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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6296
Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.16-19.18


לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD.


לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him.


לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

23 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.6-5.12, 10.17-10.18, 14.21, 16.19-16.20, 17.6-17.7, 19.15, 21.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 5.7. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ׃ 5.8. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 5.9. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 5.11. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 10.17. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הוּא אֱלֹהֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וַאֲדֹנֵי הָאֲדֹנִים הָאֵל הַגָּדֹל הַגִּבֹּר וְהַנּוֹרָא אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִשָּׂא פָנִים וְלֹא יִקַּח שֹׁחַד׃ 10.18. עֹשֶׂה מִשְׁפַּט יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה וְאֹהֵב גֵּר לָתֶת לוֹ לֶחֶם וְשִׂמְלָה׃ 14.21. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ כָל־נְבֵלָה לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אוֹ מָכֹר לְנָכְרִי כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 16.19. לֹא־תַטֶּה מִשְׁפָּט לֹא תַכִּיר פָּנִים וְלֹא־תִקַּח שֹׁחַד כִּי הַשֹּׁחַד יְעַוֵּר עֵינֵי חֲכָמִים וִיסַלֵּף דִּבְרֵי צַדִּיקִם׃ 17.6. עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃ 17.7. יַד הָעֵדִים תִּהְיֶה־בּוֹ בָרִאשֹׁנָה לַהֲמִיתוֹ וְיַד כָּל־הָעָם בָּאַחֲרֹנָה וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 19.15. לֹא־יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן וּלְכָל־חַטָּאת בְּכָל־חֵטְא אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא עַל־פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אוֹ עַל־פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה־עֵדִים יָקוּם דָּבָר׃ 21.23. לֹא־תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל־הָעֵץ כִּי־קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי־קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־אַדְמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 5.6. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 5.7. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 5.8. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth." 5.9. Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me," 5.10. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 5.11. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 10.17. For the LORD your God, He is God of gods, and Lord of lords, the great God, the mighty, and the awful, who regardeth not persons, nor taketh reward." 10.18. He doth execute justice for the fatherless and widow, and loveth the stranger, in giving him food and raiment." 14.21. Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself; thou mayest give it unto the stranger that is within thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto a foreigner; for thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk." 16.19. Thou shalt not wrest judgment; thou shalt not respect persons; neither shalt thou take a gift; for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous." 16.20. Justice, justice shalt thou follow, that thou mayest live, and inherit the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 17.6. At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death." 17.7. The hand of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterward the hand of all the people. So thou shalt put away the evil from the midst of thee." 19.15. One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be establishment" 21.23. his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt surely bury him the same day; for he that is hanged is a reproach unto God; that thou defile not thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 9.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.13. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יִנָּתֵן גַּם־מָחָר לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּדָת הַיּוֹם וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן יִתְלוּ עַל־הָעֵץ׃ 9.13. Then said Esther: ‘If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews that are in Shushan to do to-morrow also according unto this day’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 21.2, 21.3, 21.4, 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 21.8, 21.9, 21.10, 21.11, 21.12, 21.13, 21.14, 21.15, 21.16, 21.17, 24.8, 25.1-31.18, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 40.12, 40.13, 40.14, 40.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.10. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 32.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.33. עַל־כֵּן לֹא־יֹאכְלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּף הַיָּרֵךְ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי נָגַע בְּכַף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּגִיד הַנָּשֶׁה׃ 32.33. Therefore the children of Israel eat not the sinew of the thigh-vein which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day; because he touched the hollow of Jacob’s thigh, even in the sinew of the thigh-vein."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 13.1-14.32, 14, 15, 17.15, 18.2, 18.4, 18.5, 18.21, 18.30, 19, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.11, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 19.15, 19.17, 19.18, 19.19, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 19.30, 19.31, 19.32, 19.33, 19.34, 19.35, 19.36, 19.37, 24.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. וְהֶעָנָן סָר מֵעַל הָאֹהֶל וְהִנֵּה מִרְיָם מְצֹרַעַת כַּשָּׁלֶג וַיִּפֶן אַהֲרֹן אֶל־מִרְיָם וְהִנֵּה מְצֹרָעַת׃ 12.1. וַתְּדַבֵּר מִרְיָם וְאַהֲרֹן בְּמֹשֶׁה עַל־אֹדוֹת הָאִשָּׁה הַכֻּשִׁית אֲשֶׁר לָקָח כִּי־אִשָּׁה כֻשִׁית לָקָח׃ 12.1. And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman whom he had married; for he had married a Cushite woman."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.12, 9.8, 11.13, 13.24, 15.12, 20.19, 24.25, 27.5-27.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.12. כִּי אֶת אֲשֶׁר יֶאֱהַב יְהוָה יוֹכִיחַ וּכְאָב אֶת־בֵּן יִרְצֶה׃ 9.8. אַל־תּוֹכַח לֵץ פֶּן־יִשְׂנָאֶךָּ הוֹכַח לְחָכָם וְיֶאֱהָבֶךָּ׃ 11.13. הוֹלֵךְ רָכִיל מְגַלֶּה־סּוֹד וְנֶאֱמַן־רוּחַ מְכַסֶּה דָבָר׃ 13.24. חוֹשֵׂךְ שִׁבְטוֹ שׂוֹנֵא בְנוֹ וְאֹהֲבוֹ שִׁחֲרוֹ מוּסָר׃ 15.12. לֹא יֶאֱהַב־לֵץ הוֹכֵחַ לוֹ אֶל־חֲכָמִים לֹא יֵלֵךְ׃ 20.19. גּוֹלֶה־סּוֹד הוֹלֵךְ רָכִיל וּלְפֹתֶה שְׂפָתָיו לֹא תִתְעָרָב׃ 24.25. וְלַמּוֹכִיחִים יִנְעָם וַעֲלֵיהֶם תָּבוֹא בִרְכַּת־טוֹב׃ 27.5. טוֹבָה תּוֹכַחַת מְגֻלָּה מֵאַהֲבָה מְסֻתָּרֶת׃ 27.6. נֶאֱמָנִים פִּצְעֵי אוֹהֵב וְנַעְתָּרוֹת נְשִׁיקוֹת שׂוֹנֵא׃ 3.12. For whom the LORD loveth He correcteth, Even as a father the son in whom he delighteth." 9.8. Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee; reprove a wise man, and he will love thee." 11.13. He that goeth about as a talebearer revealeth secrets; But he that is of a faithful spirit concealeth a matter." 13.24. He that spareth his rod hateth his son; But he that loveth him chasteneth him betimes." 15.12. A scorner loveth not to be reproved; He will not go unto the wise." 20.19. He that goeth about as a talebearer revealeth secrets; therefore meddle not with him that openeth wide his lips." 24.25. But to them that decide justly shall be delight, And a good blessing shall come upon them." 27.5. Better is open rebuke Than love that is hidden." 27.6. Faithful are the wounds of a friend; But the kisses of an enemy are importunate."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 141.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

141.5. יֶהֶלְמֵנִי־צַדִּיק חֶסֶד וְיוֹכִיחֵנִי שֶׁמֶן רֹאשׁ אַל־יָנִי רֹאשִׁי כִּי־עוֹד וּתְפִלָּתִי בְּרָעוֹתֵיהֶם׃ 141.5. Let the righteous smite me in kindness, and correct me; Oil so choice let not my head refuse; For still is my prayer because of their wickedness."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.4, 11.3-11.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 11.3. וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃ 11.4. וְשָׁפַט בְּצֶדֶק דַּלִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ בְּמִישׁוֹר לְעַנְוֵי־אָרֶץ וְהִכָּה־אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו וּבְרוּחַ שְׂפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע׃ 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 11.3. And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;" 11.4. But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the land; And he shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked."
10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 3.13-3.14, 9.2-9.8, 12.3-12.4, 12.6, 13.4-13.6, 14.4-14.5, 14.15, 20.4-20.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 3.13-3.14, 9.2-9.8, 12.3-12.4, 12.6, 13.4-13.6, 14.4-14.5, 14.15, 20.4-20.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 2.21, 3.9, 5.6, 7.16, 8.4-8.9, 9.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 57.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.8, 6.16, 18.13, 19.8, 19.13-19.17, 23.2-23.6, 23.18-23.20, 23.27, 31.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.8. Honor your father by word and deed,that a blessing from him may come upon you. 18.13. The compassion of man is for his neighbor,but the compassion of the Lord is for all living beings. He rebukes and trains and teaches them,and turns them back, as a shepherd his flock. 19.8. With friend or foe do not report it,and unless it would be a sin for you, do not disclose it; 19.13. Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it;but if he did anything, so that he may do it no more. 19.14. Question a neighbor, perhaps he did not say it;but if he said it, so that he may not say it again. 19.15. Question a friend, for often it is slander;so do not believe everything you hear. 19.16. A person may make a slip without intending it. Who has never sinned with his tongue? 19.17. Question your neighbor before you threaten him;and let the law of the Most High take its course. 31.31. Do not reprove your neighbor at a banquet of wine,and do not despise him in his merrymaking;speak no word of reproach to him,and do not afflict him by making demands of him.
15. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 2.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.13. It is sovereign over the relationship of friends, so that one rebukes friends when they act wickedly.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.169, 4.177 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.169. Moreover, Moses says that a longenduring sovereignty is the reward of a lawful magistrate or ruler who honours equality, and who without any corruption gives just decisions in a just manner, always studying to observe the laws; not for the sake of granting him a life extending over many years, combined with the administration of the commonwealth, but in order to teach those who do not understand that a governor who rules in accordance with the laws, even though he die, does nevertheless live a long life by means of his actions which he leaves behind him as immortal, the indestructible monuments of his piety and virtue.XXXIII. 4.177. for when Moses, that holy interpreter of the will of God, is raising a hymn in praise of the virtues of the living God in these terms, "God is great and mighty, one who is no respecter of persons, and who does not take gifts to guide him in his Judgment."{40}{#de 10:17.} he adds, in whose case it is that he gives judgment, not in the case of satraps, and tyrants, and men who have the power by land and sea, but he gives judgment respecting the stranger, and the orphan, and the widow.
17. Mishnah, Peah, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.4. What constitutes a defective cluster (olelet) of grapes? Any [cluster] which has neither a shoulder [a wide upper part] nor a pendant [a cone-shaped lower part]. If it has a shoulder or a pendant, it belongs to the owner. If there is a doubt, it belongs to the poor. A defective cluster on the joint of a vine [where a normal cluster hangs from the vine], if it can be cut off with the cluster, it belongs to the owner; but if it can not, it belongs to the poor. A single grape: Rabbi Judah says: It is deemed a whole cluster, But the sages say: It is deemed a defective cluster."
18. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.13. Don't you know that those who serve around sacred thingseat from the things of the temple, and those who wait on the altar havetheir portion with the altar?
19. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.12. For the priesthood being changed, there is of necessity a change made also in the law.
20. New Testament, Romans, 3.20, 15.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 15.16. that I should be a servant of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be made acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit.
21. Palestinian Talmud, Peah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

22. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

46a. רב פפא אמר מאי בעל לוקה דקתני התם ממון וקרי ליה לממון מלקות אין והא תנן האומר חצי ערכי עלי נותן חצי ערכו רבי יוסי בר' יהודה אומר לוקה ונותן ערך שלם לוקה אמאי אמר רב פפא לוקה בערך שלם,מאי טעמא גזירה חצי ערכו אטו ערך חציו וערך חציו הוי ליה אבר שהנשמה תלויה בו,ת"ר (דברים כב, יט) וענשו אותו זה ממון (דברים כב, יח) ויסרו זה מלקות,בשלמא וענשו זה ממון דכתיב וענשו אותו מאה כסף ונתנו לאבי הנערה אלא ויסרו זה מלקות מנלן,א"ר אבהו למדנו יסרו מיסרו ויסרו מבן ובן מבן (דברים כה, ב) והיה אם בן הכות הרשע,אזהרה למוציא שם רע מנלן ר' אלעזר אמר (ויקרא יט, טז) מלא תלך רכיל רבי נתן אומר (דברים כג, י) מונשמרת מכל דבר רע,ורבי אלעזר מאי טעמא לא אמר מהאי ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדר' פנחס בן יאיר ונשמרת מכל דבר רע מכאן אמר ר' פנחס בן יאיר אל יהרהר אדם ביום ויבא לידי טומאה בלילה,ור' נתן מאי טעמא לא אמר מהאי ההוא אזהרה לב"ד שלא יהא רך לזה וקשה לזה,לא אמר לעדים בואו והעידוני והן מעידים אותו מאליהן הוא אינו לוקה ואינו נותן מאה סלעים היא וזוממיה מקדימין לבית הסקילה,היא וזוממיה סלקא דעתך אלא או היא או זוממיה מקדימין לבית הסקילה,טעמא דלא אמר להו הא אמר להו אע"ג דלא אגרינהו לאפוקי מדר' יהודה דתניא רבי יהודה אומר אינו חייב עד שישכור עדים,מ"ט דר' יהודה אמר ר' אבהו אתיא שימה שימה כתיב הכא (דברים כב, יד) ושם לה עלילות דברים וכתיב התם (שמות כב, כד) לא תשימון עליו נשך מה להלן ממון אף כאן ממון,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק וכן תני רב יוסף צידוני בי רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אתיא שימה שימה,בעי רבי ירמיה שכרן בקרקע מהו בפחות משוה פרוטה מהו שניהם בפרוטה מהו,בעי רב אשי הוציא שם רע על הנישואין הראשונים מהו על נשואי אחיו מהו,פשוט מיהא חדא דתני ר' יונה (דברים כב, טז) את בתי נתתי לאיש הזה לזה ולא ליבם,מאי רבנן ומאי ר' אליעזר בן יעקב דתניא כיצד הוצאת שם רע בא לבית דין ואמר פלוני לא מצאתי לבתך בתולים אם יש עדים שזינתה תחתיו יש לה כתובה מנה,אם יש עדים שזינתה תחתיו יש לה כתובה מנה בת סקילה היא הכי קאמר אם יש עדים שזינתה תחתיו בסקילה זינתה מעיקרא יש לה כתובה מנה,נמצא ששם רע אינו שם רע הוא לוקה ונותן מאה סלע בין בעל ובין לא בעל רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר לא נאמרו דברים הללו אלא כשבעל בשלמא לרבי אליעזר בן יעקב היינו דכתיב (דברים כב, יג) ובא אליה ואקרב אליה,אלא לרבנן מאי ובא אליה ואקרב אליה ובא אליה בעלילות ואקרב אליה בדברים,בשלמא לרבי אליעזר בן יעקב היינו דכתיב לא מצאתי לבתך בתולים אלא לרבנן מאי לא מצאתי לבתך בתולים לא מצאתי לבתך כשרי בתולים,בשלמא לרבי אליעזר בן יעקב היינו דכתיב ואלה בתולי בתי אלא לרבנן מאי ואלה בתולי בתי ואלה כשרי בתולי בתי,בשלמא לר"א בן יעקב היינו דכתיב ופרשו השמלה אלא לרבנן מאי ופרשו השמלה,אמר רבי אבהו פרשו מה ששם לה כדתניא ופרשו השמלה מלמד שבאין עדים של זה ועדים של זה ובוררין את הדבר כשמלה חדשה רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר דברים ככתבן שמלה ממש,שלח רבי יצחק בר רב יעקב בר גיורי משמיה דרבי יוחנן אע"ג שלא מצינו בכל התורה כולה שחלק הכתוב בין ביאה כדרכה לביאה שלא כדרכה למכות ולעונשין אבל מוציא שם רע חלק אינו חייב עד שיבעול שלא כדרכה ויוציא שם רע כדרכה,כמאן אי כרבנן אף על גב דלא בעל אי כר' אליעזר בן יעקב 46a. bRav Pappa said: Whatof the statement bthat is taught there,in the ibaraita /i, that it is only if bhe had intercoursewith her that he is bflogged?It is referring to the bmoneyof the fine. The Gemara asks: bAnddoes one bcall monetarypayment bflogging?The Gemara answers: bYes, and we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bOne who says: Half my valuation is upon me, he gives half his valuation,in accordance with the sum fixed by the Torah according to sex and age (see Leviticus 27:2–3). bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: He is flogged and giveshis bfull valuation.The Sages inquired: bWhy is he flogged?What transgression did he commit? bRav Pappa said: He is flogged byhaving to pay ba full valuation.This proves that monetary payment can be referred to as flogging.,The Gemara clarifies: bWhat is the reasonof Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda? It is a rabbinic bdecreein the case of one who vows to donate bhalf of his valuation, due toa case where one vowed the bvaluation of half of himself. Andone who vows to donate the bvaluation of half of himself haseffectively vowed to donate the valuation of ba limb upon whichhis blife depends,e.g., his head or heart, in which case it is as though he vowed to donate his entire valuation. Consequently, even one who vows to donate half of his valuation must donate his entire valuation.,§ The Gemara continues to discuss the ihalakhotof the defamer. bThe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i, based upon the following verses: “And the Elders of that city shall take the man and chastise him. And they shall fine him a hundred shekels of silver, and give them to the father of the young woman” (Deuteronomy 22:18–19). b“And they shall fine [ ive’anshu /i] him”; thisis referring to bmoney. “And chastisehim”; bthisis referring to bflogging. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,with regard to the phrase b“and they fine [ ive’anshu /i] him,”although the word ive’anshucan refer to any punishment, in bthiscase it is referring to bmoney, as it is written: And they shall fine him a hundred shekels of silver, and give them to the father of the young woman. However,with regard to the statement of the ibaraitathat: b“And chastisehim”; bthisis referring to bflogging, from where do wederive this?, bRabbi Abbahu said: We learnedthe meaning of the word bchastisein the case of a defamer by verbal analogy bfromthe word bchastisestated in the verse “if a man have a stubborn and rebellious son [ iben /i], that will not listen to the voice of his father or the voice of his mother, and though they chastise him, will not listen to them” (Deuteronomy 21:18). bAndthe implication of the word bchastisein that verse is derived bfromthe word bsonthat appears in the same verse. bAndthe implication of the word bson [ iben /i]with regard to a rebellious son is derived bfromthe word ibin /iin the verse b“Then it shall be if the wicked man deserve [ ibin /i] to be flogged”(Deuteronomy 25:2).,The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive the bwarning,i.e., the prohibition that serves as the source for the flogging bfor a defamer? Rabbi Elazar saysthat the prohibition is derived bfromthe verse b“You shall not go up and down as talebearer”(Leviticus 19:16). bRabbi Natan saysthat it is derived bfrom: “Then you shall keep yourself from every evil thing [ idavar ra /i]”(Deuteronomy 23:10), which is expounded to mean idibbur ra /i, evil speech.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat bRabbi Elazar did not statethat it is derived from bthisverse quoted by Rabbi Natan? The Gemara answers: bHe requires thatverse bforthe statement of bRabbi Pineḥas ben Yair,as it was taught: b“Then you shall keep yourself from every evil thing”; from here Rabbi Pineḥas ben Yair said: A person should not thinkimpure thoughts bby day andthereby bcome by night tothe bimpurityof an emission.,The Gemara asks the reverse question: bAnd what is the reasonthat bRabbi Natan did not statethat it is derived bfrom thatverse cited by Rabbi Elazar? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Natan explains bthatverse, which includes the term talebearer [ irakhil /i], as ba warning to the court that it should not be soft to [ irakh la /i] thislitigant band harsh to thatone, but it must treat both sides as equals.,§ The Gemara cites another statement that deals with a defamer: If the husband bdid not say to witnesses: Come and testify for methat my wife committed adultery, bbut they testifyfor bhim of their own accordand are subsequently discovered to be liars, the husband bis not flogged and does not givethe bone hundred isela /i,as he did not harm her. bShe and her conspiring witnesses are brought early to the place of stoning. /b,The Gemara asks: bDoes it enter your mindto say that bshe and her conspiring witnessesare stoned? If she is liable to be stoned, they are not conspiring witnesses, and conversely, if they are conspiring witnesses, they are stoned and she is exempt. bRather,this must mean: bEither she or her conspiring witnesses are brought early to the place of stoning.If they were telling the truth, she is stoned. If they conspired and offered false testimony, they are liable to be stoned.,The Gemara infers from the ibaraitathat the breasonthe husband is not flogged or fined is bthatthe husband bdid not tell themto testify, bbutif bhe told themto testify, balthough he did not hire thembut merely persuaded them to testify that his wife had committed adultery as a betrothed woman, he is flogged and must pay the fine. This serves bto excludethe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says:The husband bis liableto the punishments of a defamer bonly if he hired witnesses. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonof bRabbi Yehuda?Nowhere does the Torah explicitly state that the husband hired false witnesses. The Gemara answers that bRabbi Abbahu said:It is bderivedby a verbal analogy between the term bplacing,written with regard to a defamer, and the term bplacing,written with regard to the prohibition against charging interest. bIt is written here,with regard to a defamer: b“And he place wanton charges against her”(Deuteronomy 22:14), band it is written there: “Neither shall you place upon him interest”(Exodus 22:24). bJust as below,with regard to interest, the verse is referring to bmoney, so too here,in the case of a defamer, it is referring to bmoney,thereby indicating that the husband paid money in order to substantiate his false accusation., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Rav Yosef Tzidoni likewise taught in the school of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai:It is bderivedfrom the verbal analogy between the term bplacing,written with regard to a defamer, and the term bplacing,written with regard to the prohibition against charging interest., bRabbi Yirmeya raised a dilemma:According to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, if the husband bhiredthe false witnesses bwith landinstead of money, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? If he hired them bwith less than the value of a iperuta /i, what isthe ihalakha /i? If he hired bbothwitnesses bwith a iperuta /i, what isthe ihalakha /i? Since this ihalakhais derived from the case of interest, perhaps, like the prohibition against charging interest, it applies only with regard to money, rather than land, and only with money that is greater than the value of a iperuta /i.,Similarly, bRav Ashi raised a dilemmaconcerning a defamer: If bhe defamedhis wife bwith regard totheir bfirst marriage, what isthe ihalakha /i? In other words, if a man married a woman, divorced her, remarried her, and subsequently defamed her by claiming that she had committed adultery during the period of betrothal before their first marriage, what is the ihalakha /i? Similarly, if he performed levirate marriage and then defamed her bwith regard to his brother’s marriageto her, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i?,The Gemara comments: bResolve at least oneof these dilemmas, bas Rabbi Yona taughtthat the verse “And the father of the young woman shall say to the Elders: bI gave my daughter to this man”(Deuteronomy 22:16) serves to emphasize: I gave him bto thisman band not to the iyavam /i,i.e., the brother of the original husband. Consequently, if one defames his iyevamawith regard to her original marriage to his brother, the unique ihalakhotof defamation do not apply.,§ In the course of the previous discussion, the Gemara mentioned a dispute between the Rabbis and Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the opinion of bthe Rabbis and whatis the opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov,referred to above (45b)? bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bHowdoes the case of bdefamationproceed? It involves a situation where the husband bcame to the court and saidto the father: bSo-and-so, I have not foundindications of byour daughter’s virginity. If there are witnesseswho testify bthat she committed adultery under hisauthority, i.e., while betrothed to him, bshe has a marriage contract of one hundred dinars. /b,The Gemara interrupts its citation of the ibaraita /i, as this last statement is very surprising: bIf there are witnesseswho testify bthat she committed adultery under hisauthority, does bshe have a marriage contract of one hundred dinars? She ispunished bby stoning.The Gemara explains that bthis is whatthe itanna bsaid: If there are witnesseswho testify bthat she committed adultery under hisauthority, she is liable btoreceive the punishment of bstoning.However, if bshe engaged in licentious sexual relations at the outset,before her betrothal, when she was still a single woman, she is merely guilty of deceiving her husband with regard to her virginity, and therefore bshe has a marriage contract of one hundred dinars,which is the standard marriage contract of a non-virgin.,The Gemara resumes its quotation of the ibaraita /i: If it was bdiscovered that the bad name is not a bad name,i.e., the husband’s accusation was false, bhe is flogged and givesher father bone hundred isela /i, whether he had intercourse with heror bwhether he had not had intercourse with her. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: These matters were stated onlyin a case bwhere he had intercoursewith his wife before defaming her. The Gemara asks: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, this is as it is written:“If a man take a wife band go in unto her”(Deuteronomy 22:13), and: b“And when I came near to her,I did not find in her the tokens of virginity” (Deuteronomy 22:14), as both expressions refer to sexual intercourse., bHowever, according tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis, what isthe meaning of the phrases b“and go in unto her,”and b“and when I came near to her,”if the couple never engaged in intercourse? The Gemara explains that, according to the Rabbis, b“and go in unto her”is referring btothe bwanton chargesthe husband leveled against his wife; b“and when I came near to her”means that he came near bwith words,not intercourse.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, this is as it is written: “I did not find in your daughter the tokens of virginity”(Deuteronomy 22:17), as Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov claims that the husband had relations with her and discovered that she was not a virgin. bHowever, according tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis, what isthe meaning of b“I did not find in your daughter the tokens of virginity,”if they did not have intercourse? The Gemara answers: The Rabbis explain that he means: bI did not find for your daughter the fitness of virginity,i.e., I have discovered that she was unfaithful.,The Gemara asks further: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, this is as it is writtenthat the father replies: b“And these are the tokens of my daughter’s virginity”(Deuteronomy 22:17). He presents a cloth that proves she was a virgin, in opposition to the husband’s claim. bHowever, according tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis, what isthe meaning of b“And these are the tokens of my daughter’s virginity”?The Rabbis answer that the father means: bAnd these are theproofs of the bfitness of my daughter’s virginity,i.e., he either brings witnesses to counter the testimony of the husband’s witnesses or provides some other proof that his daughter was a virgin at the time of her marriage.,The Gemara poses yet another question on the same lines: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, this is at it is written: “And they shall spread the garment”(Deuteronomy 22:17). The father brings the sheet on which the couple had intercourse and shows that it is stained with blood. bHowever, according tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis,who claim that a husband can defame his wife even if they have not engaged in intercourse, bwhat isthe meaning of the phrase b“And they shall spread the garment [ ihasimla /i]”? /b, bRabbi Abbahu saidthat the Rabbis interpret this expression as follows: bThey shall spread,i.e., examine, bthat which he placed against her [ isam la /i].In other words, they cross-examine the witnesses who testified against her, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“And they shall spread the garment”;this bteaches that the witnesses of thishusband bcomeforward, bandlikewise bthe witnesses of thatfather come forward, bandthe court bclarifies the matter like a new garment. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: The mattersare bas they are written,i.e., the verse refers to ban actual cloth. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Rav Ya’akov bar Giyyorei senta message from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia bin the name of Rabbi Yoḥa: Although we have not found in the entire Torah thatany bverse distinguishes between sexual intercourse in a typical manner and sexual intercourse in an atypical manner,i.e., anal intercourse, bwith regard to flogging orany other bpunishment. However,in the case of the bdefamer,the Torah bdoes distinguishin this manner, as the husband bis obligatedto pay the fine bonlyif bhe had intercoursewith his wife, even it was bin an atypical manner, andhe bdefamesher by claiming that she had previously had intercourse bin a typical mannerwith someone else.,The Gemara asks: In baccordance with whoseopinion is this ruling of Rabbi Yoḥa? bIfit is bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe Rabbis,the husband should be liable beven if he did not have intercoursewith his wife. bIfit is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, /b
23. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. קרובים ונתרחקו הוו אתו לקמיה לדינא אמר להו פסילנא לכו לדינא,אמרו ליה מאי דעתיך כר' יהודה אנן מייתינן איגרתא ממערבא דאין הלכה כרבי יהודה,אמר להו אטו בקבא דקירא אידבקנא בכו דלא קאמינא פסילנא לכו לדינא אלא משום דלא צייתיתו דינא:,אוהב זה שושבינו וכו':,וכמה אמר ר' אבא אמר רבי ירמיה אמר רב כל שבעת ימי המשתה ורבנן משמיה דרבא אמרי אפילו מיום ראשון ואילך:,השונא כל שלא דבר כו': ת"ר (במדבר לה, כג) והוא לא אויב לו יעידנו (במדבר לה, כג) ולא מבקש רעתו ידיננו,אשכחן שונא אוהב מנלן,קרי ביה הכי והוא לא אויב לו ולא אוהב לו יעידנו ולא מבקש רעתו ולא טובתו ידיננו,מידי אוהב כתיב אלא סברא הוא אויב מאי טעמא משום דמרחקא דעתיה אוהב נמי מקרבא דעתיה,ורבנן האי לא אויב לו ולא מבקש רעתו מאי דרשי ביה,חד לדיין,אידך כדתניא אמר רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה והוא לא אויב לו ולא מבקש רעתו מכאן לשני תלמידי חכמים ששונאין זה את זה שאין יושבין בדין כאחד:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כיצד בודקים את העדים היו מכניסין אותן לחדר ומאיימין עליהן ומוציאין את כל האדם לחוץ ומשיירין את הגדול שבהן,ואומרים לו אמור היאך אתה יודע שזה חייב לזה אם אמר הוא אמר לי שאני חייב לו איש פלוני אמר לי שהוא חייב לו לא אמר כלום עד שיאמר בפנינו הודה לו שהוא חייב לו מאתים זוז,ואחר כך מכניסין את השני ובודקין אותו אם נמצאו דבריהן מכוונין נושאין ונותנין בדבר,שנים אומרים זכאי ואחד אומר חייב זכאי שנים אומרים חייב ואחד אומר זכאי חייב אחד אומר חייב ואחד אומר זכאי אפילו שנים מזכין או שנים מחייבין ואחד אומר איני יודע יוסיפו הדיינין,גמרו את הדבר היו מכניסין אותן הגדול שבדיינין אומר איש פלוני אתה זכאי איש פלוני אתה חייב,ומניין לכשיצא לא יאמר אני מזכה וחביריי מחייבים אבל מה אעשה שחביריי רבו עלי על זה נאמר ((ויקרא יט, טז) לא תלך רכיל בעמך ואומר) (משלי יא, יג) הולך רכיל מגלה סוד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big היכי אמרי' להו אמר רב יהודה הכי אמרינן להו (משלי כה, יד) נשיאים ורוח וגשם אין איש מתהלל במתת שקר,אמר (ליה) רבא יכלי למימר שב שני הוה כפנא ואבבא אומנא לא חליף,אלא אמר רבא אמרינן להו (משלי כה, יח) מפץ וחרב וחץ שנון איש עונה ברעהו עד שקר,אמר (ליה) רב אשי יכלי למימר שב שני הוה מותנא ואיניש בלא שניה לא שכיב,אלא אמר רב אשי אמר לי נתן בר מר זוטרא אמרינן להו סהדי שקרי אאוגרייהו זילי דכתיב (מלכים א כא, י) והושיבו שנים אנשים בני בליעל נגדו ויעידוהו לאמר ברכת אלהים ומלך:,אם אמר הוא אמר לי כו' עד שיאמרו בפנינו הודה לו שהוא חייב לו מאתים זוז:,מסייע ליה לרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב צריך שיאמר אתם עדיי,איתמר נמי א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן (מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן למחר אמר לו תנהו לי אמר) משטה אני בך פטור,תניא נמי הכי מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן למחר אמר לו תנהו לי אמר לו משטה אני בך פטור,ולא עוד אלא אפילו הכמין לו עדים אחורי גדר ואמר לו מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן רצונך שתודה בפני פלוני ופלוני אמר לו מתיירא אני שמא תכפיני לדין למחר אמר לו תניהו לי אמר לו משטה אני בך פטור,ואין טוענין למסית,מסית מאן דכר שמיה חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני אם לא טען אין טוענין לו ובדיני נפשות אע"ג דלא טען טוענין לו ואין טוענין למסית,מאי שנא מסית אמר ר' חמא בר חנינא מפירקיה דרבי חייא בר אבא שמיע לי שאני מסית דרחמנא אמר (דברים יג, ט) לא תחמול ולא תכסה עליו,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמן אמר רבי יונתן מניין שאין טוענין למסית מנחש הקדמוני דא"ר שמלאי הרבה טענות היה לו לנחש לטעון ולא טען ומפני מה לא טען לו הקב"ה לפי שלא טען הוא,מאי הוה ליה למימר דברי הרב ודברי תלמיד דברי מי שומעין דברי הרב שומעין,אמר חזקיה מניין שכל המוסיף גורע שנאמר (בראשית ג, ג) אמר אלהים לא תאכלו ממנו ולא תגעו בו,רב משרשיא אמר מהכא (שמות כה, י) אמתים וחצי ארכו,רב אשי אמר (שמות כו, ז) עשתי עשרה יריעות,אמר אביי לא שנו אלא דאמר משטה אני בך אבל אמר 29a. bwere relativesof his band became not relatedto him, as Mar Ukva’s wife, who was their sister, died. bThey came before him for judgment.Mar Ukva bsaid to them: I am disqualified from adjudicating for you. /b, bThey said toMar Ukva: bWhat is your opinionaccording to which you disqualify yourself? Do you rule bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,that since you have children we are still relatives? bWe shall bring a letter from the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthatthe ihalakha /iis bnot in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda. /b,Mar Ukva bsaid to them: Is that to saythat bI am stuck to you with a ikavof wax [ ikira /i]?I agree bthatwe are not considered relatives; bI am saying that I am disqualified from adjudicating for you only because you will not obey the verdict,and I do not wish to participate in such judgment.,§ The mishna teaches that according to Rabbi Yehuda, one who loves or one who hates one of the litigants is disqualified from bearing witness. One who blovesone of the litigants; bthisis referring to bhis groomsman. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndfor bhow longis the groomsman disqualified? bRabbi Abba saysthat bRabbi Yirmeya saysthat bRav says:Throughout ball of the seven days of feasting. And the Rabbis say in the name of Rava: Even from the first dayafter the wedding band onwardhe is no longer disqualified; he is disqualified only on the wedding day itself.,§ The mishna teaches: bOne who hatesthe litigant is referring to banyonewho, out of enmity, bdid not speakwith the litigant for three days. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: This ihalakhais derived from the verse: “And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm” (Numbers 35:23), that one about whom it can be stated: b“And he was not his enemy,” can testify about him.And one who b“neither sought his harm” can judge him. /b,The Gemara asks: bWe founda source for the disqualification of one who bhates; from where do wederive that one who blovesis disqualified?,The Gemara answers that one should bread intothe verse blike this:One about whom it can be stated: bAnd he who was not his enemy nor one who loves him, can testify about him;and one who bneither sought his harm nor his favor can judge him. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs: One who loves, writtenin the verse? How can the verse be read in this manner? bRather,the extension of the disqualification to one who loves him as well bisbased on blogical reasoning: What is the reason an enemyis disqualified from bearing witness? It is bbecause he feels a sense of aversiontoward that individual and might testify falsely against him. A similar logic can be employed with regard to one who bloves, as well: He feels a sense of affinitytoward that individual, and might testify falsely on his behalf.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what do the Rabbis,who do not agree with Rabbi Yehuda, bderive from thisverse: b“And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm”? /b,The Gemara answers: bOnepart of the verse is necessary bforthe ihalakhathat ba judgewho loves or hates one of the litigants is disqualified. The Rabbis agree with this ihalakha /i, as such a judge is naturally inclined to favor one of the litigants., bThe otherpart of the verse is interpreted bin accordance with that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says:With regard to the verse b“And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm,”it is derived bfrom here that two Torah scholars who hate each other cannot sit in judgmenttogether bas one.Because of their hatred they will come to contradict each other’s rulings unjustly., strongMISHNA: /strong bHow dothe judges bexamine the witnesses? They bring them into a roomin the courthouse band intimidate themso that they will speak only the truth. bAnd they take all the people,other than the judges, boutsideso that they should not tell the other witnesses the questions the judges ask and the answers the first witness gives, band they leaveonly bthe eldest ofthe witnesses to testify first., bAnd they say to him: Say howexactly byou know that thislitigant bowes money to thatlitigant, as the plaintiff claims. bIf he said:The defendant bsaid to me:It is true bthat I owethe plaintiff, or if he says: bSo-and-so said to me thatthe defendant bowesthe plaintiff, the witness bhas said nothingand his testimony is disregarded. It is not valid testimony bunless he says:The defendant badmitted in our presence tothe plaintiff bthat he owes him,e.g., btwo hundred dinars.By admitting to the debt in the presence of witnesses he renders himself liable to pay the amount that he mentioned., bAnd afterward they bring in the secondwitness band examine himin the same manner. bIf their statements are found to be congruentthe judges then bdiscuss the matter. /b,If the opinions of the judges are divided, as btwojudges bsaythat the defendant is bexemptfrom payment band one sayshe is bliableto pay, he is bexempt.If btwo sayhe is bliable and one sayshe is bexempt,he is bliable.If bone sayshe is bliable and one sayshe is bexempt,or bevenif btwoof the judges bdeemhim bexempt or twoof them bdeemhim bliable, andthe other bone says: I do not know,the court bmust addmore bjudgesand then rule in accordance with the majority opinion. This is because the one who abstains is considered as though he is not a member of the court.,After the judges bfinish the matterand reach a decision, bthey bring inthe litigants. bThe greatest of the judges says: So-and-so, you are exemptfrom paying; or: bSo-and-so, you are liableto pay., bAnd from whereis it derived that bwhenthe judge bleavesthe courtroom bhe may not say: I deemedyou bexempt and my colleagues deemedyou bliable, but what can I do, as my colleagues outnumbered meand consequently you were deemed liable? bAbout this it is stated: “You shall not go as a talebearer among your people”(Leviticus 19:16), band it says: “One who goes about as a talebearer reveals secrets,but one who is of a faithful spirit conceals a matter” (Proverbs 11:13)., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that the judges intimidate the witnesses. The Gemara asks: bWhat do we say to them? Rav Yehuda saysthat bthisis what bwe say to them:It is stated: b“As clouds and wind without rain, so is he who boasts himself of a false gift”(Proverbs 25:14). In other words, there will be no rain and no blessing from your deeds if you lie., bRava said to him:If so, false witnesses bcan sayto themselves that they do not have to worry about this punishment, according to the folk saying: bSeven years there was a famine, but over the craftsman’s door it did not pass.If the witnesses are not farmers, they do not need to worry over lack of rain. Consequently, they will disregard this concern., bRather, Rava saidthat bwe saythis verse bto them: “As a hammer, and a sword, and a sharp arrow, so is a man who bears false witness against his neighbor”(Proverbs 25:18), meaning that a false witness will die prematurely., bRav Ashi said to him:Here too, false witnesses bcan sayto themselves a folk saying: bSeven years there was a pestilence, but a manwho has bnotreached bhis years did not die;everyone dies at his predestined time. Therefore, they will disregard this concern as well.,The Gemara presents another suggestion: bRather, Rav Ashi said: Natan bar Mar Zutra said to methat bwe say to themthat bfalse witnesses are belittledeven bby those who hire them,and all the more so by others; bas it is writtenthat Jezebel said when she ordered witnesses to be hired to testify against Naboth: b“And set two men, base fellows, before him, and let them bear witness against him, saying: You cursed God and the king”(I Kings 21:10). Even Jezebel, who gave the orders to hire them, called them “base fellows.”,§ The mishna teaches that bifthe witness bsaid:The defendant bsaid to me:It is true that I owe him, his testimony is disregarded bunless he says:The defendant badmitted in our presence tothe plaintiff bthat he owes him two hundred dinars. /b,The Gemara comments: bThis supportsthe opinion of bRav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The debtor bneeds to sayto the witnesses to the loan or in his admission that he owes the creditor: bYou are my witnesses.Otherwise, their testimony is not valid., bIt was also statedthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:If one said to another: bIhave bone hundred dinars in your possession,i.e., you owe me one hundred dinars, and the other bsaid to him: Yes,and bthe next daythe claimant bsaid to him: Give it to me,if the other then bsaidto him: bI was teasing you,i.e., I did not mean it seriously when I said that I owed it to you, the respondent is bexempt. /b, bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If one said to another: bIhave bone hundred dinars in your possession,and the other bsaid to him: Yes,and bthe next daythe claimant bsaid to him: Give it to me,if the other then bsaid to him: I was teasing you,the respondent is bexempt. /b, bAnd moreover,the respondent is exempt bevenin a case where the claimant bhid witnesses forthe respondent bbehind a fenceso that the respondent would not see them, band said to him: Ihave bone hundred dinars in your possession,and the respondent bsaid to him: Yes,and the claimant then said to him: bDo you wish to admitthe debt bin the presence of so-and-so and so-and-so?And the respondent bsaid to him: I am afraidto do so, blest you compel me togo to bjudgment,where, based on their testimony, you will be given the right to forcibly take the money from me whenever you want. But between you and me, I admit that I owe you. And bthe next daythe claimant bsaid to him: Give methe one hundred dinars that you admitted to owing me, and the respondent bsaid to him: I was teasing you.The respondent is bexemptbecause he can claim that he stated his admission only to appease the claimant temporarily, and did not mean to actually admit to owing the money, as he did not know that there were witnesses present., bButthe judges bdo not advance a claim on behalf of an inciter,i.e., one who is accused of inciting others to idol worship.,The Gemara asks: bAn inciter? Who mentioned anything about it?This matter was not discussed in the ibaraita /i. The Gemara answers: The ibaraita bis incomplete, and this is what it is teaching: Ifthe defendant bdid not advance a claimthat he was teasing the plaintiff, the judges bdo not advancethis bclaim for him.Apparently, he stated his admission seriously. bBut incases of bcapital law, even ifthe defendant bdid not advanceany bclaimon his own behalf, the judges badvance a claim on his behalf. Butthe judges bdo not advance claims on behalf of an inciter. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout ban inciter,that the court does not seek to deem him innocent? bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: I heard at the lecture of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbathat ban inciter is different, as the Merciful One statesconcerning him: b“Neither shall you spare, neither shall you conceal him”(Deuteronomy 13:9). In this unique case, the court is not required to try to deem him innocent., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: From whereis it derived bthatthe judges bdo not advance a claim on behalf of an inciter?It is derived bfromthe incident of bthe primordial snakewho tempted Eve; he was the first inciter. bAs Rabbi Simlai says: The snake could have advanced many claimson its own behalf, bbut it did not claimthem. bAnd for whatreason bdid the Holy One, Blessed be He, not advancethese bclaims for it,deeming the snake exempt from punishment? bBecausethe snake bdid not advancethese bclaims itself. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat could he have said?The Gemara answers: The snake could have said that it is not to blame, as when there is a contradiction between bthe statement of the teacher and the statement of the student, whose statement should one listen to? One should listen to the statement of the teacher.Since God instructed Adam and Eve not to eat from the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, Adam and Eve should have heeded God’s words and not those of the snake., bḤizkiyya says: From whereis it derived bthat anyone who adds, subtracts?It is derived from a verse, bas it is statedthat Eve said: b“God has said: You shall not eat of it, neither shall you touch it”(Genesis 3:3), whereas God had actually rendered prohibited only eating from the tree but not touching it, as it is stated: “But of the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat of it” (Genesis 2:17). Because Eve added that there was a prohibition against touching the tree, the snake showed her that touching it does not cause her to die, and she consequently sinned by eating from it as well., bRav Mesharshiyya saysthat the idea that one who adds, subtracts can also be proven bfrom here: “Two cubits [ iamatayim /i] and a half shall be its length”(Exodus 25:10). Without the letter ialefat the beginning of the word iamatayim /i, it would be read imatayim /i, which would mean two hundred cubits. The addition of the ialeftherefore reduces this term to only two cubits., bRav Ashi saysanother example: In the verse: b“Eleven [ iashtei esrei /i] curtains”(Exodus 26:7), without the letter iayinat the beginning of the phrase it would read ishtei esrei /i, twelve. Therefore, the additional letter iayinreduces the amount from twelve to eleven., bAbaye says:With regard to the case of one who denies a debt to which he admitted in the presence of hidden witnesses, the Sages btaughtthat he is exempt bonlyin a case bwhere he says: I was teasing you. Butif bhe says: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
actions of israelite farmer Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 35
agriculture, division of Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 35
akiva Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 135
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
aramaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
audience Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 84
bar kochba Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 35
ben petura Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 135
brothers/sisters Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
byzantine period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
chasid shoteh Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 111
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 401
commandments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
community, preserving sanctity of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
conditional, imprecation Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
covenant Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
cult prophets Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
de-orayta (laws from the torah), on tosefet shabbat Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
de-orayta (laws from the torah) Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
de-rabbanan (laws decreed by the rabbis), on tosefet shabbat Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
de-rabbanan (laws decreed by the rabbis) Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
dead sea scrolls, philo on Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 43
death penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
deuteronomy Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 35
douglas, mary Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
ein gedi Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
enemies Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
eschaton Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 35
essenes Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
faithfulness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
food ration Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
gemara Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 139
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
hanging Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
heart Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 161, 162
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85, 189
hebrew, rabbinic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
hebrew, tannaitic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
hellenism/hellenization Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 161
hermeneutic, rabbinic Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 167
hermeneutic Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 210
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 84; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
imprisonment Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
intercession Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
judges Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 161
judicial authority (misuse of) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
key word Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 161
law Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
law of moses Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 161, 162
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
maccoby, ephraim meyer Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 111
masoretic text Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 84; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
monarchy, deuteronomy Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 43
monarchy, philo on Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 43
moses Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
mowinckel, sigmund Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
neighbor Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 134
neighbors Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 161
nevela Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 77
offenses, gossip Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
offenses Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
orthography, masoretic, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
parents Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
passion Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 161
passivity Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 167
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
penal code, sectarian, biblical background of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
penal code of the manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
philo, jurisprudence Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 43
philo, on monarchy Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 43
philo, royalism Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 43
poor, share of harvest for Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75, 76, 77
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 84
priests, levitical Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 43
progymnasmata Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 210, 211
prophets, and the cult Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
punishment, penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
punishments, in sectarian penal code Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
pursuer (rodef) Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 139
quarantine Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 84
rabbis, rabbinic literature Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
repentance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
reproof Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 161, 162
root ªa.l.l Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 76, 77
royal justice (judiciary), philo and the concept of Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 43
rule of the community, references to the community in Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
sabbath, differing traditions of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
sabbath Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
sacrifice, at end of days Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
sadducees, legal tradition of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75, 76, 77
sanctuary Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
schwartz, baruch Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
scribal error Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
scripture, normative laws in Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 1
second temple period, halakhic disputes from time of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75, 76, 77
sect, leaders of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
sect, non-members Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 84
secularisation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
shamor Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
speech Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 161
stam Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 210, 211
sugya' Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 211
sugya Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 210
talebearing Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 189
temple scroll Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
testimony, law of, (zadokite fragments) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
torah Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 167; Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 210, 211
tosefet shabbat (addition to the sabbath) Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
trefah Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 77
weber, max Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
wisdom/wise Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 161, 162
wound Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
zohar Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
ªolelot (grapes left to the poor) Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 76, 77