְּכָרִים, וְאַתָּה עַל הַזְּכָרִים וּנְקֵבוֹת. פַּרְעֹה רָשָׁע הוּא וּגְזֵרָתוֹ סָפֵק מִתְקַיֶּמֶת סָפֵק אֵינָהּ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת, אֲבָל אַתָּה צַדִּיק וּגְזֵרָתְךָ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת. עָמַד הוּא וְהֶחֱזִיר אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, עָמְדוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֶחֱזִירוּ נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶם. הֱוֵי פּוּעָה, שֶׁהוֹפִיעָה פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד אָבִיהָ. 1.13. And the king of Egypt said to the midwives, etc. Who are the midwives. Rav says a woman and her daughter in law - Yocheved and Elisheva bat Aminadav. And Rabi Shmuel bar Nachman says a woman and her daughter Yocheved and Miriam. That one of their names was Shifra - she beautified the baby when it would come out full of blood. Puah - that she squirted wine into the babies mouth after it came out of its mother. Another thing, Shifra: that B\"Y were fruitful and multiplied under her. Puah: that she would cause the newborn to cry out when it was thought to be stillborn. Another thing, Shifra that she beautified her actions before Hashem Another thing, Puah - that she appeared to B\"Y for Hashem - she taught B\"Y. Puah - she was insolent (hofi’ah panim) toward Pharaoh and looked down her nose at him. She told him: “Woe to you on the day of judgment, when God will come to demand punishment of you.” Pharaoh immediately became enraged and wanted to kill her. Shifra, that she beautified her daughters words to Paraoh and mollified him and said to him: “Do you take notice of her? She is a baby, and knows nothing” (Ex. Rabbah, loc. cit.). Rav Chanina the son of Rav Yitzchak said: Shifra: that she supported Yisrael for Hashem that for them the world was created that it says, By His breath He made the heavens. In another midrashic account, she was called Puah because of her insolence which, in this depiction, was directed against her father Amram. When Pharaoh ordered the Israelite boys to be cast into the Nile, Amram said: “Shall an Israelite lie with his wife for nothing?” He immediately separated from Jochebed and divorced her. When the Israelites saw this action by Amram, who was the head of the Sanhedrin at the time, they also divorced their wives. Puah told her father: “Father, your decree is harsher than that of Pharaoh! He only decreed against the males, but you have decreed against both the males and the females. It is doubtful whether the decree of the wicked Pharaoh will come to pass, but you are righteous, and so your decree will be fulfilled.” Amram immediately took back his wife, and following his lead, all the other Israelite men did the same. Miriam was accordingly given the name of Puah, since she was insolent (hofi’ah panim) to her father."
40. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 152

152. been distinctly separated from the rest of mankind. For most other men defile themselves by promiscuous intercourse, thereby working great iniquity, and whole countries and cities pride themselves upon such vices. For they not only have intercourse with men but they defile their own


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts of thomas, adultery Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
acts of thomas, homosexuality Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
acts of thomas, sexual practices Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
adultery in antiquity Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
akiba (aqiva) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
akiva Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 427
alexandria, philos perspective on Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
alien/foreigner, jewish attitudes toward Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 117
allegory Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 88
aqiva (akiba) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
aristeas, letter of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
arjava, a. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
arsinoe ii Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
atonement Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 523
bible (hebrew bible and/or new testament) Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
biblical law, on homosexuality Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
bones Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 232
circumcision Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 315
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 391
cleanness/uncleanness Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
cleopatra vii Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
covenant Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
creation, creator Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 427
day of atonement Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 494
death, as common fate in qohelet Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 95
death Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 523
dinah Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 117
discharge Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 523
dualism Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 523
education, applications of, to address historical, religious or social issues Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
education, rabbinic Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
ejaculants/baal qeri Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 396, 397
gardner, j. f. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
gender, study of, representation of women in ancient narratives Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
genitals Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 189
gentiles, and intermarriage Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 117
goshen-gottstein, a. Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 427
greek, language Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
grubbs, j. e. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
hagigah, tractate in mishna, tosefta and talmud Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 427
halakhah, midrash, halakhic Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
hebrews/israelites, and mixed marriages Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 117
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 398, 494, 523
hoi alloi, biblical law Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
hoi alloi, roman law Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
holiness Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
human being Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 523
intermarriage, biblical figures Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 117
ishmael Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
israel, destiny of Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 95
israel Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
jacob Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 117
jerusalem Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
jesus, as prophet like moses DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 248
judaism, as religio-cultural system Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
judaism, late second temple Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
julius caesar Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
levi/levites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 117
leviticus rabbah, scripture mediated in , example of qohelot Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 95
marital separation Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 317
marriage Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 317
mekhilta de-arayot Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
mekhilta de-milluim Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
mekhilta de-r. shimon ben yohai on exodus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
mekhilta of r. ishmael on exodus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
memory, cultural Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
menstrual taboos, biblical background Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 396, 397
menstruants/niddah, intercourse with Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 396, 397
menstruants/niddah, status in jewish law Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 397
menstruation Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 315, 317; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 88
methodology xvii–xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 427
midrash, halakhic Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
miriams well Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 226
mishnah, judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
mishnah Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
mishnah and tosefta, relationship to, schools of interpretation Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
moab/moabites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 117
moral impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 349, 523
moses, in philos life of moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
nudity Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 189
outsider Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 523
parables, blurring of mashal and nimshal Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 189
paradise, pardes, entered pardes Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 427
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
philos perspective Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
plutarch Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
privacy Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 189
procreation Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 315
ptolemy ii philadelphus, in philos life of moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
ptolemy ii philadelphus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
purification Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 398, 523
purity, ritual Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 315
purity Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
purity of the land Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 340
rabbah Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 95
rabbinic exegesis Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
religion within a cultural system' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
ritual-physical impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 523
ritual impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 349
ritual system Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 349
roman law, on homosexuality Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
samaritans DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 248
samuel DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 248
sanctuary Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 349
sealey, r. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
seminal emissions Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 232
septuagint (lxx) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
shechem/shechemites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 117
sibling-marriage Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 235
sifra on leviticus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
sifre deuteronomy Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
sifre zutta on numbers Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
sin Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 523
slaves/slavery, egyptian Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 117
solomon Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 117
taboo Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 88
tannaim on deuteronomy Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
temple in jerusalem Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94
thought (mahshava), role of in purity system Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 232
torah Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 94; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 398
traditions or schools of exegesis, midrashic Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 199
transmission of impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 349
treggiari, s. Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
visibility, implications of for im/purity Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 232
water Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 398
wells, and feminine archetype Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 226
wells, miraculous Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 226
wolfson, h. a. Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 88
womanhood Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 88
women, conflicting views of, in biblical and rabbinic tradition Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 226
women, in judaism, as source of pollution Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 315
women, in judaism, impurity and marital separation Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 317
women, in judaism, procreation role Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 315
women, representation in ancient narratives Kraemer, Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean (2010) 38
zav/zavim Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 396