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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6296
Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.18


לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

76 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, a b c d\n0 . . \n1 1 1 1 None\n2 10.17 10.17 10 17 \n3 10.18 10.18 10 18 \n4 10.19 10.19 10 19 \n.. ... ... .. .. \n99 7.15 7.15 7 15 \n100 7.19 7.19 7 19 \n101 7.20 7.20 7 20 \n102 8 8 8 None\n103 9 9 9 None\n\n[104 rows x 4 columns] (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 1.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.17. כִּי־יֵצֵא דְבַר־הַמַּלְכָּה עַל־כָּל־הַנָּשִׁים לְהַבְזוֹת בַּעְלֵיהֶן בְּעֵינֵיהֶן בְּאָמְרָם הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ אָמַר לְהָבִיא אֶת־וַשְׁתִּי הַמַּלְכָּה לְפָנָיו וְלֹא־בָאָה׃ 1.17. For this deed of the queen will come abroad unto all women, to make their husbands contemptible in their eyes, when it will be said: The king Ahasuerus commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, but she came not."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.22, 2.1-2.2, 2.14, 3.6, 4.22, 6.6-6.8, 12.49, 20.1, 20.7, 20.12-20.14, 20.17, 21.12-21.14, 21.23-21.25, 22.20, 23.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.22. וַיְצַו פַּרְעֹה לְכָל־עַמּוֹ לֵאמֹר כָּל־הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד הַיְאֹרָה תַּשְׁלִיכֻהוּ וְכָל־הַבַּת תְּחַיּוּן׃ 2.1. וַיִגְדַּל הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּבִאֵהוּ לְבַת־פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי־לָהּ לְבֵן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מֹשֶׁה וַתֹּאמֶר כִּי מִן־הַמַּיִם מְשִׁיתִהוּ׃ 2.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ מִבֵּית לֵוִי וַיִּקַּח אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִי׃ 2.2. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֵּרֶא אֹתוֹ כִּי־טוֹב הוּא וַתִּצְפְּנֵהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יְרָחִים׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָיו וְאַיּוֹ לָמָּה זֶּה עֲזַבְתֶּן אֶת־הָאִישׁ קִרְאֶן לוֹ וְיֹאכַל לָחֶם׃ 2.14. וַיֹּאמֶר מִי שָׂמְךָ לְאִישׁ שַׂר וְשֹׁפֵט עָלֵינוּ הַלְהָרְגֵנִי אַתָּה אֹמֵר כַּאֲשֶׁר הָרַגְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִי וַיִּירָא מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמַר אָכֵן נוֹדַע הַדָּבָר׃ 3.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וַיַּסְתֵּר מֹשֶׁה פָּנָיו כִּי יָרֵא מֵהַבִּיט אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 4.22. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 6.6. לָכֵן אֱמֹר לִבְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲנִי יְהוָה וְהוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מִתַּחַת סִבְלֹת מִצְרַיִם וְהִצַּלְתִּי אֶתְכֶם מֵעֲבֹדָתָם וְגָאַלְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בִּזְרוֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבִשְׁפָטִים גְּדֹלִים׃ 6.7. וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם לִי לְעָם וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הַמּוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מִתַּחַת סִבְלוֹת מִצְרָיִם׃ 6.8. וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָשָׂאתִי אֶת־יָדִי לָתֵת אֹתָהּ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב וְנָתַתִּי אֹתָהּ לָכֶם מוֹרָשָׁה אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 12.49. תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָאֶזְרָח וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 20.1. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ 20.1. וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 20.7. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 20.12. כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 20.13. לֹא תִּרְצָח׃ לֹא תִּנְאָף׃ לֹא תִּגְנֹב׃ לֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁקֶר׃ 20.14. לֹא תַחְמֹד בֵּית רֵעֶךָ לֹא־תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 20.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃ 21.12. מַכֵּה אִישׁ וָמֵת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 21.13. וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא צָדָה וְהָאֱלֹהִים אִנָּה לְיָדוֹ וְשַׂמְתִּי לְךָ מָקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יָנוּס שָׁמָּה׃ 21.14. וְכִי־יָזִד אִישׁ עַל־רֵעֵהוּ לְהָרְגוֹ בְעָרְמָה מֵעִם מִזְבְּחִי תִּקָּחֶנּוּ לָמוּת׃ 21.23. וְאִם־אָסוֹן יִהְיֶה וְנָתַתָּה נֶפֶשׁ תַּחַת נָפֶשׁ׃ 21.24. עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן שֵׁן תַּחַת שֵׁן יָד תַּחַת יָד רֶגֶל תַּחַת רָגֶל׃ 21.25. כְּוִיָּה תַּחַת כְּוִיָּה פֶּצַע תַּחַת פָּצַע חַבּוּרָה תַּחַת חַבּוּרָה׃ 23.9. וְגֵר לֹא תִלְחָץ וְאַתֶּם יְדַעְתֶּם אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ הַגֵּר כִּי־גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 1.22. And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying: ‘Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive.’" 2.1. And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi." 2.2. And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months." 2.14. And he said: ‘Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us? thinkest thou to kill me, as thou didst kill the Egyptian?’ And Moses feared, and said: ‘Surely the thing is known.’" 3.6. Moreover He said: ‘I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God." 4.22. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born." 6.6. Wherefore say unto the children of Israel: I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm, and with great judgments;" 6.7. and I will take you to Me for a people, and I will be to you a God; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God, who brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians." 6.8. And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning which I lifted up My hand to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for a heritage: I am the LORD.’" 12.49. One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.’" 20.1. And God spoke all these words, saying:" 20.7. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 20.12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 20.13. Thou shalt not murder. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour." 20.14. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s." 20.17. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’" 21.12. He that smiteth a man, so that he dieth, shall surely be put to death." 21.13. And if a man lie not in wait, but God cause it to come to hand; then I will appoint thee a place whither he may flee." 21.14. And if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from Mine altar, that he may die." 21.23. But if any harm follow, then thou shalt give life for life," 21.24. eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot," 21.25. burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe." 22.20. And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt." 23.9. And a stranger shalt thou not oppress; for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.11-1.12, 1.21, 1.24-1.25, 2.7, 2.17, 6.20, 7.14, 9.2, 9.15, 12.7, 15.6, 17.9-17.14, 21.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.12. וַתּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע לְמִינֵהוּ וְעֵץ עֹשֶׂה־פְּרִי אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.21. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת אֲשֶׁר שָׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם לְמִינֵהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף כָּנָף לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.24. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ בְּהֵמָה וָרֶמֶשׂ וְחַיְתוֹ־אֶרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.25. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֵת כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 7.14. הֵמָּה וְכָל־הַחַיָּה לְמִינָהּ וְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ וְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְמִינֵהוּ וְכָל־הָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ כֹּל צִפּוֹר כָּל־כָּנָף׃ 9.2. וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם׃ 9.2. וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה עַל כָּל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְעַל כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ׃ 9.15. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד הַמַּיִם לְמַבּוּל לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר׃ 12.7. וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתֵּן אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלָיו׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 17.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אַבְרָהָם וְאַתָּה אֶת־בְּרִיתִי תִשְׁמֹר אַתָּה וְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 17.11. וּנְמַלְתֶּם אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלַתְכֶם וְהָיָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם׃ 17.12. וּבֶן־שְׁמֹנַת יָמִים יִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם יְלִיד בָּיִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּסֶף מִכֹּל בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִזַּרְעֲךָ הוּא׃ 17.13. הִמּוֹל יִמּוֹל יְלִיד בֵּיתְךָ וּמִקְנַת כַּסְפֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה בְרִיתִי בִּבְשַׂרְכֶם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם׃ 17.14. וְעָרֵל זָכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמּוֹל אֶת־בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי הֵפַר׃ 1.11. And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so." 1.12. And the earth brought forth grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and tree bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.21. And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that creepeth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.24. And God said: ‘Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind.’ And it was so." 1.25. And God made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’" 6.20. of the fowl after their kind, and of the cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive." 7.14. they, and every beast after its kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after its kind, and every fowl after its kind, every bird of every sort." 9.2. And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered." 9.15. that I will remember My covet, which is between Me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh." 12.7. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said: ‘Unto thy seed will I give this land’; and he builded there an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him." 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness." 17.9. And God said unto Abraham: ‘And as for thee, thou shalt keep My covet, thou, and thy seed after thee throughout their generations." 17.10. This is My covet, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee: every male among you shall be circumcised." 17.11. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of a covet betwixt Me and you." 17.12. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any foreigner, that is not of thy seed." 17.13. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised; and My covet shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covet." 17.14. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken My covet.’" 21.10. Wherefore she said unto Abraham: ‘Cast out this bondwoman and her son; for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4.2, 6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. אָלֹה וְכַחֵשׁ וְרָצֹחַ וְגָנֹב וְנָאֹף פָּרָצוּ וְדָמִים בְּדָמִים נָגָעוּ׃ 6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃ 4.2. Swearing and lying, and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery! They break all bounds, and blood toucheth blood." 6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings."
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 40.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.14. וְגַם־אֲנִי אוֹדֶךָּ כִּי־תוֹשִׁעַ לְךָ יְמִינֶךָ׃ 40.14. Then will I also confess unto thee That thine own right hand can save thee."
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.3, 19.2-19.3, 19.5-19.11, 19.13-19.17, 19.19, 19.23-19.25, 19.30, 19.32-19.34, 20.10, 26.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.3. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת מֵחֻקּוֹת הַתּוֹעֵבֹת אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשׂוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.3. כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁבְתֶּם־בָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּכְמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּבְחֻקֹּתֵיהֶם לֹא תֵלֵכוּ׃ 19.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃ 19.3. אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁי תִּירָאוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.3. אִישׁ אִמּוֹ וְאָבִיו תִּירָאוּ וְאֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.5. וְכִי תִזְבְּחוּ זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה לִרְצֹנְכֶם תִּזְבָּחֻהוּ׃ 19.6. בְּיוֹם זִבְחֲכֶם יֵאָכֵל וּמִמָּחֳרָת וְהַנּוֹתָר עַד־יוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף׃ 19.7. וְאִם הֵאָכֹל יֵאָכֵל בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי פִּגּוּל הוּא לֹא יֵרָצֶה׃ 19.8. וְאֹכְלָיו עֲוֺנוֹ יִשָּׂא כִּי־אֶת־קֹדֶשׁ יְהוָה חִלֵּל וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃ 19.9. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃ 19.11. לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ וְלֹא־תְכַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא־תְשַׁקְּרוּ אִישׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ׃ 19.13. לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.15. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃ 19.16. לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 19.23. וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.25. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁת תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ לְהוֹסִיף לָכֶם תְּבוּאָתוֹ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.32. מִפְּנֵי שֵׂיבָה תָּקוּם וְהָדַרְתָּ פְּנֵי זָקֵן וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.33. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר בְּאַרְצְכֶם לֹא תוֹנוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 19.34. כְּאֶזְרָח מִכֶּם יִהְיֶה לָכֶם הַגֵּר הַגָּר אִתְּכֶם וְאָהַבְתָּ לוֹ כָּמוֹךָ כִּי־גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 26.13. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִהְיֹת לָהֶם עֲבָדִים וָאֶשְׁבֹּר מֹטֹת עֻלְּכֶם וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם קוֹמְמִיּוּת׃ 18.3. After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do; and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do; neither shall ye walk in their statutes." 19.2. Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy." 19.3. Ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father, and ye shall keep My sabbaths: I am the LORD your God." 19.5. And when ye offer a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the LORD, ye shall offer it that ye may be accepted." 19.6. It shall be eaten the same day ye offer it, and on the morrow; and if aught remain until the third day, it shall be burnt with fire." 19.7. And if it be eaten at all on the third day, it is a vile thing; it shall not be accepted." 19.8. But every one that eateth it shall bear his iniquity, because he hath profaned the holy thing of the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from his people." 19.9. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest." 19.10. And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God." 19.11. Ye shall not steal; neither shall ye deal falsely, nor lie one to another." 19.13. Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning." 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD." 19.15. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor favour the person of the mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour." 19.16. Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD." 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." 19.23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 19.25. But in the fifth year may ye eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you more richly the increase thereof: I am the LORD your God." 19.30. Ye shall keep My sabbaths, and reverence My sanctuary: I am the LORD." 19.32. Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honour the face of the old man, and thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD." 19.33. And if a stranger sojourn with thee in your land, ye shall not do him wrong." 19.34. The stranger that sojourneth with you shall be unto you as the home-born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God." 20.10. And the man that committeth adultery with another man’s wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour’s wife, both the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death." 26.13. I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen; and I have broken the bars of your yoke, and made you go upright."
8. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 3.12, 4.1-4.4, 6.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.12. לָכֵן בִּגְלַלְכֶם צִיּוֹן שָׂדֶה תֵחָרֵשׁ וִירוּשָׁלִַם עִיִּין תִּהְיֶה וְהַר הַבַּיִת לְבָמוֹת יָעַר׃ 4.1. חוּלִי וָגֹחִי בַּת־צִיּוֹן כַּיּוֹלֵדָה כִּי־עַתָּה תֵצְאִי מִקִּרְיָה וְשָׁכַנְתְּ בַּשָּׂדֶה וּבָאת עַד־בָּבֶל שָׁם תִּנָּצֵלִי שָׁם יִגְאָלֵךְ יְהוָה מִכַּף אֹיְבָיִךְ׃ 4.1. וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית־יְהוָה נָכוֹן בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא הוּא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ עָלָיו עַמִּים׃ 4.2. וְהָלְכוּ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה וְאֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיוֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 4.3. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ לְגוֹיִם עֲצֻמִים עַד־רָחוֹק וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבֹתֵיהֶם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשְׂאוּ גּוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּן עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 4.4. וְיָשְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחַת גַּפְנוֹ וְתַחַת תְּאֵנָתוֹ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד כִּי־פִי יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת דִּבֵּר׃ 6.2. שִׁמְעוּ הָרִים אֶת־רִיב יְהוָה וְהָאֵתָנִים מֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ כִּי רִיב לַיהוָה עִם־עַמּוֹ וְעִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל יִתְוַכָּח׃ 3.12. Therefore shall Zion for your sake be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest." 4.1. But in the end of days it shall come to pass, That the mountain of the LORD’S house shall be established as the top of the mountains, And it shall be exalted above the hills; And peoples shall flow unto it." 4.2. And many nations shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, And to the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths’; For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem." 4.3. And He shall judge between many peoples, And shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 4.4. But they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig-tree; And none shall make them afraid; For the mouth of the LORD of hosts hath spoken." 6.2. Hear, O ye mountains, the LORD’S controversy, And ye enduring rocks, the foundations of the earth; For the LORD hath a controversy with His people, And He will plead with Israel."
9. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. אֵל קַנּוֹא וְנֹקֵם יְהוָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה וּבַעַל חֵמָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה לְצָרָיו וְנוֹטֵר הוּא לְאֹיְבָיו׃ 1.2. The LORD is a jealous and avenging God, The LORD avengeth and is full of wrath; The LORD taketh vengeance on His adversaries, And He reserveth wrath for His enemies."
10. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.16, 15.29, 18.15, 30.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.16. תּוֹרָה אַחַת וּמִשְׁפָּט אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לָכֶם וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר אִתְּכֶם׃ 15.29. הָאֶזְרָח בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָכֶם לָעֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁגָגָה׃ 18.15. כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ אַךְ פָּדֹה תִפְדֶּה אֵת בְּכוֹר הָאָדָם וְאֵת בְּכוֹר־הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּמֵאָה תִּפְדֶּה׃ 30.15. וְאִם־הַחֲרֵשׁ יַחֲרִישׁ לָהּ אִישָׁהּ מִיּוֹם אֶל־יוֹם וְהֵקִים אֶת־כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ אוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֱסָרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הֵקִים אֹתָם כִּי־הֶחֱרִשׁ לָהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ׃ 15.16. One law and one ordice shall be both for you, and for the stranger that sojourneth with you." 15.29. both he that is home-born among the children of Israel, and the stranger that sojourneth among them: ye shall have one law for him that doeth aught in error." 18.15. Every thing that openeth the womb, of all flesh which they offer unto the LORD, both of man and beast, shall be thine; howbeit the first-born of man shalt thou surely redeem, and the firstling of unclean beasts shalt thou redeem." 30.15. But if her husband altogether hold his peace at her from day to day, then he causeth all her vows to stand, or all her bonds, which are upon her; he hath let them stand, because he held his peace at her in the day that he heard them."
11. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.12, 9.8, 11.4, 13.24, 15.12, 24.24-24.25, 27.5-27.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.12. כִּי אֶת אֲשֶׁר יֶאֱהַב יְהוָה יוֹכִיחַ וּכְאָב אֶת־בֵּן יִרְצֶה׃ 9.8. אַל־תּוֹכַח לֵץ פֶּן־יִשְׂנָאֶךָּ הוֹכַח לְחָכָם וְיֶאֱהָבֶךָּ׃ 11.4. לֹא־יוֹעִיל הוֹן בְּיוֹם עֶבְרָה וּצְדָקָה תַּצִּיל מִמָּוֶת׃ 13.24. חוֹשֵׂךְ שִׁבְטוֹ שׂוֹנֵא בְנוֹ וְאֹהֲבוֹ שִׁחֲרוֹ מוּסָר׃ 15.12. לֹא יֶאֱהַב־לֵץ הוֹכֵחַ לוֹ אֶל־חֲכָמִים לֹא יֵלֵךְ׃ 24.24. אֹמֵר לְרָשָׁע צַדִּיק אָתָּה יִקְּבֻהוּ עַמִּים יִזְעָמוּהוּ לְאֻמִּים׃ 24.25. וְלַמּוֹכִיחִים יִנְעָם וַעֲלֵיהֶם תָּבוֹא בִרְכַּת־טוֹב׃ 27.5. טוֹבָה תּוֹכַחַת מְגֻלָּה מֵאַהֲבָה מְסֻתָּרֶת׃ 27.6. נֶאֱמָנִים פִּצְעֵי אוֹהֵב וְנַעְתָּרוֹת נְשִׁיקוֹת שׂוֹנֵא׃ 3.12. For whom the LORD loveth He correcteth, Even as a father the son in whom he delighteth." 9.8. Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee; reprove a wise man, and he will love thee." 11.4. Riches profit not in the day of wrath; But righteousness delivereth from death." 13.24. He that spareth his rod hateth his son; But he that loveth him chasteneth him betimes." 15.12. A scorner loveth not to be reproved; He will not go unto the wise." 24.24. He that saith unto the wicked: ‘Thou art righteous’, Peoples shall curse him, nations shall execrate him;" 24.25. But to them that decide justly shall be delight, And a good blessing shall come upon them." 27.5. Better is open rebuke Than love that is hidden." 27.6. Faithful are the wounds of a friend; But the kisses of an enemy are importunate."
12. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7, 44.4, 55.14, 95.7-95.10, 110.1, 143.2, 146.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃ 44.4. כִּי לֹא בְחַרְבָּם יָרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וּזְרוֹעָם לֹא־הוֹשִׁיעָה לָּמוֹ כִּי־יְמִינְךָ וּזְרוֹעֲךָ וְאוֹר פָּנֶיךָ כִּי רְצִיתָם׃ 55.14. וְאַתָּה אֱנוֹשׁ כְּעֶרְכִּי אַלּוּפִי וּמְיֻדָּעִי׃ 95.7. כִּי הוּא אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַאֲנַחְנוּ עַם מַרְעִיתוֹ וְצֹאן יָדוֹ הַיּוֹם אִם־בְּקֹלוֹ תִשְׁמָעוּ׃ 95.8. אַל־תַּקְשׁוּ לְבַבְכֶם כִּמְרִיבָה כְּיוֹם מַסָּה בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 95.9. אֲשֶׁר נִסּוּנִי אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בְּחָנוּנִי גַּם־רָאוּ פָעֳלִי׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 143.2. וְאַל־תָּבוֹא בְמִשְׁפָּט אֶת־עַבְדֶּךָ כִּי לֹא־יִצְדַּק לְפָנֶיךָ כָל־חָי׃ 146.9. יְהוָה שֹׁמֵר אֶת־גֵּרִים יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה יְעוֹדֵד וְדֶרֶךְ רְשָׁעִים יְעַוֵּת׃ 2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 44.4. For not by their own sword did they get the land in possession, Neither did their own arm save them; but Thy right hand, and Thine arm, and the light of Thy countece, because Thou wast favourable unto them." 55.14. But it was thou, a man mine equal, My companion, and my familiar friend;" 95.7. For He is our God, And we are the people of His pasture, and the flock of His hand. To-day, if ye would but hearken to His voice!" 95.8. 'Harden not your heart, as at Meribah, As in the day of Massah in the wilderness;" 95.9. When your fathers tried Me, Proved Me, even though they saw My work." 95.10. For forty years was I wearied with that generation, And said: It is a people that do err in their heart, And they have not known My ways;" 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 143.2. And enter not into judgment with Thy servant; For in Thy sight shall no man living be justified." 146.9. The LORD preserveth the strangers; He upholdeth the fatherless and the widow; But the way of the wicked He maketh crooked."
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.46 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.46. כִּי יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ כִּי אֵין אָדָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֶחֱטָא וְאָנַפְתָּ בָם וּנְתַתָּם לִפְנֵי אוֹיֵב וְשָׁבוּם שֹׁבֵיהֶם אֶל־אֶרֶץ הָאוֹיֵב רְחוֹקָה אוֹ קְרוֹבָה׃ 8.46. If they sin against Thee—for there is no man that sinneth not—and Thou be angry with them, and deliver them to the enemy, so that they carry them away captive unto the land of the enemy, far off or near;"
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 12.3, 18.1-18.3, 25.18-25.20, 25.22-25.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.3. הִנְנִי עֲנוּ בִי נֶגֶד יְהוָה וְנֶגֶד מְשִׁיחוֹ אֶת־שׁוֹר מִי לָקַחְתִּי וַחֲמוֹר מִי לָקַחְתִּי וְאֶת־מִי עָשַׁקְתִּי אֶת־מִי רַצּוֹתִי וּמִיַּד־מִי לָקַחְתִּי כֹפֶר וְאַעְלִים עֵינַי בּוֹ וְאָשִׁיב לָכֶם׃ 18.1. וַיְהִי כְּכַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אֶל־שָׁאוּל וְנֶפֶשׁ יְהוֹנָתָן נִקְשְׁרָה בְּנֶפֶשׁ דָּוִד ויאהבו [וַיֶּאֱהָבֵהוּ] יְהוֹנָתָן כְּנַפְשׁוֹ׃ 18.1. וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַתִּצְלַח רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים רָעָה אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַיִּתְנַבֵּא בְתוֹךְ־הַבַּיִת וְדָוִד מְנַגֵּן בְּיָדוֹ כְּיוֹם בְּיוֹם וְהַחֲנִית בְּיַד־שָׁאוּל׃ 18.2. וַתֶּאֱהַב מִיכַל בַּת־שָׁאוּל אֶת־דָּוִד וַיַּגִּדוּ לְשָׁאוּל וַיִּשַׁר הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינָיו׃ 18.2. וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ שָׁאוּל בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ לָשׁוּב בֵּית אָבִיו׃ 18.3. וַיֵּצְאוּ שָׂרֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיְהִי מִדֵּי צֵאתָם שָׂכַל דָּוִד מִכֹּל עַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל וַיִּיקַר שְׁמוֹ מְאֹד׃ 18.3. וַיִּכְרֹת יְהוֹנָתָן וְדָוִד בְּרִית בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ אֹתוֹ כְּנַפְשׁוֹ׃ 25.18. וַתְּמַהֵר אבוגיל [אֲבִיגַיִל] וַתִּקַּח מָאתַיִם לֶחֶם וּשְׁנַיִם נִבְלֵי־יַיִן וְחָמֵשׁ צֹאן עשוות [עֲשׂוּיֹת] וְחָמֵשׁ סְאִים קָלִי וּמֵאָה צִמֻּקִים וּמָאתַיִם דְּבֵלִים וַתָּשֶׂם עַל־הַחֲמֹרִים׃ 25.19. וַתֹּאמֶר לִנְעָרֶיהָ עִבְרוּ לְפָנַי הִנְנִי אַחֲרֵיכֶם בָּאָה וּלְאִישָׁהּ נָבָל לֹא הִגִּידָה׃ 25.22. כֹּה־יַעֲשֶׂה אֱלֹהִים לְאֹיְבֵי דָוִד וְכֹה יֹסִיף אִם־אַשְׁאִיר מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ עַד־הַבֹּקֶר מַשְׁתִּין בְּקִיר׃ 25.23. וַתֵּרֶא אֲבִיגַיִל אֶת־דָּוִד וַתְּמַהֵר וַתֵּרֶד מֵעַל הַחֲמוֹר וַתִּפֹּל לְאַפֵּי דָוִד עַל־פָּנֶיהָ וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרֶץ׃ 25.24. וַתִּפֹּל עַל־רַגְלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר בִּי־אֲנִי אֲדֹנִי הֶעָוֺן וּתְדַבֶּר־נָא אֲמָתְךָ בְּאָזְנֶיךָ וּשְׁמַע אֵת דִּבְרֵי אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 25.25. אַל־נָא יָשִׂים אֲדֹנִי אֶת־לִבּוֹ אֶל־אִישׁ הַבְּלִיַּעַל הַזֶּה עַל־נָבָל כִּי כִשְׁמוֹ כֶּן־הוּא נָבָל שְׁמוֹ וּנְבָלָה עִמּוֹ וַאֲנִי אֲמָתְךָ לֹא רָאִיתִי אֶת־נַעֲרֵי אֲדֹנִי אֲשֶׁר שָׁלָחְתָּ׃ 25.26. וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנִי חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אֲשֶׁר מְנָעֲךָ יְהוָה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהוֹשֵׁעַ יָדְךָ לָךְ וְעַתָּה יִהְיוּ כְנָבָל אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהַמְבַקְשִׁים אֶל־אֲדֹנִי רָעָה׃ 25.27. וְעַתָּה הַבְּרָכָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִיא שִׁפְחָתְךָ לַאדֹנִי וְנִתְּנָה לַנְּעָרִים הַמִּתְהַלְּכִים בְּרַגְלֵי אֲדֹנִי׃ 25.28. שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע אֲמָתֶךָ כִּי עָשֹׂה־יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי בַּיִת נֶאֱמָן כִּי־מִלְחֲמוֹת יְהוָה אֲדֹנִי נִלְחָם וְרָעָה לֹא־תִמָּצֵא בְךָ מִיָּמֶיךָ׃ 25.29. וַיָּקָם אָדָם לִרְדָפְךָ וּלְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נַפְשֶׁךָ וְהָיְתָה נֶפֶשׁ אֲדֹנִי צְרוּרָה בִּצְרוֹר הַחַיִּים אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְאֵת נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ יְקַלְּעֶנָּה בְּתוֹךְ כַּף הַקָּלַע׃ 25.31. וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זֹאת לְךָ לְפוּקָה וּלְמִכְשׁוֹל לֵב לַאדֹנִי וְלִשְׁפָּךְ־דָּם חִנָּם וּלְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֲדֹנִי לוֹ וְהֵיטִב יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 25.32. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַאֲבִיגַל בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחֵךְ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לִקְרָאתִי׃ 25.33. וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי׃ 12.3. Behold, here I am: answer me before the Lord, and before his anointed: whose ox have I taken? or whose ass have I taken? or whom have I defrauded? whom have I oppressed? or of whose hand have I received any bribe with which to blind my eyes? and I will restore it you." 18.1. And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking to Sha᾽ul, that the soul of Yehonatan was knit with the soul of David, and Yehonatan loved him as his own soul." 18.2. And Sha᾽ul took him that day, and would let him go no more home to his father’s house." 18.3. Then Yehonatan and David made a covet, because he loved him as his own soul." 25.18. Then Avigayil made haste, and took two hundred loaves, and two bottles of wine, and five sheep ready prepared, and five measures of parched corn, and a hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of figs, and laid them on asses." 25.19. And she said to her servants, Go on before me; behold, I come after you. But she told not her husband Naval." 25.20. And it was so, as she rode on the ass, that she came down by the covert of the hill, and, behold, David and his men came down against her; and she met them." 25.22. So and more also do God to the enemies of David, if I leave alive of all his people by the morning light so much as a single man." 25.23. And when Avigayil saw David, she hastened, and descended from the ass, and fell before David on her face, and bowed herself to the ground," 25.24. and fell at his feet, and said, Upon me, my lord, upon me let this iniquity be: and let thy handmaid, I pray thee, speak in thy ears, and hear the words of thy handmaid." 25.25. Let not my lord, I pray thee, take heed of this worthless fellow, Naval: for as his name is, so is he; Naval is his name, and folly is with him: but I thy handmaid did not see the young men of my lord, whom thou didst send." 25.26. Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord lives, and as thy soul lives, seeing the Lord has prevented thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thy own hand, now let thy enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Naval." 25.27. And now this blessing which thy handmaid has brought to my lord, let it be given to the young men that follow my lord." 25.28. I pray thee, forgive the trespass of thy handmaid: for the Lord will certainly make my lord a sure house; because my lord fights the battles of the Lord, and evil has not been found in thee all thy days." 25.29. Though a man rises to pursue thee, and to seek thy soul: yet the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bond of life with the Lord thy God; and the souls of thy enemies, them shall he sling out, as out of the hollow of a sling." 25.30. And it shall come to pass, when the Lord shall have done to my lord according to all the good that he has spoken concerning thee, and shall have appointed thee ruler over Yisra᾽el;" 25.31. that this shall not be a cause of stumbling to thee, nor offence of heart to my lord, that thou hast shed blood causelessly, or that my lord has avenged himself: and the Lord shall deal well with my lord, and thou shalt remember thy handmaid." 25.32. And David said to Avigayil, Blessed be the Lord God of Yisra᾽el, who sent thee this day to meet me:" 25.33. and blessed be thy discretion, and blessed be thou who hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with my own hand."
15. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.21, 7.14-7.15 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.21. שָׂנֵאתִי מָאַסְתִּי חַגֵּיכֶם וְלֹא אָרִיחַ בְּעַצְּרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 7.14. וַיַּעַן עָמוֹס וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־אֲמַצְיָה לֹא־נָבִיא אָנֹכִי וְלֹא בֶן־נָבִיא אָנֹכִי כִּי־בוֹקֵר אָנֹכִי וּבוֹלֵס שִׁקְמִים׃ 7.15. וַיִּקָּחֵנִי יְהוָה מֵאַחֲרֵי הַצֹּאן וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי יְהוָה לֵךְ הִנָּבֵא אֶל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.21. I hate, I despise your feasts, And I will take no delight in your solemn assemblies." 7.14. Then answered Amos, and said to Amaziah: ‘I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet’s son; but I was a herdman, and a dresser of sycamore-trees;" 7.15. and the LORD took me from following the flock, and the LORD said unto me: Go, prophesy unto My people Israel."
16. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.14-1.15, 2.1-2.4, 6.1, 11.3-11.4, 28.16, 41.8, 54.1, 66.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.14. חָדְשֵׁיכֶם וּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם שָׂנְאָה נַפְשִׁי הָיוּ עָלַי לָטֹרַח נִלְאֵיתִי נְשֹׂא׃ 1.15. וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃ 2.1. בּוֹא בַצּוּר וְהִטָּמֵן בֶּעָפָר מִפְּנֵי פַּחַד יְהוָה וּמֵהֲדַר גְּאֹנוֹ׃ 2.1. הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר חָזָה יְשַׁעְיָהוּ בֶּן־אָמוֹץ עַל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 2.2. וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים נָכוֹן יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית־יְהוָה בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם׃ 2.2. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַשְׁלִיךְ הָאָדָם אֵת אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וְאֵת אֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ־לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת וְלָעֲטַלֵּפִים׃ 2.3. וְהָלְכוּ עַמִּים רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 6.1. בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃ 6.1. הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 11.3. וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃ 11.4. וְשָׁפַט בְּצֶדֶק דַּלִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ בְּמִישׁוֹר לְעַנְוֵי־אָרֶץ וְהִכָּה־אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו וּבְרוּחַ שְׂפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע׃ 28.16. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי יִסַּד בְּצִיּוֹן אָבֶן אֶבֶן בֹּחַן פִּנַּת יִקְרַת מוּסָד מוּסָּד הַמַּאֲמִין לֹא יָחִישׁ׃ 41.8. וְאַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל עַבְדִּי יַעֲקֹב אֲשֶׁר בְּחַרְתִּיךָ זֶרַע אַבְרָהָם אֹהֲבִי׃ 54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 66.14. וּרְאִיתֶם וְשָׂשׂ לִבְּכֶם וְעַצְמוֹתֵיכֶם כַּדֶּשֶׁא תִפְרַחְנָה וְנוֹדְעָה יַד־יְהוָה אֶת־עֲבָדָיו וְזָעַם אֶת־אֹיְבָיו׃ 1.14. Your new moons and your appointed seasons My soul hateth; They are a burden unto Me; I am weary to bear them." 1.15. And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood." 2.1. The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem." 2.2. And it shall come to pass in the end of days, That the mountain of the LORD’S house Shall be established as the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow unto it." 2.3. And many peoples shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths.’ For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem." 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 6.1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple." 11.3. And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;" 11.4. But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the land; And he shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked." 28.16. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, A tried stone, a costly corner-stone of sure foundation; He that believeth shall not make haste." 41.8. But thou, Israel, My servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, The seed of Abraham My friend;" 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD." 66.14. And when ye see this, your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like young grass; and the hand of the LORD shall be known toward His servants, and He will have indignation against His enemies."
17. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.5-7.9, 7.11-7.14, 26.18, 28.2-28.14, 31.31-31.34, 50.40 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.5. כִּי אִם־הֵיטֵיב תֵּיטִיבוּ אֶת־דַּרְכֵיכֶם וְאֶת־מַעַלְלֵיכֶם אִם־עָשׂוֹ תַעֲשׂוּ מִשְׁפָּט בֵּין אִישׁ וּבֵין רֵעֵהוּ׃ 7.6. גֵּר יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה לֹא תַעֲשֹׁקוּ וְדָם נָקִי אַל־תִּשְׁפְּכוּ בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים לֹא תֵלְכוּ לְרַע לָכֶם׃ 7.7. וְשִׁכַּנְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לַאֲבוֹתֵיכֶם לְמִן־עוֹלָם וְעַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.8. הִנֵּה אַתֶּם בֹּטְחִים לָכֶם עַל־דִּבְרֵי הַשָּׁקֶר לְבִלְתִּי הוֹעִיל׃ 7.9. הֲגָנֹב רָצֹחַ וְנָאֹף וְהִשָּׁבֵעַ לַשֶּׁקֶר וְקַטֵּר לַבָּעַל וְהָלֹךְ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתֶּם׃ 7.11. הַמְעָרַת פָּרִצִים הָיָה הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו בְּעֵינֵיכֶם גַּם אָנֹכִי הִנֵּה רָאִיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 7.12. כִּי לְכוּ־נָא אֶל־מְקוֹמִי אֲשֶׁר בְּשִׁילוֹ אֲשֶׁר שִׁכַּנְתִּי שְׁמִי שָׁם בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וּרְאוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי לוֹ מִפְּנֵי רָעַת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.13. וְעַתָּה יַעַן עֲשׂוֹתְכֶם אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּעֲשִׂים הָאֵלֶּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה וָאֲדַבֵּר אֲלֵיכֶם הַשְׁכֵּם וְדַבֵּר וְלֹא שְׁמַעְתֶּם וָאֶקְרָא אֶתְכֶם וְלֹא עֲנִיתֶם׃ 7.14. וְעָשִׂיתִי לַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בֹּטְחִים בּוֹ וְלַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתִּי לָכֶם וְלַאֲבוֹתֵיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי לְשִׁלוֹ׃ 26.18. מיכיה [מִיכָה] הַמּוֹרַשְׁתִּי הָיָה נִבָּא בִּימֵי חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־כָּל־עַם יְהוּדָה לֵאמֹר כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת צִיּוֹן שָׂדֶה תֵחָרֵשׁ וִירוּשָׁלַיִם עִיִּים תִּהְיֶה וְהַר הַבַּיִת לְבָמוֹת יָעַר׃ 28.2. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר שָׁבַרְתִּי אֶת־עֹל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃ 28.3. בְּעוֹד שְׁנָתַיִם יָמִים אֲנִי מֵשִׁיב אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵי בֵּית יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לָקַח נְבוּכַדנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיְבִיאֵם בָּבֶל׃ 28.4. וְאֶת־יְכָנְיָה בֶן־יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־כָּל־גָּלוּת יְהוּדָה הַבָּאִים בָּבֶלָה אֲנִי מֵשִׁיב אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶשְׁבֹּר אֶת־עֹל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃ 28.5. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא אֶל־חֲנַנְיָה הַנָּבִיא לְעֵינֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם הָעֹמְדִים בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 28.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא אָמֵן כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה יָקֵם יְהוָה אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִבֵּאתָ לְהָשִׁיב כְּלֵי בֵית־יְהוָה וְכָל־הַגּוֹלָה מִבָּבֶל אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 28.7. אַךְ־שְׁמַע־נָא הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר בְּאָזְנֶיךָ וּבְאָזְנֵי כָּל־הָעָם׃ 28.8. הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנַי וּלְפָנֶיךָ מִן־הָעוֹלָם וַיִּנָּבְאוּ אֶל־אֲרָצוֹת רַבּוֹת וְעַל־מַמְלָכוֹת גְּדֹלוֹת לְמִלְחָמָה וּלְרָעָה וּלְדָבֶר׃ 28.9. הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר יִנָּבֵא לְשָׁלוֹם בְּבֹא דְּבַר הַנָּבִיא יִוָּדַע הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר־שְׁלָחוֹ יְהוָה בֶּאֱמֶת׃ 28.11. וַיֹּאמֶר חֲנַנְיָה לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה כָּכָה אֶשְׁבֹּר אֶת־עֹל נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל בְּעוֹד שְׁנָתַיִם יָמִים מֵעַל צַוַּאר כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם וַיֵּלֶךְ יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא לְדַרְכּוֹ׃ 28.12. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יִרְמְיָה אַחֲרֵי שְׁבוֹר חֲנַנְיָה הַנָּבִיא אֶת־הַמּוֹטָה מֵעַל צַוַּאר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא לֵאמֹר׃ 28.13. הָלוֹךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־חֲנַנְיָה לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה מוֹטֹת עֵץ שָׁבָרְתָּ וְעָשִׂיתָ תַחְתֵּיהֶן מֹטוֹת בַּרְזֶל׃ 28.14. כִּי כֹה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹל בַּרְזֶל נָתַתִּי עַל־צַוַּאר כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲבֹד אֶת־נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וַעֲבָדֻהוּ וְגַם אֶת־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה נָתַתִּי לוֹ׃ 31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 7.5. Nay, but if ye thoroughly amend your ways and your doings; if ye thoroughly execute justice between a man and his neighbour;" 7.6. if ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and shed not innocent blood in this place, neither walk after other gods to your hurt;" 7.7. then will I cause you to dwell in this place, in the land that I gave to your fathers, for ever and ever." 7.8. Behold, ye trust in lying words, that cannot profit." 7.9. Will ye steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and offer unto Baal, and walk after other gods whom ye have not known," 7.11. Is this house, whereupon My name is called, become a den of robbers in your eyes? Behold, I, even I, have seen it, saith the LORD." 7.12. For go ye now unto My place which was in Shiloh, where I caused My name to dwell at the first, and see what I did to it for the wickedness of My people Israel." 7.13. And now, because ye have done all these works, saith the LORD, and I spoke unto you, speaking betimes and often, but ye heard not, and I called you, but ye answered not;" 7.14. therefore will I do unto the house, whereupon My name is called, wherein ye trust, and unto the place which I gave to you and to your fathers, as I have done to Shiloh." 26.18. ’Micah the Morashtite prophesied in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah; and he spoke to all the people of Judah, saying: Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Zion shall be plowed as a field, And Jerusalem shall become heaps, And the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest." 28.2. ’Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saying: I have broken the yoke of the king of Babylon." 28.3. Within two full years will I bring back into this place all the vessels of the LORD’S house, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon took away from this place, and carried them to Babylon;" 28.4. and I will bring back to this place Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, with all the captives of Judah, that went to Babylon, saith the LORD; for I will break the yoke of the king of Babylon.’" 28.5. Then the prophet Jeremiah said unto the prophet Haiah in the presence of the priests, and in the presence of all the people that stood in the house of the LORD," 28.6. even the prophet Jeremiah said: ‘Amen! the LORD do so! the LORD perform thy words which thou hast prophesied, to bring back the vessels of the LORD’S house, and all them that are carried away captive, from Babylon unto this place!" 28.7. Nevertheless hear thou now this word that I speak in thine ears, and in the ears of all the people:" 28.8. The prophets that have been before me and before thee of old prophesied against many countries, and against great kingdoms, of war, and of evil, and of pestilence." 28.9. The prophet that prophesieth of peace, when the word of the prophet shall come to pass, then shall the prophet be known, that the LORD hath truly sent him.’" 28.10. Then Haiah the prophet took the bar from off the prophet Jeremiah’s neck, and broke it." 28.11. And Haiah spoke in the presence of all the people, saying: ‘Thus saith the LORD: Even so will I break the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon from off the neck of all the nations within two full years.’ And the prophet Jeremiah went his way." 28.12. Then the word of the LORD came unto Jeremiah, after that Haiah the prophet had broken the bar from off the neck of the prophet Jeremiah, saying:" 28.13. ’Go, and tell Haiah, saying: Thus saith the LORD: Thou hast broken the bars of wood; but thou shalt make in their stead bars of iron." 28.14. For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: I have put a yoke of iron upon the neck of all these nations, that they may serve Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; and they shall serve him; and I have given him the beasts of the field also.’ ." 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more." 50.40. As when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah And the neighbour cities thereof, saith the LORD; So shall no man abide there, Neither shall any son of man dwell therein."
18. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 20.7 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.7. הֲלֹא אַתָּה אֱלֹהֵינוּ הוֹרַשְׁתָּ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת מִלִּפְנֵי עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַתִּתְּנָהּ לְזֶרַע אַבְרָהָם אֹהַבְךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 20.7. Didst not Thou, O our God, drive out the inhabitants of this land before Thy people Israel, and gavest it to the seed of Abraham Thy friend for ever?"
19. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 7.23 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.23. כָּל־זֹה נִסִּיתִי בַחָכְמָה אָמַרְתִּי אֶחְכָּמָה וְהִיא רְחוֹקָה מִמֶּנִּי׃ 7.23. All this have I tried by wisdom; I said: ‘I will get wisdom’; but it was far from me."
20. Anon., 1 Enoch, 8.3, 22.11, 22.13, 91.7, 91.11, 94.7, 96.7, 98.15, 99.11, 99.13, 103.7-103.8 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.3. were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . . 22.11. lifetime. Here their spirits shall be set apart in this great pain till the great day of judgement and punishment and torment of those who curse for ever and retribution for their spirits. There 22.13. of the sinners. Such has been made for the spirits of men who were not righteous but sinners, who were complete in transgression, and of the transgressors they shall be companions: but their spirits shall not be slain in the day of judgement nor shall they be raised from thence.' 91.7. And when sin and unrighteousness and blasphemy And violence in all kinds of deeds increase, And apostasy and transgression and uncleanness increase,A great chastisement shall come from heaven upon all these, And the holy Lord will come forth with wrath and chastisement To execute judgement on earth. 94.7. Woe to those who build their houses with sin; For from all their foundations shall they be overthrown, And by the sword shall they fall. [And those who acquire gold and silver in judgement suddenly shall perish.] 96.7. Woe to you who work unrighteousness And deceit and blasphemy: It shall be a memorial against you for evil. 99.11. Woe to you who spread evil to your neighbours; For you shall be slain in Sheol. 99.13. Woe to you who build your houses through the grievous toil of others, And all their building materials are the bricks and stones of sin; I tell you ye shall have no peace. 103.7. Know ye, that their souls will be made to descend into Sheol And they shall be wretched in their great tribulation. 103.8. And into darkness and chains and a burning flame where there is grievous judgement shall your spirits enter; And the great judgement shall be for all the generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye shall have no peace.
21. Anon., Jubilees, 17.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.18. and his mother took him a wife from among the daughters of Egypt. brAnd she bare him a son, and he called his name Nebaioth; for she said, "The Lord was nigh to me when I called upon him.
22. Anon., Testament of Benjamin, 6.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.5. The good mind hath not two tongues, of blessing and of cursing, of contumely and of honor, of sorrow and of joy, of quietness and of confusion, of hypocrisy and of truth, [of poverty and of wealth]; but it hath one disposition, uncorrupt and pure, concerning all men.
23. Anon., Testament of Gad, 6.1-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. AND now, my children, I exhort you, love ye each one his brother, and put away hatred from your hearts, love one another in deed, and in word, and in the inclination of the soul. 6.2. For in the presence of my father I spake peaceably to Joseph; and when I had gone out, the spirit of hatred darkened my mind, and stirred up my soul to slay him. 6.3. Love ye one another from the heart; and if a man sin against thee, speak peaceably to him, and in thy soul hold not guile; and if he repent and confess, forgive him. 6.4. But if he deny it, do not get into a passion with him, lest catching the poison from thee he take to swearing and so thou sin doubly. 6.5. Let not another man hear thy secrets when engaged in legal strife, lest he come to hate thee and become thy enemy, and commit a great sin against thee; for ofttimes he addresseth thee guilefully or busieth himself about thee with wicked intent. 6.6. And though he deny it and yet have a sense of shame when reproved, give over reproving him. For be who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and fear and be at peace with thee. 6.7. And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.
24. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 18.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.2. And if any one seeketh to do evil unto you, do well unto him, and pray for him, and ye shall be redeemed of the Lord from all evil.
25. Anon., Testament of Zebulun, 8.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1, 6.15, 7, 7.2, 7.3, 8, 9, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.18, 10.14-11.18, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 7.1, 13.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 6.15, 7.2, 7.3, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.18, 10.14-11.18, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.1-1.11, 7.8-7.9, 9.16-9.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 5.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 5.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.10-7.14, 9.5-9.6, 9.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.10. After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands,' 7.11. and said nobly, 'I got these from Heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again.' 7.12. As a result the king himself and those with him were astonished at the young man's spirit, for he regarded his sufferings as nothing.' 7.13. When he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way.' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 9.5. But the all-seeing Lord, the God of Israel, struck him an incurable and unseen blow. As soon as he ceased speaking he was seized with a pain in his bowels for which there was no relief and with sharp internal tortures --' 9.6. and that very justly, for he had tortured the bowels of others with many and strange inflictions.' 9.28. So the murderer and blasphemer, having endured the more intense suffering, such as he had inflicted on others, came to the end of his life by a most pitiable fate, among the mountains in a strange land.'
33. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.8, 4.5, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 5.8, 6.7, 6.16, 6.34, 6.37, 8.5, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 17.4, 18.13, 19.13, 19.14, 19.15, 19.16, 19.17, 19.20, 21.6, 23.2, 23.20, 25.7, 25.8, 25.9, 25.10, 25.11, 28.1, 29.20, 31.10, 31.12-32.13, 31.15, 31.23, 32.17, 33.13, 37.4, 38.12, 38.34, 40.8, 44.18, 44.20, 45.4, 46.19, 50.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.15. Every creature loves its like,and every person his neighbor;
34. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 19.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

19.16. but the latter, after receiving them with festal celebrations,afflicted with terrible sufferings those who had already shared the same rights.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.300, 2.63 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.300. And these are, to love him as your benefactor; and if you fail to do so, at all events, to fear him as your Governor and Lord, and to enter zealously upon all the paths which may please him, and to serve him in no careless or superficial manner, but with one's whole soul thoroughly filled as it ought to be with God-loving sentiments, and to cleave to his commandments, and to honour justice, by all which means the world itself continues constantly in the same nature without ever changing, and all other things which are contained in the world have a tendency towards improvement, such as the sun and the moon, and the whole multitude of the rest of the stars, and the entire heaven. But the mountains of the earth are elevated to the greatest possible height, and the champaign country, like other fusible essences, is spread over a body of wide extent, and the sea also changes so as to become united with sweet waters, and the rains also become in their turn similar to the sea. Therefore every one of those things is still fixed within the same boundaries as those within which it was originally created, when it was first disposed of in regular order. But you shall be better, living quite irreproachably. 2.63. And there are, as we may say, two most especially important heads of all the innumerable particular lessons and doctrines; the regulating of one's conduct towards God by the rules of piety and holiness, and of one's conduct towards men by the rules of humanity and justice; each of which is subdivided into a great number of subordinate ideas, all praiseworthy.
36. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 103-104, 117, 130, 144, 147, 152, 154-155, 164-169, 57, 66, 90, 95, 102 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

102. Moreover, after the lawgiver has established commandments respecting one's fellow countrymen, he proceeds to show that he looks upon strangers also as worthy of having their interests attended to by his laws, since they have forsaken their natural relations by blood, and their native land and their national customs, and the sacred temples of their gods, and the worship and honour which they had been wont to pay to them, and have migrated with a holy migration, changing their abode of fabulous inventions for that of the certainty and clearness of truth, and of the worship of the one true and living God.
37. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 4.9, 6.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.9. But though I would fain write many things, not as a teacher, but as becometh one who loveth you not to fall short of that which we possess, I was anxious to write to you, being your devoted slave. Wherefore let us take heed in these last days. For the whole time of our faith shall profit us nothing, unless we now, in the season of lawlessness and in the offenses that shall be, as becometh sons of God, offer resistance, that the Black One may not effect an entrance. 6.5. I write to you the more simply, that ye may understand, I who am the offscouring of your love.
38. Anon., Didache, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 6.16-6.20 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)

6.16.  That for which men gave themselves the most trouble and spent the most money, which caused the razing of many cities and the piti­ful destruction of many nations — this he found the least laborious and most inexpensive of all things to procure. 6.17.  For he did not have to go anywhere for his sexual gratification but, as he humorously put it, he found Aphrodite everywhere, without expense; and the poets libelled the goddess, he maintained, on account of their own want of self-control, when they called her "the all-golden." And since many doubted this boast, he gave a public demonstration before the eyes of all, saying that if men were like himself, Troy would never have been taken, nor Priam, king of the Phrygians and a descendant of Zeus, been slain at the altar of Zeus. 6.18.  But the Achaeans had been such fools as to believe that even dead men found women indispensable and so slew Polyxena at the tomb of Achilles. Fish showed themselves more sensible than men almost; for whenever they needed to eject their sperm, they went out of doors and rubbed themselves against something rough. 6.19.  He marvelled that while men were unwilling to pay out money to have a leg or arm or any other part of their body rubbed, that while not even the very rich would spend a single drachma for this purpose, yet on that one member they spent many talents time and again and some had even risked their lives in the bargain. 6.20.  In a joking way he would say that this sort of intercourse was a discovery made by Pan when he was in love with Echo and could not get hold of her, but roamed over the mountains night and day till Hermes in pity at his distress, since he was his son, taught him the trick. So Pan, when he had learned his lesson, was relieved of his great misery; and the shepherds learned the habit from him.
40. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.248, 1.253, 1.255, 4.200-4.201, 4.226-4.230, 4.260-4.264, 4.277-4.284 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.248. Nor did she disdain to satisfy his inquiries, but told him her family. “They,” says she, “call me Rebeka; my father was Bethuel, but he is dead; and Laban is my brother; and, together with my mother, takes care of all our family affairs, and is the guardian of my virginity.” 1.253. upon which account he hath sent me to you, being desirous to take this damsel for his son to wife. He is his legitimate son, and is brought up as his only heir. He could indeed have had the most happy of all the women in that country for him, but he would not have his son marry any of them; but, out of regard to his own relations, he desired him to match here 1.255. Do you therefore confirm that marriage, whose espousals have been already made by a divine appearance; and show the respect you have for Abraham, who hath sent me with so much solicitude, in giving your consent to the marriage of this damsel.” Upon this they understood it to be the will of God, and greatly approved of the offer, and sent their daughter, as was desired. Accordingly Isaac married her, the inheritance being now come to him; for the children by Keturah were gone to their own remote habitations. 4.201. Let the ascent to it be not by steps but by an acclivity of raised earth. And let there be neither an altar nor a temple in any other city; for God is but one, and the nation of the Hebrews is but one. 4.226. 19. He that plants a piece of land, the trees of which produce fruits before the fourth year, is not to bring thence any first-fruits to God, nor is he to make use of that fruit himself, for it is not produced in its proper season; for when nature has a force put upon her at an unseasonable time, the fruit is not proper for God, nor for the master’s use; 4.227. but let the owner gather all that is grown on the fourth year, for then it is in its proper season. And let him that has gathered it carry it to the holy city, and spend that, together with the tithe of his other fruits, in feasting with his friends, with the orphans, and the widows. But on the fifth year the fruit is his own, and he may use it as he pleases. 4.228. 20. You are not to sow with seed a piece of land which is planted with vines, for it is enough that it supply nourishment to that plant, and be not harassed by ploughing also. You are to plough your land with oxen, and not to oblige other animals to come under the same yoke with them; but to till your land with those beasts that are of the same kind with each other. The seeds are also to be pure, and without mixture, and not to be compounded of two or three sorts, since nature does not rejoice in the union of things that are not in their own nature alike; 4.229. nor are you to permit beasts of different kinds to gender together, for there is reason to fear that this unnatural abuse may extend from beasts of different kinds to men, though it takes its first rise from evil practices about such smaller things. 4.261. and let them say thus to them:—That they cohabited together, not for the sake of pleasure, nor for the augmentation of their riches, by joining both their stocks together, but that they might have children to take care of them in their old age, and might by them have what they then should want. And say further to him, “That when thou wast born, we took thee up with gladness, and gave God the greatest thanks for thee, and brought time up with great care, and spared for nothing that appeared useful for thy preservation, and for thy instruction in what was most excellent. 4.262. And now, since it is reasonable to forgive the sins of those that are young, let it suffice thee to have given so many indications of thy contempt of us; reform thyself, and act more wisely for the time to come; considering that God is displeased with those that are insolent towards their parents, because he is himself the Father of the whole race of mankind, and seems to bear part of that dishonor which falls upon those that have the same name, when they do not meet with dire returns from their children. And on such the law inflicts inexorable punishment; of which punishment mayst thou never have the experience.” 4.263. Now if the insolence of young men be thus cured, let them escape the reproach which their former errors deserved; for by this means the lawgiver will appear to be good, and parents happy, while they never behold either a son or a daughter brought to punishment. 4.264. But if it happen that these words and instructions, conveyed by them in order to reclaim the man, appear to be useless, then the offender renders the laws implacable enemies to the insolence he has offered his parents; let him therefore be brought forth by these very parents out of the city, with a multitude following him, and there let him be stoned; and when he has continued there for one whole day, that all the people may see him, let him be buried in the night. 4.277. 33. If men strive together, and there be no instrument of iron, let him that is smitten be avenged immediately, by inflicting the same punishment on him that smote him: but if when he is carried home he lie sick many days, and then die, let him that smote him escape punishment; but if he that is smitten escape death, and yet be at great expense for his cure, the smiter shall pay for all that has been expended during the time of his sickness, and for all that he has paid the physician. 4.278. He that kicks a woman with child, so that the woman miscarry, let him pay a fine in money, as the judges shall determine, as having diminished the multitude by the destruction of what was in her womb; and let money also be given the woman’s husband by him that kicked her; but if she die of the stroke, let him also be put to death, the law judging it equitable that life should go for life. 4.279. 34. Let no one of the Israelites keep any poison that may cause death, or any other harm; but if he be caught with it, let him be put to death, and suffer the very same mischief that he would have brought upon them for whom the poison was prepared. 4.281. 36. Let him that is the owner of an ox which pusheth with his horn, kill him: but if he pushes and gores any one in the thrashing-floor, let him be put to death by stoning, and let him not be thought fit for food: but if his owner be convicted as having known what his nature was, and hath not kept him up, let him also be put to death, as being the occasion of the ox’s having killed a man. 4.282. But if the ox have killed a man-servant, or a maid-servant, let him be stoned; and let the owner of the ox pay thirty shekels to the master of him that was slain; but if it be an ox that is thus smitten and killed, let both the oxen, that which smote the other and that which was killed, be sold, and let the owners of them divide their price between them. 4.283. 37. Let those that dig a well or a pit be careful to lay planks over them, and so keep them shut up, not in order to hinder any persons from drawing water, but that there may be no danger of falling into them. 4.284. But if any one’s beast fall into such a well or pit thus digged, and not shut up, and perish, let the owner pay its price to the owner of the beast. Let there be a battlement round the tops of your houses instead of a wall, that may prevent any persons from rolling down and perishing.
41. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.139 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous;
42. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
43. Mishnah, Peah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs."
44. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.9. One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel."
45. New Testament, 1 John, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. This is the message which we have heard from him and announce to you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all.
46. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 4.20, 9.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.20. For the Kingdom ofGod is not in word, but in power. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law;
47. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. The overseer therefore must be without reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, sensible, modest, hospitable, good at teaching;
48. New Testament, Acts, 2.27, 3.22, 7.35, 7.37, 10.23, 21.18-21.22, 28.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.27. Because you will not leave my soul in Hades, Neither will you allow your Holy One to see decay. 3.22. For Moses indeed said to the fathers, 'The Lord God will raise up a prophet to you from among your brothers, like me. You shall listen to him in all things whatever he says to you. 7.35. This Moses, whom they refused, saying, 'Who made you a ruler and a judge?' -- God has sent him as both a ruler and a deliverer with the hand of the angel who appeared to him in the bush. 7.37. This is that Moses, who said to the children of Israel , 'The Lord God will raise up a prophet to you from among your brothers, like me.' 10.23. So he called them in and lodged them. On the next day Peter arose and went out with them, and some of the brothers from Joppa accompanied him. 21.18. The day following, Paul went in with us to James; and all the elders were present. 21.19. When he had greeted them, he reported one by one the things which God had worked among the Gentiles through his ministry. 21.20. They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law. 21.21. They have been informed about you, that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children neither to walk after the customs. 21.22. What then? The assembly must certainly meet, for they will hear that you have come. 28.7. Now in the neighborhood of that place were lands belonging to the chief man of the island, named Publius, who received us, and courteously entertained us three days.
49. New Testament, James, 1.1, 1.5, 1.9-1.11, 1.25, 2.1-2.26, 3.2, 3.13, 4.11-4.12, 5.1-5.6, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are in the Dispersion: Greetings. 1.5. But if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally and without reproach; and it will be given to him. 1.9. But let the brother in humble circumstances glory in his high position; 1.10. and the rich, in that he is made humble, because like the flower in the grass, he will pass away. 1.11. For the sun arises with the scorching wind, and withers the grass, and the flower in it falls, and the beauty of its appearance perishes. So also will the rich man fade away in his pursuits. 1.25. But he who looks into the perfect law, the law of freedom, and continues, not being a hearer who forgets but a doer of the work, this man will be blessed in what he does. 2.1. My brothers, don't hold the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ of glory with partiality. 2.2. For if a man with a gold ring, in fine clothing, comes into your assembly, and a poor man in filthy clothing also comes in; 2.3. and you pay special attention to him who wears the fine clothing, and say, "Sit here in a good place;" and you tell the poor man, "Stand there," or "Sit by my footstool; 2.4. haven't you shown partiality among yourselves, and become judges with evil thoughts? 2.5. Listen, my beloved brothers. Didn't God choose those who are poor in this world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he promised to those who love him? 2.6. But you have dishonored the poor man. Don't the rich oppress you, and personally drag you before the courts? 2.7. Don't they blaspheme the honorable name by which you are called? 2.8. However, if you fulfill the royal law, according to the Scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you do well. 2.9. But if you show partiality, you commit sin, being convicted by the law as transgressors. 2.10. For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he has become guilty of all. 2.11. For he who said, "Do not commit adultery," said also, "Do not commit murder." Now if you do not commit adultery, but murder, you have become a transgressor of the law. 2.12. So speak, and so do, as men who are to be judged by a law of freedom. 2.13. For judgment is without mercy to him who has shown no mercy. Mercy triumphs over judgment. 2.14. What good is it, my brothers, if a man says he has faith, but has no works? Can that faith save him? 2.15. And if a brother or sister is naked and in lack of daily food 2.16. and one of you tells them, "Go in peace, be warmed and filled;" and yet you didn't give them the things the body needs, what good is it? 2.17. Even so faith, if it has no works, is dead in itself. 2.18. Yes, a man will say, "You have faith, and I have works." Show me your faith from your works, and I by my works will show you my faith. 2.19. You believe that God is one. You do well. The demons also believe, and shudder. 2.20. But do you want to know, vain man, that faith apart from works is dead? 2.21. Wasn't Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son on the altar? 2.22. You see that faith worked with his works, and by works faith was perfected; 2.23. and the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him as righteousness;" and he was called the friend of God. 2.24. You see then that by works, a man is justified, and not only by faith. 2.25. In like manner wasn't Rahab the prostitute also justified by works, in that she received the messengers, and sent them out another way? 2.26. For as the body apart from the spirit is dead, even so faith apart from works is dead. 3.2. For in many things we all stumble. If anyone doesn't stumble in word, the same is a perfect man, able to bridle the whole body also. 3.13. Who is wise and understanding among you? Let him show by his good conduct that his deeds are done in gentleness of wisdom. 4.11. Don't speak against one another, brothers. He who speaks against a brother and judges his brother, speaks against the law and judges the law. But if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law, but a judge. 4.12. Only one is the lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy. But who are you to judge another? 5.1. Come now, you rich, weep and howl for your miseries that are coming on you. 5.2. Your riches are corrupted and your garments are moth-eaten. 5.3. Your gold and your silver are corroded, and their corrosion will be for a testimony against you, and will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up your treasure in the last days. 5.4. Behold, the wages of the laborers who mowed your fields, which you have kept back by fraud, cry out, and the cries of those who reaped have entered into the ears of the Lord of Hosts. 5.5. You have lived delicately on the earth, and taken your pleasure. You have nourished your hearts as in a day of slaughter. 5.6. You have condemned, you have murdered the righteous one. He doesn't resist you. 5.12. But above all things, my brothers, don't swear, neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any other oath; but let your "yes" be "yes," and your "no," "no;" so that you don't fall into hypocrisy.
50. New Testament, Jude, 10-20, 23-25, 5-9, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

51. New Testament, Galatians, 1.6, 2.16, 3.10, 4.1-4.7, 4.21-4.31, 5.1-5.11, 5.13-5.14, 5.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel; 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem. 4.1. But I say that so long as the heir is a child, he is nodifferent from a bondservant, though he is lord of all; 4.2. but isunder guardians and stewards until the day appointed by the father. 4.3. So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under theelements of the world. 4.4. But when the fullness of the time came,God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law 4.5. thathe might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive theadoption of sons. 4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father! 4.7. Soyou are no longer a bondservant, but a son; and if a son, then an heirof God through Christ. 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband. 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman. 5.1. Stand firm therefore in the liberty by which Christ has madeus free, and don't be entangled again with a yoke of bondage. 5.2. Behold, I, Paul, tell you that if you receive circumcision, Christ willprofit you nothing. 5.3. Yes, I testify again to every man whoreceives circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole law. 5.4. You are alienated from Christ, you who desire to be justified by thelaw. You have fallen away from grace. 5.5. For we, through the Spirit,by faith wait for the hope of righteousness. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.7. You were running well! Who interfered withyou that you should not obey the truth? 5.8. This persuasion is notfrom him who calls you. 5.9. A little yeast grows through the wholelump. 5.10. I have confidence toward you in the Lord that you willthink no other way. But he who troubles you will bear his judgment,whoever he is. 5.11. But I, brothers, if I still preach circumcision, why am Istill persecuted? Then the stumbling-block of the cross has beenremoved. 5.13. For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't useyour freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to oneanother. 5.14. For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in this:"You shall love your neighbor as yourself. 5.18. But if you are led by theSpirit, you are not under the law.
52. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.1-1.5, 3.1-3.6, 5.5-5.6, 7.21, 8.1, 8.8-8.12, 10.16-10.17, 13.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. God, having in the past spoken to the fathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways 1.2. has at the end of these days spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds. 1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; 1.4. having become so much better than the angels, as he has inherited a more excellent name than they have. 1.5. For to which of the angels did he say at any time, "You are my Son, Today have I become your father?"and again, "I will be to him a Father, And he will be to me a Son? 3.1. Therefore, holy brothers, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, Jesus; 3.2. who was faithful to him who appointed him, as also was Moses in all his house. 3.3. For he has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who built the house has more honor than the house. 3.4. For every house is built by someone; but he who built all things is God. 3.5. Moses indeed was faithful in all his house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were afterward to be spoken 3.6. but Christ is faithful as a Son over his house; whose house we are, if we hold fast our confidence and the glorying of our hope firm to the end. 5.5. So also Christ didn't glorify himself to be made a high priest, but it was he who said to him, "You are my Son. Today I have become your father. 5.6. As he says also in another place, "You are a priest forever, After the order of Melchizedek. 7.21. (for they indeed have been made priests without an oath), but he with an oath by him that says of him, "The Lord swore and will not change his mind, 'You are a priest forever, According to the order of Melchizedek'". 8.1. Now in the things which we are saying, the main point is this. We have such a high priest, who sat down on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens 8.8. For finding fault with them, he said, "Behold, the days come," says the Lord,"That I will make a new covet with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; 8.9. Not according to the covet that I made with their fathers, In the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; For they didn't continue in my covet, And I disregarded them," says the Lord. 8.10. For this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel . After those days," says the Lord; "I will put my laws into their mind, I will also write them on their heart. I will be to them a God, And they will be to me a people. 8.11. They will not teach every man his fellow citizen, Every man his brother, saying, 'Know the Lord,' For all will know me, From the least of them to the greatest of them. 8.12. For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness. I will remember their sins and lawless deeds no more. 10.16. This is the covet that I will make with them: 'After those days,' says the Lord, 'I will put my laws on their heart, I will also write them on their mind;'"then he says 10.17. I will remember their sins and their iniquities no more. 13.2. Don't forget to show hospitality to strangers, for in doing so, some have entertained angels without knowing it.
53. New Testament, Romans, 3.8, 3.20, 3.23, 4.3, 4.9, 4.22, 6.1, 6.14-6.15, 9.33, 10.11, 12.13, 12.17, 12.19-12.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.8. Why not (as we are slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say), "Let us do evil, that good may come?" Those who say so are justly condemned. 3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 3.23. for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 4.3. For what does the Scripture say? "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness. 4.9. Is this blessing then pronounced on the circumcised, or on the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness. 4.22. Therefore it also was "reckoned to him for righteousness. 6.1. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 6.14. For sin will not have dominion over you. For you are not under law, but under grace. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 9.33. even as it is written, "Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and a rock of offense; And no one who believes in him will be put to shame. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. 12.13. contributing to the needs of the saints; given to hospitality. 12.17. Repay no one evil for evil. Respect what is honorable in the sight of all men. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 12.20. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head.
54. New Testament, John, 7.15-7.18, 7.20, 7.26, 7.28-7.29, 7.31-7.33, 7.35-7.43, 12.43, 13.18, 13.33-13.35, 15.12-15.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.15. The Jews therefore marveled, saying, "How does this man know letters, having never been educated? 7.16. Jesus therefore answered them, "My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me. 7.17. If anyone desires to do his will, he will know about the teaching, whether it is from God, or if I am speaking from myself. 7.18. He who speaks from himself seeks his own glory, but he who seeks the glory of him who sent him, the same is true, and no unrighteousness is in him. 7.20. The multitude answered, "You have a demon! Who seeks to kill you? 7.26. Behold, he speaks openly, and they say nothing to him. Can it be that the rulers indeed know that this is truly the Christ? 7.28. Jesus therefore cried out in the temple, teaching and saying, "You both know me, and know where I am from. I have not come of myself, but he who sent me is true, whom you don't know. 7.29. I know him, because I am from him, and he sent me. 7.31. But of the multitude, many believed in him. They said, "When the Christ comes, he won't do more signs than those which this man has done, will he? 7.32. The Pharisees heard the multitude murmuring these things concerning him, and the chief priests and the Pharisees sent officers to arrest him. 7.33. Then Jesus said, "I will be with you a little while longer, then I go to him who sent me. 7.35. The Jews therefore said among themselves, "Where will this man go that we won't find him? Will he go to the Dispersion among the Greeks, and teach the Greeks? 7.36. What is this word that he said, 'You will seek me, and won't find me; and where I am, you can't come?' 7.37. Now on the last and greatest day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, "If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me and drink! 7.38. He who believes in me, as the Scripture has said, from within him will flow rivers of living water. 7.39. But he said this about the Spirit, which those believing in him were to receive. For the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus wasn't yet glorified. 7.40. Many of the multitude therefore, when they heard these words, said, "This is truly the prophet. 7.41. Others said, "This is the Christ." But some said, "What, does the Christ come out of Galilee? 7.42. Hasn't the Scripture said that the Christ comes of the seed of David, and from Bethlehem, the village where David was? 7.43. So there arose a division in the multitude because of him. 12.43. for they loved men's praise more than God's praise. 13.18. I don't speak concerning all of you. I know whom I have chosen. But that the Scripture may be fulfilled, 'He who eats bread with me has lifted up his heel against me.' 13.33. Little children, I will be with you a little while longer. You will seek me, and as I said to the Jews, 'Where I am going, you can't come,' so now I tell you. 13.34. A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, just like I have loved you; that you also love one another. 13.35. By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another. 15.12. This is my commandment, that you love one another, even as I have loved you. 15.13. Greater love has no one than this, that someone lay down his life for his friends. 15.14. You are my friends, if you do whatever I command you. 15.15. No longer do I call you servants, for the servant doesn't know what his lord does. But I have called you friends, for everything that I heard from my Father, I have made known to you. 15.16. You didn't choose me, but I chose you, and appointed you, that you should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should remain; that whatever you will ask of the Father in my name, he may give it to you. 15.17. I command these things to you, that you may love one another.
55. New Testament, Luke, 4.2, 4.14-4.19, 4.21-4.22, 5.26, 6.21-6.26, 10.21, 10.25-10.37, 23.34, 24.3, 24.13-24.29, 24.31-24.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 5.26. Amazement took hold on all, and they glorified God. They were filled with fear, saying, "We have seen strange things today. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 10.21. In that same hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, and said, "I thank you, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for so it was well-pleasing in your sight. 10.25. Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? 10.26. He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it? 10.27. He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself. 10.28. He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live. 10.29. But he, desiring to justify himself, asked Jesus, "Who is my neighbor? 10.30. Jesus answered, "A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who both stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. 10.31. By chance a certain priest was going down that way. When he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 10.32. In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. 10.33. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was. When he saw him, he was moved with compassion 10.34. came to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. He set him on his own animal, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 10.35. On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, and gave them to the host, and said to him, 'Take care of him. Whatever you spend beyond that, I will repay you when I return.' 10.36. Now which of these three do you think seemed to be a neighbor to him who fell among the robbers? 10.37. He said, "He who showed mercy on him."Then Jesus said to him, "Go and do likewise. 23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots. 24.3. They entered in, and didn't find the Lord Jesus' body. 24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.14. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.19. He said to them, "What things?"They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 24.20. and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.22. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; 24.23. and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24.24. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him. 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.28. They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.31. Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him, and he vanished out of their sight. 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.
56. New Testament, Mark, 2.1, 2.5-2.9, 2.12, 2.23-2.28, 10.17-10.19, 11.24-11.25, 12.2-12.3, 12.18-12.19, 12.21-12.29, 12.31-12.37, 14.2, 14.17-14.19, 14.21, 14.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. When he entered again into Capernaum after some days, it was heard that he was in the house. 2.5. Jesus, seeing their faith, said to the paralytic, "Son, your sins are forgiven you. 2.6. But there were some of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts 2.7. Why does this man speak blasphemies like that? Who can forgive sins but God alone? 2.8. Immediately Jesus, perceiving in his spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, said to them, "Why do you reason these things in your hearts? 2.9. Which is easier, to tell the paralytic, 'Your sins are forgiven;' or to say, 'Arise, and take up your bed, and walk?' 2.12. He arose, and immediately took up the mat, and went out in front of them all; so that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, "We never saw anything like this! 2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 2.24. The Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they do that which is not lawful on the Sabbath day? 2.25. He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry -- he, and they who were with him? 2.26. How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which it is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him? 2.27. He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath. 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? 10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God. 10.19. You know the commandments: 'Do not murder,' 'Do not commit adultery,' 'Do not steal,' 'Do not give false testimony,' 'Do not defraud,' 'Honor your father and mother.' 11.24. Therefore I tell you, all things whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you receive them, and you shall have them. 11.25. Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions. 12.2. When it was time, he sent a servant to the farmer to get from the farmer his share of the fruit of the vineyard. 12.3. They took him, beat him, and sent him away empty. 12.18. There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection. They asked him, saying 12.19. Teacher, Moses wrote to us, 'If a man's brother dies, and leaves a wife behind him, and leaves no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up offspring for his brother.' 12.21. The second took her, and died, leaving no children behind him. The third likewise; 12.22. and the seven took her and left no children. Last of all the woman also died. 12.23. In the resurrection, when they rise, whose wife will she be of them? For the seven had her as a wife. 12.24. Jesus answered them, "Isn't this because you are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God? 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' 12.27. He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are therefore badly mistaken. 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he 12.33. and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 12.34. When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the Kingdom of God."No one dared ask him any question after that. 12.35. Jesus responded, as he taught in the temple, "How is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the son of David? 12.36. For David himself said in the Holy Spirit, 'The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet.' 12.37. Therefore David himself calls him Lord, so how can he be his son?"The common people heard him gladly. 14.2. For they said, "Not during the feast, because there might be a riot of the people. 14.17. When it was evening he came with the twelve. 14.18. As they sat and were eating, Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, one of you will betray me -- he who eats with me. 14.19. They began to be sorrowful, and to ask him one by one, "Surely not I?" And another said, "Surely not I? 14.21. For the Son of Man goes, even as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for that man if he had not been born. 14.34. He said to them, "My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here, and watch.
57. New Testament, Matthew, 5.0-5.9, 5.11-5.12, 5.17, 5.19, 5.21-5.30, 5.33-5.37, 5.39-5.41, 5.43-5.48, 6.12-6.15, 6.19, 7.3-7.5, 7.9-7.10, 7.12, 7.17, 7.19-7.23, 7.28-7.29, 9.8, 9.13, 10.8, 11.12, 11.25, 12.7, 13.55, 19.19, 22.4, 22.34-22.39, 25.4, 25.31-25.39, 25.41-25.46, 26.2, 26.21-26.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. Seeing the multitudes, he went up onto the mountain. When he had sat down, his disciples came to him. 5.2. He opened his mouth and taught them, saying 5.3. Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.4. Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted. 5.5. Blessed are the gentle, For they shall inherit the earth. 5.6. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, For they shall be filled. 5.7. Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy. 5.8. Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God. 5.9. Blessed are the peacemakers, For they shall be called sons of God. 5.11. Blessed are you when people reproach you, persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 5.12. Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven. For that is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 5.19. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.23. If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.25. Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. 5.26. Most assuredly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny. 5.27. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery;' 5.28. but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. 5.29. If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. For it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna. 5.30. If your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off, and throw it away from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, and not your whole body be thrown into Gehenna. 5.33. Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, 'You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,' 5.34. but I tell you, don't swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; 5.35. nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 5.36. Neither shall you swear by your head, for you can't make one hair white or black. 5.37. But let your 'Yes' be 'Yes' and your 'No' be 'no.' Whatever is more than these is of the evil one. 5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 5.40. If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. 5.41. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 6.19. Don't lay up treasures for yourselves on the earth, where moth and rust consume, and where thieves break through and steal; 7.3. Why do you see the speck that is in your brother's eye, but don't consider the beam that is in your own eye? 7.4. Or how will you tell your brother, 'Let me remove the speck from your eye;' and behold, the beam is in your own eye? 7.5. You hypocrite! First remove the beam out of your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck out of your brother's eye. 7.9. Or who is there among you, who, if his son asks him for bread, will give him a stone? 7.10. Or if he asks for a fish, who will give him a serpent? 7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. 7.17. Even so, every good tree produces good fruit; but the corrupt tree produces evil fruit. 7.19. Every tree that doesn't grow good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. 7.20. Therefore, by their fruits you will know them. 7.21. Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. 7.22. Many will tell me in that day, 'Lord, Lord, didn't we prophesy in your name, in your name cast out demons, and in your name do many mighty works?' 7.23. Then I will tell them, 'I never knew you. Depart from me, you who work iniquity.' 7.28. It happened, when Jesus had finished saying these things, that the multitudes were astonished at his teaching 7.29. for he taught them with authority, and not like the scribes. 9.8. But when the multitudes saw it, they marveled and glorified God, who had given such authority to men. 9.13. But you go and learn what this means: 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' for I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. 10.8. Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received, so freely give. 11.12. From the days of John the Baptizer until now, the Kingdom of Heaven suffers violence, and the violent take it by force. 11.25. At that time, Jesus answered, "I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you hid these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to infants. 12.7. But if you had known what this means, 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the guiltless. 13.55. Isn't this the carpenter's son? Isn't his mother called Mary, and his brothers, James, Joses, Simon, and Judas? 19.19. 'Honor your father and mother.' And, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.4. Again he sent out other servants, saying, 'Tell those who are invited, "Behold, I have made ready my dinner. My oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready. Come to the marriage feast!"' 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 22.35. One of them, a lawyer, asked him a question, testing him. 22.36. Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the law? 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 22.38. This is the first and great commandment. 22.39. A second likewise is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 25.4. but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. 25.31. But when the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. 25.32. Before him all the nations will be gathered, and he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 25.33. He will set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. 25.34. Then the King will tell those on his right hand, 'Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; 25.35. for I was hungry, and you gave me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me drink; I was a stranger, and you took me in; 25.36. naked, and you clothed me; I was sick, and you visited me; I was in prison, and you came to me.' 25.37. Then the righteous will answer him, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry, and feed you; or thirsty, and give you a drink? 25.38. When did we see you as a stranger, and take you in; or naked, and clothe you? 25.39. When did we see you sick, or in prison, and come to you?' 25.41. Then he will say also to those on the left hand, 'Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels; 25.42. for I was hungry, and you didn't give me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me no drink; 25.43. I was a stranger, and you didn't take me in; naked, and you didn't clothe me; sick, and in prison, and you didn't visit me.' 25.44. Then they will also answer, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and didn't help you?' 25.45. Then he will answer them, saying, 'Most assuredly I tell you, inasmuch as you didn't do it to one of the least of these, you didn't do it to me.' 25.46. These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life. 26.2. You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified. 26.21. As they were eating, he said, "Most assuredly I tell you that one of you will betray me. 26.22. They were exceedingly sorrowful, and each began to ask him, "It isn't me, is it, Lord? 26.23. He answered, "He who dipped his hand with me in the dish, the same will betray me. 26.24. The Son of Man goes, even as it is written of him, but woe to that man through whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for that man if he had not been born. 26.25. Judas, who betrayed him, answered, "It isn't me, is it, Rabbi?"He said to him, "You said it.
58. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 9.5-9.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

59. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 32 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

60. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

61. Clement of Alexandria, A Discourse Concerning The Salvation of Rich Men, 28.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

62. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

63. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.21.1, 3.15.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

64. Babylonian Talmud, Betzah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. דקמתקן מנא באור נמי קא מתקן מנא תני ר' חייא חותכה באור בפי שתי נרות אמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב מוחטין את הפתילה ביום טוב מאי מוחטין אמר רב חנינא בר שלמיא (משמיה דרב) לעדויי חושכא,תני בר קפרא ו' דברים נאמרו בפתילה ג' להחמיר וג' להקל להחמיר אין גודלין אותה לכתחלה ביו"ט ואין מהבהבין אותה באור ואין חותכין אותה לשנים להקל ממעכה ביד ושורה בשמן וחותכה באור בפי שתי נרות,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב עתירי בבל יורדי גיהנם הם כי הא דשבתאי בר מרינוס אקלע לבבל בעא מנייהו עסקא ולא יהבו ליה מזוני מיזן נמי לא זינוהו,אמר הני מערב רב קא אתו דכתיב (דברים יג, יח) ונתן לך רחמים ורחמך כל המרחם על הבריות בידוע שהוא מזרעו של אברהם אבינו וכל מי שאינו מרחם על הבריות בידוע שאינו מזרעו של אברהם אבינו,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב כל המצפה על שלחן אחרים עולם חשך בעדו שנאמר (איוב טו, כג) נודד הוא ללחם איה ידע כי נכון בידו יום חשך רב חסדא אמר אף חייו אינן חיים,ת"ר ג' חייהן אינם חיים ואלו הן המצפה לשלחן חבירו ומי שאשתו מושלת עליו ומי שיסורין מושלין בגופו ויש אומרים אף מי שאין לו אלא חלוק אחד ות"ק אפשר דמעיין במניה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין שוברין את החרס ואין חותכין הנייר לצלות בו מליח,ואין גורפין תנור וכירים אבל מכבשין,ואין מקיפין שתי חביות לשפות עליהן את הקדרה ואין סומכין את הקדרה בבקעת וכן בדלת ואין מנהיגין את הבהמה במקל ביום טוב ורבי אלעזר בר' שמעון מתיר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט משם דקא מתקן מנא,ואין גורפין תנור וכירים תני רב חייא בר יוסף קמיה דרב נחמן ואם אי אפשר לאפות אלא אם כן גורפו מותר דביתהו דר' חייא נפל לה אריחא בתנורא ביומא טבא אמר לה ר' חייא חזי דאנא רפתא מעלייתא בעינא א"ל רבא לשמעיה טוי לי בר אווזא ואזדהר מחרוכא,א"ל רבינא לרב אשי אמר לן רב אחא מהוצל דמר שרקין ליה תנורא ביומא טבא אמר ליה אנן ארקתא דפרת סמכינן והנ"מ הוא דצייריה מאתמול אמר רבינא וקטמא שרי:,ואין מקיפין שתי חביות: אמר רב נחמן אבנים של בית הכסא מותר לצדדן ביום טוב איתיביה רבה לרב נחמן אין מקיפין שתי חביות לשפות עליהן את הקדרה אמר ליה שאני התם משום דקא עביד אהלא,א"ל רבה זוטא לרב אשי אלא מעתה בנה אצטבא ביו"ט דלא עביד אהלא הכי נמי דשרי א"ל התם בנין קבע אסרה תורה בנין עראי לא אסרה תורה וגזרו רבנן על בנין עראי משום בנין קבע והכא משום כבודו לא גזרו ביה רבנן,אמר רב יהודה האי מדורתא מלמעלה למטה שרי מלמטה למעלה אסור 32b. Is it because bhethereby bmends a vessel?If so, when one cuts it bin the fire, he is also preparing a vesselfor use. bRabbi Ḥiyya taughtin explanation: bHe cuts it by fire in the mouth of two candles.In other words, he does not simply cut a wick, but rather inserts a long wick into two lamps, which he subsequently lights in the middle. This indeed leads to the formation of two separate wicks, but only as a result of kindling two lamps. bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: One may imoḥeta wick on a Festival.The term imoḥetwas unknown, and the Gemara therefore asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the word imoḥet /i? Rav Ḥanina bar Shelemya said in the name of Rav: To remove the dark;in other words, it is permitted to remove the burnt, charcoaled section to make the lamp shine more brightly., bBar Kappara taught: Six matters were stated with regard tothe ihalakhotof ba wickon a Festival, bthreeof which bare to be stringent and threeof which bare to be lenient.The three ihalakhot bto be stringentare: bOne may not spinor twist bit iab initioon a Festival, and one may not singe it in firebefore lighting it so that it will burn well, band one may not cut it into two.The three ihalakhot bto be lenientare: bOne may crush it by hand,as although it is prohibited to twist it into a wick, one may adjust its shape in an unusual manner; band one may soak it in oilso that it will later burn well; band one may cut it by fire in the mouth of two candles. /b,§ After citing one teaching in the name of Rav Natan bar Abba, the Gemara quotes a few more statements attributed to the same scholar. Since he is not mentioned often, Rav Natan’s teachings are arranged together, so that they can be remembered more easily. bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: The wealthyJews bof Babylonia will descend to Gehennabecause they do not have compassion on others. This is illustrated by incidents bsuch as this: Shabbetai bar Marinus happened to come to Babylonia. He requestedtheir participation in ba business venture,to lend him money and receive half the profits in return, band they did not giveit to bhim.Furthermore, when he asked them bto sustain him with food, they likewise refused to sustain him. /b, bHe said: Thesewealthy people are not descendants of our forefathers, bbut they came from the mixed multitude, as it is written: “And show you compassion, and have compassion upon you,and multiply you, as He has sworn to your fathers” (Deuteronomy 13:18), from which it is derived: bAnyone who has compassionfor God’s bcreatures, it is known that he is of the descendants of Abraham, our father, and anyone who does not have compassionfor God’s bcreatures, it is known that he is not of the descendants of Abraham, our father.Since these wealthy Babylonians do not have compassion on people, clearly they are not descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.,This is another teaching that bRav Natan bar Abba saidthat bRav said: Whoever looks to the table of othersfor his sustece, bthe world is dark for him.Everything looks bleak and hopeless to him, bfor it is stated: “He wanders abroad for bread: Where is it? He knows the day of darkness is ready at his hand”(Job 15:23). bRav Ḥisda said: Even his life is no life,as he receives no satisfaction from it.,In support of this last claim, the Gemara cites a ibaraitain which bthe Sages taught:There are bthreewhose blives are not lives, and they are as follows: One who looks to the table of othersfor his sustece; band one whose wife rulesover bhim; and one whose body is ruled by suffering. And some say: Even one who has only one robe.Since he cannot wash it properly, he suffers from lice and dirt. The Gemara comments: bAnd the first itanna /i,who did not include such a person, maintains: bIt is possiblefor him bto examine his clothesand remove the lice, which would alleviate his suffering., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne may not break earthenwareon a Festival. bAnd one may not cut paper in order to roast saltedfish bon it.Earthenware shards or pieces of paper that have been soaked in water were placed on the metal surface or in the oven in which the fish was roasted, so that it would not be burned by the heat., bAnd one may not sweep outanything that has fallen into ban oven or stovethat interferes with the baking, such as plaster. bBut one may press downand flatten any accumulated dust and ashes at the bottom of the oven, which might prevent it from lighting properly., bAnd one may not draw two barrels togetherin order bto place a pot on them,so that its contents will be cooked by a fire lit between the barrels. bAnd one may not prop a potthat does not stand straight bwith a piece of wood,in order to prevent it from falling. bAnd similarly, with a door. And one may not lead an animal with a stickin the public domain bon a Festival; and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, permitsit., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the issue of breaking earthenware and cutting paper, the Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonfor this prohibition? bBecause oneis thereby bpreparing a vesselfor use.,It was taught in the mishna: bAnd one may not sweep out an oven or stove. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef taught before Rav Naḥman: And if it is not possible to bake unless one sweeps it out, it is permitted.The Gemara relates an incident with regard bto the wife of Rabbi Ḥiyya: A part of a brick fell intoher boven on a Festival,preventing her from baking. bRav Ḥiyya said to her: See,you should know that bI want good-quality bread.He thereby stated that it would be impossible unless she removed the brick, making it permissible for her to do so. Similarly, bRava said to his attendant: Roast for me a duckin an oven, band be careful not to singeit. He thereby implied that the attendant may remove all impediments from the oven in order to fulfill this requirement because otherwise it would not be possible to cook without singeing.,In a related case, bRavina said to Rav Ashi: Rav Aḥa from Hutzal said to us that the master,Rav Ashi, allows his attendants bto plasterthe mouth of bthe oven for him on a Festival.This was done in order to ensure that the roasted or cooked dish would be fully prepared. Why does this not constitute the prohibited labor of kneading on a Festival? bHe said to him: We rely on the bank of the EuphratesRiver. We avoid the labor of kneading by taking sufficiently kneaded mud from the riverbank. The Gemara comments: bAnd this applies only when one wrappedor made some mark on the mud bthe day before,so that it not be imuktze /i. bRavina said: Andas for kneading with bashesfor this purpose, it is bpermitted,since the labor of kneading does not apply to ashes.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bOne may not draw two barrels togetherin order to place a pot on them. bRav Naḥman said:With regard to large bstones of a lavatory,upon which one sits to attend to his needs, bit is permitted to put them togetherin the proper manner, so that they may be used bon a Festival. Rabba raised an objection to Rav Naḥman:Wasn’t it taught that bone may not draw two barrels togetherin order bto place a pot on them?This seems to indicate that any arrangement resembling building is prohibited. bHe said to him: There,with regard to barrels, bit is different, because one makes a tent.It is not the drawing of the barrels close together that is prohibited. Rather, the placement of the pot over them forms a kind of covering, which is similar to building a tent., bRabba the Younger,so called to distinguish him from the more famous iamoraknown as Rabba, bsaid to Rav Ashi: However, ifthat is bso,then if, bon a Festival, one builta solid bbench [ iitztaba /i],without a gap below the seat, a situation in which bone does not make a tent, so too,will you say bthat it is permitted? He said to him:The two cases are not comparable: bThere,with regard to a proper construction, such as a bench, bthe Torah prohibitederecting ba permanent construction,but bthe Torah did not prohibiterecting ba temporary construction. The Sages,however, bdecreed againstcreating ba temporary constructionon a Festival bdue to a permanent construction.However, bhere,with regard to a lavatory, bdue to the dignityof the user, bthe Sages did not decree with regard to it. /b, bRav Yehuda said:With regard to bthis bonfire,in which the wood is arranged in the form of a house, if one arranges it bfrom above to below it is permitted,as this is not the regular manner of building. However, if one prepares it in the usual fashion, bfrom below to above, it is prohibited,for this is considered building.
65. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61b. ריאה שואבת כל מיני משקין כבד כועס מרה זורקת בו טפה ומניחתו טחול שוחק קרקבן טוחן קיבה ישנה אף נעור נעור הישן ישן הנעור נמוק והולך לו תנא אם שניהם ישנים או שניהם נעורים מיד מת,תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר צדיקים יצר טוב שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, כב) ולבי חלל בקרבי רשעים יצר רע שופטן שנאמר (תהלים לו, ב) נאם פשע לרשע בקרב לבי אין פחד אלהים לנגד עיניו בינונים זה וזה שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, לא) יעמוד לימין אביון להושיע משופטי נפשו,אמר רבא כגון אנו בינונים אמר ליה אביי לא שביק מר חיי לכל בריה,ואמר רבא לא איברי עלמא אלא לרשיעי גמורי או לצדיקי גמורי אמר רבא לידע אינש בנפשיה אם צדיק גמור הוא אם לאו אמר רב לא איברי עלמא אלא לאחאב בן עמרי ולר' חנינא בן דוסא לאחאב בן עמרי העולם הזה ולרבי חנינא בן דוסא העולם הבא:,ואהבת את י"י אלהיך: תניא ר' אליעזר אומר אם נאמר בכל נפשך למה נאמר בכל מאדך ואם נאמר בכל מאדך למה נאמר בכל נפשך אלא אם יש לך אדם שגופו חביב עליו מממונו לכך נאמר בכל נפשך ואם יש לך אדם שממונו חביב עליו מגופו לכך נאמר בכל מאדך רבי עקיבא אומר בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נפשך,תנו רבנן פעם אחת גזרה מלכות הרשעה שלא יעסקו ישראל בתורה בא פפוס בן יהודה ומצאו לרבי עקיבא שהיה מקהיל קהלות ברבים ועוסק בתורה אמר ליה עקיבא אי אתה מתירא מפני מלכות,אמר לו אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשועל שהיה מהלך על גב הנהר וראה דגים שהיו מתקבצים ממקום למקום אמר להם מפני מה אתם בורחים אמרו לו מפני רשתות שמביאין עלינו בני אדם אמר להם רצונכם שתעלו ליבשה ונדור אני ואתם כשם שדרו אבותי עם אבותיכם אמרו לו אתה הוא שאומרים עליך פקח שבחיות לא פקח אתה אלא טפש אתה ומה במקום חיותנו אנו מתיראין במקום מיתתנו על אחת כמה וכמה אף אנחנו עכשיו שאנו יושבים ועוסקים בתורה שכתוב בה (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כך אם אנו הולכים ומבטלים ממנה עאכ"ו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שתפסוהו לר"ע וחבשוהו בבית האסורים ותפסו לפפוס בן יהודה וחבשוהו אצלו אמר לו פפוס מי הביאך לכאן אמר ליה אשריך רבי עקיבא שנתפסת על דברי תורה אוי לו לפפוס שנתפס על דברים בטלים,בשעה שהוציאו את ר' עקיבא להריגה זמן ק"ש היה והיו סורקים את בשרו במסרקות של ברזל והיה מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו עד כאן אמר להם כל ימי הייתי מצטער על פסוק זה בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נשמתך אמרתי מתי יבא לידי ואקיימנו ועכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו היה מאריך באחד עד שיצתה נשמתו באחד יצתה ב"ק ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שיצאה נשמתך באחד,אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה זו תורה וזו שכרה (תהלים יז, יד) ממתים ידך י"י ממתים וגו' אמר להם חלקם בחיים יצתה בת קול ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שאתה מזומן לחיי העוה"ב:,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים וכו': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה איתמר נמי א"ר אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי יוחנן לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה ובשאין גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה,ת"ר הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל לא יפנה אלא מזרח ומערב ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה ר' יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה ובמקום שאין שם גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה וחכמים אוסרים,חכמים היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו צדדין,תניא אידך הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל צפון ודרום אסור מזרח ומערב מותר ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה רבי יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה רבי יהודה אומר בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אסור בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מותר רבי עקיבא אוסר בכל מקום,רבי עקיבא היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו חוץ לארץ,רבה הוו שדיין ליה לבני מזרח ומערב אזל אביי שדנהו צפון ודרום על רבה תרצנהו אמר מאן האי דקמצער לי אנא כר' עקיבא סבירא לי דאמר בכל מקום אסור: 61b. and the blungs draw all kinds of liquids,the bliver becomes angry,the bgallbladder binjects a dropof gall bintothe liver and ballaysanger, the bspleen laughs,the bmaw grindsthe food, and the bstomachbrings bsleep,the bnose awakens.If they reversed roles such that btheorgan which brings on bsleepwere to bawaken,or btheorgan which bawakenswere to bring on bsleep,the individual bwould gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If bothbring on bsleep or both awaken,the person bimmediately dies. /b,With regard to one’s inclinations, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: “And my heart is dead within me”(Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The bevil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: “Transgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes”(Psalms 36:2). bMiddling people are ruled by boththe good and evil inclinations, bas it is stated: “Because He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul”(Psalms 109:31)., bRabba said:People blike usare bmiddling. Abaye,his student and nephew, bsaid to him:If bthe Masterclaims that he is merely middling, he bdoes not leaveroom for bany creature to live.If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?, bAnd Rava said: The world was created only forthe sake of bthe full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous;others do not live complete lives in either world. bRava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous,as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. bRav said: The world was only created forthe wicked bAhab ben Omri and for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa.The Gemara explains: For bAhab ben Omri, this worldwas created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, bandfor bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, the World-to-Comewas created.,We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: b“And you shall love the Lord your Godwith all your heart and all your soul and all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: “With all your soul,” why does it state: “With all your might”?Conversely, bif it stated: “With all your might,” why does it state: “With all your soul”? Rather,this means that bif one’s body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: “With all your soul”;one must give his soul in sanctification of God. bAnd if one’s money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: “With all your might”;with all your assets. bRabbi Akiva says: “With all your soul”means: bEven ifGod btakes your soul. /b,The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. bThe Sages taught: One time,after the bar Kokheva rebellion, bthe evil empireof Rome bdecreed that Israel may not engage inthe study and practice of bTorah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torahstudy. Pappos bsaid to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire? /b,Rabbi Akiva banswered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared?It is like ba fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gatheringand fleeing bfrom place to place. brThe fox bsaid to them: From what are you fleeing? br bThey said to him:We are fleeing bfrom the nets that people cast upon us. br bHe said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors? brThe fish bsaid to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid inthe water, bournatural bhabitatwhich gives us blife,then bin a habitatthat causes our bdeath, all the more so. brThe moral is: bSo too, weJews, bnow that we sit and engage in Torahstudy, babout which it is written: “For that is your life, and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire bto this extent; if we proceed tosit bidle from itsstudy, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, ball the more sowill we fear the empire.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him.Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: Pappos, who brought you here?Pappos breplied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested onthe charge of engaging in bTorahstudy. bWoe unto Pappos who was seized onthe charge of engaging in bidle matters. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of iShema /i. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he wasreciting iShema /i, thereby baccepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now,as you suffer, you recite iShema /i? bHe said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul,meaning: bEven if God takes your soul. I saidto myself: bWhen will theopportunity bbe afforded me to fulfill thisverse? bNow that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolongedhis uttering of the word: bOne, until his soul lefthis body as he uttered his final word: bOne. A voice descendedfrom heaven band said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul leftyour body basyou uttered: bOne. /b, bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward?As it is stated: b“From death, by Your hand, O Lord, from deathof the world” (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God bsaidthe end of the verse btothe ministering angels: b“Whose portion is in this life.”And then ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come,as your portion is already in eternal life.,We learned in the mishna that bone may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies.Limiting this ihalakha /i, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to irreverent behavior bfromMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i] and within, andspecifically areas from where bone can seethe Temple. bIt is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yoḥa said the following: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to Mount bScopus and within,when bone can see, and when there is no fenceobstructing his view, band when the Divine Presence is restingthere, i.e., when the Temple is standing.,In this context, bthe Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west,for then he is facing Jerusalem; bratherhe should do so bfacing north and south. But in the Galileewhich is north of Jerusalem, bone should only defecatefacing beast and west. Rabbi Yosei permitsdoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple, bwhere there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is restingthere. bAnd the Rabbis prohibitdoing so.,The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the bRabbis,who prohibit this, bisidentical to that of the bfirstanonymous itanna, /iwho also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference bbetween them iswith regard to bthe sides,i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first itanna /i, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted., bIt was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: bOne who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west; rather,he should only do so facing bnorth and south. And in the Galilee,defecating while facing bnorth and south is prohibited,while beast and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitteddoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple. bRabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, it is permitted.The Gemara adds that bRabbi Akiva prohibitsdefecating banywherewhile facing east and west.,The Gemara challenges this: bRabbi Akiva’sposition bis identical tothat of bthe first,anonymous itanna /i,who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to places boutside of EretzYisrael b,as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.,The Gemara relates that in bRabba’sbathroom, bthe bricks were placed east and westin order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. bAbaye wentand bplaced them north and south,to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. bRabba enteredand bfixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva,who bsaid: It is prohibited everywhere. /b
66. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. למי שמשים עצמו כשירים,רב הונא רמי כתיב (תהלים קמה, יז) צדיק ה' בכל דרכיו וכתיב וחסיד בכל מעשיו בתחלה צדיק ולבסוף חסיד,רבי אלעזר רמי כתיב (תהלים סב, יג) ולך ה' חסד וכתיב כי אתה תשלם לאיש כמעשהו בתחלה כי אתה תשלם כמעשהו ולבסוף ולך ה' חסד,אילפי ואמרי לה אילפא רמי כתיב (שמות לד, ו) ורב חסד וכתיב ואמת בתחלה ואמת ולבסוף ורב חסד,ויעבור ה' על פניו ויקרא א"ר יוחנן אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו מלמד שנתעטף הקב"ה כשליח צבור והראה לו למשה סדר תפלה אמר לו כל זמן שישראל חוטאין יעשו לפני כסדר הזה ואני מוחל להם,ה' ה' אני הוא קודם שיחטא האדם ואני הוא לאחר שיחטא האדם ויעשה תשובה אל רחום וחנון,אמר רב יהודה ברית כרותה לי"ג מדות שאינן חוזרות ריקם שנאמר (שמות לד, י) הנה אנכי כורת ברית,אמר ר' יוחנן גדולה תשובה שמקרעת גזר דינו של אדם שנא' (ישעיהו ו, י) השמן לב העם הזה ואזניו הכבד ועיניו השע פן יראה בעיניו ובאזניו ישמע ולבבו יבין ושב ורפא לו,א"ל רב פפא לאביי ודלמא לפני גזר דין א"ל ורפא לו כתיב איזהו דבר שצריך רפואה הוי אומר זה גזר דין,מיתיבי השב בינתים מוחלין לו לא שב בינתים אפילו הביא כל אילי נביות שבעולם אין מוחלין לו לא קשיא הא ביחיד הא בצבור,מיתיבי (דברים יא, יב) עיני ה' אלהיך בה עתים לטובה עתים לרעה עתים לטובה כיצד הרי שהיו ישראל רשעים גמורין בראש השנה ופסקו להם גשמים מועטים לסוף חזרו בהן להוסיף עליהן אי אפשר שכבר נגזרה גזרה אלא הקב"ה מורידן בזמנן על הארץ הצריכה להן הכל לפי הארץ,עתים לרעה כיצד הרי שהיו ישראל צדיקים גמורין בר"ה ופסקו עליהן גשמים מרובין לסוף חזרו בהן לפחות מהן אי אפשר שכבר נגזרה גזרה אלא הקב"ה מורידן שלא בזמנן על הארץ שאינה צריכה להן,לטובה מיהא ליקרעיה לגזר דינייהו ולוסיף להו שאני התם דאפשר בהכי,ת"ש (תהלים קז, כג) יורדי הים באניות עושי מלאכה במים רבים המה ראו מעשי ה' וגו' ויאמר ויעמד רוח סערה ותרומם גליו יחוגו וינועו כשכור וגו' ויצעקו אל ה' בצר להם וגו' יודו לה' חסדו וגו',עשה להן סימניות כאכין ורקין שבתורה לומר לך צעקו קודם גזר דין נענין צעקו לאחר גזר דין אינן נענין,הני נמי כיחידין דמו,ת"ש שאלה בלוריא הגיורת את רבן גמליאל כתיב בתורתכם (דברים י, יז) אשר לא ישא פנים וכתיב (במדבר ו, כו) ישא ה' פניו אליך,נטפל לה רבי יוסי הכהן אמר לה אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לאדם שנושה בחבירו מנה וקבע לו זמן בפני המלך ונשבע לו בחיי המלך הגיע זמן ולא פרעו בא לפייס את המלך ואמר לו עלבוני מחול לך לך ופייס את חבירך הכא נמי כאן בעבירות שבין אדם למקום כאן בעבירות שבין אדם לחבירו,עד שבא ר"ע ולימד 17b. That is to say, God forgives sins only bfor one who regards himself as a remainder,i.e., of only secondary importance.,§ bRav Huna raised a contradictionbetween the two halves of a verse. bIt is written: “The Lord is righteous [ itzaddik /i] in all His ways”(Psalms 145:17), indicating that God acts in accordance with the attribute of strict justice [ itzedek /i], bandthen bit is writtenin the same verse: b“And kind [ iḥasid /i] in all His works,”implying that He acts with grace and loving-kindness [ iḥesed /i], going beyond the letter of the law. Rav Huna explained: bInitially,at the time of judgment, bHe is righteous, but in the end,at the time of punishment, bHe is gracious. /b, bRabbi Elazar raised asimilar bcontradiction: It is written: “But to you, O Lord, belongs kindness”(Psalms 62:13), implying that God acts beyond the letter of the law, bandthen bit is writtenin the same verse: b“For You render to a man according to his deeds,”implying that He rewards and punishes measure for measure. Rabbi Elazar answered: bInitially,at the time of judgment: b“For You render to a man according to his deeds”; but in the end,at the time of punishment: b“But to You, O Lord, belongs kindness.” /b, bIlfai, and some sayit was the Sage bIlfa,also braised a contradiction: It is writtenin the list of God’s attributes: b“And abundant in kindness”(Exodus 34:6), band it is writtenin the same verse: b“And truth,”which implies the attribute of justice. He answered: bInitially,at the time of judgment: b“And truth,”i.e., God employs strict justice, bbut in the end,when He sees that the world cannot survive on judgment based only on truth and justice: b“And abundant in kindness,”i.e., He is merciful.,§ The verse states: b“And the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed”(Exodus 34:6). bRabbi Yoḥa said: Were it notexplicitly bwritten in the verse, it would be impossible to say this,as it would be insulting to God’s honor. The verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, wrapped Himselfin a prayer shawl blike a prayer leader and showed Mosesthe structure of the border ofthe bprayer. He said to him: Whenever the Jewish people sin, let them act before Me in accordance with this order.Let the prayer leader wrap himself in a prayer shawl and publicly recite the thirteen attributes of mercy, band I will forgive them. /b,The verse continues: b“The Lord, the Lord,”and it should be understood as follows: bI am He before a person sins, and I am He after a person sins and performs repentance,as God does not recall for him his first sins, since He is always b“God, merciful and gracious”(Exodus 34:6)., bRav Yehuda said: A covet was made with the thirteen attributes that they will not return empty-handed,meaning that if one mentions them, he will certainly be answered, bas it is statedin this regard: b“Behold, I make a covet”(Exodus 34:10).,§ bRabbi Yoḥa said: Great is repentance, for it tears up the sentenceissued bagainst a person, as it is stated: “Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and smear over their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and they will return, and be healed”(Isaiah 6:10), implying that if indeed they return and repent, they will be healed from all their sins., bRav Pappa said to Abaye: But perhapsthis was said bbefore the sentencewas issued, but after one’s sentence has been decreed repentance no longer helps. Abaye bsaid to him: It is writtenhere: “And they will return band be healed”(Isaiah 6:10). bWhat requires healing?An illness does. Consequently, byou must saythat the reference here is to ba sentencethat has already been issued, and even so, after repentance, they will be healed.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: If bone repents in the meantime,between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, bhe is forgiven;if bhe does not repent in the meantime,then beven if helater bbringsas offerings ball the rams of Nebaioth in the world,which are of the best quality, bthey do not forgive himin the Heavenly court. This implies that once one’s sentence has been decreed, even repentance cannot alter it. The Gemara answers: bThisis bnot difficult: Here,where repentance is effective only before the sentence on Yom Kippur, the ibaraitais referring to repentance bof an individual; there,where forgiveness is granted even after a sentence is issued, it is referring to bcommunalrepentance.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom another ibaraita /i: The verse states: “A land which the Lord your God cares for; bthe eyes of the Lord your God arealways bupon it”(Deuteronomy 11:12). God’s constant providence over Eretz Yisrael is bsometimes forthe bgoodand bsometimes forthe bbad. Sometimes forthe bgood; how so? If the Jews were wholly wicked on Rosh HaShana, so thatonly ba meageramount of brain was decreed for themfor the year, but bin the end they repented,what can be done? bTo addrain bis impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causesthose sparse rains bto fall at theappropriate btimes on land that needs it,e.g., fields, vineyards, and gardens, ball according torequirements of bthe land,and those rains are just as effective as a lot of rain., bSometimes for bad; how so? If the Jewish people were wholly righteous on Rosh HaShana, so that much rain was decreed for themfor that year, but bin the end they regressedand sinned, what can be done? bTo reducethe amount of rain bis impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causesthe rain bto fall not at theappropriate btime,and bon land that does not need it,e.g., forests and deserts, and the ample rain is no more beneficial than meager rain.,The Gemara asks: When it is bfor good, however, let Him tear up their sentence and addto the rain that had originally been decreed for them. Since the ibaraitaexplains that God does not do so, it implies that an evil sentence cannot be rescinded, even if the entire community fully repents. The Gemara answers: bIt is different there, because it is possibleto achieve the same result bin thismanner, by causing the rain to fall at the proper time and in the proper place, without rescinding the original sentence., bComeand bheara proof from a different ibaraita /i: The psalm states: b“They that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters; these saw the works of the Lord,and His wonders in the deep” (Psalms 107:23–24). The psalm continues: b“For He commanded, and raised the stormy wind, which lifted up the waves thereof…They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man,and are at their wits’ end” (Psalms 107:25–27). It continues further: b“Then they cry to the Lord in their trouble,and He brings them out of their distresses” (Psalms 107:28). And finally, b“Let them give thanks to the Lord for His mercy,and for His wonderful works to the children of men” (Psalms 107:31)., bMarkers were inserted herebefore each one of verses 23 through 28. These markers, which are the letter inuninverted, bare similarin meaning bto thewords bbut and only in the Torah,to tell us that just as the Torah’s words are precise and cannot be changed, so too, these people cannot have their sentence changed. This btells youthat if bthey cried out before the sentencewas issued, bthey are answered,but if bthey cried outonly bafter the sentencewas issued, bthey are not answered. /b,The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, for bthosewho go down to the sea in ships bare also considered like individuals.Even if there are many such people, they do not constitute an entire community but only a small defined group within it.,The Gemara continues: bComeand bhear: Beloreya the convertonce basked Rabban Gamliel: It is written in your Torah:“The great, mighty, and awesome God bwho favors no one”(Deuteronomy 10:17), bandelsewhere bit is written: “The Lord shall show favor to youand give you peace” (Numbers 6: 26). How can this contradiction be resolved?, bRabbi Yosei the priest joinedthe conversation with bher and said: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? To a person who lent his friend one hundreddinars band fixed a timefor repayment of the loan bbefore the king, andthe borrower btook an oath by the life of the kingthat he would repay the money. bThe time arrived, and he did not repaythe loan. The delinquent borrower bcame to appease the kingfor not fulfilling the oath that he had sworn by the life of the king, bandthe king bsaid to him:For bmy insult I forgive you,but byou muststill bgo and appease your friend. Here alsothe same is true: bHere,the verse that states: “The Lord shall show favor to you,” is referring to bsinscommitted bbetween man and God,which God will forgive; bthere,the verse that states: “God favors no one,” is referring to bsinscommitted bbetween a person and another,which God will not forgive until the offender appeases the one he hurt.,This is how the contradiction had at first been resolved, buntil Rabbi Akiva came and taughtas follows:
67. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

45a. big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן האיש מכסין אותו פרק אחד מלפניו ואשה שני פרקים בין מלפניה בין מלאחריה מפני שכולה ערוה דברי ר' יהודה וחכמים אומרים האיש נסקל ערום ואין האשה נסקלת ערומה,מאי טעמייהו דרבנן אמר קרא (ויקרא כד, יד) ורגמו אותו מאי אותו,אילימא אותו ולא אותה והכתיב (דברים יז, ה) והוצאת את האיש ההוא או את האשה ההיא אלא מאי אותו אותו בלא כסותו הא אותה בכסותה רבי יהודה אומר אותו בלא כסותו לא שנא איש ולא שנא אשה,למימרא דרבנן חיישי להרהורא ורבי יהודה לא חייש להרהורא והא איפכא שמענא להו דתנן הכהן אוחז בבגדיה אם נקרעו נקרעו ואם נפרמו נפרמו עד שמגלה את לבה וסותר את שערה רבי יהודה אומר אם היה לבה נאה לא היה מגלהו ואם היה שערה נאה לא היה סותרו,אמר רבה התם היינו טעמא שמא תצא מב"ד זכאה ויתגרו בה פירחי כהונה הכא הא מקטלא וכי תימא אתי לאיתגרויי באחרנייתא אמר רבה גמירי אין יצר הרע שולט אלא במי שעיניו רואות,אמר רבא דר' יהודה אדר' יהודה קשיא דרבנן אדרבנן לא קשיא אלא אמר רבא דרבי יהודה אדר' יהודה לא קשיא כדשנין,דרבנן אדרבנן נמי לא קשיא אמר קרא (יחזקאל כג, מח) ונוסרו כל הנשים ולא תעשינה כזמתכינה הכא אין לך ייסור גדול מזה,וכ"ת ליעביד בה תרתי אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר קרא (ויקרא יט, יח) ואהבת לרעך כמוך ברור לו מיתה יפה,לימא דרב נחמן תנאי היא לא דכולי עלמא אית להו דרב נחמן והכא בהא קמיפלגי מר סבר בזיוני דאיניש עדיפא ליה טפי מניחא דגופיה ומר סבר ניחא דגופיה עדיף מבזיוני:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בית הסקילה היה גובה שתי קומות אחד מן העדים דוחפו על מתניו נהפך על לבו הופכו על מתניו ואם מת בה יצא,ואם לאו השני נוטל את האבן ונותנו על לבו אם מת בה יצא ואם לאו רגימתו בכל ישראל שנאמר (דברים יז, ז) יד העדים תהיה בו בראשונה להמיתו ויד כל העם באחרונה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא וקומה שלו הרי כאן שלש ומי בעינן כולי האי ורמינהו מה בור שהוא כדי להמית עשרה טפחים אף כל כדי להמית עשרה טפחים,אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר קרא (ויקרא יט, יח) ואהבת לרעך כמוך ברור לו מיתה יפה אי הכי ליגבהיה טפי משום דמינוול:,אחד מן העדים דוחפו: תנו רבנן מניין שבדחייה ת"ל (שמות יט, יג) ירה ומנין שבסקילה ת"ל סקל,ומנין שבסקילה ובדחייה ת"ל (שמות יט, יג) סקל יסקל או ירה יירה ומנין שאם מת בדחייה יצא תלמוד לומר או ירה יירה מניין שאף לדורות כן 45a. strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that a man is stoned naked but a woman is not stoned naked. With regard to this matter bthe Sages taughta related ibaraita /i: bThey cover a man’sgenitals with bone pieceof cloth bin the front, and a womanis covered with btwo piecesof cloth, bboth in the front and in the back, because all ofthat area bis nakedness,which may not be viewed. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. But the Rabbis say: A man is stoned naked, but a woman is not stoned naked. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasoningbehind the opinion bof the Rabbis,who say that a man is stoned naked, but a woman is not? The Gemara answers: bThe verse states: “Andall the congregation bshall stone him”(Leviticus 24:14). bWhatdoes the verse intend to teach when it emphasizes that they stone b“him”? /b, bIf we saythat this serves to teach that they stone only bhim,the man, bbut not her,i.e., women are not punished with stoning, there is a difficulty. bAs isn’t it writtenexplicitly: b“And you shall bring forth that man or that woman /b…and stone them with stones until they die” (Deuteronomy 17:5)? bRather, whatdoes the verse mean to teach when it stresses that they stone b“him”?If he is a man, they stone just bhim, without his clothes, butif the condemned party is a woman, they stone bher with her clothing. Rabbi Yehuda says:The emphasis on the word b“him”teaches that they stone him alone, i.e., bwithout his clothes,but as is the case with all other punishments stated in the Torah, bthere is no differencefor ba man and no differencefor ba woman,meaning the same ihalakhaapplies to both men and women.,The Gemara asks: bIs this to say that the Rabbis are concernedthat the sight of a naked woman will arouse sexual bthoughtsamong the onlookers, band Rabbi Yehuda is not concernedabout such sexual bthoughts? But didn’t we hear themsay just the bopposite, as we learnedin a mishna ( iSota7a) with regard to a isota /i, a woman suspected of adultery by her husband, and who was made to undergo the ordeal of the bitter waters: And bthe priest grabs hold of her clothingand pulls it, without concern about what happens to it. bIfthe clothes bare torn, they are torn; if the stitches come apart, they come apart.And he pulls her clothing buntil he reveals her heart,i.e., her chest. bAndthen bhe unbraids her hair. Rabbi Yehuda says: If her heart was attractive he would not reveal it, and if her hair was attractive he would not unbraid it.This seems to indicate that it is Rabbi Yehuda who is concerned about the sexual thoughts of the onlookers., bRabba said: There,in the case of a isota /i, bthis is the reasonthat Rabbi Yehuda says that the priest does not reveal the woman’s chest or unbraid her hair: bPerhapsthe isota bwill leave the courthaving been proven binnocent, and the young priestsin the Temple who saw her partially naked bwill become provoked bythe sight of bher. Here,in the case of a woman who is stoned, bshe is killedby being stoned, and there is no concern about the onlookers’ becoming provoked after her death. The Gemara comments: bAnd if you would saythat the fact that she is killed is irrelevant to their having sexual thoughts because the onlookers bwill be provoked with regard to otherwomen, this is not a concern, as bRabba says:It bis learnedas a tradition bthat the evil inclination controls only that whichone’s beyes see. /b, bRava says:Is the contradiction between one statement bof Rabbi Yehudaand the other statement bof Rabbi Yehuda difficult,while the contradiction between one statement bof the Rabbisand the other statement bof the Rabbisis bnot difficult?There is also an apparent contradiction between the two rulings of the Rabbis, as with regard to a isota /i, they are not concerned about sexual thoughts, but with regard to a woman who is stoned they are concerned. bRather, Rava says:The contradiction between one statement bof Rabbi Yehudaand the other statement bof Rabbi Yehudais bnot difficult, as we answeredabove.,Rava continues: The contradiction between one ruling bof the Rabbis andthe other ruling bof the Rabbisis bnot difficult either.With regard to a isota /i, the bverse statesthat other women should be warned: “Thus will I cause lewdness to cease out of the land, bthat all women may be chastened not to do like your lewdness”(Ezekiel 23:48). In order to serve as an example and warning to other women, a woman suspected of adultery must undergo public disgrace, and therefore the concern about the sexual thoughts that her partially naked body might arouse is disregarded. bHere,with regard to stoning, byou have no chastening greater thanseeing bthisstoning itself., bAnd if you would saythat btwoforms of chastening, both stoning and humiliation, bshould be done to her, Rav Naḥman saysthat bRabba bar Avuh says:The bverse states: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself”(Leviticus 19:18), teaching that even with regard to a condemned prisoner, bselect a good,i.e., a compassionate, bdeath for him.Therefore, when putting a woman to death by stoning, she should not be humiliated in the process.,The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat whether one rules in accordance with the statement bof Rav Naḥman isa dispute between itanna’im /i,and according to Rabbi Yehuda there is no mitzva to select a compassionate death. The Gemara refutes this: bNo,it may be bthat everyone agrees withthe opinion bof Rav Naḥman, and here they disagree about this:One bSage,i.e., the Rabbis, bholds:Minimizing bone’s degradation is better for him thanseeing to bhis physical comfort,i.e., than minimizing his physical pain. Therefore, the Rabbis view the more compassionate death as one without degradation, even if wearing clothes will increase the pain of the one being executed, as the clothes will absorb the blow and prolong his death. bAndone bSage,Rabbi Yehuda, bholds that one’s physical comfort is betterfor him bthanminimizing bhis degradation,and therefore the one being executed prefers to be stoned unclothed, without any chance of the clothing prolonging his death, even though this increases his degradation., strongMISHNA: /strong bThe place of stoningfrom which the condemned man is pushed to his death bisa platform btwice the heightof an ordinary person. He is made to stand at the edge of the platform, and then bone of the witnesseswho testified against him bpushes himdown bby the hips,so that he falls face up onto the ground. If bhe turned over onto his chest,with his face downward, the witness bturns himover bonto his hips. And if he dies through thisfall to the ground, the obligation to stone the transgressor is bfulfilled. /b, bAnd ifthe condemned man does bnotdie from his fall, bthe secondwitness btakes the stonethat has been prepared for this task band places,i.e., casts, bit on his chest.And bif he dies withthe casting of bthisfirst stone, the obligation to stone the transgressor bis fulfilled. And ifhe does bnotdie with the casting of this stone, then bhis stoningis completed bby all of the Jewish people,i.e., by all the people who assembled for the execution, bas it is stated: “The hand of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterward the hand of all the people”(Deuteronomy 17:7)., strongGEMARA: /strong A itanna btaughtin a ibaraita /i: Adding together the height of the platform, which is twice the height of an ordinary person, bandthe condemned man’s own bheight,it turns out that bthere isa height bhere threetimes the height of an ordinary person. The Gemara asks: bDo wereally bneed all thatheight to kill him? The Gemara braises a contradictionto the ibaraitafrom what was taught in a mishna ( iBava Kamma50b) when discussing the ihalakhotof damage caused by a pit: Why does the Torah specify a pit when one is liable for the damage caused by any type of excavation that he digs into the ground? This teaches that bjust as a pit that isof bsufficientdepth bto causeone’s bdeathfrom falling into it is at least bten handbreadthsdeep, bso too, anyother excavations bthat areof bsufficientdepth bto causeone’s bdeathmay be no less than bten handbreadths.If a fall of ten handbreadths is sufficient to kill a person, why must the platform from which the condemned man is pushed be twice the height of an ordinary person?, bRav Naḥman saysthat bRabba bar Avuh says:The bverse states: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself”(Leviticus 19:18), teaching that even with regard to a condemned man, bselect a good,i.e., a compassionate, bdeath for him.Therefore, even though the one being executed is likely to die from a fall from a lesser height, a platform is built that is twice the height of an ordinary person in order to ensure a quick and relatively painless death. The Gemara challenges: bIf so, they should raisethe platform even bhigher.The Gemara answers: This is not done, bbecauseif the condemned man were pushed from a higher platform, bhe would becomeseriously bdisfigured,and this would no longer be considered a compassionate form of death.,§ The mishna teaches that bone of the witnesseswho had testified against the condemned party bpushes himoff the platform. Concerning this ihalakha bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFrom whereis it derived that the punishment of stoning can be fulfilled bby pushingthe condemned party from a high place, so that he dies from his fall? bThe verse stateswith regard to those who crossed the boundaries that were set up around Mount Sinai and touched the mountain: “Take heed to yourselves, that you not go up into the mountain, or touch the border of it; whoever touches the mountain shall be put to death; no hand shall touch him, but he shall be stoned or bshall be thrown down”(Exodus 19:12–13). bAnd from whereis it derived that this punishment can be fulfilled bwithactual bstoning? The verse states: “He shall be stoned.” /b, bAnd from whereis it derived that this punishment is sometimes fulfilled both bby stoning and by pushing,i.e., if the transgressor did not die from his fall, he is then stoned? bThe verse states: “He shall be stoned or shall be thrown down.” And from whereis it derived bthat ifthe condemned man bdied from the pushing,the obligation to stone him bhas been fulfilled,and there is no further need to actually stone him? bThe verse states: “Or shall be thrown down,”with the term “or” indicating that only one of the two options must be fulfilled. bAnd from whereis it derived bthat thisis the ihalakhanot only at Mount Sinai, but bevenwith regard btofuture bgenerations? /b
68. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

86a. חוץ (שמות כ, ו) מלא תשא לא תשא וכל דדמי ליה,ת"ש ר' יהודה אומר כל שהוא מלא תשא ולמטה תשובה מכפרת מלא תשא ולמעלה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר לא תשא וכל דדמי ליה,ת"ש לפי שנאמר בחורב תשובה ונקה יכול אף לא תשא עמהן ת"ל (שמות לד, ז) לא ינקה יכול אף שאר חייבי לאוין כן ת"ל את שמו שמו הוא דאינו מנקה אבל מנקה שאר חייבי לאוין,תנאי היא דתניא על מה תשובה מכפרת על עשה ועל לא תעשה שניתק לעשה ועל מה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר על כריתות ועל מיתות בית דין ועל לא תעשה גמור,אמר מר לפי שנאמר בחורב ונקה מנא לן דתניא ר' אלעזר אומר אי אפשר לומר נקה שכבר נאמר לא ינקה ואי אפשר לומר לא ינקה שכבר נאמר נקה הא כיצד מנקה הוא לשבין ואינו מנקה לשאינן שבין,שאל ר' מתיא בן חרש את ר' אלעזר בן עזריה ברומי שמעת ארבע' חלוקי כפרה שהיה רבי ישמעאל דורש אמר שלשה הן ותשובה עם כל אחד ואחד,עבר על עשה ושב אינו זז משם עד שמוחלין לו שנאמר (ירמיהו ג, יד) שובו בנים שובבים עבר על לא תעשה ועשה תשובה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר שנאמר (ויקרא טז, ל) כי ביום הזה יכפר עליכם מכל חטאתיכם עבר על כריתות ומיתות בית דין ועשה תשובה תשובה ויוה"כ תולין ויסורין ממרקין שנאמר (תהלים פט, לג) ופקדתי בשבט פשעם ובנגעים עונם,אבל מי שיש חילול השם בידו אין לו כח בתשובה לתלות ולא ביוה"כ לכפר ולא ביסורין למרק אלא כולן תולין ומיתה ממרקת שנאמר (ישעיהו כב, יד) ונגלה באזני ה' צבאות אם יכופר העון הזה לכם עד תמותון,היכי דמי חילול השם אמר רב כגון אנא אי שקילנא בישרא מטבחא ולא יהיבנא דמי לאלתר אמר אביי לא שנו אלא באתרא דלא תבעי אבל באתרא דתבעי לית לן בה,אמר רבינא ומתא מחסיא אתרא דתבעי הוא אביי כדשקיל בישרא מתרי שותפי יהיב זוזא להאי וזוזא להאי והדר מקרב להו גבי הדדי ועביד חושבנא,רבי יוחנן אמר כגון אנא דמסגינא ארבע אמות בלא תורה ובלא תפילין יצחק דבי ר' ינאי אמר כל שחביריו מתביישין מחמת שמועתו (היינו חילול השם) אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק כגון דקא אמרי אינשי שרא ליה מריה לפלניא,אביי אמר כדתניא (דברים ו, ה) ואהבת את ה' אלהיך שיהא שם שמים מתאהב על ידך שיהא קורא ושונה ומשמש ת"ח ויהא משאו ומתנו בנחת עם הבריות מה הבריות אומרות עליו אשרי אביו שלמדו תורה אשרי רבו שלמדו תורה אוי להם לבריות שלא למדו תורה פלוני שלמדו תורה ראו כמה נאים דרכיו כמה מתוקנים מעשיו עליו הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו מט, ג) ויאמר לי עבדי אתה ישראל אשר בך אתפאר,אבל מי שקורא ושונה ומשמש ת"ח ואין משאו ומתנו באמונה ואין דבורו בנחת עם הבריות מה הבריות אומרות עליו אוי לו לפלוני שלמד תורה אוי לו לאביו שלמדו תורה אוי לו לרבו שלמדו תורה פלוני שלמד תורה ראו כמה מקולקלין מעשיו וכמה מכוערין דרכיו ועליו הכתוב אומר (יחזקאל לו, כ) באמור להם עם ה' אלה ומארצו יצאו,א"ר חמא (בר) חנינא גדולה תשובה שמביאה רפאות לעולם שנא' (הושע יד, ה) ארפא משובתם אוהבם נדבה,ר' חמא (בר) חנינא רמי כתיב (ירמיהו ג, יד) שובו בנים שובבים דמעיקרא שובבים אתם וכתיב ארפא משובותיכם לא קשיא כאן מאהבה כאן מיראה,רב יהודה רמי כתיב שובו בנים שובבים ארפא משובותיכם וכתיב (ירמיהו ג, יד) (הנה) אנכי בעלתי בכם ולקחתי אתכם אחד מעיר ושנים ממשפחה ל"ק כאן מאהבה או מיראה כאן ע"י יסורין אמר רבי לוי גדולה תשובה שמגעת עד כסא הכבוד שנא' (הושע יד, ב) שובה ישראל עד ה' אלהיך 86a. bexcept for: “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” (Exodus 20:7), about which the Torah states: “For God will not absolve him who takes His name in vain” (Exodus 20:7). The Gemara answers: It is not that this is the only negative mitzva that is not a minor transgression; rather, it is: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band anyprohibition bsimilar to it,meaning all severe prohibitions that carry punishment by a court.,The Gemara proposes: bComeand bhearfrom that which was taught: bRabbi Yehuda says:For banysin bfrom “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band below,i.e., prohibitions less severe than that, brepentance atones.For any sin bfrom “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band above, repentance suspendspunishment band Yom Kippur atones.The Gemara rejects this: This does not constitute proof either, since one could say that it is referring to: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band anything similar to it. /b, bComeand bhearfrom a different source that was taught: bSince it was stated at Horebwith regard to brepentance: “Absolve,”one bmighthave thought that beventhe transgression of: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” is included bamong them;therefore, bthe verses states: “Will not absolve”(Exodus 20:6). One bmighthave thought this is balsotrue bfor those who are liablefor violating ball other prohibitions;therefore, bthe verse states: “His name.”God bdoes not absolve the onewho disrespects bHis name, but He absolves those who are liablefor violating ball other prohibitionsand repent. This is proof that those who violate all other prohibitions are not comparable to one who violates: “You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain.”,The Gemara answers: bThis isa dispute between itanna’im /i, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFor what does repentance atone?It atones bfor a positivemitzva band for a negativemitzva that can be rectified bthrough a positive mitzva. And for what does repentance suspendpunishment band Yom Kippur atone?It is bforsins punishable by ikaret /i, and forsins punishable by the bdeathpenalty from the earthly bcourt, and for full-fledged negativemitzvot. This indicates that there is a itannawho distinguishes between prohibitions that warrant lashes and those that do not. Therefore, there is a tannaitic dispute as to whether or not prohibitions that warrant punishment by the courts can be rectified by repentance alone.,§ Since the Gemara cited this ibaraita /i, it now clarifies part of it. bThe Master said: Since it was stated at Horebwith regard to repentance: b“Absolve.”The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this concept that repentance was mentioned there? The Gemara answers: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Elazar says: It is not possible to say “absolve”(Exodus 34:7) about all transgressions, since b“will not absolve” is already stated(Exodus 34:7). bAnd it is not possible to say “will not absolve,”since b“absolve” is already stated. How so?The Holy One, Blessed be He, babsolves those who repent and does not absolve those who do not repent.Therefore, both “repentance” and “absolve” were mentioned at Horeb.,Furthermore, with regard to the topic of repentance, bRabbi Matya ben Ḥarash asked Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryawhen Rabbi Elazar was bin Rome: Have you heardthe teaching that there are bfour distinctionsin the process bof atonement that Rabbi Yishmael would derive? He said to him: They arenot four but bthreedistinctions, band repentanceis necessary bwith each one. /b,These are the categories: If bone violates a positivemitzva band repents, he is forgiven even before he movesfrom his place, i.e. immediately, bas it is stated: “Return, you backsliding children,I will heal your backsliding” (Jeremiah 3:22), implying that when one repents he is immediately forgiven. If bone violates a prohibition and repents, repentance suspendshis punishment band Yom Kippur atonesfor his sin, bas it is stated: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you,to purify you bfrom all your sins”(Leviticus 16:30). If bone commitsa transgression that warrants ikaretora sin punishable by bdeathfrom the earthly bcourt andthen brepents, repentance and Yom Kippur suspendhis punishment, band suffering absolvesand completes the atonement, bas it is stated: “Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with strokes”(Psalms 89:33)., bButin the case of bone who hascaused bdesecration ofGod’s bname, his repentance has no power to suspendpunishment, bnor does Yom Kippurhave power bto atonefor his sin, bnor does sufferingalone have power bto absolvehim. bRather, all these suspendpunishment, band death absolveshim, bas it is stated: “And the Lord of Hosts revealed Himself to my ears: This iniquity shall not be atoned for until you die”(Isaiah 22:14).,§ The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesthat cause bdesecration ofGod’s bname? Rav said: For example,in the case of someone like bme,since I am an important public figure, bif I take meat from a butcher and do not give him money immediately,people are likely to think that I did not mean to pay at all. They would consider me a thief and learn from my behavior that one is permitted to steal. bAbaye said: They taught thisstatement of Rav bonly in a place where they do not askfor the money, where it is not customary for the butcher himself to come and collect payment from the customer. When the customer does not pay immediately, people may suspect him of theft. bBut in a place where they askfor the money from the customer some time later, bwe have noproblem bwithdoing this. Since everyone understands he is buying on credit, he is not desecrating God’s name., bRavina said:My native bcityof bMeḥasya is a place where they askfor and collect the money. The Gemara relates that bwhen Abaye bought meat from two partners, he would give the money to this one and the money to this one,so that each would know that he had paid. bAnd afterward he would bring them together and perform the calculationto see whether he received his change., bRabbi Yoḥa said:What is an example of desecration of God’s name? bFor example,someone like bme, ifI would bwalk four cubits without Torah and without phylacteries,and the onlookers did not know that it is only on account of my body’s weakness, that would be a desecration of God’s name. bYitzḥak from the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Anycase when bone’s friends are embarrassed on account of his reputation,meaning his friends are embarrassed due to things they hear about him, bthis is a desecration ofGod’s bname. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:One creates a profanation of God’s name, bfor example, when people sayabout him: bMay his Master forgive so-and-sofor the sins he has done., bAbaye said: As it was taughtin a ibaraitathat it is stated: b“And you shall love the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 6:5), which means bthat you shall make the name of Heaven beloved.How should one do so? One should do so bin that heshould breadTorah, band learnMishna, band serve Torah scholars, and he should be pleasant with people in his business transactions. What do people say aboutsuch a person? bFortunate is his father who taught him Torah, fortunate is his teacher who taught him Torah, woe to the people who have not studied Torah. So-and-so, who taught him Torah, see how pleasant are his ways, how proper are his deeds. The verse states about himand others like him: b“You are My servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified”(Isaiah 49:3)., bBut one who readsTorah, band learnsMishna, band serves Torah scholars, but his business practices are notdone bfaithfully, and he does not speak pleasantly with other people, what do people say about him? Woe to so-and-so who studied Torah, woe to his father who taught him Torah, woe to his teacher who taught him Torah. So-and-so who studied Torah, see how destructive are his deeds, and how ugly are his ways. About himand others like him bthe verse statesthat the gentiles will say: b“Men said of them: These are the people of the Lord, yet they had to leave His land”(Ezekiel 36:20). Through their sins and subsequent exile, such people have desecrated the name of God.,§ Further on the topic of repentance, bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Great is repentance, as it brings healing to the world, as it is stated: “I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely”(Hosea 14:5), which teaches that repentance from sin brings healing., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is writtenin one verse: b“Return, you backsliding children”(Jeremiah 3:14), implying that binitiallywhen you sinned, it was only because byou were backsliding,i.e., rebelling. It was merely an act of immaturity and foolishness and could be ignored as if it had never happened. bBut it is written: “I will heal your backsliding”(Jeremiah 3:22), implying that He will heal the sin from this point onward, and that they are still sinners. He resolved this contradiction, explaining that this is bnot difficult: Here,where everything is forgiven as if the Jewish people never sinned, it is referring to repentance bout of love; there,where the sin is still remembered despite the forgiveness and repentance, it is referring to repentance bout of fear. /b,Similarly, bRabbi Yehuda raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is written: “Return, you backsliding children I will heal your backsliding”(Jeremiah 3:22), implying that anyone can achieve healing, which is dependent only on repentance. But it also states: “Return, O backsliding children, says the Lord, bfor I am a lord to you, and I will take you one from a city, and two from a family”(Jeremiah 3:14), implying that repentance is available only to certain individuals. He resolved the contradiction and explained that this is bnot difficult: Here,it is referring to repentance bout of love or fear,which few people achieve; bthere,it referring is repentance bthrough suffering,as everyone has thoughts of repentance when they suffer. bRabbi Levi said: Great is repentance, as it reaches the heavenly throne, as it is stated: “Return, Israel, to the Lord your God”(Hosea 14:2). This implies that repentance literally reaches to God.
69. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1

70. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 188-207, 227-228, 187

187. Taking an opportunity afforded by a pause in the banquet the king asked the envoy who sat in the seat of honour (for they were arranged according to seniority), How he could keep his kingdom
71. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q525, 0

72. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q525, 0

73. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q525, 0

74. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q525, 0

75. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q525, 0

76. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 2.13

2.13. It is sovereign over the relationship of friends, so that one rebukes friends when they act wickedly.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abigail Corley (2002) 62
abraham Allen and Dunne (2022) 92; Corley (2002) 5, 172; Vinzent (2013) 38
accusation Schiffman (1983) 89, 100, 108
actions of israelite farmer Brooks (1983) 35
adultery/fornication Ruzer (2020) 114
afterlife,eschatological punishment Stuckenbruck (2007) 419
agriculture,division of Brooks (1983) 35
aha Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 154
allegorical interpretation Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 188
allusions,biblical Allen and Dunne (2022) 92
alt,albrecht Hayes (2015) 22
altruism Gardner (2015) 101
ambiguity,ambiguous Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 188
amoraim,amoraic period Schiffman (1983) 109
amram Allen and Dunne (2022) 92
anger,bringing a charge in Schiffman (1983) 89
anthropology Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 154
antitheses Ruzer (2020) 114
aramaic Allen and Dunne (2022) 111, 112; Ruzer (2020) 160; Schiffman (1983) 109
assumption Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 154
banquets Corley (2002) 74
bar kochba Brooks (1983) 35
ben azzai Sigal (2007) 22
betz,hans dieter Klawans (2019) 137
bible Reif (2006) 117; Schiffman (1983) 108
biblical Ruzer (2020) 112
birth Vinzent (2013) 38
bitterness Stuckenbruck (2007) 419
blood Vinzent (2013) 38
book Vinzent (2013) 38
bread Vinzent (2013) 38
brothers/sisters Corley (2002) 62, 162
build/building activity,by the wicked Stuckenbruck (2007) 419
camp prefect Schiffman (1983) 100
capital matters Schiffman (1983) 89
christianity,early history Esler (2000) 144
christianity Reif (2006) 117
christology,christological,high christology,lower christology Ruzer (2020) 160
classical world Reif (2006) 117
claudius,roman emperor,expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman (2006) 401
commandment/commandments Fraade (2011) 157
commandments Allen and Dunne (2022) 111, 112; Schiffman (1983) 89, 90; Vinzent (2013) 38
conviction Schiffman (1983) 89, 90, 109
court Schiffman (1983) 108
covenant,covenantal Ruzer (2020) 111
covenant Allen and Dunne (2022) 92; Corley (2002) 5, 130, 163, 172; Stuckenbruck (2007) 417, 419; Vinzent (2013) 38
creation Corley (2002) 74, 130
creator Vinzent (2013) 38
cross,of jesus Allen and Dunne (2022) 111
cross Vinzent (2013) 38
crucifixion,jesus death Ruzer (2020) 113
cult prophets Klawans (2009) 80
culture,cultural affiliations in galilee Esler (2000) 144
curses Stuckenbruck (2007) 279
damascus document Sigal (2007) 21, 22
david Corley (2002) 5, 74
day of judgement,last judgement Ruzer (2020) 113
de jonge,marinus Klawans (2019) 155, 156
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer (2020) 29, 111, 113, 119, 160
death Corley (2002) 74, 171
deception/deceit Stuckenbruck (2007) 419
deeds,wicked of humans Stuckenbruck (2007) 279, 417
descendants Allen and Dunne (2022) 92
desires Wilson (2012) 125; Černušková (2016) 221
deuteronomy Brooks (1983) 35
dialogue,cutheans Hasan Rokem (2003) 43
dialogue Hasan Rokem (2003) 45
didache Klawans (2019) 155, 156
discourses of divine law,in biblical literature Hayes (2015) 22
divine law,in biblical israel Hayes (2015) 22
divorce Ruzer (2020) 114
douglas,mary Klawans (2009) 80
easter Allen and Dunne (2022) 111, 112
elder Schiffman (1983) 100
encounter Vinzent (2013) 38
enemies,enmity Ruzer (2020) 113
enemies Corley (2002) 74, 162
enemy love as a christian proprium Matthews (2010) 182
epictetus Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 154
eschatological prophet,not yet eschatology Ruzer (2020) 111
eschatological war Schiffman (1983) 100
eschatology,eschatological,belonging to the end-of-days,messianic age Ruzer (2020) 29, 113
eschaton Brooks (1983) 35
essenes,oaths Klawans (2019) 155, 156
ethiopian official Levine Allison and Crossan (2006) 126
evil Corley (2002) 171; Ruzer (2020) 29, 119; Černušková (2016) 221
execution Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 159
exegesis,exegetical,interpretation of scripture,jesus command of scriptural exegesis Ruzer (2020) 111, 112
exegesis,exegetical,interpretation of scripture Ruzer (2020) 111, 112, 114
exegesis,sectarian Schiffman (1983) 90
exegesis Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 159; Černušková (2016) 221
exodus Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180, 188
eye-for-an-eye precept Ruzer (2020) 114
faithfulness Corley (2002) 62, 162
family Lieu (2004) 166
fear of god Corley (2002) 62
fines Schiffman (1983) 109
flusser,david Klawans (2019) 155, 156
food Gardner (2015) 101
food ration Schiffman (1983) 109
fool Corley (2002) 62
forgery Klawans (2019) 156
forgiveness Černušková (2016) 221
foundation,of sin and deceit Stuckenbruck (2007) 419
freedom Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180, 188
friendship Wilson (2012) 125
galatia Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180
galilee,galilean Ruzer (2020) 29
galilee,south of the Hasan Rokem (2003) 43
genre Hasan Rokem (2003) 43
glory,glorification Ruzer (2020) 160
glory Stuckenbruck (2007) 417
gnostics/gnostic Černušková (2016) 221
god,as host Gardner (2015) 101
god,imitation of Gardner (2015) 101
god,will of Černušková (2016) 221
god Corley (2002) 5, 62, 74, 130, 162, 172; Schiffman (1983) 89
golden rule Ruzer (2020) 112
good Corley (2002) 171
good name Corley (2002) 62
gospels Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180; Černušková (2016) 221
greco-roman world,culture Ruzer (2020) 112
grief Corley (2002) 74
guilt Jassen (2014) 239, 242; Schiffman (1983) 89, 90
göttingen edition Allen and Dunne (2022) 112
halakha,halakhic Ruzer (2020) 114
halakha Hasan Rokem (2003) 43
halakhah/halakhot,and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade (2011) 156, 157
halivni,david weiss Klawans (2019) 136
hatred (of enemies,outsiders) Ruzer (2020) 111, 112, 113
healing Stuckenbruck (2007) 279
heart Corley (2002) 62, 74, 161, 162, 171
hearts Stuckenbruck (2007) 417
hebrew,biblical Schiffman (1983) 90
hebrew,qumran Schiffman (1983) 108, 109
hebrew,rabbinic Schiffman (1983) 109
hebrew,tannaitic Schiffman (1983) 90, 100
hebrew Ruzer (2020) 160
hebrew bible/old testament/scripture Ruzer (2020) 160
hellenism/hellenization Corley (2002) 74, 161
help Stuckenbruck (2007) 417
heresy,division/multiplicity of Boulluec (2022) 153
hermeneutic, of passivity Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 159
hermeneutic, rabbinic Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 159
hermeneutical method,intention in law Jassen (2014) 132
hermeneutics,sectarian Schiffman (1983) 90
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also,interpretation Fraade (2011) 156
hershele ostropoler Hasan Rokem (2003) 43
hippodamus Wilson (2012) 125
hollander,h. w. Klawans (2019) 155
holy spirit Allen and Dunne (2022) 92
homoioteleuton Stuckenbruck (2007) 417
hospitality,relationship to tamhui Gardner (2015) 101
hospitality,second temple era Gardner (2015) 101
household Lieu (2004) 166
household codes Lieu (2004) 166
image,imagery Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180
immersion Ruzer (2020) 29
intercultural exegesis Hasan Rokem (2003) 45
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade (2011) 156, 157
intertextuality vii Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180, 188
irenaeus,heresiological use of simplicity Boulluec (2022) 153
irony/ironical Stuckenbruck (2007) 279, 419
israel,the people of,redemption/restoration of,the kingdom of,israelite Ruzer (2020) 119, 160
israel/israelite Corley (2002) 5, 62, 74, 172
israel x Allen and Dunne (2022) 92
james (brother of jesus),letter of Esler (2000) 144
jerusalem Stuckenbruck (2007) 279
jesus,divine status Ruzer (2020) 29, 111, 112, 113, 114, 119
jesus,historical jesus,authenticity of sayings,self-perception Ruzer (2020) 111
jesus Corley (2002) 74; Hasan Rokem (2003) 45; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 154; Ruzer (2020) 29, 113, 114
jesus of nazareth Reif (2006) 117
jesus tradition Allen and Dunne (2022) 111, 112
jewish christianity,literary productions Esler (2000) 144
jewish other,religious sensitivity Ruzer (2020) 112
jews,jewry,jewish,jewish matrix,jewish setting,anti-jewish,non-jewish Ruzer (2020) 119
jews Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 154
john,gospel of Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 154
joke Hasan Rokem (2003) 43
jonathan Corley (2002) 5, 74
josephus Gardner (2015) 101
judah Allen and Dunne (2022) 92
judas iscariot Corley (2002) 74
jude,letter of Esler (2000) 144
judges Corley (2002) 161
just Vinzent (2013) 38
justice Černušková (2016) 221
key word Corley (2002) 161
kingdom of god/heaven,sons of the kingdom Ruzer (2020) 29, 111
kinship language/terms Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 154
kloppenborg,john s. Klawans (2019) 155, 156
konradt,matthias Klawans (2019) 155
law,ancient israel Jassen (2014) 132
law,biblical/rabbinic—see also,halakhah Fraade (2011) 156, 157
law,derivation of Schiffman (1983) 90
law,in letter of james Esler (2000) 144
law,sectarian Schiffman (1983) 89
law,the Boulluec (2022) 153
law Vinzent (2013) 38
law of moses Corley (2002) 161, 162, 163, 172
levites Schiffman (1983) 100
levitical dictum Hasan Rokem (2003) 45
liberation Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180, 188
life Corley (2002) 171
like seeking like Corley (2002) 62, 74
likeness to god Wilson (2012) 125
litigation Schiffman (1983) 108
liturgy,liturgical Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180
logos-theology Černušková (2016) 221
lords prayer Ruzer (2020) 119
love,brotherly Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 159
love,double-love precept Ruzer (2020) 114
love,of enemies Černušková (2016) 221
love,of neighbour Stuckenbruck (2007) 417
love-your-enemy Ruzer (2020) 112, 119
love Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180; Ruzer (2020) 29, 111, 112, 113, 114; Wilson (2012) 28
macarisms Ruzer (2020) 29
markan tradition Allen and Dunne (2022) 111, 112
martyrs,martyrdom,sanctification of the name Ruzer (2020) 113
mary Vinzent (2013) 38
masoretic text Fraade (2011) 156; Schiffman (1983) 100
mathys,hans-peter Matthews (2010) 182
meier,john p. Klawans (2019) 130, 136, 137
mercy Ruzer (2020) 112
messiah,gods anointed,messiahship,messianic Ruzer (2020) 113
messiah Vinzent (2013) 38
metaphor Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180
midrash,midrashic Ruzer (2020) 112
midrash/midrashim Fraade (2011) 156, 157
midrash halakhah Jassen (2014) 239
midrash tadshe',organization" '267.0_108.0@moshav ha-rabbim Schiffman (1983) 100
misiwi/commands/precepts Reif (2006) 117
moderation Wilson (2012) 28
monarchianism Vinzent (2013) 38
monotheism Vinzent (2013) 38
moses Allen and Dunne (2022) 92; Klawans (2019) 136; Vinzent (2013) 38
moshav ha-rabbim Schiffman (1983) 100
mowinckel,sigmund Klawans (2009) 80
murder Ruzer (2020) 114; Stuckenbruck (2007) 417, 419
naftoli graidinger Hasan Rokem (2003) 43
nassaradin,hodja (djuha) Hasan Rokem (2003) 43
nature,human Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180
neighbors Corley (2002) 5, 62, 74, 130, 161, 172; Hasan Rokem (2003) 45; Wilson (2012) 28
neighbour,love of Stuckenbruck (2007) 417
neighbour,oppression of/wrong toward Stuckenbruck (2007) 279, 417, 419
niederwimmer,kurt Klawans (2019) 155, 156
noah Corley (2002) 130
non-pentateuchal scripture,appeal to Jassen (2014) 223, 239, 240, 241, 242
oaths Jassen (2014) 223
offenses,grudge,bearing a Schiffman (1983) 89, 90
offenses,reporting of Schiffman (1983) 90, 100
offerings Vinzent (2013) 38
officers,military Schiffman (1983) 100
old greek Allen and Dunne (2022) 112
old testament Klawans (2019) 155
orthography,masoretic,qumran Schiffman (1983) 108
palestinian talmud Ruzer (2020) 160; Schiffman (1983) 90
panken,aaron d. Klawans (2019) 136
parents Corley (2002) 162
passion Corley (2002) 161
passivity Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 159
paul (the apostle) Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 180
pentateuch Allen and Dunne (2022) 112
pentateuchal Jassen (2014) 241
persecution Stuckenbruck (2007) 279, 419
pesharim Jassen (2014) 240
peter Vinzent (2013) 38
pharisaism Reif (2006) 117
pharisees,torah-sages,pharisaic Ruzer (2020) 111, 114
pharisees Vinzent (2013) 38
philo of alexandria Boulluec (2022) 153
piety Wilson (2012) 125
poor Corley (2002) 172
poor in spirit Ruzer (2020) 29
positive divine law (biblical) Hayes (2015) 22
power Vinzent (2013) 38
prayer Fraade (2011) 156, 157; Ruzer (2020) 119
prayers Allen and Dunne (2022) 92
priest Allen and Dunne (2022) 92
priests,aaronide Schiffman (1983) 100
priests/priesthood/priestly,wicked priest Stuckenbruck (2007) 279
priests/priesthood/priestly Stuckenbruck (2007) 279
promises of god Černušková (2016) 221
prooftexts,non-pentateuchal Jassen (2014) 223, 239, 240, 241, 242
prophet,prophecy,prophetic Ruzer (2020) 29
prophets,and the cult Klawans (2009) 80
prophets Fraade (2011) 156, 157; Vinzent (2013) 38
prophets and writings Schiffman (1983) 90
prosperity Corley (2002) 171
proverbs Schiffman (1983) 108
punishment,penalty Schiffman (1983) 90
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck (2007) 419
pythagoras Wilson (2012) 125
pythagoreanism Wilson (2012) 125
qumran,qumranic,anti-qumranic,immersions at qumran Ruzer (2020) 29
qumran,qumranic,anti-qumranic Ruzer (2020) 29, 111, 114
qumran/qumran community Fraade (2011) 156, 157
qumran Corley (2002) 163, 172
qumran covenanters Ruzer (2020) 111
quotations in markan tradition Allen and Dunne (2022) 111, 112