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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6296
Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.17-19.18


לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him.


לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

60 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, a b c d\n0 . . \n1 1 1 1 None\n2 13.7 13.7 13 7 \n3 14.21 14.21 14 21 \n4 17.8 17.8 17 8 \n.. ... ... .. .. \n99 7.9 7.9 7 9 \n100 8 8 8 None\n101 9 9 9 None\n102 9.18 9.18 9 18 \n103 9.25 9.25 9 25 \n\n[104 rows x 4 columns] (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 18.22, 20.14, 20.17, 21.2-21.17, 28.38, 33.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.22. וְשָׁפְטוּ אֶת־הָעָם בְּכָל־עֵת וְהָיָה כָּל־הַדָּבָר הַגָּדֹל יָבִיאוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְכָל־הַדָּבָר הַקָּטֹן יִשְׁפְּטוּ־הֵם וְהָקֵל מֵעָלֶיךָ וְנָשְׂאוּ אִתָּךְ׃ 20.14. לֹא תַחְמֹד בֵּית רֵעֶךָ לֹא־תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ׃ 20.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃ 21.2. כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְּׁבִעִת יֵצֵא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם׃ 21.2. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם׃ 21.3. אִם־כֹּפֶר יוּשַׁת עָלָיו וְנָתַן פִּדְיֹן נַפְשׁוֹ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יוּשַׁת עָלָיו׃ 21.3. אִם־בְּגַפּוֹ יָבֹא בְּגַפּוֹ יֵצֵא אִם־בַּעַל אִשָּׁה הוּא וְיָצְאָה אִשְׁתּוֹ עִמּוֹ׃ 21.4. אִם־אֲדֹנָיו יִתֶּן־לוֹ אִשָּׁה וְיָלְדָה־לוֹ בָנִים אוֹ בָנוֹת הָאִשָּׁה וִילָדֶיהָ תִּהְיֶה לַאדֹנֶיהָ וְהוּא יֵצֵא בְגַפּוֹ׃ 21.5. וְאִם־אָמֹר יֹאמַר הָעֶבֶד אָהַבְתִּי אֶת־אֲדֹנִי אֶת־אִשְׁתִּי וְאֶת־בָּנָי לֹא אֵצֵא חָפְשִׁי׃ 21.6. וְהִגִּישׁוֹ אֲדֹנָיו אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וְהִגִּישׁוֹ אֶל־הַדֶּלֶת אוֹ אֶל־הַמְּזוּזָה וְרָצַע אֲדֹנָיו אֶת־אָזְנוֹ בַּמַּרְצֵעַ וַעֲבָדוֹ לְעֹלָם׃ 21.7. וְכִי־יִמְכֹּר אִישׁ אֶת־בִּתּוֹ לְאָמָה לֹא תֵצֵא כְּצֵאת הָעֲבָדִים׃ 21.8. אִם־רָעָה בְּעֵינֵי אֲדֹנֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] יְעָדָהּ וְהֶפְדָּהּ לְעַם נָכְרִי לֹא־יִמְשֹׁל לְמָכְרָהּ בְּבִגְדוֹ־בָהּ׃ 21.9. וְאִם־לִבְנוֹ יִיעָדֶנָּה כְּמִשְׁפַּט הַבָּנוֹת יַעֲשֶׂה־לָּהּ׃ 21.11. וְאִם־שְׁלָשׁ־אֵלֶּה לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה לָהּ וְיָצְאָה חִנָּם אֵין כָּסֶף׃ 21.12. מַכֵּה אִישׁ וָמֵת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 21.13. וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא צָדָה וְהָאֱלֹהִים אִנָּה לְיָדוֹ וְשַׂמְתִּי לְךָ מָקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יָנוּס שָׁמָּה׃ 21.14. וְכִי־יָזִד אִישׁ עַל־רֵעֵהוּ לְהָרְגוֹ בְעָרְמָה מֵעִם מִזְבְּחִי תִּקָּחֶנּוּ לָמוּת׃ 21.15. וּמַכֵּה אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 21.16. וְגֹנֵב אִישׁ וּמְכָרוֹ וְנִמְצָא בְיָדוֹ מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 21.17. וּמְקַלֵּל אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 28.38. וְהָיָה עַל־מֵצַח אַהֲרֹן וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־עֲוֺן הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכָל־מַתְּנֹת קָדְשֵׁיהֶם וְהָיָה עַל־מִצְחוֹ תָּמִיד לְרָצוֹן לָהֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 33.7. וּמֹשֶׁה יִקַּח אֶת־הָאֹהֶל וְנָטָה־לוֹ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה הַרְחֵק מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה וְקָרָא לוֹ אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהָיָה כָּל־מְבַקֵּשׁ יְהוָה יֵצֵא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֲשֶׁר מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 18.22. And let them judge the people at all seasons; and it shall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge themselves; so shall they make it easier for thee and bear the burden with thee." 20.14. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house; thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s." 20.17. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’" 21.2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing." 21.3. If he come in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he be married, then his wife shall go out with him." 21.4. If his master give him a wife, and she bear him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself." 21.5. But if the servant shall plainly say: I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free;" 21.6. then his master shall bring him unto God, and shall bring him to the door, or unto the door-post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl; and he shall serve him for ever." 21.7. And if a man sell his daughter to be a maid-servant, she shall not go out as the men-servants do." 21.8. If she please not her master, who hath espoused her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed; to sell her unto a foreign people he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her." 21.9. And if he espouse her unto his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters." 21.10. If he take him another wife, her food, her raiment, and her conjugal rights, shall he not diminish." 21.11. And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out for nothing, without money." 21.12. He that smiteth a man, so that he dieth, shall surely be put to death." 21.13. And if a man lie not in wait, but God cause it to come to hand; then I will appoint thee a place whither he may flee." 21.14. And if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from Mine altar, that he may die." 21.15. And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death. ." 21.16. And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death." 21.17. And he that curseth his father or his mother, shall surely be put to death." 28.38. And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead, and Aaron shall bear the iniquity committed in the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow, even in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD." 33.7. Now Moses used to take the tent and to pitch it without the camp, afar off from the camp; and he called it The tent of meeting. And it came to pass, that every one that sought the LORD went out unto the tent of meeting, which was without the camp."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.6-1.7, 1.26-1.28, 2.17, 17.9-17.14, 21.25, 32.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.7. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 17.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אַבְרָהָם וְאַתָּה אֶת־בְּרִיתִי תִשְׁמֹר אַתָּה וְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 17.11. וּנְמַלְתֶּם אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלַתְכֶם וְהָיָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם׃ 17.12. וּבֶן־שְׁמֹנַת יָמִים יִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם יְלִיד בָּיִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּסֶף מִכֹּל בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִזַּרְעֲךָ הוּא׃ 17.13. הִמּוֹל יִמּוֹל יְלִיד בֵּיתְךָ וּמִקְנַת כַּסְפֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה בְרִיתִי בִּבְשַׂרְכֶם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם׃ 17.14. וְעָרֵל זָכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמּוֹל אֶת־בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי הֵפַר׃ 21.25. וְהוֹכִחַ אַבְרָהָם אֶת־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ עַל־אֹדוֹת בְּאֵר הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר גָּזְלוּ עַבְדֵי אֲבִימֶלֶךְ׃ 32.33. עַל־כֵּן לֹא־יֹאכְלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּף הַיָּרֵךְ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי נָגַע בְּכַף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּגִיד הַנָּשֶׁה׃ 1.6. And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’" 1.7. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so." 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’" 17.9. And God said unto Abraham: ‘And as for thee, thou shalt keep My covet, thou, and thy seed after thee throughout their generations." 17.10. This is My covet, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee: every male among you shall be circumcised." 17.11. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of a covet betwixt Me and you." 17.12. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any foreigner, that is not of thy seed." 17.13. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised; and My covet shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covet." 17.14. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken My covet.’" 21.25. And Abraham reproved Abimelech because of the well of water, which Abimelech’s servants had violently taken away." 32.33. Therefore the children of Israel eat not the sinew of the thigh-vein which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day; because he touched the hollow of Jacob’s thigh, even in the sinew of the thigh-vein."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.4. אַךְ אִישׁ אַל־יָרֵב וְאַל־יוֹכַח אִישׁ וְעַמְּךָ כִּמְרִיבֵי כֹהֵן׃ 4.4. Yet let no man strive, neither let any man reprove; For thy people are as they that strive with the priest."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 38.5-38.6, 38.25, 38.28, 38.36-38.37, 38.41, 40.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

38.5. מִי־שָׂם מְמַדֶּיהָ כִּי תֵדָע אוֹ מִי־נָטָה עָלֶיהָ קָּו׃ 38.6. עַל־מָה אֲדָנֶיהָ הָטְבָּעוּ אוֹ מִי־יָרָה אֶבֶן פִּנָּתָהּ׃ 38.25. מִי־פִלַּג לַשֶּׁטֶף תְּעָלָה וְדֶרֶךְ לַחֲזִיז קֹלוֹת׃ 38.28. הֲיֵשׁ־לַמָּטָר אָב אוֹ מִי־הוֹלִיד אֶגְלֵי־טָל׃ 38.36. מִי־שָׁת בַּטֻּחוֹת חָכְמָה אוֹ מִי־נָתַן לַשֶּׂכְוִי בִינָה׃ 38.37. מִי־יְסַפֵּר שְׁחָקִים בְּחָכְמָה וְנִבְלֵי שָׁמַיִם מִי יַשְׁכִּיב׃ 38.41. מִי יָכִין לָעֹרֵב צֵידוֹ כִּי־ילדו [יְלָדָיו] אֶל־אֵל יְשַׁוֵּעוּ יִתְעוּ לִבְלִי־אֹכֶל׃ 40.14. וְגַם־אֲנִי אוֹדֶךָּ כִּי־תוֹשִׁעַ לְךָ יְמִינֶךָ׃ 38.5. Who determined the measures thereof, if thou knowest? Or who stretched the line upon it?" 38.6. Whereupon were the foundations thereof fastened? Or who laid the corner-stone thereof," 38.25. Who hath cleft a channel for the waterflood, Or a way for the lightning of the thunder;" 38.28. Hath the rain a father? Or who hath begotten the drops of dew?" 38.36. Who hath put wisdom in the inward parts? Or who hath given understanding to the mind?" 38.37. Who can number the clouds by wisdom? Or who can pour out the bottles of heaven," 38.41. Who provideth for the raven his prey, When his young ones cry unto God, and wander for lack of food?" 40.14. Then will I also confess unto thee That thine own right hand can save thee."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.1, 5.17, 7.18, 10.17, 16.20-16.22, 17.15-17.16, 19.2-19.16, 19.18-19.19, 19.22-19.27, 19.30-19.37, 20.10, 20.17, 20.19-20.20, 22.9, 22.16, 24.15, 24.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.1. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.1. וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.17. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְלֹא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 7.18. וְאִם הֵאָכֹל יֵאָכֵל מִבְּשַׂר־זֶבַח שְׁלָמָיו בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לֹא יֵרָצֶה הַמַּקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לֹא יֵחָשֵׁב לוֹ פִּגּוּל יִהְיֶה וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֹכֶלֶת מִמֶּנּוּ עֲוֺנָהּ תִּשָּׂא׃ 10.17. מַדּוּעַ לֹא־אֲכַלְתֶּם אֶת־הַחַטָּאת בִּמְקוֹם הַקֹּדֶשׁ כִּי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הִוא וְאֹתָהּ נָתַן לָכֶם לָשֵׂאת אֶת־עֲוֺן הָעֵדָה לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 16.21. וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת־שְׁתֵּי ידו [יָדָיו] עַל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר הַחַי וְהִתְוַדָּה עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְנָתַן אֹתָם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשִׁלַּח בְּיַד־אִישׁ עִתִּי הַמִּדְבָּרָה׃ 16.22. וְנָשָׂא הַשָּׂעִיר עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹתָם אֶל־אֶרֶץ גְּזֵרָה וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַשָּׂעִיר בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 17.15. וְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה בָּאֶזְרָח וּבַגֵּר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃ 17.16. וְאִם לֹא יְכַבֵּס וּבְשָׂרוֹ לֹא יִרְחָץ וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 19.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.2. וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃ 19.3. אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁי תִּירָאוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.3. אִישׁ אִמּוֹ וְאָבִיו תִּירָאוּ וְאֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.4. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֱלִילִים וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.5. וְכִי תִזְבְּחוּ זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה לִרְצֹנְכֶם תִּזְבָּחֻהוּ׃ 19.6. בְּיוֹם זִבְחֲכֶם יֵאָכֵל וּמִמָּחֳרָת וְהַנּוֹתָר עַד־יוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף׃ 19.7. וְאִם הֵאָכֹל יֵאָכֵל בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי פִּגּוּל הוּא לֹא יֵרָצֶה׃ 19.8. וְאֹכְלָיו עֲוֺנוֹ יִשָּׂא כִּי־אֶת־קֹדֶשׁ יְהוָה חִלֵּל וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃ 19.9. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃ 19.11. לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ וְלֹא־תְכַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא־תְשַׁקְּרוּ אִישׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ׃ 19.12. וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.13. לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.15. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃ 19.16. לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 19.22. וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן בְּאֵיל הָאָשָׁם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא׃ 19.23. וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.25. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁת תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ לְהוֹסִיף לָכֶם תְּבוּאָתוֹ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.26. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַל־הַדָּם לֹא תְנַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא תְעוֹנֵנוּ׃ 19.27. לֹא תַקִּפוּ פְּאַת רֹאשְׁכֶם וְלֹא תַשְׁחִית אֵת פְּאַת זְקָנֶךָ׃ 19.31. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֹבֹת וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִים אַל־תְּבַקְשׁוּ לְטָמְאָה בָהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.32. מִפְּנֵי שֵׂיבָה תָּקוּם וְהָדַרְתָּ פְּנֵי זָקֵן וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.33. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר בְּאַרְצְכֶם לֹא תוֹנוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 19.34. כְּאֶזְרָח מִכֶּם יִהְיֶה לָכֶם הַגֵּר הַגָּר אִתְּכֶם וְאָהַבְתָּ לוֹ כָּמוֹךָ כִּי־גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.35. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט בַּמִּדָּה בַּמִּשְׁקָל וּבַמְּשׂוּרָה׃ 19.36. מֹאזְנֵי צֶדֶק אַבְנֵי־צֶדֶק אֵיפַת צֶדֶק וְהִין צֶדֶק יִהְיֶה לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 19.37. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפָּטַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 20.17. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִקַּח אֶת־אֲחֹתוֹ בַּת־אָבִיו אוֹ בַת־אִמּוֹ וְרָאָה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ וְהִיא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־עֶרְוָתוֹ חֶסֶד הוּא וְנִכְרְתוּ לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי עַמָּם עֶרְוַת אֲחֹתוֹ גִּלָּה עֲוֺנוֹ יִשָּׂא׃ 20.19. וְעֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת אִמְּךָ וַאֲחוֹת אָבִיךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי אֶת־שְׁאֵרוֹ הֶעֱרָה עֲוֺנָם יִשָּׂאוּ׃ 22.9. וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא וּמֵתוּ בוֹ כִּי יְחַלְּלֻהוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 22.16. וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אוֹתָם עֲוֺן אַשְׁמָה בְּאָכְלָם אֶת־קָדְשֵׁיהֶם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 24.15. וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־יְקַלֵּל אֱלֹהָיו וְנָשָׂא חֶטְאוֹ׃ 24.21. וּמַכֵּה בְהֵמָה יְשַׁלְּמֶנָּה וּמַכֵּה אָדָם יוּמָת׃ 5.1. And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;" 5.17. And if any one sin, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity." 7.18. And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace-offerings be at all eaten on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it; it shall be an abhorred thing, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity." 10.17. ’Wherefore have ye not eaten the sin-offering in the place of the sanctuary, seeing it is most holy, and He hath given it you to bear the iniquity of the congregation, to make atonement for them before the LORD?" 16.20. And when he hath made an end of atoning for the holy place, and the tent of meeting, and the altar, he shall present the live goat." 16.21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, even all their sins; and he shall put them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of an appointed man into the wilderness." 16.22. And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land which is cut off; and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness." 17.15. And every soul that eateth that which dieth of itself, or that which is torn of beasts, whether he be home-born or a stranger, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean." 17.16. But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh, then he shall bear his iniquity." 19.2. Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy." 19.3. Ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father, and ye shall keep My sabbaths: I am the LORD your God." 19.4. Turn ye not unto the idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God." 19.5. And when ye offer a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the LORD, ye shall offer it that ye may be accepted." 19.6. It shall be eaten the same day ye offer it, and on the morrow; and if aught remain until the third day, it shall be burnt with fire." 19.7. And if it be eaten at all on the third day, it is a vile thing; it shall not be accepted." 19.8. But every one that eateth it shall bear his iniquity, because he hath profaned the holy thing of the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from his people." 19.9. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest." 19.10. And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God." 19.11. Ye shall not steal; neither shall ye deal falsely, nor lie one to another." 19.12. And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 19.13. Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning." 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD." 19.15. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor favour the person of the mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour." 19.16. Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." 19.22. And the priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt-offering before the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned; and he shall be forgiven for his sin which he hath sinned." 19.23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 19.25. But in the fifth year may ye eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you more richly the increase thereof: I am the LORD your God." 19.26. Ye shall not eat with the blood; neither shall ye practise divination nor soothsaying." 19.27. Ye shall not round the corners of your heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard." 19.30. Ye shall keep My sabbaths, and reverence My sanctuary: I am the LORD." 19.31. Turn ye not unto the ghosts, nor unto familiar spirits; seek them not out, to be defiled by them: I am the LORD your God." 19.32. Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honour the face of the old man, and thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD." 19.33. And if a stranger sojourn with thee in your land, ye shall not do him wrong." 19.34. The stranger that sojourneth with you shall be unto you as the home-born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God." 19.35. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard, in weight, or in measure." 19.36. Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall ye have: I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt." 19.37. And ye shall observe all My statutes, and all Mine ordices, and do them: I am the LORD." 20.10. And the man that committeth adultery with another man’s wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour’s wife, both the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death." 20.17. And if a man shall take his sister, his father’s daughter, or his mother’s daughter, and see her nakedness, and she see his nakedness: it is a shameful thing; and they shall be cut off in the sight of the children of their people: he hath uncovered his sister’s nakedness; he shall bear his iniquity." 20.19. And thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister, nor of thy father’s sister; for he hath made naked his near kin; they shall bear their iniquity." 20.20. And if a man shall lie with his uncle’s wife—he hath uncovered his uncle’s nakedness—they shall bear their sin; they shall die childless." 22.9. They shall therefore keep My charge, lest they bear sin for it, and die therein, if they profane it: I am the LORD who sanctify them." 22.16. and so cause them to bear the iniquity that bringeth guilt, when they eat their holy things; for I am the LORD who sanctify them." 24.15. And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: Whosoever curseth his God shall bear his sin." 24.21. And he that killeth a beast shall make it good; and he that killeth a man shall be put to death."
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 3.12, 4.1-4.4, 6.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.12. לָכֵן בִּגְלַלְכֶם צִיּוֹן שָׂדֶה תֵחָרֵשׁ וִירוּשָׁלִַם עִיִּין תִּהְיֶה וְהַר הַבַּיִת לְבָמוֹת יָעַר׃ 4.1. חוּלִי וָגֹחִי בַּת־צִיּוֹן כַּיּוֹלֵדָה כִּי־עַתָּה תֵצְאִי מִקִּרְיָה וְשָׁכַנְתְּ בַּשָּׂדֶה וּבָאת עַד־בָּבֶל שָׁם תִּנָּצֵלִי שָׁם יִגְאָלֵךְ יְהוָה מִכַּף אֹיְבָיִךְ׃ 4.1. וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית־יְהוָה נָכוֹן בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא הוּא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ עָלָיו עַמִּים׃ 4.2. וְהָלְכוּ גּוֹיִם רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה וְאֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיוֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 4.3. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ לְגוֹיִם עֲצֻמִים עַד־רָחוֹק וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבֹתֵיהֶם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשְׂאוּ גּוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּן עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 4.4. וְיָשְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחַת גַּפְנוֹ וְתַחַת תְּאֵנָתוֹ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד כִּי־פִי יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת דִּבֵּר׃ 6.8. הִגִּיד לְךָ אָדָם מַה־טּוֹב וּמָה־יְהוָה דּוֹרֵשׁ מִמְּךָ כִּי אִם־עֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְאַהֲבַת חֶסֶד וְהַצְנֵעַ לֶכֶת עִם־אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 3.12. Therefore shall Zion for your sake be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest." 4.1. But in the end of days it shall come to pass, That the mountain of the LORD’S house shall be established as the top of the mountains, And it shall be exalted above the hills; And peoples shall flow unto it." 4.2. And many nations shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, And to the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths’; For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem." 4.3. And He shall judge between many peoples, And shall decide concerning mighty nations afar off; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 4.4. But they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig-tree; And none shall make them afraid; For the mouth of the LORD of hosts hath spoken." 6.8. It hath been told thee, O man, what is good, And what the LORD doth require of thee: Only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God."
8. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. אֵל קַנּוֹא וְנֹקֵם יְהוָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה וּבַעַל חֵמָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה לְצָרָיו וְנוֹטֵר הוּא לְאֹיְבָיו׃ 1.2. The LORD is a jealous and avenging God, The LORD avengeth and is full of wrath; The LORD taketh vengeance on His adversaries, And He reserveth wrath for His enemies."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.5-5.31, 9.13, 12.1, 12.3, 12.7-12.8, 18.1, 18.22-18.23, 18.32, 21.5, 21.7, 30.2-30.3, 30.6-30.15, 31.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.5. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.6. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַעֲשׂוּ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאת הָאָדָם לִמְעֹל מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְאָשְׁמָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא׃ 5.7. וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת־חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִישִׁתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַאֲשֶׁר אָשַׁם לוֹ׃ 5.8. וְאִם־אֵין לָאִישׁ גֹּאֵל לְהָשִׁיב הָאָשָׁם אֵלָיו הָאָשָׁם הַמּוּשָׁב לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן מִלְּבַד אֵיל הַכִּפֻּרִים אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ עָלָיו׃ 5.9. וְכָל־תְּרוּמָה לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 5.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.12. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־תִשְׂטֶה אִשְׁתּוֹ וּמָעֲלָה בוֹ מָעַל׃ 5.13. וְשָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְנֶעְלַם מֵעֵינֵי אִישָׁהּ וְנִסְתְּרָה וְהִיא נִטְמָאָה וְעֵד אֵין בָּהּ וְהִוא לֹא נִתְפָּשָׂה׃ 5.14. וְעָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִוא נִטְמָאָה אוֹ־עָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִיא לֹא נִטְמָאָה׃ 5.15. וְהֵבִיא הָאִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנָהּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵיפָה קֶמַח שְׂעֹרִים לֹא־יִצֹק עָלָיו שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלָיו לְבֹנָה כִּי־מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הוּא מִנְחַת זִכָּרוֹן מַזְכֶּרֶת עָוֺן׃ 5.16. וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶעֱמִדָהּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 5.17. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מַיִם קְדֹשִׁים בִּכְלִי־חָרֶשׂ וּמִן־הֶעָפָר אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בְּקַרְקַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן יִקַּח הַכֹּהֵן וְנָתַן אֶל־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.18. וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּפָרַע אֶת־רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן עַל־כַּפֶּיהָ אֵת מִנְחַת הַזִּכָּרוֹן מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הִוא וּבְיַד הַכֹּהֵן יִהְיוּ מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים׃ 5.19. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אִם־לֹא שָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָךְ וְאִם־לֹא שָׂטִית טֻמְאָה תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ הִנָּקִי מִמֵּי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 5.21. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁבֻעַת הָאָלָה וְאָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לָאִשָּׁה יִתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת־בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה׃ 5.22. וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃ 5.23. וְכָתַב אֶת־הָאָלֹת הָאֵלֶּה הַכֹּהֵן בַּסֵּפֶר וּמָחָה אֶל־מֵי הַמָּרִים׃ 5.24. וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים׃ 5.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה אֵת מִנְחַת הַקְּנָאֹת וְהֵנִיף אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 5.26. וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְאַחַר יַשְׁקֶה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.27. וְהִשְׁקָהּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם וְהָיְתָה אִם־נִטְמְאָה וַתִּמְעֹל מַעַל בְּאִישָׁהּ וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים וְצָבְתָה בִטְנָהּ וְנָפְלָה יְרֵכָהּ וְהָיְתָה הָאִשָּׁה לְאָלָה בְּקֶרֶב עַמָּהּ׃ 5.28. וְאִם־לֹא נִטְמְאָה הָאִשָּׁה וּטְהֹרָה הִוא וְנִקְּתָה וְנִזְרְעָה זָרַע׃ 5.29. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַקְּנָאֹת אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׂטֶה אִשָּׁה תַּחַת אִישָׁהּ וְנִטְמָאָה׃ 5.31. וְנִקָּה הָאִישׁ מֵעָוֺן וְהָאִשָּׁה הַהִוא תִּשָּׂא אֶת־עֲוֺנָהּ׃ 9.13. וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־הוּא טָהוֹר וּבְדֶרֶךְ לֹא־הָיָה וְחָדַל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַפֶּסַח וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ כִּי קָרְבַּן יְהוָה לֹא הִקְרִיב בְּמֹעֲדוֹ חֶטְאוֹ יִשָּׂא הָאִישׁ הַהוּא׃ 12.1. וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מִרְיָם וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת׃ 12.1. וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל־אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח כִּי־אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח׃ 12.3. וְהָאִישׁ מֹשֶׁה ענו [עָנָיו] מְאֹד מִכֹּל הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 12.7. לֹא־כֵן עַבְדִּי מֹשֶׁה בְּכָל־בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא׃ 12.8. פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבֵית־אָבִיךָ אִתָּךְ תִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־עֲוֺן הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ תִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־עֲוֺן כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם׃ 18.1. בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים תֹּאכֲלֶנּוּ כָּל־זָכָר יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ׃ 18.22. וְלֹא־יִקְרְבוּ עוֹד בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לָשֵׂאת חֵטְא לָמוּת׃ 18.23. וְעָבַד הַלֵּוִי הוּא אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהֵם יִשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וּבְתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃ 18.32. וְלֹא־תִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְאֶת־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תְחַלְּלוּ וְלֹא תָמוּתוּ׃ 21.5. וַיְדַבֵּר הָעָם בֵּאלֹהִים וּבְמֹשֶׁה לָמָה הֶעֱלִיתֻנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לָמוּת בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי אֵין לֶחֶם וְאֵין מַיִם וְנַפְשֵׁנוּ קָצָה בַּלֶּחֶם הַקְּלֹקֵל׃ 21.7. וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי־דִבַּרְנוּ בַיהוָה וָבָךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וְיָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה בְּעַד הָעָם׃ 30.2. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־רָאשֵׁי הַמַּטּוֹת לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 30.3. אִישׁ כִּי־יִדֹּר נֶדֶר לַיהוָה אוֹ־הִשָּׁבַע שְׁבֻעָה לֶאְסֹר אִסָּר עַל־נַפְשׁוֹ לֹא יַחֵל דְּבָרוֹ כְּכָל־הַיֹּצֵא מִפִּיו יַעֲשֶׂה׃ 30.6. וְאִם־הֵנִיא אָבִיהָ אֹתָהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ וֶאֱסָרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר־אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ לֹא יָקוּם וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ כִּי־הֵנִיא אָבִיהָ אֹתָהּ׃ 30.7. וְאִם־הָיוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ וּנְדָרֶיהָ עָלֶיהָ אוֹ מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ׃ 30.8. וְשָׁמַע אִישָׁהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ וְהֶחֱרִישׁ לָהּ וְקָמוּ נְדָרֶיהָ וֶאֱסָרֶהָ אֲשֶׁר־אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ יָקֻמוּ׃ 30.9. וְאִם בְּיוֹם שְׁמֹעַ אִישָׁהּ יָנִיא אוֹתָהּ וְהֵפֵר אֶת־נִדְרָהּ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃ 30.11. וְאִם־בֵּית אִישָׁהּ נָדָרָה אוֹ־אָסְרָה אִסָּר עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ בִּשְׁבֻעָה׃ 30.12. וְשָׁמַע אִישָׁהּ וְהֶחֱרִשׁ לָהּ לֹא הֵנִיא אֹתָהּ וְקָמוּ כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ וְכָל־אִסָּר אֲשֶׁר־אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ יָקוּם׃ 30.13. וְאִם־הָפֵר יָפֵר אֹתָם אִישָׁהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ כָּל־מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ לִנְדָרֶיהָ וּלְאִסַּר נַפְשָׁהּ לֹא יָקוּם אִישָׁהּ הֲפֵרָם וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃ 30.14. כָּל־נֵדֶר וְכָל־שְׁבֻעַת אִסָּר לְעַנֹּת נָפֶשׁ אִישָׁהּ יְקִימֶנּוּ וְאִישָׁהּ יְפֵרֶנּוּ׃ 30.15. וְאִם־הַחֲרֵשׁ יַחֲרִישׁ לָהּ אִישָׁהּ מִיּוֹם אֶל־יוֹם וְהֵקִים אֶת־כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ אוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֱסָרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הֵקִים אֹתָם כִּי־הֶחֱרִשׁ לָהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ׃ 31.2. נְקֹם נִקְמַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֵת הַמִּדְיָנִים אַחַר תֵּאָסֵף אֶל־עַמֶּיךָ׃ 31.2. וְכָל־בֶּגֶד וְכָל־כְּלִי־עוֹר וְכָל־מַעֲשֵׂה עִזִּים וְכָל־כְּלִי־עֵץ תִּתְחַטָּאוּ׃ 5.5. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.6. Speak unto the children of Israel: When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to commit a trespass against the LORD, and that soul be guilty;" 5.7. then they shall confess their sin which they have done; and he shall make restitution for his guilt in full, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him in respect of whom he hath been guilty." 5.8. But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution may be made for the guilt, the restitution for guilt which is made shall be the LORD’S, even the priest’s; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby atonement shall be made for him." 5.9. And every heave-offering of all the holy things of the children of Israel, which they present unto the priest, shall be his." 5.10. And every man’s hallowed things shall be his: whatsoever any man giveth the priest, it shall be his." 5.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.12. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: If any man’s wife go aside, and act unfaithfully against him," 5.13. and a man lie with her carnally, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, and there be no witness against her, neither she be taken in the act;" 5.14. and the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be defiled; or if the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be not defiled;" 5.15. then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is a meal-offering of jealousy, a meal-offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance." 5.16. And the priest shall bring her near, and set her before the LORD." 5.17. And the priest shall take holy water in an earthen vessel; and of the dust that is on the floor of the tabernacle the priest shall take, and put it into the water." 5.18. And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and put the meal-offering of memorial in her hands, which is the meal-offering of jealousy; and the priest shall have in his hand the water of bitterness that causeth the curse." 5.19. And the priest shall cause her to swear, and shall say unto the woman: ‘If no man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness, being under thy husband, be thou free from this water of bitterness that causeth the curse;" 5.20. but if thou hast gone aside, being under thy husband, and if thou be defiled, and some man have lain with thee besides thy husband—" 5.21. then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman—the LORD make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the LORD doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell;" 5.22. and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’" 5.23. And the priest shall write these curses in a scroll, and he shall blot them out into the water of bitterness." 5.24. And he shall make the woman drink the water of bitterness that causeth the curse; and the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter." 5.25. And the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy out of the woman’s hand, and shall wave the meal-offering before the LORD, and bring it unto the altar." 5.26. And the priest shall take a handful of the meal-offering, as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke upon the altar, and afterward shall make the woman drink the water." 5.27. And when he hath made her drink the water, then it shall come to pass, if she be defiled, and have acted unfaithfully against her husband, that the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter, and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall fall away; and the woman shall be a curse among her people." 5.28. And if the woman be not defiled, but be clean; then she shall be cleared, and shall conceive seed." 5.29. This is the law of jealousy, when a wife, being under her husband, goeth aside, and is defiled;" 5.30. or when the spirit of jealousy cometh upon a man, and he be jealous over his wife; then shall he set the woman before the LORD, and the priest shall execute upon her all this law." 5.31. And the man shall be clear from iniquity, and that woman shall bear her iniquity." 9.13. But the man that is clean, and is not on a journey, and forbeareth to keep the passover, that soul shall be cut off from his people; because he brought not the offering of the LORD in its appointed season, that man shall bear his sin." 12.1. And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman." 12.3. Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men that were upon the face of the earth.—" 12.7. My servant Moses is not so; he is trusted in all My house;" 12.8. with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’" 18.1. And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou and thy sons and thy fathers’ house with thee shall bear the iniquity of the sanctuary; and thou and thy sons with thee shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood." 18.22. And henceforth the children of Israel shall not come nigh the tent of meeting, lest they bear sin, and die." 18.23. But the Levites alone shall do the service of the tent of meeting, and they shall bear their iniquity; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, and among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance." 18.32. And ye shall bear no sin by reason of it, seeing that ye have set apart from it the best thereof; and ye shall not profane the holy things of the children of Israel, that ye die not.’" 21.5. And the people spoke against God, and against Moses: ‘Wherefore have ye brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? for there is no bread, and there is no water; and our soul loatheth this light bread.’" 21.7. And the people came to Moses, and said: ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that He take away the serpents from us.’ And Moses prayed for the people." 30.2. And Moses spoke unto the heads of the tribes of the children of Israel, saying: This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded." 30.3. When a man voweth a vow unto the LORD, or sweareth an oath to bind his soul with a bond, he shall not break his word; he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth." 30.6. But if her father disallow her in the day that he heareth, none of her vows, or of her bonds wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand; and the LORD will forgive her, because her father disallowed her." 30.7. And if she be married to a husband, while her vows are upon her, or the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul;" 30.8. and her husband hear it, whatsoever day it be that he heareth it, and hold his peace at her; then her vows shall stand, and her bonds wherewith she hath bound her soul shall stand." 30.9. But if her husband disallow her in the day that he heareth it, then he shall make void her vow which is upon her, and the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul; and the LORD will forgive her." 30.10. But the vow of a widow, or of her that is divorced, even every thing wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand against her." 30.11. And if a woman vowed in her husband’s house, or bound her soul by a bond with an oath," 30.12. and her husband heard it, and held his peace at her, and disallowed her not, then all her vows shall stand, and every bond wherewith she bound her soul shall stand." 30.13. But if her husband make them null and void in the day that he heareth them, then whatsoever proceeded out of her lips, whether it were her vows, or the bond of her soul, shall not stand: her husband hath made them void; and the LORD will forgive her." 30.14. Every vow, and every binding oath to afflict the soul, her husband may let it stand, or her husband may make it void." 30.15. But if her husband altogether hold his peace at her from day to day, then he causeth all her vows to stand, or all her bonds, which are upon her; he hath let them stand, because he held his peace at her in the day that he heard them." 31.2. ’Avenge the children of Israel of the Midianites; afterward shalt thou be gathered unto thy people.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.9, 3.12, 9.8, 11.4, 11.13, 13.24, 15.12, 20.6, 20.19, 24.24-24.25, 25.9, 27.5-27.6, 30.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.9. כַּבֵּד אֶת־יְהוָה מֵהוֹנֶךָ וּמֵרֵאשִׁית כָּל־תְּבוּאָתֶךָ׃ 3.12. כִּי אֶת אֲשֶׁר יֶאֱהַב יְהוָה יוֹכִיחַ וּכְאָב אֶת־בֵּן יִרְצֶה׃ 9.8. אַל־תּוֹכַח לֵץ פֶּן־יִשְׂנָאֶךָּ הוֹכַח לְחָכָם וְיֶאֱהָבֶךָּ׃ 11.4. לֹא־יוֹעִיל הוֹן בְּיוֹם עֶבְרָה וּצְדָקָה תַּצִּיל מִמָּוֶת׃ 11.13. הוֹלֵךְ רָכִיל מְגַלֶּה־סּוֹד וְנֶאֱמַן־רוּחַ מְכַסֶּה דָבָר׃ 13.24. חוֹשֵׂךְ שִׁבְטוֹ שׂוֹנֵא בְנוֹ וְאֹהֲבוֹ שִׁחֲרוֹ מוּסָר׃ 15.12. לֹא יֶאֱהַב־לֵץ הוֹכֵחַ לוֹ אֶל־חֲכָמִים לֹא יֵלֵךְ׃ 20.6. רָב־אָדָם יִקְרָא אִישׁ חַסְדּוֹ וְאִישׁ אֱמוּנִים מִי יִמְצָא׃ 20.19. גּוֹלֶה־סּוֹד הוֹלֵךְ רָכִיל וּלְפֹתֶה שְׂפָתָיו לֹא תִתְעָרָב׃ 24.24. אֹמֵר לְרָשָׁע צַדִּיק אָתָּה יִקְּבֻהוּ עַמִּים יִזְעָמוּהוּ לְאֻמִּים׃ 24.25. וְלַמּוֹכִיחִים יִנְעָם וַעֲלֵיהֶם תָּבוֹא בִרְכַּת־טוֹב׃ 25.9. רִיבְךָ רִיב אֶת־רֵעֶךָ וְסוֹד אַחֵר אַל־תְּגָל׃ 27.5. טוֹבָה תּוֹכַחַת מְגֻלָּה מֵאַהֲבָה מְסֻתָּרֶת׃ 27.6. נֶאֱמָנִים פִּצְעֵי אוֹהֵב וְנַעְתָּרוֹת נְשִׁיקוֹת שׂוֹנֵא׃ 30.4. מִי עָלָה־שָׁמַיִם וַיֵּרַד מִי אָסַף־רוּחַ בְּחָפְנָיו מִי צָרַר־מַיִם בַּשִּׂמְלָה מִי הֵקִים כָּל־אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ מַה־שְּׁמוֹ וּמַה־שֶּׁם־בְּנוֹ כִּי תֵדָע׃ 3.9. Honour the LORD with thy substance, And with the first-fruits of all thine increase;" 3.12. For whom the LORD loveth He correcteth, Even as a father the son in whom he delighteth." 9.8. Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee; reprove a wise man, and he will love thee." 11.4. Riches profit not in the day of wrath; But righteousness delivereth from death." 11.13. He that goeth about as a talebearer revealeth secrets; But he that is of a faithful spirit concealeth a matter." 13.24. He that spareth his rod hateth his son; But he that loveth him chasteneth him betimes." 15.12. A scorner loveth not to be reproved; He will not go unto the wise." 20.6. Most men will proclaim every one his own goodness; but a faithful man who can find?" 20.19. He that goeth about as a talebearer revealeth secrets; therefore meddle not with him that openeth wide his lips." 24.24. He that saith unto the wicked: ‘Thou art righteous’, Peoples shall curse him, nations shall execrate him;" 24.25. But to them that decide justly shall be delight, And a good blessing shall come upon them." 25.9. Debate thy cause with thy neighbour, but reveal not the secret of another;" 27.5. Better is open rebuke Than love that is hidden." 27.6. Faithful are the wounds of a friend; But the kisses of an enemy are importunate." 30.4. Who hath ascended up into heaven, and descended? Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? Who hath bound the waters in his garment? Who hath established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is his son’s name, if thou knowest?"
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 6.2, 14.3, 44.4, 78.19, 95.7, 96.2, 143.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.2. יְהוָה אַל־בְּאַפְּךָ תוֹכִיחֵנִי וְאַל־בַּחֲמָתְךָ תְיַסְּרֵנִי׃ 14.3. הַכֹּל סָר יַחְדָּו נֶאֱלָחוּ אֵין עֹשֵׂה־טוֹב אֵין גַּם־אֶחָד׃ 44.4. כִּי לֹא בְחַרְבָּם יָרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וּזְרוֹעָם לֹא־הוֹשִׁיעָה לָּמוֹ כִּי־יְמִינְךָ וּזְרוֹעֲךָ וְאוֹר פָּנֶיךָ כִּי רְצִיתָם׃ 78.19. וַיְדַבְּרוּ בֵּאלֹהִים אָמְרוּ הֲיוּכַל אֵל לַעֲרֹךְ שֻׁלְחָן בַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 95.7. כִּי הוּא אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַאֲנַחְנוּ עַם מַרְעִיתוֹ וְצֹאן יָדוֹ הַיּוֹם אִם־בְּקֹלוֹ תִשְׁמָעוּ׃ 96.2. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה בָּרֲכוּ שְׁמוֹ בַּשְּׂרוּ מִיּוֹם־לְיוֹם יְשׁוּעָתוֹ׃ 143.2. וְאַל־תָּבוֹא בְמִשְׁפָּט אֶת־עַבְדֶּךָ כִּי לֹא־יִצְדַּק לְפָנֶיךָ כָל־חָי׃ 6.2. O LORD, rebuke me not in Thine anger, Neither chasten me in Thy wrath." 14.3. They are all corrupt, they are together become impure; there is none that doeth good, no, not one." 44.4. For not by their own sword did they get the land in possession, Neither did their own arm save them; but Thy right hand, and Thine arm, and the light of Thy countece, because Thou wast favourable unto them." 78.19. Yea, they spoke against God; They said 'Can God prepare a table in the wilderness?" 95.7. For He is our God, And we are the people of His pasture, and the flock of His hand. To-day, if ye would but hearken to His voice!" 96.2. Sing unto the LORD, bless His name; Proclaim His salvation from day to day." 143.2. And enter not into judgment with Thy servant; For in Thy sight shall no man living be justified."
12. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 1.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.21. אֲנִי מְלֵאָה הָלַכְתִּי וְרֵיקָם הֱשִׁיבַנִי יְהוָה לָמָּה תִקְרֶאנָה לִי נָעֳמִי וַיהוָה עָנָה בִי וְשַׁדַּי הֵרַע לִי׃ 1.21. I went out full, and the LORD hath brought me back home empty; why call ye me Naomi, seeing the LORD hath testified against me, and the Almighty hath afflicted me?’"
13. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 2.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. בַּקְּשׁוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כָּל־עַנְוֵי הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר מִשְׁפָּטוֹ פָּעָלוּ בַּקְּשׁוּ־צֶדֶק בַּקְּשׁוּ עֲנָוָה אוּלַי תִּסָּתְרוּ בְּיוֹם אַף־יְהוָה׃ 2.3. Seek ye the LORD, all ye humble of the earth, That have executed His ordice; Seek righteousness, seek humility. It may be ye shall be hid in the day of the LORD’S anger."
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3.28, 8.46 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.28. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּט אֲשֶׁר שָׁפַט הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּרְאוּ מִפְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי רָאוּ כִּי־חָכְמַת אֱלֹהִים בְּקִרְבּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט׃ 8.46. כִּי יֶחֶטְאוּ־לָךְ כִּי אֵין אָדָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֶחֱטָא וְאָנַפְתָּ בָם וּנְתַתָּם לִפְנֵי אוֹיֵב וְשָׁבוּם שֹׁבֵיהֶם אֶל־אֶרֶץ הָאוֹיֵב רְחוֹקָה אוֹ קְרוֹבָה׃ 3.28. And all Israel heard of the judgment which the king had judged; and they feared the king; for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him, to do justice." 8.46. If they sin against Thee—for there is no man that sinneth not—and Thou be angry with them, and deliver them to the enemy, so that they carry them away captive unto the land of the enemy, far off or near;"
15. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.12, 25.25-25.26, 25.31, 25.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.12. וְהָיָה כִּי הִרְבְּתָה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְעֵלִי שֹׁמֵר אֶת־פִּיהָ׃ 25.25. אַל־נָא יָשִׂים אֲדֹנִי אֶת־לִבּוֹ אֶל־אִישׁ הַבְּלִיַּעַל הַזֶּה עַל־נָבָל כִּי כִשְׁמוֹ כֶּן־הוּא נָבָל שְׁמוֹ וּנְבָלָה עִמּוֹ וַאֲנִי אֲמָתְךָ לֹא רָאִיתִי אֶת־נַעֲרֵי אֲדֹנִי אֲשֶׁר שָׁלָחְתָּ׃ 25.26. וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנִי חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אֲשֶׁר מְנָעֲךָ יְהוָה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהוֹשֵׁעַ יָדְךָ לָךְ וְעַתָּה יִהְיוּ כְנָבָל אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהַמְבַקְשִׁים אֶל־אֲדֹנִי רָעָה׃ 25.31. וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זֹאת לְךָ לְפוּקָה וּלְמִכְשׁוֹל לֵב לַאדֹנִי וְלִשְׁפָּךְ־דָּם חִנָּם וּלְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֲדֹנִי לוֹ וְהֵיטִב יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 25.33. וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי׃ 1.12. And it came to pass, as she continued praying before the Lord, that ῾Eli marked her mouth." 25.25. Let not my lord, I pray thee, take heed of this worthless fellow, Naval: for as his name is, so is he; Naval is his name, and folly is with him: but I thy handmaid did not see the young men of my lord, whom thou didst send." 25.26. Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord lives, and as thy soul lives, seeing the Lord has prevented thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thy own hand, now let thy enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Naval." 25.31. that this shall not be a cause of stumbling to thee, nor offence of heart to my lord, that thou hast shed blood causelessly, or that my lord has avenged himself: and the Lord shall deal well with my lord, and thou shalt remember thy handmaid." 25.33. and blessed be thy discretion, and blessed be thou who hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with my own hand."
16. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 12.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.11. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי מֵקִים עָלֶיךָ רָעָה מִבֵּיתֶךָ וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶת־נָשֶׁיךָ לְעֵינֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי לְרֵעֶיךָ וְשָׁכַב עִם־נָשֶׁיךָ לְעֵינֵי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ הַזֹּאת׃ 12.11. Thus says the Lord, Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thy own house, and I will take thy wives before thy eyes, and give them to thy neighbour, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this sun."
17. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 2.6, 5.10, 5.12, 5.21, 7.13-7.15 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.6. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּשְׁעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָה לֹא אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ עַל־מִכְרָם בַּכֶּסֶף צַדִּיק וְאֶבְיוֹן בַּעֲבוּר נַעֲלָיִם׃ 5.12. כִּי יָדַעְתִּי רַבִּים פִּשְׁעֵיכֶם וַעֲצֻמִים חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם צֹרְרֵי צַדִּיק לֹקְחֵי כֹפֶר וְאֶבְיוֹנִים בַּשַּׁעַר הִטּוּ׃ 5.21. שָׂנֵאתִי מָאַסְתִּי חַגֵּיכֶם וְלֹא אָרִיחַ בְּעַצְּרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 7.13. וּבֵית־אֵל לֹא־תוֹסִיף עוֹד לְהִנָּבֵא כִּי מִקְדַּשׁ־מֶלֶךְ הוּא וּבֵית מַמְלָכָה הוּא׃ 7.14. וַיַּעַן עָמוֹס וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־אֲמַצְיָה לֹא־נָבִיא אָנֹכִי וְלֹא בֶן־נָבִיא אָנֹכִי כִּי־בוֹקֵר אָנֹכִי וּבוֹלֵס שִׁקְמִים׃ 7.15. וַיִּקָּחֵנִי יְהוָה מֵאַחֲרֵי הַצֹּאן וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי יְהוָה לֵךְ הִנָּבֵא אֶל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 2.6. Thus saith the LORD: For three transgressions of Israel, Yea, for four, I will not reverse it: Because they sell the righteous for silver, And the needy for a pair of shoes;" 5.10. They hate him that reproveth in the gate, And they abhor him that speaketh uprightly." 5.12. For I know how manifold are your transgressions, And how mighty are your sins; Ye that afflict the just, that take a ransom, And that turn aside the needy in the gate." 5.21. I hate, I despise your feasts, And I will take no delight in your solemn assemblies." 7.13. but prophesy not again any more at Beth-el, for it is the king’s sanctuary, and it is a royal house.’" 7.14. Then answered Amos, and said to Amaziah: ‘I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet’s son; but I was a herdman, and a dresser of sycamore-trees;" 7.15. and the LORD took me from following the flock, and the LORD said unto me: Go, prophesy unto My people Israel."
18. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.14-1.15, 2.1-2.4, 2.12-2.17, 6.1, 11.3-11.4, 13.11, 14.12-14.15, 28.11, 40.12-40.14, 41.2, 41.26, 66.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.14. חָדְשֵׁיכֶם וּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם שָׂנְאָה נַפְשִׁי הָיוּ עָלַי לָטֹרַח נִלְאֵיתִי נְשֹׂא׃ 1.15. וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃ 2.1. בּוֹא בַצּוּר וְהִטָּמֵן בֶּעָפָר מִפְּנֵי פַּחַד יְהוָה וּמֵהֲדַר גְּאֹנוֹ׃ 2.1. הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר חָזָה יְשַׁעְיָהוּ בֶּן־אָמוֹץ עַל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 2.2. וְהָיָה בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים נָכוֹן יִהְיֶה הַר בֵּית־יְהוָה בְּרֹאשׁ הֶהָרִים וְנִשָּׂא מִגְּבָעוֹת וְנָהֲרוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם׃ 2.2. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יַשְׁלִיךְ הָאָדָם אֵת אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וְאֵת אֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ־לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת וְלָעֲטַלֵּפִים׃ 2.3. וְהָלְכוּ עַמִּים רַבִּים וְאָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַעֲלֶה אֶל־הַר־יְהוָה אֶל־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וְיֹרֵנוּ מִדְּרָכָיו וְנֵלְכָה בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו כִּי מִצִּיּוֹן תֵּצֵא תוֹרָה וּדְבַר־יְהוָה מִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 2.12. כִּי יוֹם לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת עַל כָּל־גֵּאֶה וָרָם וְעַל כָּל־נִשָּׂא וְשָׁפֵל׃ 2.13. וְעַל כָּל־אַרְזֵי הַלְּבָנוֹן הָרָמִים וְהַנִּשָּׂאִים וְעַל כָּל־אַלּוֹנֵי הַבָּשָׁן׃ 2.14. וְעַל כָּל־הֶהָרִים הָרָמִים וְעַל כָּל־הַגְּבָעוֹת הַנִּשָּׂאוֹת׃ 2.15. וְעַל כָּל־מִגְדָּל גָּבֹהַ וְעַל כָּל־חוֹמָה בְצוּרָה׃ 2.16. וְעַל כָּל־אֳנִיּוֹת תַּרְשִׁישׁ וְעַל כָּל־שְׂכִיּוֹת הַחֶמְדָּה׃ 2.17. וְשַׁח גַּבְהוּת הָאָדָם וְשָׁפֵל רוּם אֲנָשִׁים וְנִשְׂגַּב יְהוָה לְבַדּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא׃ 6.1. בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃ 6.1. הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 11.3. וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃ 11.4. וְשָׁפַט בְּצֶדֶק דַּלִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ בְּמִישׁוֹר לְעַנְוֵי־אָרֶץ וְהִכָּה־אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו וּבְרוּחַ שְׂפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע׃ 13.11. וּפָקַדְתִּי עַל־תֵּבֵל רָעָה וְעַל־רְשָׁעִים עֲוֺנָם וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי גְּאוֹן זֵדִים וְגַאֲוַת עָרִיצִים אַשְׁפִּיל׃ 14.12. אֵיךְ נָפַלְתָּ מִשָּׁמַיִם הֵילֵל בֶּן־שָׁחַר נִגְדַּעְתָּ לָאָרֶץ חוֹלֵשׁ עַל־גּוֹיִם׃ 14.13. וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃ 14.14. אֶעֱלֶה עַל־בָּמֳתֵי עָב אֶדַּמֶּה לְעֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.15. אַךְ אֶל־שְׁאוֹל תּוּרָד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי־בוֹר׃ 28.11. כִּי בְּלַעֲגֵי שָׂפָה וּבְלָשׁוֹן אַחֶרֶת יְדַבֵּר אֶל־הָעָם הַזֶּה׃ 40.12. מִי־מָדַד בְּשָׁעֳלוֹ מַיִם וְשָׁמַיִם בַּזֶּרֶת תִּכֵּן וְכָל בַּשָּׁלִשׁ עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁקַל בַּפֶּלֶס הָרִים וּגְבָעוֹת בְּמֹאזְנָיִם׃ 40.13. מִי־תִכֵּן אֶת־רוּחַ יְהוָה וְאִישׁ עֲצָתוֹ יוֹדִיעֶנּוּ׃ 40.14. אֶת־מִי נוֹעָץ וַיְבִינֵהוּ וַיְלַמְּדֵהוּ בְּאֹרַח מִשְׁפָּט וַיְלַמְּדֵהוּ דַעַת וְדֶרֶךְ תְּבוּנוֹת יוֹדִיעֶנּוּ׃ 41.2. לְמַעַן יִרְאוּ וְיֵדְעוּ וְיָשִׂימוּ וְיַשְׂכִּילוּ יַחְדָּו כִּי יַד־יְהוָה עָשְׂתָה זֹּאת וּקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּרָאָהּ׃ 41.2. מִי הֵעִיר מִמִּזְרָח צֶדֶק יִקְרָאֵהוּ לְרַגְלוֹ יִתֵּן לְפָנָיו גּוֹיִם וּמְלָכִים יַרְדְּ יִתֵּן כֶּעָפָר חַרְבּוֹ כְּקַשׁ נִדָּף קַשְׁתּוֹ׃ 41.26. מִי־הִגִּיד מֵרֹאשׁ וְנֵדָעָה וּמִלְּפָנִים וְנֹאמַר צַדִּיק אַף אֵין־מַגִּיד אַף אֵין מַשְׁמִיעַ אַף אֵין־שֹׁמֵעַ אִמְרֵיכֶם׃ 66.14. וּרְאִיתֶם וְשָׂשׂ לִבְּכֶם וְעַצְמוֹתֵיכֶם כַּדֶּשֶׁא תִפְרַחְנָה וְנוֹדְעָה יַד־יְהוָה אֶת־עֲבָדָיו וְזָעַם אֶת־אֹיְבָיו׃ 1.14. Your new moons and your appointed seasons My soul hateth; They are a burden unto Me; I am weary to bear them." 1.15. And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood." 2.1. The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem." 2.2. And it shall come to pass in the end of days, That the mountain of the LORD’S house Shall be established as the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow unto it." 2.3. And many peoples shall go and say: ‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, To the house of the God of Jacob; And He will teach us of His ways, And we will walk in His paths.’ For out of Zion shall go forth the law, And the word of the LORD from Jerusalem." 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 2.12. For the LORD of hosts hath a day Upon all that is proud and lofty, And upon all that is lifted up, and it shall be brought low;" 2.13. And upon all the cedars of Lebanon That are high and lifted up, And upon all the oaks of Bashan;" 2.14. And upon all the high mountains, And upon all the hills that are lifted up;" 2.15. And upon every lofty tower, And upon every fortified wall;" 2.16. And upon all the ships of Tarshish, And upon all delightful imagery." 2.17. And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down, And the haughtiness of men shall be brought low; And the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day." 6.1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple." 11.3. And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;" 11.4. But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the land; And he shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked." 13.11. And I will visit upon the world their evil, And upon the wicked their iniquity; And I will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, And will lay low the haughtiness of the tyrants." 14.12. How art thou fallen from heaven, O day-star, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, That didst cast lots over the nations!" 14.13. And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north;" 14.14. I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High.’" 14.15. Yet thou shalt be brought down to the nether-world, To the uttermost parts of the pit." 28.11. For with stammering lips and with a strange tongue Shall it be spoken to this people;" 40.12. Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, And meted out heaven with the span, And comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, And weighed the mountains in scales, And the hills in a balance?" 40.13. Who hath meted out the spirit of the LORD? Or who was His counsellor that he might instruct Him?" 40.14. With whom took He counsel, and who instructed Him, And taught Him in the path of right, And taught Him knowledge, And made Him to know the way of discernment?" 41.2. Who hath raised up one from the east, At whose steps victory attendeth? He giveth nations before him, And maketh him rule over kings; His sword maketh them as the dust, His bow as the driven stubble." 41.26. Who hath declared from the beginning, that we may know? And beforetime, that we may say that he is right? Yea, there is none that declareth, Yea, there is none that announceth, Yea, there is none that heareth your utterances." 66.14. And when ye see this, your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like young grass; and the hand of the LORD shall be known toward His servants, and He will have indignation against His enemies."
19. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.2, 7.3-7.14, 26.18, 28.1-28.16, 35.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.2. הָלֹךְ וְקָרָאתָ בְאָזְנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה זָכַרְתִּי לָךְ חֶסֶד נְעוּרַיִךְ אַהֲבַת כְּלוּלֹתָיִךְ לֶכְתֵּךְ אַחֲרַי בַּמִּדְבָּר בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא זְרוּעָה׃ 2.2. כִּי מֵעוֹלָם שָׁבַרְתִּי עֻלֵּךְ נִתַּקְתִּי מוֹסְרֹתַיִךְ וַתֹּאמְרִי לֹא אעבד [אֶעֱבוֹר] כִּי עַל־כָּל־גִּבְעָה גְּבֹהָה וְתַחַת כָּל־עֵץ רַעֲנָן אַתְּ צֹעָה זֹנָה׃ 7.3. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵיטִיבוּ דַרְכֵיכֶם וּמַעַלְלֵיכֶם וַאֲשַׁכְּנָה אֶתְכֶם בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 7.3. כִּי־עָשׂוּ בְנֵי־יְהוּדָה הָרַע בְּעֵינַי נְאֻום־יְהוָה שָׂמוּ שִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם בַּבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו לְטַמְּאוֹ׃ 7.4. אַל־תִּבְטְחוּ לָכֶם אֶל־דִּבְרֵי הַשֶּׁקֶר לֵאמֹר הֵיכַל יְהוָה הֵיכַל יְהוָה הֵיכַל יְהוָה הֵמָּה׃ 7.5. כִּי אִם־הֵיטֵיב תֵּיטִיבוּ אֶת־דַּרְכֵיכֶם וְאֶת־מַעַלְלֵיכֶם אִם־עָשׂוֹ תַעֲשׂוּ מִשְׁפָּט בֵּין אִישׁ וּבֵין רֵעֵהוּ׃ 7.6. גֵּר יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה לֹא תַעֲשֹׁקוּ וְדָם נָקִי אַל־תִּשְׁפְּכוּ בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים לֹא תֵלְכוּ לְרַע לָכֶם׃ 7.7. וְשִׁכַּנְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לַאֲבוֹתֵיכֶם לְמִן־עוֹלָם וְעַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.8. הִנֵּה אַתֶּם בֹּטְחִים לָכֶם עַל־דִּבְרֵי הַשָּׁקֶר לְבִלְתִּי הוֹעִיל׃ 7.9. הֲגָנֹב רָצֹחַ וְנָאֹף וְהִשָּׁבֵעַ לַשֶּׁקֶר וְקַטֵּר לַבָּעַל וְהָלֹךְ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתֶּם׃ 7.11. הַמְעָרַת פָּרִצִים הָיָה הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו בְּעֵינֵיכֶם גַּם אָנֹכִי הִנֵּה רָאִיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 7.12. כִּי לְכוּ־נָא אֶל־מְקוֹמִי אֲשֶׁר בְּשִׁילוֹ אֲשֶׁר שִׁכַּנְתִּי שְׁמִי שָׁם בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וּרְאוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי לוֹ מִפְּנֵי רָעַת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.13. וְעַתָּה יַעַן עֲשׂוֹתְכֶם אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּעֲשִׂים הָאֵלֶּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה וָאֲדַבֵּר אֲלֵיכֶם הַשְׁכֵּם וְדַבֵּר וְלֹא שְׁמַעְתֶּם וָאֶקְרָא אֶתְכֶם וְלֹא עֲנִיתֶם׃ 7.14. וְעָשִׂיתִי לַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר נִקְרָא־שְׁמִי עָלָיו אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בֹּטְחִים בּוֹ וְלַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתִּי לָכֶם וְלַאֲבוֹתֵיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי לְשִׁלוֹ׃ 26.18. מיכיה [מִיכָה] הַמּוֹרַשְׁתִּי הָיָה נִבָּא בִּימֵי חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־כָּל־עַם יְהוּדָה לֵאמֹר כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת צִיּוֹן שָׂדֶה תֵחָרֵשׁ וִירוּשָׁלַיִם עִיִּים תִּהְיֶה וְהַר הַבַּיִת לְבָמוֹת יָעַר׃ 28.1. וַיְהִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִיא בְּרֵאשִׁית מַמְלֶכֶת צִדְקִיָּה מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה בשנת [בַּשָּׁנָה] הָרְבִעִית בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַחֲמִישִׁי אָמַר אֵלַי חֲנַנְיָה בֶן־עַזּוּר הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר מִגִּבְעוֹן בְּבֵית יְהוָה לְעֵינֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים וְכָל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר׃ 28.1. וַיִּקַּח חֲנַנְיָה הַנָּבִיא אֶת־הַמּוֹטָה מֵעַל צַוַּאר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא וַיִּשְׁבְּרֵהוּ׃ 28.2. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר שָׁבַרְתִּי אֶת־עֹל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃ 28.3. בְּעוֹד שְׁנָתַיִם יָמִים אֲנִי מֵשִׁיב אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵי בֵּית יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לָקַח נְבוּכַדנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיְבִיאֵם בָּבֶל׃ 28.4. וְאֶת־יְכָנְיָה בֶן־יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־כָּל־גָּלוּת יְהוּדָה הַבָּאִים בָּבֶלָה אֲנִי מֵשִׁיב אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶשְׁבֹּר אֶת־עֹל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃ 28.5. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא אֶל־חֲנַנְיָה הַנָּבִיא לְעֵינֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם הָעֹמְדִים בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 28.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא אָמֵן כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה יָקֵם יְהוָה אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִבֵּאתָ לְהָשִׁיב כְּלֵי בֵית־יְהוָה וְכָל־הַגּוֹלָה מִבָּבֶל אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 28.7. אַךְ־שְׁמַע־נָא הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר בְּאָזְנֶיךָ וּבְאָזְנֵי כָּל־הָעָם׃ 28.8. הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנַי וּלְפָנֶיךָ מִן־הָעוֹלָם וַיִּנָּבְאוּ אֶל־אֲרָצוֹת רַבּוֹת וְעַל־מַמְלָכוֹת גְּדֹלוֹת לְמִלְחָמָה וּלְרָעָה וּלְדָבֶר׃ 28.9. הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר יִנָּבֵא לְשָׁלוֹם בְּבֹא דְּבַר הַנָּבִיא יִוָּדַע הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר־שְׁלָחוֹ יְהוָה בֶּאֱמֶת׃ 28.11. וַיֹּאמֶר חֲנַנְיָה לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה כָּכָה אֶשְׁבֹּר אֶת־עֹל נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל בְּעוֹד שְׁנָתַיִם יָמִים מֵעַל צַוַּאר כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם וַיֵּלֶךְ יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא לְדַרְכּוֹ׃ 28.12. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יִרְמְיָה אַחֲרֵי שְׁבוֹר חֲנַנְיָה הַנָּבִיא אֶת־הַמּוֹטָה מֵעַל צַוַּאר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא לֵאמֹר׃ 28.13. הָלוֹךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־חֲנַנְיָה לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה מוֹטֹת עֵץ שָׁבָרְתָּ וְעָשִׂיתָ תַחְתֵּיהֶן מֹטוֹת בַּרְזֶל׃ 28.14. כִּי כֹה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹל בַּרְזֶל נָתַתִּי עַל־צַוַּאר כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲבֹד אֶת־נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וַעֲבָדֻהוּ וְגַם אֶת־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה נָתַתִּי לוֹ׃ 28.15. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא אֶל־חֲנַנְיָה הַנָּבִיא שְׁמַע־נָא חֲנַנְיָה לֹא־שְׁלָחֲךָ יְהוָה וְאַתָּה הִבְטַחְתָּ אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה עַל־שָׁקֶר׃ 28.16. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי מְשַׁלֵּחֲךָ מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה הַשָּׁנָה אַתָּה מֵת כִּי־סָרָה דִבַּרְתָּ אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 35.16. כִּי הֵקִימוּ בְּנֵי יְהוֹנָדָב בֶּן־רֵכָב אֶת־מִצְוַת אֲבִיהֶם אֲשֶׁר צִוָּם וְהָעָם הַזֶּה לֹא שָׁמְעוּ אֵלָי׃ 2.2. Go, and cry in the ears of Jerusalem, saying: Thus saith the LORD: I remember for thee the affection of thy youth, the love of thine espousals; how thou wentest after Me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown." 7.3. Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Amend your ways and your doings, and I will cause you to dwell in this place." 7.4. Trust ye not in lying words, saying: ‘The temple of the LORD, the temple of the LORD, the temple of the LORD, are these.’" 7.5. Nay, but if ye thoroughly amend your ways and your doings; if ye thoroughly execute justice between a man and his neighbour;" 7.6. if ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and shed not innocent blood in this place, neither walk after other gods to your hurt;" 7.7. then will I cause you to dwell in this place, in the land that I gave to your fathers, for ever and ever." 7.8. Behold, ye trust in lying words, that cannot profit." 7.9. Will ye steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and offer unto Baal, and walk after other gods whom ye have not known," 7.10. and come and stand before Me in this house, whereupon My name is called, and say: ‘We are delivered’, that ye may do all these abominations?" 7.11. Is this house, whereupon My name is called, become a den of robbers in your eyes? Behold, I, even I, have seen it, saith the LORD." 7.12. For go ye now unto My place which was in Shiloh, where I caused My name to dwell at the first, and see what I did to it for the wickedness of My people Israel." 7.13. And now, because ye have done all these works, saith the LORD, and I spoke unto you, speaking betimes and often, but ye heard not, and I called you, but ye answered not;" 7.14. therefore will I do unto the house, whereupon My name is called, wherein ye trust, and unto the place which I gave to you and to your fathers, as I have done to Shiloh." 26.18. ’Micah the Morashtite prophesied in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah; and he spoke to all the people of Judah, saying: Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Zion shall be plowed as a field, And Jerusalem shall become heaps, And the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest." 28.1. And it came to pass the same year, in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the fourth year, in the fifth month, that Haiah the son of Azzur the prophet, who was of Gibeon, spoke unto me in the house of the LORD, in the presence of the priests and of all the people, saying:" 28.2. ’Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saying: I have broken the yoke of the king of Babylon." 28.3. Within two full years will I bring back into this place all the vessels of the LORD’S house, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon took away from this place, and carried them to Babylon;" 28.4. and I will bring back to this place Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, with all the captives of Judah, that went to Babylon, saith the LORD; for I will break the yoke of the king of Babylon.’" 28.5. Then the prophet Jeremiah said unto the prophet Haiah in the presence of the priests, and in the presence of all the people that stood in the house of the LORD," 28.6. even the prophet Jeremiah said: ‘Amen! the LORD do so! the LORD perform thy words which thou hast prophesied, to bring back the vessels of the LORD’S house, and all them that are carried away captive, from Babylon unto this place!" 28.7. Nevertheless hear thou now this word that I speak in thine ears, and in the ears of all the people:" 28.8. The prophets that have been before me and before thee of old prophesied against many countries, and against great kingdoms, of war, and of evil, and of pestilence." 28.9. The prophet that prophesieth of peace, when the word of the prophet shall come to pass, then shall the prophet be known, that the LORD hath truly sent him.’" 28.10. Then Haiah the prophet took the bar from off the prophet Jeremiah’s neck, and broke it." 28.11. And Haiah spoke in the presence of all the people, saying: ‘Thus saith the LORD: Even so will I break the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon from off the neck of all the nations within two full years.’ And the prophet Jeremiah went his way." 28.12. Then the word of the LORD came unto Jeremiah, after that Haiah the prophet had broken the bar from off the neck of the prophet Jeremiah, saying:" 28.13. ’Go, and tell Haiah, saying: Thus saith the LORD: Thou hast broken the bars of wood; but thou shalt make in their stead bars of iron." 28.14. For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: I have put a yoke of iron upon the neck of all these nations, that they may serve Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; and they shall serve him; and I have given him the beasts of the field also.’ ." 28.15. Then said the prophet Jeremiah unto Haiah the prophet: ‘Hear now, Haiah; the LORD hath not sent thee; but thou makest this people to trust in a lie." 28.16. ’Therefore thus saith the LORD: Behold, I will send thee away from off the face of the earth; this year thou shalt die, because thou hast spoken perversion against the LORD.’" 35.16. Because the sons of Jonadab the son of Rechab have performed the commandment of their father which he commanded them, but this people hath not hearkened unto Me;"
20. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 12.12, 16.43 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.12. וְהַנָּשִׂיא אֲשֶׁר־בְּתוֹכָם אֶל־כָּתֵף יִשָּׂא בָּעֲלָטָה וְיֵצֵא בַּקִּיר יַחְתְּרוּ לְהוֹצִיא בוֹ פָּנָיו יְכַסֶּה יַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִרְאֶה לַעַיִן הוּא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 16.43. יַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־זכרתי [זָכַרְתְּ] אֶת־יְמֵי נְעוּרַיִךְ וַתִּרְגְּזִי־לִי בְּכָל־אֵלֶּה וְגַם־אֲנִי הֵא דַּרְכֵּךְ בְּרֹאשׁ נָתַתִּי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְלֹא עשיתי [עָשִׂית] אֶת־הַזִּמָּה עַל כָּל־תּוֹעֲבֹתָיִךְ׃ 12.12. And the prince that is among them shall bear upon his shoulder, and go forth in the darkness; they shall dig through the wall to carry out thereby; he shall cover his face, that he see not the ground with his eyes." 16.43. Because thou hast not remembered the days of thy youth, but hast fretted Me in all these things; lo, therefore I also will bring thy way upon thy head, saith the Lord GOD; or hast thou not committed this lewdness above all thine abominations?"
21. Theognis, Elegies, 10-18, 2-9, 1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 17.25 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.25. כִּי אַתָּה אֱלֹהַי גָּלִיתָ אֶת־אֹזֶן עַבְדְּךָ לִבְנוֹת לוֹ בָּיִת עַל־כֵּן מָצָא עַבְדְּךָ לְהִתְפַּלֵּל לְפָנֶיךָ׃ 17.25. For Thou, O my God, hast revealed to Thy servant that Thou wilt build him a house; therefore hath Thy servant taken heart to pray before Thee."
23. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 30.24, 35.7-35.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.24. כִּי חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה הֵרִים לַקָּהָל אֶלֶף פָּרִים וְשִׁבְעַת אֲלָפִים צֹאן וְהַשָּׂרִים הֵרִימוּ לַקָּהָל פָּרִים אֶלֶף וְצֹאן עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים וַיִּתְקַדְּשׁוּ כֹהֲנִים לָרֹב׃ 35.7. וַיָּרֶם יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ לִבְנֵי הָעָם צֹאן כְּבָשִׂים וּבְנֵי־עִזִּים הַכֹּל לַפְּסָחִים לְכָל־הַנִּמְצָא לְמִסְפַּר שְׁלֹשִׁים אֶלֶף וּבָקָר שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים אֵלֶּה מֵרְכוּשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 35.8. וְשָׂרָיו לִנְדָבָה לָעָם לַכֹּהֲנִים וְלַלְוִיִּם הֵרִימוּ חִלְקִיָּה וּזְכַרְיָהוּ וִיחִיאֵל נְגִידֵי בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים לַכֹּהֲנִים נָתְנוּ לַפְּסָחִים אַלְפַּיִם וְשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת וּבָקָר שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת׃ 35.9. וכונניהו [וְכָנַנְיָהוּ] וּשְׁמַעְיָהוּ וּנְתַנְאֵל אֶחָיו וַחֲשַׁבְיָהוּ וִיעִיאֵל וְיוֹזָבָד שָׂרֵי הַלְוִיִּם הֵרִימוּ לַלְוִיִּם לַפְּסָחִים חֲמֵשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וּבָקָר חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת׃ 30.24. For Hezekiah king of Judah did give to the congregation for offerings a thousand bullocks and seven thousand sheep; and the princes gave to the congregation a thousand bullocks and ten thousand sheep; and priests sanctified themselves in great numbers." 35.7. And Josiah gave to the children of the people, of the flock, lambs and kids, all of them for the passover-offerings, unto all that were present, to the number of thirty thousand, and three thousand bullocks; these were of the king’s substance." 35.8. And his princes gave willingly unto the people, to the priests, and to the Levites. Hilkiah and Zechariah and Jehiel, the rulers of the house of God, gave unto the priests for the passover-offerings two thousand and six hundred [small cattle], and three hundred oxen." 35.9. Coiah also, and Shemaiah and Nethanel, his brethren, and Hashabiah and Jeiel and Jozabad, the chiefs of the Levites, gave unto the Levites for the passover-offerings five thousand [small cattle], and five hundred oxen."
24. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 7.20 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.20. For there is not a righteous man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not."
25. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 10.1, 10.3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.1. וַיָּקָם עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אַתֶּם מְעַלְתֶּם וַתֹּשִׁיבוּ נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת לְהוֹסִיף עַל־אַשְׁמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 10.1. וּכְהִתְפַּלֵּל עֶזְרָא וּכְהִתְוַדֹּתוֹ בֹּכֶה וּמִתְנַפֵּל לִפְנֵי בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים נִקְבְּצוּ אֵלָיו מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל קָהָל רַב־מְאֹד אֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים וִילָדִים כִּי־בָכוּ הָעָם הַרְבֵּה־בֶכֶה׃ 10.3. וּמִבְּנֵי פַּחַת מוֹאָב עַדְנָא וּכְלָל בְּנָיָה מַעֲשֵׂיָה מַתַּנְיָה בְצַלְאֵל וּבִנּוּי וּמְנַשֶּׁה׃ 10.3. וְעַתָּה נִכְרָת־בְּרִית לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְהוֹצִיא כָל־נָשִׁים וְהַנּוֹלָד מֵהֶם בַּעֲצַת אֲדֹנָי וְהַחֲרֵדִים בְּמִצְוַת אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְכַתּוֹרָה יֵעָשֶׂה׃ 10.1. Now while Ezra prayed, and made confession, weeping and casting himself down before the house of God, there was gathered together unto him out of Israel a very great congregation of men and women and children; for the people wept very sore." 10.3. Now therefore let us make a covet with our God to put away all the wives, and such as are born of them, according to the counsel of the LORD, and of those that tremble at the commandment of our God; and let it be done according to the law."
26. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 1.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.4. וַיְהִי כְּשָׁמְעִי אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה יָשַׁבְתִּי וָאֶבְכֶּה וָאֶתְאַבְּלָה יָמִים וָאֱהִי צָם וּמִתְפַּלֵּל לִפְנֵי אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.4. And it came to pass, when I heard these words, that I sat down and wept, and mourned certain days; and I fasted and prayed before the God of heaven,"
27. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 8.7.13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.7.13. As for you, Cambyses, you must also know His words of counsel—(1) to Cambyses; that it is not this golden sceptre that maintains your empire; but faithful friends are a monarch’s truest and surest sceptre. But do not think that man is naturally faithful; else all men would find the same persons faithful, just as all find the other properties of nature the same. But every one must create for himself faithfulness in his friends; and the winning of such friends comes in no wise by compulsion, but by kindness.
28. Anon., Testament of Benjamin, 6.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.5. The good mind hath not two tongues, of blessing and of cursing, of contumely and of honor, of sorrow and of joy, of quietness and of confusion, of hypocrisy and of truth, [of poverty and of wealth]; but it hath one disposition, uncorrupt and pure, concerning all men.
29. Anon., Testament of Gad, 6.3-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.3. Love ye one another from the heart; and if a man sin against thee, speak peaceably to him, and in thy soul hold not guile; and if he repent and confess, forgive him. 6.4. But if he deny it, do not get into a passion with him, lest catching the poison from thee he take to swearing and so thou sin doubly. 6.5. Let not another man hear thy secrets when engaged in legal strife, lest he come to hate thee and become thy enemy, and commit a great sin against thee; for ofttimes he addresseth thee guilefully or busieth himself about thee with wicked intent. 6.6. And though he deny it and yet have a sense of shame when reproved, give over reproving him. For be who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and fear and be at peace with thee. 6.7. And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.
30. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1, 2, 2.2, 6.19, 6.20, 7, 7.2, 7.3, 8, 8.5, 9, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 10.14-11.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 2.2, 6.19, 6.20, 7.2, 7.3, 8.5, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 10.14-11.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 2.24, 3.8, 4.3, 5.3, 7.8-7.9, 9.16-9.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.15, 1.27, 3.8, 3.17-3.18, 4.5, 4.8, 4.11-4.18, 5.8, 5.13, 6.7, 6.16, 6.34, 6.37, 7.11, 7.17, 9.14-9.15, 10.14, 10.26-10.29, 13.15-13.23, 14.5, 16.17, 16.20-16.22, 18.13, 19.4, 19.8, 19.13-19.17, 19.20, 20.2, 20.18, 20.20, 20.22, 20.24, 20.26, 21.6-21.7, 22.22, 22.27, 23.2-23.6, 23.18, 23.20, 23.27, 25.7-25.11, 27.16-27.17, 27.21, 28.2, 28.7, 28.15, 28.17-28.18, 31.10, 31.15, 31.31-31.32, 32.17, 37.18, 38.12, 38.34, 40.18-40.20, 40.23-40.27, 41.4, 43.3, 44.20, 45.4, 46.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.15. she fills their whole house with desirable goods,and their storehouses with her produce. 1.27. For the fear of the Lord is wisdom and instruction,and he delights in fidelity and meekness. 3.8. Honor your father by word and deed,that a blessing from him may come upon you. 3.17. My son, perform your tasks in meekness;then you will be loved by those whom God accepts. 3.18. The greater you are, the more you must humble yourself;so you will find favor in the sight of the Lord. 4.5. Do not avert your eye from the needy,nor give a man occasion to curse you; 4.8. Incline your ear to the poor,and answer him peaceably and gently. 4.11. Wisdom exalts her sons and gives help to those who seek her. 4.12. Whoever loves her loves life,and those who seek her early will be filled with joy. 4.13. Whoever holds her fast will obtain glory,and the Lord will bless the place she enters. 4.14. Those who serve her will minister to the Holy One;the Lord loves those who love her. 4.15. He who obeys her will judge the nations,and whoever gives heed to her will dwell secure. 4.16. If he has faith in her he will obtain her;and his descendants will remain in possession of her. 4.17. For at first she will walk with him on tortuous paths,she will bring fear and cowardice upon him,and will torment him by her discipline until she trusts him,and she will test him with her ordices. 4.18. Then she will come straight back to him and gladden him,and will reveal her secrets to him. 5.8. Do not depend on dishonest wealth,for it will not benefit you in the day of calamity. 5.8. For there is a friend who is such at his own convenience,but will not stand by you in your day of trouble. 5.13. Glory and dishonor come from speaking,and a mans tongue is his downfall. 5.13. Keep yourself far from your enemies,and be on guard toward your friends. 7.11. Do not ridicule a man who is bitter in soul,for there is One who abases and exalts. 7.17. Humble yourself greatly,for the punishment of the ungodly is fire and worms. 9.14. As much as you can, aim to know your neighbors,and consult with the wise. 9.15. Let your conversation be with men of understanding,and let all your discussion be about the law of the Most High. 10.14. The Lord has cast down the thrones of rulers,and has seated the lowly in their place. 10.14. Good things and bad, life and death,poverty and wealth, come from the Lord. 10.26. Do not make a display of your wisdom when you do your work,nor glorify yourself at a time when you are in want. 10.26. For it is easy in the sight of the Lord to reward a man on the day of death according to his conduct. 10.27. Better is a man who works and has an abundance of everything,than one who goes about boasting, but lacks bread. 10.27. The misery of an hour makes one forget luxury,and at the close of a mans life his deeds will be revealed. 10.28. My son, glorify yourself with humility,and ascribe to yourself honor according to your worth. 10.28. Call no one happy before his death;a man will be known through his children. 10.29. Who will justify the man that sins against himself?And who will honor the man that dishonors his own life? 10.29. Do not bring every man into your home,for many are the wiles of the crafty. 13.15. Every creature loves its like,and every person his neighbor; 13.16. all living beings associate by species,and a man clings to one like himself. 13.17. What fellowship has a wolf with a lamb?No more has a sinner with a godly man. 13.18. What peace is there between a hyena and a dog?And what peace between a rich man and a poor man? 13.19. Wild asses in the wilderness are the prey of lions;likewise the poor are pastures for the rich. 13.21. When a rich man totters, he is steadied by friends,but when a humble man falls, he is even pushed away by friends. 13.22. If a rich man slips, his helpers are many;he speaks unseemly words, and they justify him. If a humble man slips, they even reproach him;he speaks sensibly, and receives no attention. 13.23. When the rich man speaks all are silent,and they extol to the clouds what he says. When the poor man speaks they say, "Who is this fellow?" And should he stumble, they even push him down. 14.5. If a man is mean to himself, to whom will he be generous?He will not enjoy his own riches. 16.17. Do not say, "I shall be hidden from the Lord,and who from on high will remember me?Among so many people I shall not be known,for what is my soul in the boundless creation? 16.21. Like a tempest which no man can see,so most of his works are concealed. 16.22. Who will announce his acts of justice?Or who will await them? For the covet is far off. 18.13. The compassion of man is for his neighbor,but the compassion of the Lord is for all living beings. He rebukes and trains and teaches them,and turns them back, as a shepherd his flock. 19.4. One who trusts others too quickly is lightminded,and one who sins does wrong to himself. 19.8. With friend or foe do not report it,and unless it would be a sin for you, do not disclose it; 19.13. Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it;but if he did anything, so that he may do it no more. 19.14. Question a neighbor, perhaps he did not say it;but if he said it, so that he may not say it again. 19.15. Question a friend, for often it is slander;so do not believe everything you hear. 19.16. A person may make a slip without intending it. Who has never sinned with his tongue? 19.17. Question your neighbor before you threaten him;and let the law of the Most High take its course. 20.2. How much better it is to reprove than to stay angry!And the one who confesses his fault will be kept from loss. 20.2. A proverb from a fools lips will be rejected,for he does not tell it at its proper time. 20.22. A man may lose his life through shame,or lose it because of his foolish look. 20.24. A lie is an ugly blot on a man;it is continually on the lips of the ignorant. 20.26. The disposition of a liar brings disgrace,and his shame is ever with him. 21.6. Whoever hates reproof walks in the steps of the sinner,but he that fears the Lord will repent in his heart. 21.7. He who is mighty in speech is known from afar;but the sensible man, when he slips, is aware of it. 22.22. If you have opened your mouth against your friend,do not worry, for reconciliation is possible;but as for reviling, arrogance, disclosure of secrets, or a treacherous blow -- in these cases any friend will flee. 22.22. So it is with a woman who leaves her husband and provides an heir by a stranger. 22.27. O that a guard were set over my mouth,and a seal of prudence upon my lips,that it may keep me from falling,so that my tongue may not destroy me!Sir.23 22.27. Those who survive her will recognize that nothing is better than the fear of the Lord,and nothing sweeter than to heed the commandments of the Lord. 25.7. With nine thoughts I have gladdened my heart,and a tenth I shall tell with my tongue:a man rejoicing in his children;a man who lives to see the downfall of his foes; 25.8. happy is he who lives with an intelligent wife,and he who has not made a slip with his tongue,and he who has not served a man inferior to himself; 25.9. happy is he who has gained good sense,and he who speaks to attentive listeners. 25.11. The fear of the Lord surpasses everything;to whom shall be likened the one who holds it fast? 27.16. Whoever betrays secrets destroys confidence,and he will never find a congenial friend. 27.17. Love your friend and keep faith with him;but if you betray his secrets, do not run after him. 27.21. For a wound may be bandaged,and there is reconciliation after abuse,but whoever has betrayed secrets is without hope. 28.2. Forgive your neighbor the wrong he has done,and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray. 28.2. for its yoke is a yoke of iron,and its fetters are fetters of bronze; 28.7. Remember the commandments, and do not be angry with your neighbor;remember the covet of the Most High, and overlook ignorance. 28.15. Slander has driven away courageous women,and deprived them of the fruit of their toil. 28.17. The blow of a whip raises a welt,but a blow of the tongue crushes the bones. 28.18. Many have fallen by the edge of the sword,but not so many as have fallen because of the tongue. 31.15. Judge your neighbors feelings by your own,and in every matter be thoughtful. 31.31. Do not reprove your neighbor at a banquet of wine,and do not despise him in his merrymaking;speak no word of reproach to him,and do not afflict him by making demands of him. 32.17. A sinful man will shun reproof,and will find a decision according to his liking. 37.18. four turns of fortune appear,good and evil, life and death;and it is the tongue that continually rules them. 38.12. And give the physician his place, for the Lord created him;let him not leave you, for there is need of him. 38.34. But they keep stable the fabric of the world,and their prayer is in the practice of their trade. 40.18. Life is sweet for the self-reliant and the worker,but he who finds treasure is better off than both. 40.19. Children and the building of a city establish a mans name,but a blameless wife is accounted better than both. 40.23. A friend or a companion never meets one amiss,but a wife with her husband is better than both. 40.24. Brothers and help are for a time of trouble,but almsgiving rescues better than both. 40.25. Gold and silver make the foot stand sure,but good counsel is esteemed more than both. 40.26. Riches and strength lift up the heart,but the fear of the Lord is better than both. There is no loss in the fear of the Lord,and with it there is no need to seek for help. 40.27. The fear of the Lord is like a garden of blessing,and covers a man better than any glory. 41.4. and how can you reject the good pleasure of the Most High?Whether life is for ten or a hundred or a thousand years,there is no inquiry about it in Hades. 45.4. He sanctified him through faithfulness and meekness;he chose him out of all mankind. 46.19. Before the time of his eternal sleep,Samuel called men to witness before the Lord and his anointed:"I have not taken any ones property,not so much as a pair of shoes." And no man accused him.
34. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 12.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12.2. Therefore thou dost correct little by little those who trespass,and dost remind and warn them of the things wherein they sin,that they may be freed from wickedness and put their trust in thee, O Lord.
35. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 2.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.13. It is sovereign over the relationship of friends, so that one rebukes friends when they act wickedly.
36. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 96, 95 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

95. But also it is expressly ordered, that men should offer as first fruits the tenths, not only of animals, but also of all the things which grow up out of the earth; "For," says the scripture, "every tenth of the earth from the seed and from the fruit of every tree, is holy to the Lord: and every tenth of oxen and sheep, and everything of any cattle which passes under the rod, of all these the tenth shall be holy to the Lord.
37. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 74 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

74. It is right therefore to offer the first fruits of these things: and the first fruits are the language of gratitude sent up from sincere truth of mind. And this language divides itself according to appropriate divisions in the same manner as the lyre and the other musical instruments are divided. For in each of those instruments each sound is by itself harmonious, and also exceedingly adapted to making a symphony with the rest. As in grammar also those of the elements which are called vowels are both capable of being uttered by themselves, and they also make a complete sound in conjunction with other letters.
38. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.200-4.201, 4.226-4.230, 4.260-4.264, 4.277-4.284 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.201. Let the ascent to it be not by steps but by an acclivity of raised earth. And let there be neither an altar nor a temple in any other city; for God is but one, and the nation of the Hebrews is but one. 4.226. 19. He that plants a piece of land, the trees of which produce fruits before the fourth year, is not to bring thence any first-fruits to God, nor is he to make use of that fruit himself, for it is not produced in its proper season; for when nature has a force put upon her at an unseasonable time, the fruit is not proper for God, nor for the master’s use; 4.227. but let the owner gather all that is grown on the fourth year, for then it is in its proper season. And let him that has gathered it carry it to the holy city, and spend that, together with the tithe of his other fruits, in feasting with his friends, with the orphans, and the widows. But on the fifth year the fruit is his own, and he may use it as he pleases. 4.228. 20. You are not to sow with seed a piece of land which is planted with vines, for it is enough that it supply nourishment to that plant, and be not harassed by ploughing also. You are to plough your land with oxen, and not to oblige other animals to come under the same yoke with them; but to till your land with those beasts that are of the same kind with each other. The seeds are also to be pure, and without mixture, and not to be compounded of two or three sorts, since nature does not rejoice in the union of things that are not in their own nature alike; 4.229. nor are you to permit beasts of different kinds to gender together, for there is reason to fear that this unnatural abuse may extend from beasts of different kinds to men, though it takes its first rise from evil practices about such smaller things. 4.261. and let them say thus to them:—That they cohabited together, not for the sake of pleasure, nor for the augmentation of their riches, by joining both their stocks together, but that they might have children to take care of them in their old age, and might by them have what they then should want. And say further to him, “That when thou wast born, we took thee up with gladness, and gave God the greatest thanks for thee, and brought time up with great care, and spared for nothing that appeared useful for thy preservation, and for thy instruction in what was most excellent. 4.262. And now, since it is reasonable to forgive the sins of those that are young, let it suffice thee to have given so many indications of thy contempt of us; reform thyself, and act more wisely for the time to come; considering that God is displeased with those that are insolent towards their parents, because he is himself the Father of the whole race of mankind, and seems to bear part of that dishonor which falls upon those that have the same name, when they do not meet with dire returns from their children. And on such the law inflicts inexorable punishment; of which punishment mayst thou never have the experience.” 4.263. Now if the insolence of young men be thus cured, let them escape the reproach which their former errors deserved; for by this means the lawgiver will appear to be good, and parents happy, while they never behold either a son or a daughter brought to punishment. 4.264. But if it happen that these words and instructions, conveyed by them in order to reclaim the man, appear to be useless, then the offender renders the laws implacable enemies to the insolence he has offered his parents; let him therefore be brought forth by these very parents out of the city, with a multitude following him, and there let him be stoned; and when he has continued there for one whole day, that all the people may see him, let him be buried in the night. 4.277. 33. If men strive together, and there be no instrument of iron, let him that is smitten be avenged immediately, by inflicting the same punishment on him that smote him: but if when he is carried home he lie sick many days, and then die, let him that smote him escape punishment; but if he that is smitten escape death, and yet be at great expense for his cure, the smiter shall pay for all that has been expended during the time of his sickness, and for all that he has paid the physician. 4.278. He that kicks a woman with child, so that the woman miscarry, let him pay a fine in money, as the judges shall determine, as having diminished the multitude by the destruction of what was in her womb; and let money also be given the woman’s husband by him that kicked her; but if she die of the stroke, let him also be put to death, the law judging it equitable that life should go for life. 4.279. 34. Let no one of the Israelites keep any poison that may cause death, or any other harm; but if he be caught with it, let him be put to death, and suffer the very same mischief that he would have brought upon them for whom the poison was prepared. 4.281. 36. Let him that is the owner of an ox which pusheth with his horn, kill him: but if he pushes and gores any one in the thrashing-floor, let him be put to death by stoning, and let him not be thought fit for food: but if his owner be convicted as having known what his nature was, and hath not kept him up, let him also be put to death, as being the occasion of the ox’s having killed a man. 4.282. But if the ox have killed a man-servant, or a maid-servant, let him be stoned; and let the owner of the ox pay thirty shekels to the master of him that was slain; but if it be an ox that is thus smitten and killed, let both the oxen, that which smote the other and that which was killed, be sold, and let the owners of them divide their price between them. 4.283. 37. Let those that dig a well or a pit be careful to lay planks over them, and so keep them shut up, not in order to hinder any persons from drawing water, but that there may be no danger of falling into them. 4.284. But if any one’s beast fall into such a well or pit thus digged, and not shut up, and perish, let the owner pay its price to the owner of the beast. Let there be a battlement round the tops of your houses instead of a wall, that may prevent any persons from rolling down and perishing.
39. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.207 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.207. It does not give leave to conceal any thing from our friends, because that is not true friendship which will not commit all things to their fidelity: it also forbids the revelation of secrets even though an enmity arise between them. If any judge takes bribes, his punishment is death: he that overlooks one that offers him a petition, and this when he is able to relieve him, he is a guilty person.
40. Mishnah, Avot, 3.4, 3.7-3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. Rabbi Haiah ben Hakinai said: one who wakes up at night, or walks on the way alone and turns his heart to idle matters, behold, this man is mortally guilty." 3.7. Rabbi Elazar of Bartotha said: give to Him of that which is His, for you and that which is yours is His; and thus it says with regards to David: “for everything comes from You, and from Your own hand have we given you” (I Chronicles 29:14). Rabbi Jacob said: if one is studying while walking on the road and interrupts his study and says, “how fine is this tree!” [or] “how fine is this newly ploughed field!” scripture accounts it to him as if he was mortally guilty." 3.8. Rabbi Dostai ben Rabbi Yannai said in the name of Rabbi Meir: whoever forgets one word of his study, scripture accounts it to him as if he were mortally guilty, as it is said, “But take utmost care and watch yourselves scrupulously, so that you do not forget the things that you saw with your own eyes” (Deuteronomy 4:9). One could [have inferred that this is the case] even when his study proved [too] hard for him, therefore scripture says, “that they do not fade from your mind as long as you live” (ibid.). Thus, he is not mortally guilty unless he deliberately removes them from his heart."
41. Mishnah, Makkot, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6. Perjuring witnesses are not to be put to death until [after] the end of the trial. Because the Sadducees say: “[Perjurers were put to death] only after the accused had [actually] been executed, as it says, “ A life for a life” (Deuteronomy 19:21). The [Pharisaic] Sages said to them: “But has not it already been said “You shall do to him as he schemed to do to his fellow” (Deuteronomy 19:19) which implies when his brother is still alive? If so, why does it say “A life for life”? For it might have been that perjurers are liable to be put to death from the moment their testimony had been taken, therefore the Torah states “A life for a life” that is to say that they are not executed until [after] the termination of the trial."
42. Mishnah, Peah, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.4. What constitutes a defective cluster (olelet) of grapes? Any [cluster] which has neither a shoulder [a wide upper part] nor a pendant [a cone-shaped lower part]. If it has a shoulder or a pendant, it belongs to the owner. If there is a doubt, it belongs to the poor. A defective cluster on the joint of a vine [where a normal cluster hangs from the vine], if it can be cut off with the cluster, it belongs to the owner; but if it can not, it belongs to the poor. A single grape: Rabbi Judah says: It is deemed a whole cluster, But the sages say: It is deemed a defective cluster."
43. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The mitzvah of the aravah how was it [performed]?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah [long blast], a teru’ah [staccato blast] and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: [they would say,] “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”"
44. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.14-2.15, 4.3-4.5, 9.3, 14.21-14.22, 14.24-14.25, 15.20, 15.23, 16.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. Now thenatural man doesn't receive the things of God's Spirit, for they arefoolishness to him, and he can't know them, because they arespiritually discerned. 2.15. But he who is spiritual discerns allthings, and he himself is judged by no one. 4.3. But with me it is a very small thing thatI should be judged by you, or by man's judgment. Yes, I don't judge myown self. 4.4. For I know nothing against myself. Yet I am notjustified by this, but he who judges me is the Lord. 4.5. Thereforejudge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes, who will bothbring to light the hidden things of darkness, and reveal the counselsof the hearts. Then each man will get his praise from God. 9.3. My defense to those who examine me isthis. 14.21. In the law it is written,"By men of strange languages and by the lips of strangers I will speakto this people. Not even thus will they hear me, says the Lord. 14.22. Therefore other languages are for a sign, not to those whobelieve, but to the unbelieving; but prophesying is for a sign, not tothe unbelieving, but to those who believe. 14.24. But if all prophesy, and someoneunbelieving or unlearned comes in, he is reproved by all, and he isjudged by all. 14.25. And thus the secrets of his heart are revealed.So he will fall down on his face and worship God, declaring that God isamong you indeed. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 16.15. Now I beg you, brothers (you know the house of Stephanas,that it is the first fruits of Achaia, and that they have setthemselves to minister to the saints)
45. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

46. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.13, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. But we are bound to always give thanks to God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because God chose you from the beginning for salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief in the truth; 3.15. Don't count him as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother.
47. New Testament, Apocalypse, 14.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb.
48. New Testament, James, 1.18, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures. 3.2. For in many things we all stumble. If anyone doesn't stumble in word, the same is a perfect man, able to bridle the whole body also.
49. New Testament, Jude, 15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

50. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.26. Be angry, and don't sin." Don't let the sun go down on your wrath
51. New Testament, Galatians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Brothers, even if a man is caught in some fault, you who arespiritual must restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; looking toyourself so that you also aren't tempted.
52. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. but exhort one another day by day, so long as it is called "today;" lest any one of you be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin.
53. New Testament, Romans, 2.16, 3.23, 8.23, 11.16, 12.19-12.20, 16.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. in the day when God will judge the secrets of men, according to my gospel, by Jesus Christ. 3.23. for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 11.16. If the first fruit is holy, so is the lump. If the root is holy, so are the branches. 12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 12.20. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head. 16.5. Greet the assembly that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the first fruits of Achaia to Christ.
54. New Testament, Luke, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. but Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias, his brother's wife, and for all the evil things which Herod had done
55. New Testament, Matthew, 5.43-5.48, 7.12, 18.15-18.17, 22.34-22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. 18.15. If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother. 18.16. But if he doesn't listen, take one or two more with you, that at the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 18.17. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he refuses to hear the assembly also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector. 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 22.35. One of them, a lawyer, asked him a question, testing him. 22.36. Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the law? 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 22.38. This is the first and great commandment. 22.39. A second likewise is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.
56. Tosefta, Demai, 2.10, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

57. Babylonian Talmud, Bekhorot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. חשוד על המעשר ומאן חכמים ר' יהודה וחד אמר החשוד על המעשר חשוד על השביעית ומאן חכמים ר' מאיר,דתניא עם הארץ שקיבל עליו דברי חבירות ונחשד לדבר אחד נחשד לכל התורה כולה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים אינו נחשד אלא לאותו דבר בלבד,הגר שקיבל עליו דברי תורה אפי' נחשד לדבר אחד הוי חשוד לכל התורה כולה והרי הוא כישראל משומד נפקא מינה דאי קדיש קידושיו קידושין,ת"ר הבא לקבל דברי חבירות חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו עובד כוכבים שבא לקבל דברי תורה חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר אפי' דקדוק אחד מדברי סופרים,וכן בן לוי שבא לקבל דברי לויה וכהן שבא לקבל דברי כהונה חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו שנאמר (ויקרא ז, לג) המקריב את דם השלמים וגו' העבודה המסורה לבני אהרן כל כהן שאינו מודה בה אין לו חלק בכהונה,ת"ר הבא לקבל דברי חבירות אם ראינוהו שנוהג בצינעה בתוך ביתו מקבלין אותו ואחר כך מלמדין אותו ואם לאו מלמדין אותו ואחר כך מקבלין אותו ר"ש בן יוחי אומר בין כך ובין כך מקבלין אותו והוא למד כדרכו והולך:,ת"ר מקבלין לכנפים ואח"כ מקבלין לטהרות ואם אמר איני מקבל אלא לכנפים מקבלין אותו קיבל לטהרות ולא קיבל לכנפים אף לטהרות לא קיבל:,ת"ר עד כמה מקבלין אותו בית שמאי אומרים למשקין שלשים יום לכסות שנים עשר חודש ובית הלל אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לשנים עשר חודש,אם כן הוה ליה מקולי בית שמאי ומחומרי בית הלל אלא בית הלל אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לשלשים:,(סימן חב"ר תלמי"ד תכל"ת מכ"ם חז"ר גבא"י בעצמ"ו),תנו רבנן הבא לקבל דברי חבירות צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים ובניו ובני ביתו אינן צריכין לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אף בניו ובני ביתו צריכין לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים לפי שאינו דומה חבר שקיבל לבן חבר שקיבל:,תנו רבנן הבא לקבל דברי חבירות צריך לקבל בפני ג' חבירים ואפילו תלמיד חכם צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים זקן ויושב בישיבה אינו צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים שכבר קיבל עליו משעה שישב אבא שאול אומר אף תלמיד חכם אינו צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים ולא עוד אלא שאחרים מקבלין לפניו,אמר רבי יוחנן בימי בנו של רבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס נשנית משנה זו רבי יהודה ור' יוסי איסתפק להו מילתא בטהרות שדרו רבנן לגבי בנו של ר' חנינא בן אנטיגנוס אזילו אמרו ליה לעיין בה אשכחוה דקא טעין טהרות אותיב רבנן מדידיה לגבייהו וקאי איהו לעיוני בה,אתו אמרי ליה לר' יהודה ור' יוסי אמר להו ר' יהודה אביו של זה ביזה תלמידי חכמים אף הוא מבזה תלמידי חכמים,אמר לו ר' יוסי כבוד זקן יהא מונח במקומו אלא מיום שחרב בית המקדש נהגו כהנים סילסול בעצמן שאין מוסרין את הטהרות לכל אדם:,תנו רבנן חבר שמת אשתו ובניו ובני ביתו הרי הן בחזקתן עד שיחשדו וכן חצר שמוכרין בה תכלת הרי היא בחזקתה עד שתיפסל:,תנו רבנן אשת עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן בתו של עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן עבדו של עם הארץ שנמכר לחבר כולן צריכין לקבל דברי חבירות בתחלה אבל אשת חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן בתו של חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן עבדו של חבר שנמכר לעם הארץ אין צריכין לקבל דברי חבירות בתחלה,ר"מ אומר אף הן צריכין לקבל עליהן דברי חבירות לכתחלה ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר משום ר"מ מעשה באשה אחת שנשאת לחבר והיתה קומעת לו תפילין על ידו נשאת לעם הארץ והיתה קושרת לו קשרי מוכס על ידו: 30b. is bsuspect with regard to tithe. And whoare the Sages referred to here as bthe Rabbis?It is bRabbi Yehuda,as in his locale they treated the prohibition of produce of the Sabbatical Year stringently. bAndthe other bone says: One who is suspect with regard to tithe is suspect with regard toproduce of the bSabbaticalYear. bAnd whoare the Sages referred to here as bthe Rabbis?It is bRabbi Meir. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iDemai2:4): With regard to ban iam ha’aretz /i,i.e., one who is unreliable with regard to ritual impurity and tithes, bwho accepts upon himselfthe commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus,i.e., that he will be stringent in all matters observed by iḥaverim /i, including iteruma /i, tithes, and iḥalla /i, and also undertake to eat only food that is ritually pure, and the Sages accepted him as trustworthy bbutsubsequently he bwas suspected with regard to one matterin which others saw him act improperly, bhe is suspected with regard to the entire Torah.This is the bstatement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: He is suspected only with regard to that particular matter. /b,It is also taught in a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iDemai2:4): With regard to ba convert who accepted upon himselfupon his conversion bmatters of Torah,i.e., all of the mitzvot, beven if he is suspect with regard to one matteralone, bhe is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, and he isconsidered blike a Jewish transgressor [ imeshummad /i],who habitually transgresses the mitzvot. The Gemara explains that the practical bdifferenceresulting from the fact that he is considered like a Jewish transgressor is bthat if he betrothsa woman, bhis betrothal isa valid bbetrothal,and they are married. Although he is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, he does not return to his prior gentile status., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who comes to accept upon himselfthe commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus except for one matter,which he does not wish to observe, bhe is not accepted,and he is not trustworthy even with regard to those matters that he does wish to accept upon himself. Likewise, in the case of ba gentile who comes toconvert and takes upon himself to baccept the words of Torah except for one matter, he is not acceptedas a convert. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Evenif he refuses to accept bone detail of rabbinic law,he is not accepted.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd similarly,in the case of ba Levite who comes to accept the matters of a Levite, or a priest who comes to accept the matters of priesthood, except for one matter, he is not accepted. As it is stated:“He among the sons of Aaron, bthat sacrifices the blood of the peace offerings,and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion” (Leviticus 7:33). This means that with regard to btheTemple bservice, which is handedover bto the sons of Aaron, any priest who does not admit to itin its entirety bhas no share in the priesthood. /b,The Gemara continues on a similar topic. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus, if we have seen that he practicessuch matters bin private, within his home, he is accepted, and afterward he is taughtthe precise details of being a iḥaver /i. bBut ifwe have bnotseen him act as a iḥaverin his home, bhe is taughtfirst band afterward accepted. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Whetherin bthiscase bor thatcase, bhe isfirst baccepted, and hethen bcontinues to learn inthe busual manner,i.e., as a iḥaverhe learns from others how to behave., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: An iam ha’aretzwho wishes to become a iḥaver bis acceptedfirst bwith regard to hands,i.e., he is presumed to be stringent concerning the ritual purity of his hands by making sure to wash his hands before handling pure items, band afterward he is acceptedas trustworthy bfor purityin general. bAnd if he says: Iwish to bacceptpurity bonly with regard to hands, he is acceptedfor this. If he wishes to bacceptupon himself the stringencies of a iḥaver bwith regard to ritual purity but he does not acceptupon himself the stringencies bwith regard to hands,i.e., to wash his hands, which is a simple act, bhe is not accepted even for purityin general., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bUntil when is he accepted,i.e., how much time must elapse before he is considered trustworthy as a iḥaver /i? bBeit Shammai say: With regard to liquids, thirty days. With regard toimpurity of bclothing,about which iḥaverimwould be careful as well, btwelve months. And Beit Hillel say: Bothwith regard to bthis,liquids, band that,clothing, he must maintain the practice bfor twelve monthsbefore he is fully accepted as a iḥaver /i.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bIf so, this isone bofthe rare cases of bthe leniencies of Beit Shammai and of the stringencies of Beit Hillel,and yet it is not included in tractate iEduyyot /i, which lists all of the cases where Beit Shammai are more lenient than Beit Hillel. bRather,the text of the ibaraitamust be emended so that it reads: bBeit Hillel say: Bothwith regard to bthis,liquids band that,clothing, he must maintain the practice bfor thirtydays before he is fully accepted as a iḥaver /i.,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicto remember the topics from here until the end of the chapter: iḤaver /i; student; sky-blue dye [ itekhelet /i]; tax; return;tax bcollector; by himself. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus must acceptit bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i. But his children andthe bmembers of his household are not required to acceptthe status of iḥaverseparately bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even his children andthe bmembers of his household must acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, because a iḥaver /i, who accepted ithimself in the presence of three others, bis not comparable to the son of a iḥaver /i,who bacceptedthat status only due to his father but did not accept it himself explicitly, and their accepting the status not in the presence of three people is insufficient., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who comes to accept upon himselfa commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus must acceptit bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, and even a Torah scholarwho wishes to become a iḥaver bmust acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i.But ban elder who sitsand studies Torah bin a yeshiva is not required to acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, as he already accepted it upon himself from the moment he satand dedicated himself to study Torah in yeshiva. bAbba Shaul says: Even a Torah scholar is not required to acceptthe status of iḥaver bin the presence of three iḥaverim /i; and not onlydoes he have the status of iḥaverwithout an explicit declaration in the presence of three iḥaverim /i, bbut otherscan bacceptthat they wish to become a iḥaver bin his presence. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says: This mishna,i.e., the ruling that a Torah scholar must declare his intent to become a iḥaverin the presence of three iḥaverim /i, bwas taught in the days of the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus.At that time, bRabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei were uncertain abouta certain bmatter of ritual purity. The Sages senta delegation of their students bto the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonusand told them to bgoand btell him to examinethis matter. The students bfound him while he was carryingitems that were ritually bpure.The son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus bseated Sages from his ownyeshiva bnext tothe students who came to ask the question, because he did not trust these students to keep his items pure. bAnd he stood and examinedthe matter.,The students returned and bcame and told Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yoseithat the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus had treated them as though they had the status of iamei ha’aretz /i. bRabbi Yehuda said to themin anger: bThis one’s father,i.e., Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, bdegraded Torah scholarsby not trusting them with matters of ritual purity. And bhe too,the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, bdegrades Torah scholars. /b, bRabbi Yosei said to him: Let the honor of the elder,i.e., both the father and son, bbe left in its place.He did not act in this manner to degrade Torah scholars. bRather, from the day the Temple was destroyed, the priests were accustomed to act with a higher standard for themselves,and they decided bthat they will not pass ritually pureitems bto anyother bperson.Therefore, the son of Rabbi Ḥanina, as a priest, acted appropriately., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba iḥaverthat died, his wife and children and members of his household retain their presumptivestatus buntil they are suspectedof engaging in inappropriate deeds. bAnd similarly,in the case of ba courtyard in which one sells sky-blue dye, it retains its presumptivestatus as a place in which fit sky-blue dye is sold buntil it is disqualifieddue to the merchant’s unscrupulous behavior., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTheformer bwife an iam ha’aretzwholater bmarries a iḥaver /i, and likewise the daughter of an iam ha’aretzwho marries a iḥaver /i, and likewise the slave of an iam ha’aretzwho is sold to a iḥaver /i, must all acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus. Butwith regard to btheformer bwife of a iḥaverwholater bmarries an iam ha’aretz /i, and likewise the daughter of a iḥaverwho marries an iam ha’aretz /i, and likewise the slave of a iḥaverwho was sold to an iam ha’aretz /i,these people bneed not acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus iab initio /i,as each of them is already accustomed to behave as a iḥaver /i.,The ibaraitacontinues: bRabbi Meir says: They too must acceptupon themselves a commitment to observe bthe mattersassociated with iḥaverstatus iab initio /i. And similarly, Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar wouldillustrate this point and bsay in the name of Rabbi Meir:There was ban incident involving a certain woman who married a iḥaverand would tie [ ikoma’at /i] for him phylacteries on his hand,and she later bmarried a tax collector and would tie for him tax seals on his hand,which shows that her new husband had a great influence on her level of piety.
58. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10b. מלאכת מחשבת אסרה תורה ומלאכת מחשבת לא כתיבא:,חגיגות: מיכתב כתיבן לא צריכא לכדאמר ליה רב פפא לאביי ממאי דהאי וחגותם אותו חג לה' זביחה דלמא חוגו חגא קאמר רחמנא,אלא מעתה דכתיב (שמות ה, א) ויחוגו לי במדבר הכי נמי דחוגו חגא הוא וכי תימא הכי נמי והכתיב (שמות י, כה) ויאמר משה גם אתה תתן בידינו זבחים ועולות,דלמא הכי קאמר רחמנא אכלו ושתו וחוגו חגא קמאי לא סלקא דעתך דכתיב (שמות כג, יח) ולא ילין חלב חגי עד בקר ואי סלקא דעתך דחוגא הוא תרבא לחגא אית ליה,ודלמא הכי קאמר רחמנא חלב הבא בזמן חג לא ילין,אלא מעתה הבא בזמן חג הוא דלא ילין הא דכל השנה כולה ילין (ויקרא ו, ב) כל הלילה עד הבקר כתיב,דלמא אי מההוא הוה אמינא ההוא לעשה כתב רחמנא האי ללאו,ללאו כתב קרא אחרינא (דברים טז, ד) ולא ילין מן הבשר אשר תזבח בערב ביום הראשון לבקר ודלמא לעבור עליו בשני לאוין ועשה,אלא אתיא מדבר מדבר כתיב הכא ויחוגו לי במדבר וכתיב התם (עמוס ה, כה) הזבחים ומנחה הגשתם לי במדבר מה להלן זבחים אף כאן זבחים,ומאי כהררין התלויין בשערה דברי תורה מדברי קבלה לא ילפינן:,מעילות: מיכתב כתיבן אמר רמי בר חמא לא נצרכא אלא לכדתנן השליח שעשה שליחותו בעל הבית מעל לא עשה שליחותו שליח מעל,וכי עשה שליחותו אמאי מעל וכי זה חוטא וזה מתחייב היינו כהררין התלויין בשערה,אמר רבא ומאי קושיא דלמא שאני מעילה דילפא חטא חטא מתרומה מה התם שלוחו של אדם כמותו אף כאן שלוחו של אדם כמותו,אלא אמר רבא לא נצרכא אלא לכדתניא נזכר בעל הבית ולא נזכר שליח שליח מעל שליח עניא מאי קא עביד היינו כהררין התלויין בשערה,אמר רב אשי מאי קושיא דלמא מידי דהוה אמוציא מעות הקדש לחולין,אלא אמר רב אשי לא נצרכא אלא לכדתנן נטל אבן או קורה של הקדש הרי זה לא מעל נתנה לחבירו הוא מעל וחבירו לא מעל מכדי מישקל שקלה מה לי הוא ומה לי חבירו היינו כהררין התלויין בשערה,ומאי קושיא דלמא כדשמואל דאמר שמואל הכא 10b. The Gemara answers: bThe Torah prohibitedonly planned, bcreative laboron Shabbat. An act of labor that is not intended, or whose result is unintended, or whose consequence is destructive, is not included in this category. Therefore, one who performs labor in this manner is exempt. bAndlimitation of the prohibition against bcreative labor is not writtenanywhere in the Torah with regard to the laws of Shabbat. Admittedly, this principle is written in connection with the Tabernacle, and there is an established exegetical link between the building of the Tabernacle and Shabbat. Nevertheless, as this fundamental principle concerning the ihalakhotof Shabbat does not appear explicitly, it is compared to mountains suspended by a hair.,§ The mishna taught that the ihalakhotof bFestival peace /b-offerings are like mountains suspended by a hair. The Gemara asks: But bthey are writtenin the Torah. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryto say this bin accordance with that which Rav Pappa said to Abaye: From whereis it derived bthat thisverse: b“And you shall celebrate it as a Festival [ iveḥagotem /i] to the Lord”(Leviticus 23:41), is referring to ban animal offering? Perhaps the Merciful One issimply bsaying: Celebrate a Festival. /b,Abaye responded: bHowever, if that is so,consider bthat it is written:“Let My people go, bthat they may hold a feast [ iveyaḥogu /i] to Me in the wilderness”(Exodus 5:1). bSo too,the meaning of this verse bis thatthey will merely bcelebrate a Festival,and not bring an offering. bAnd if you would say that isindeed bso,that this means that they should celebrate a Festival, bbut isn’t it written: “And Moses said: You must also give into our hand sacrifices and burnt- /bofferings, that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God” (Exodus 10:25)? This shows that the command is referring to offerings.,The Gemara raises a difficulty. But bperhaps this is what the Merciful One said:Slaughter animals so that you can beat, drink, and celebrate a Festival before Me,but no offerings are necessary. The Gemara answers: This bcannot enter your mind, as it is written: “The fat of My Festival feast [ iḥagi /i] shall not remain all night until the morning”(Exodus 23:18). bAnd if it enters your mindto say bthat it isreferring to a regular bFestival feastand not an offering, bdoes a Festival feast haveforbidden bfats? /b,The Gemara asks: bBut perhaps this is what the Merciful One statesin the Torah: The bfatsof gift offerings bthat are brought during a Festival may not remain all night.If so, the phrase “My Festival feast” is not referring to a type of offering at all, but to a particular time.,The Gemara answers: bHowever, if that is so,this verse indicates that it is only those fats bthat are brought during a Festival that may not remain overnight.It may be inferred from here bthatfats which are brought bthroughout the year may remain all night.But bit is writtenabout burnt-offerings: “On its firewood upon the altar ball night into the morning”(Leviticus 6:2). This shows that burnt-offerings must burn upon the altar all night.,The Gemara further asks: bPerhaps ifthis ihalakhawas derived bfrom thatverse, bI would say thatverse serves as the source bof a positive mitzva.Therefore, bthe Merciful One writes thisverse: “Shall not remain all night,” bas a prohibitionas well.,The Gemara responds. With regard bto the prohibitionagainst leaving over an offering on a Festival, banother verse was written: “Neither shall any of the flesh, which you sacrifice the first day at evening, remain all night until the morning”(Deuteronomy 16:4). The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthe verse: “Shall not remain all night” comes to teach that one who does so bviolates two prohibitions and a positive mitzva. /b, bRather,the Gemara rejects this explanation in favor of the claim that the source for a Festival peace-offering bcomesfrom a verbal analogy between the term b“wilderness”stated here and the term: b“wilderness”stated elsewhere. bIt is written here: “They shall make an offering to Me in the wilderness”(Exodus 5:1), band it is written there: “Did you bring to Me sacrifices and offeringsforty years bin the wilderness,house of Israel?” (Amos 5:25). bJust as thereit is referring to actual banimal offerings, so too here,it is referring to banimal offerings,not merely the celebration of a Festival.,The Gemara asks: bAndin light of this verbal analogy, in bwhatway is this ihalakha blike mountains suspended by a hair?The Gemara answers: The textual evidence is not that strong, as generally bone does not derive Torah matters from texts of the tradition,i.e., Prophets and Writings. Since the prophets were not permitted to introduce new ihalakhot /i, as the Torah is the only authoritative source in that regard, this verbal analogy does not carry the same weight as a ihalakhaderived from the Torah itself.,§ The mishna taught that the details of the ihalakhotof bmisuseof consecrated property are like mountains suspended by a hair. The Gemara asks: But bthey are writtenin the Torah (Leviticus 5:14–16). bRami bar Ḥama said:This statement bis necessary only for that which we learnedin a mishna ( iMe’ila20a): With regard to ban agent who performs his agency,e.g., when a homeowner sends someone to buy an object with consecrated money and the agent does as he was instructed, bthe homeowner has misusedconsecrated property and must bring an offering for the actions of the agent performed on his behalf. However, if the agent bdid not perform his agency,but in some way acted on his own account, bthe agent has misusedconsecrated property, and he is the one obligated to bring the offering.,The Gemara explains: bAnd when he performed his agency, whyis the owner considered to have bmisusedconsecrated property? bAnd is itpossible bthat this one sins and that one is rendered liable?Since this ihalakhais counterintuitive, it is not apparent from the verses. bThis iswhat the mishna was referring to when it said that these ihalakhotare blike mountains suspended by a hair. /b, bRava said: And what isthe logical bdifficultywith this ihalakha /i? bPerhapsthe transgression of bmisuseof consecrated property bis different, as it is derivedthrough a verbal analogy from the parallel term b“sin”(Leviticus 5:6) and b“sin”(Numbers 18:9), bfromthe case of iteruma /i: Just as there,with regard to iteruma /i, the legal status of ba person’s agent is likethat of bhimself,and therefore the agent may separate iterumaon behalf of the owner of the produce, bso too here,with regard to misuse of consecrated property, the legal status of ba person’s agent is likethat of bhimself,which means that when the agent properly performs his agency the owner is liable., bRather, Rava said:The mishna’s statement with regard to mountains bis necessary only for that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: If, after he sent an agent to use a consecrated object, bthe homeowner rememberedthat it was a consecrated item band the agent did not remember, the agent has misusedconsecrated property despite the fact that he was merely performing his agency. This is because one is liable for the misuse of consecrated property only if he acted unwittingly. In this instance, bwhat did the poor agent do?He simply performed his agency on behalf of the owner, and yet because the owner remembered about the consecrated object, the agent is liable. bThis iswhat the mishna is referring to when it says that these ihalakhotare blike mountains suspended by a hair. /b, bRav Ashi said:And bwhat isthe logical bdifficultywith this ihalakha /i? bPerhapsthis bis just as it is withregard to bone who spends consecrated money for non-sacredpurposes. Although this individual did not know that the money was consecrated, he is nevertheless obligated to bring an offering. Here too, once the owner canceled the agency upon realizing the money was consecrated, the agent unwittingly misused consecrated property, and therefore he is liable., bRather, Rav Ashi said:The mishna bis necessary only for that which we learnedin a mishna ( iMe’ila19b): If one bpicked up a consecrated stone or beam, he has not misusedconsecrated property merely by this action. However, if he bgave it to another, he has misusedconsecrated property band the otherperson bhas not misusedconsecrated property. The Gemara analyzes this case: bSince he picked it up, whatdifference bisthere bto meif bhekeeps it, band whatdifference bisthere bto meif he gives it to banother?What is the basis for the distinction between the two cases? Rather, bthis isthe case the mishna is referring to when it says that these ihalakhotare blike mountains suspended by a hair. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty. bWhat isthe logical bdifficultywith this ihalakha /i? bPerhapsit should be explained bin accordance withthe opinion bof Shmuel, as Shmuel said: Here,this mishna is not referring to an ordinary person who picked up a consecrated stone for himself.
59. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

104a. עלויי קא מעלי ליה דאמר רב חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין אלא סתום ועשאו פתוח גרועי קא מגרע ליה דאמר ר' ירמיה ואיתימא ר' חייא בר אבא מנצפך צופים אמרום,ותיסברא והכתיב (ויקרא כז, לד) אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא מיהוה הואי מידע לא הוה ידעין הי באמצע תיבה הי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים תקנינהו ואכתי אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,גופא א"ר חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין ואמר רב חסדא כתב שבלוחות נקרא מבפנים ונקרא מבחוץ כגון נבוב בובן (רהב בהר) סרו ורס:,אמרי ליה רבנן לריב"ל אתו דרדקי האידנא לבי מדרשא ואמרו מילי דאפילו בימי יהושע בן נו"ן לא איתמר כוותייהו אל"ף בי"ת אלף בינה גימ"ל דל"ת גמול דלים מ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דגימ"ל לגבי דל"ת שכן דרכו של גומל חסדים לרוץ אחר דלים ומ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דדל"ת לגבי גימ"ל דלימציה ליה נפשיה ומ"ט מהדר אפיה דדל"ת מגימ"ל דליתן ליה בצינעה כי היכי דלא ליכסיף מיניה,ה"ו זה שמו של הקב"ה ז"ח ט"י כ"ל ואם אתה עושה כן הקב"ה זן אותך וחן אותך ומטיב לך ונותן לך ירושה וקושר לך כתר לעוה"ב מ"ם פתוחה מ"ם סתומה מאמר פתוח מאמר סתום נו"ן כפופה נו"ן פשוטה נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט,ס"ע סמוך עניים ל"א סימנין עשה בתורה וקנה אותה פ' כפופה פ' פשוטה פה פתוח פה סתום צד"י כפופה וצד"י פשוטה צדיק כפוף צדיק פשוט היינו נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט הוסיף לך הכתוב כפיפה על כפיפתו מכאן שנתנה התורה במנוד ראש,קו"ף קדוש רי"ש רשע מאי טעמא מהדר אפיה דקו"ף מרי"ש אמר הקב"ה אין אני יכול להסתכל ברשע ומאי טעמא מהדרה תגיה דקו"ף לגבי רי"ש אמר הקב"ה אם חוזר בו אני קושר לו כתר כמותי ומ"ט כרעיה דקו"ף תלויה דאי הדר ביה ליעייל,וליעול בהך מסייע ליה לריש לקיש) דאמר ר"ל מ"ד (משלי ג, לד) אם ללצים הוא יליץ ולענוים יתן חן בא ליטמא פותחין לו בא ליטהר מסייעים אותו,שי"ן שקר תי"ו אמת מאי טעמא שקר מקרבן מיליה אמת מרחקא מיליה שיקרא שכיח קושטא לא שכיח ומ"ט שיקרא אחדא כרעיה קאי ואמת מלבן לבוניה קושטא קאי שיקרא לא קאי,א"ת ב"ש אותי תעב אתאוה לו ב"ש בי לא חשק שמי יחול עליו ג"ר גופו טימא ארחם עליו ד"ק דלתותי נעל קרניו לא אגדע עד כאן מדת רשעים,אבל מדת צדיקים א"ת ב"ש אם אתה בוש ג"ר ד"ק אם אתה עושה כן גור בדוק ה"ץ ו"ף חציצה הוי בינך לאף ז"ע ח"ס ט"ן ואין אתה מזדעזע מן השטן י"ם כ"ל אמר [שר של] גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לים כל,אמר הקב"ה אח"ס בט"ע גי"ף אני חס עליהם מפני שבעטו בגי"ף דכ"ץ דכים הם כנים הם צדיקים הם הל"ק אין לך חלק בהן ומרז"ן ש"ת אמר גיהנם לפניו רבונו של עולם מרי זניני מזרעו של שת,א"ל א"ל ב"ם ג"ן ד"ס להיכן אוליכן לגן הדס ה"ע ו"ף אמר גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם עיף אנכי ז"ץ ח"ק הללו זרעו של יצחק ט"ר י"ש כ"ת טר יש לי כיתות כיתות של עובדי כוכבים שאני נותן לך: 104a. bhe elevates itsstatus, as bRav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously.Each letter was chiseled all the way through the tablets. In that case, the segment of the tablets at the center of the isamekhand final imem /i, letters that are completely closed, should have fallen. Miraculously, they remained in place. Consequently, rendering an open imemclosed elevates its status. bHowever,if bone rendered a closedletter bopen, he diminishes itsstatus, as bRabbi Yirmeya said, and some saythat it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho said: bThe prophets institutedthe difference between the open and closed forms of the letters imem /i, inun /i, itzadi /i, ipeh /i, ikaf /i.Since the closed letters date back to the Ten Commandments, apparently the prophets introduced the open versions of the letters, which are therefore less significant.,The Gemara rejects this: bAnd is that reasonable? Isn’t it written: “These are the commandmentsthat the Lord commanded Moses to tell the children of Israel at Mount Sinai” (Leviticus 27:34). The word “these” underscores bthat a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belementrelated to the Torah and its mitzvot bfrom here on. Rather,the prophets did not innovate these forms. Both the open and closed versions bexistedbefore then. However, people bdid not know whichform appeared bin the middle of a wordand bwhichform bat the end of a word. And the prophets cameand binstituted theirset positions. The Gemara asks: bAnd stillthe question remains: Didn’t the Sages derive from the verse: b“These are the commandments,” that a prophet is not permitted to introduce anynew belement from here on?How could they institute the position of the letters? bRather,over the course of time, the people bforgot theirpositions in the words bandthe prophets bthen reestablished theirpositions. Apparently, closed letters are no more significant than the open ones.,The Gemara returns to discuss bthe matter itself. Rav Ḥisda said:The letters imemand isamekhthat were in the tablets were standing miraculously. Andfurthermore, bRav Ḥisda said:The bwriting on the tablets was read from the inside,from one side of the tablets, band read from the outside,the other side of the tablets, in reverse order. The Gemara cites words that appear elsewhere in the Bible: iNevuv /iwas read as ibet /i, ivav /i, ibet /i, inun /i; irahav /ias ibeit /i, iheh /i, ireish /i;and isaru /ias ivav /i, ireish /i, isamekh /i. /b, bThe Sages said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Young students cametoday bto the study hall and said thingsthe likes of bwhich were not saideven bin the days of Joshua bin Nun.These children who only knew the Hebrew alphabet interpreted the letters homiletically. briAlef beit /imeans blearn[ielaf/b] the bwisdom[ibina/b] of the Torah. briGimmel dalet /imeans bgive to the poor[igemol dalim/b]. bWhy is the leg of the igimmelextended towardthe idalet /i? Because it is the manner of one who bestows loving-kindness to pursue the poor. And whyis the bleg ofthe idaletextended towardthe igimmel /i?It is so bthata poor person bwill make himself available to himwho wants to give him charity. bAnd why does the idaletface away fromthe igimmel /i?It is to teach bthat one should givecharity bdiscreetly so thatthe poor person bwill not be embarrassed by him. /b,The children continued to interpret the letters. briHeh vav /i: That isthe principal bname of the Holy One, Blessed be He.briZayin ḥet /i, itet yod /i, ikaf lamed /i: And if you do so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds [ izan /i] you, and shows you favor [ iḥan /i], and bestows goodness [ imeitiv /i] upon you, and gives you an inheritance [ iyerusha /i], and ties a crown [ iketer /i] for you in the World to Come [ ila’olam haba /i].brThe bopen imemand closed imem /iindicate that the Torah contains ban open statement,understood by all, and ban esoteric statement.brThe bbent inun /iand the bstraight inun /iat the end of a word refer to ba faithful person who is bent [ ine’eman kafuf /i]and is modest now, who will ultimately become a bwell-known faithful person [ ine’eman pashut /i]. /b,iSamekh ayin /i: Support the poor [ isemokh aniyyim /i]to prevent them from falling further. bAnother version: Make mnemonicsigns b[ isimanim aseh /i]to remember bthe Torah and acquire it.brThe bbent ipeh /iand the bstraight ipeh /i:Sometimes one needs to have ban open mouth [ ipeh patuaḥ /i]and speak, and sometimes one needs to have ba closed mouth [ ipeh satum /i].brThe bbent itzadi /iand the bstraight itzadi /iindicate that ba righteousperson who is bbentand humble b[ itzaddik kafuf /i]now will ultimately become ba well-known righteousperson b[ itzaddik pashut /i]whose righteousness is apparent to all. The Gemara asks: bThat is identicalto the interpretation of the bent and straight inun /i: iNe’eman kafuf /i, ine’eman pashut /i.The Gemara explains: bThe verse addedthe bbendingof the righteous person bto the bending ofthe faithful person. bFrom hereit is derived bthat the Torah was given inan atmosphere of bgravity.One must receive the Torah with a sense of awe and extreme humility.,The children continued: briKuf /i: Holy [ ikadosh /i],referring to God. briReish /i: A wicked person [ irasha /i]. Why is the ikuffacing away fromthe ireish /i?This question was phrased euphemistically, as it is the ireishthat is facing away from the ikuf /i. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am unable look at a wicked person,i.e., the wicked person does not want to look toward God. bAnd why is the crown ofthe letter ikufturned towardthe ireish /i? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Ifthe wicked person brepentshis evil ways bI will tie a crown for him like My own. And why is the leg ofthe ikufsuspendedand not connected to the roof of the letter? bBecause ifthe wicked person brepents he can enterthrough this opening if he so desires.,The Gemara asks: bLet him enter through thatopening, as the ikufis open on both sides at the bottom. The Gemara answers: This bsupportsthe statement of bReish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “If it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, and unto the humble He gives grace”(Proverbs 3:34)? One who bcomesin order bto become impure,i.e., to sin, bthey,in Heaven, bprovide him with an openingto do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. However, if he bcomesin order bto become purified,not only is he allowed to do so, but bthey,in Heaven, bassist him. /b,They further taught: briShin /i: Falsehood [ isheker /i]. iTav /i: Truth [ iemet /i].br bWhy are the letters ofthe word ishekeradjacentto one another in the alphabet, while bthe letters of iemetare distantfrom one another? That is because while bfalsehood iseasily bfound, truth is foundonly with great difficulty. bAnd why dothe letters that comprise the word isheker /iall bstand on one foot, andthe letters that comprise the word iemet /istand on bases that are wide like bbricks?Because the btruth standseternal and bfalsehood does not standeternal.,The Gemara cites another midrash that also deals with the letters of the alphabet. This one uses a code in which the first letter is paired with the last letter, the second letter with the penultimate one, and so on b[ ialef tav /i, ibeit shin /i]. iAlef tav /i, God said: If bhe despised Me [ ioti ti’ev /i]would bI desire [ ietaveh /i] him? iBeit shin /i:If bhe does not desireto worship bMe [ ibi /i],shall bMy name [ ishemi /i] rest upon him? iGimmel reish /i:He bdefiled his body [ igufo /i];shall bI have mercy [ iaraḥem /i] on him?The word comprised of the letters igimmeland ireishin Aramaic means licentiousness. iDalet kuf /i:He blocked My doors [ idaltotai /i],shall bI not cut off his horns [ ikarnav /i]? To this point,the Gemara interpreted the letters as referring to bthe attribute of the wicked. /b, bHowever,with regard to bthe attribute of the righteousit is taught differently. iAlef tav /i, ibeit shin /i: If you have shame [ iata bosh /i], igimmel reish /i, idalet kuf /i: If you do so,you will breside [ igur /i] inthe bheavens [ ibedok /i],as the verse says: “Who stretches out the Heavens like a curtain [ idok /i]” (Isaiah 40:22). iHeh tzadi /i, ivav peh /i: There is a partition [ iḥatzitza havei /i] between you and anger [ iaf /i]. iZayin ayin /i, iḥet samekh /i, itet nun /i: And you will not be shaken [ imizdaze’a /i] by the Satan. iYod mem /i, ikaf lamed /i: The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,send the righteous as well into the bseato which ballgo b[ iyam kol /i],Gehenna.,The interpretation of the alphabet continues with other combinations of letters. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: iAlef ḥet samekh /i, ibet tet ayin /i, igimmel yod peh /i: I have mercy on them [ iAni ḥas aleihem /i] because they spurned [ iba’atu /i] adultery [ igif /i].The Gemara continues with this combination of the letters: iDalet kaf tzadi /i: They are pure [ idakkim /i], they are honest [ ikenim /i], they are righteous [ itzaddikim /i]. iHeh lamed kuf /i: You have no portion [ iḥelek /i] with them,based on the interchange of the letters iḥetand iheh /i. iVav mem reish zayin nun /i, ishin tav /i:The minister of bGehenna said [ iamar /i],based on ivav mem reish /i, bbefore Him: Master of the Universe, my Master [ iMari /i], sustain me [ izaneini /i] with the seed of Seth [ iShet /i],which refers to all humankind, including the Jewish people.,The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to himusing another configuration of the alphabet: iAlef lamed /i, ibeit mem /i: Not with them [ ial bam /i],i.e., you will have no portion of them. iGimmel nun /i, idalet samekh /i: To where will I lead them?I will lead them bto the garden of myrtle [ igan hadas /i],i.e., the Garden of Eden. iHeh ayin /i, ivav peh /i:The minister of bGehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I am tired [ iayef anokhi /i]and thirsty and need people to care for me. The Holy One, Blessed be He, responded: iZayin tzadi /i, iḥet kuf /i: These are the descendants [ izaro /i] of Isaac [ iYitzḥak /i]. iTet reish /i, iyod shin /i, ikaf tav /i: Wait [ itar /i], I have groupsupon bgroups [ iyesh li kittot kittot /i] ofother bnations that I will give youinstead.
60. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 188-207, 227-228, 187

187. Taking an opportunity afforded by a pause in the banquet the king asked the envoy who sat in the seat of honour (for they were arranged according to seniority), How he could keep his kingdom


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron ben elijah of nicomedia Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
abigail Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 62
abraham Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 172
accusation Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 101, 102, 112
actions of israelite farmer Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 35
adjuration Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
adultery Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
agriculture,division of Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 35
alt,albrecht Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 22
amoraim,amoraic period Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94, 101, 102
anger,bringing a charge in Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 94
anger,wild Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
antithesis Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145
atonement,as bearing others sins nan
atonement,as slaughter of the sacrificial victim nan
atonement,as substance of his heavenly offering nan
atonement,in the levitical cult nan
banquets Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 166
bar kochba Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 35
beast,wild Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
beast Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
bible Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101, 105
biblical Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
brotherhood Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 131
brothers/sisters Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 62, 162, 164, 217
cairo genizah Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
capital matters Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101, 102
chain of lameds Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
claudius,roman emperor,expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 401
commandment/commandments Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 157
commandments Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90
community,preserving sanctity of Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 30
conversion Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 99
conviction Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 99
court Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94, 105
courts,royal Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 217
covenant Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 163, 172
creation Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 166
cult prophets Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 80
day,judgment,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
day,resurrection,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
de-orayta (laws from the torah),,on tosefet shabbat Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 75
de-orayta (laws from the torah) Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 30
de-rabbanan (laws decreed by the rabbis),,on tosefet shabbat Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 75
de-rabbanan (laws decreed by the rabbis) Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 30
death Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145, 171
decalogue Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 217
destruction of the second temple Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 131
deuteronomic theology Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 217
deuteronomy Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 35
dialogue Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 45
discourses of divine law,in biblical literature Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 22
divine law,in biblical israel Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 22
douglas,mary Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 80
edom,appelation for the roman empire Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 131
elder Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94
enemies Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 162
eschatological Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
eschaton Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 35
ethiopian official Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 126
evil Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 164, 165, 171
execution Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91
exegesis,exegetical,interpretation of scripture,jesus command of scriptural exegesis Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
exegesis,exegetical,interpretation of scripture Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
exegesis,karaite Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
exegesis,midrash Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
exegesis,pesher Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 99, 101
exegesis,sectarian Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 91, 94, 112
exegesis,tannaitic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91
faithfulness Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 62, 145, 162, 217
fear of god Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 62, 145, 217
flattery Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 165
fool Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 62
frankness Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 165
fruit,first Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
god Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 62, 145, 162, 164, 166, 170, 172, 217; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
golden rule Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
good Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 171, 217
good name Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 62
greco-roman world,culture Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
greetings Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145
grief Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 166
guilt Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 239, 242; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 91, 112
halakhah/halakhot,and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156, 157
hatred (of enemies,outsiders) Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
havurah (pharisaic) Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 99
heart Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 62, 161, 162, 164, 165, 171
hebrew,biblical Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 101, 102
hebrew,masoretic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 102
hebrew,mishnaic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 99
hebrew,qumran Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 99, 102, 105, 112
hebrew,rabbinic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 99
hebrew,tannaitic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 99
hellenism/hellenization Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 161
hermeneutical method,intention in law Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 132
hermeneutics,sectarian Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 91, 112
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also,interpretation Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156
high priest,levitical nan
holiness Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
honor Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 166, 170
hope Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145
humility Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145
image of god Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
intercultural exegesis Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 45
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156, 157
irony Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145
israel/israelite Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 62, 172, 217
jerusalem Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94
jesus,divine status Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
jesus Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 45
jewish other,religious sensitivity Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
judges Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 161
judgment Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
justice Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
karaites Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 105
key word Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 161
land Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145
law,ancient israel Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 132
law,biblical/rabbinic—see also,halakhah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156, 157
law,derivation of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 91, 102
law,sectarian Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 94, 112
law of moses Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 161, 162, 163, 164, 170, 172, 217
levitical dictum Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 45
life Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 171, 217
like seeking like Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 62
love,spirit of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94
love-your-enemy Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
love Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
manual of discipline Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94
masoretic text Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156
mercy Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
messiah,purification/sin nan
midrash,midrashic Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
midrash/midrashim Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156, 157
midrash halakhah Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 239
moral formation,frank criticism in Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 167
moral formation,involvement of god/gods within Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 167
moral formation,protocol of Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 167
moral formation,spiritual gifts and Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 167
moral formation,via worship Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 167
moses Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 161
moshav ha-rabbim Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 94
mowinckel,sigmund Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 80
nahal hever Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
neighbors Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 62, 145, 161, 165, 166, 170, 172; Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 45
nevela Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 77
non-pentateuchal scripture,appeal to Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 223, 239, 240, 241, 242
oath,of the covenant Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 99
oath Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
oaths Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 223
offenses,grudge,bearing a Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90
offenses,reporting of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90
orthography,masoretic Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
palestine Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145
palestinian talmud Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90
parallelism Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 166
parents Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 162, 166
passion Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 161, 164
penal code,sectarian,biblical background of Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 30
pentateuchal Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 241
pesharim Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 240
pharisees Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
poor,share of harvest for Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 75, 76, 77
poor Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145, 172
positive divine law (biblical) Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 22
prayer Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 161; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156, 157
pride Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145
priest Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 161
priests,aaronide Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
prooftexts,non-pentateuchal Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 223, 239, 240, 241, 242
property,restitution of lost or stolen Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
property,stolen Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
prophets,and the cult Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 80
prophets Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156, 157
prophets and writings Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 102
prosperity Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 171
punishment,penalty Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 91, 112
punishments,in sectarian penal code Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 30
qumran/qumran community Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156, 157
qumran Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145, 163, 164, 172
rabbi azzariah Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 131
rabbi meir Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 99
rabbis,rabbinic literature Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 102, 112
rabbis,the Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 157
rekabites Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 102
repentance Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 165, 171
reproof,time limit on Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 94
reproof Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 170, 171, 172, 217; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant (2014), Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible 161; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 91, 94, 99, 101, 102, 105, 112
revenge Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 223, 239, 240, 241, 242
rhetorical question Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 170, 171
rhyme Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145
rich Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145
righteousness Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145, 171; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
romans,brothers of the jews Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 131
root ªa.l.l Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 76, 77
rule of the community,references to the community in Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 30
sabbath,differing traditions of Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 75
sabbath Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 157
sacrifice,at end of days Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 80
sacrifice Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
sadducees,legal tradition of Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 75, 76, 77
saduccees Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 105
salvation Allison (2020), Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community, 167
samaritan pentateuch Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 241; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 101
sapiential (wisdom) literature Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 163, 171
schwartz,baruch Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 30
scribal error Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
scripture,normative laws in Neusner (2003), The Perfect Torah. 1
second temple period,halakhic disputes from time of Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 75, 76, 77
secrets/confidences,keeping/betraying Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 217
sect,enemies of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 99
sect,new member of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 99
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 157
sectarian settlements,archaeology of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 99, 102
septuagint Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 241; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90
sermon on the mount Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
sermon on the plain Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 112
shame Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 163, 166, 170, 217
shamor Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 75
silence Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 164
sim shalom prayer Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
sin/sinners Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 163, 164, 170, 171
speech Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 161, 165, 166, 170, 171
tannaim,tannaitic law,judaism,period Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91
targum Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 241
temple,cult Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
testimony,contradictory Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
tetragrammaton Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101, 102
theft Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
thoughts,prohibition of,in dead dea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 132
tobiads Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145
torah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 156, 157; Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 45; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90
tosefet shabbat (addition to the sabbath) Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 75
trefah Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 77
vengeance Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 101
violation of the law Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 99
virtue Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 171
vows,annulment of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 112
vows,fulfillment of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91
vows Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 102
vulgate Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90
wadi murabaat Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 101
water,of bitterness Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
weber,max Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 80
westbrook,raymond Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 22
will,as grounding biblical divine law' Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 22
wine Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 166
wisdom/wise Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 145, 161, 162, 172, 217
witnesses,(crime commited with) no Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 112
witnesses,conspiring Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 91, 105
witnesses,two Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 105
witnesses Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 94, 99, 102, 112
wound Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 162
zadokite fragments Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 90, 94, 101
ªolelot (grapes left to the poor) Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 76, 77