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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6296
Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.11-19.18


לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ וְלֹא־תְכַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא־תְשַׁקְּרוּ אִישׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ׃Ye shall not steal; neither shall ye deal falsely, nor lie one to another.


וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.


לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning.


לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD.


לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor favour the person of the mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour.


לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD.


לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him.


לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

26 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.6-5.12, 13.7, 14.21, 23.25-23.26, 25.13-25.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 5.7. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ׃ 5.8. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 5.9. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 5.11. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 13.7. כִּי יְסִיתְךָ אָחִיךָ בֶן־אִמֶּךָ אוֹ־בִנְךָ אוֹ־בִתְּךָ אוֹ אֵשֶׁת חֵיקֶךָ אוֹ רֵעֲךָ אֲשֶׁר כְּנַפְשְׁךָ בַּסֵּתֶר לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה וְנַעַבְדָה אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 14.21. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ כָל־נְבֵלָה לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אוֹ מָכֹר לְנָכְרִי כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 23.25. כִּי תָבֹא בְּכֶרֶם רֵעֶךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ עֲנָבִים כְּנַפְשְׁךָ שָׂבְעֶךָ וְאֶל־כֶּלְיְךָ לֹא תִתֵּן׃ 25.13. לֹא־יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּכִיסְךָ אֶבֶן וָאָבֶן גְּדוֹלָה וּקְטַנָּה׃ 25.14. לֹא־יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּבֵיתְךָ אֵיפָה וְאֵיפָה גְּדוֹלָה וּקְטַנָּה׃ 25.15. אֶבֶן שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ אֵיפָה שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכוּ יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃ 25.16. כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה כֹּל עֹשֵׂה עָוֶל׃ 5.6. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 5.7. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 5.8. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth." 5.9. Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me," 5.10. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 5.11. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 13.7. If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, that is as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying: 'Let us go and serve other gods,' which thou hast not known, thou, nor thy fathers;" 14.21. Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself; thou mayest give it unto the stranger that is within thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto a foreigner; for thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk." 23.25. When thou comest into thy neighbour’s vineyard, then thou mayest eat grapes until thou have enough at thine own pleasure; but thou shalt not put any in thy vessel." 25.13. Thou shalt not have in thy bag diverse weights, a great and a small." 25.14. Thou shalt not have in thy house diverse measures, a great and a small." 25.15. A perfect and just weight shalt thou have; a perfect and just measure shalt thou have; that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 25.16. For all that do such things, even all that do unrighteously, are an abomination unto the LORD thy God."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1, 2.13, 3.20, 11.2, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.6, 20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.13, 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, 21.4, 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 21.8, 21.9, 21.10, 21.11, 21.12, 21.13, 21.14, 21.15, 21.16, 21.17, 21.35, 22.24, 22.25, 23.6, 24.8, 25.1-31.18, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 40.12, 40.13, 40.14, 40.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 32.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.33. עַל־כֵּן לֹא־יֹאכְלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּף הַיָּרֵךְ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי נָגַע בְּכַף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּגִיד הַנָּשֶׁה׃ 32.33. Therefore the children of Israel eat not the sinew of the thigh-vein which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day; because he touched the hollow of Jacob’s thigh, even in the sinew of the thigh-vein."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 17.15, 18.2, 18.4-18.5, 18.21, 18.30, 19.3-19.10, 19.12-19.19, 19.23-19.27, 19.30-19.37, 24.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.15. וְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה בָּאֶזְרָח וּבַגֵּר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃ 18.2. וְאֶל־אֵשֶׁת עֲמִיתְךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן שְׁכָבְתְּךָ לְזָרַע לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ׃ 18.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.4. אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי תַּעֲשׂוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לָלֶכֶת בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.21. וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.3. אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ וּמִקְדָּשִׁי תִּירָאוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.3. אִישׁ אִמּוֹ וְאָבִיו תִּירָאוּ וְאֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.4. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֱלִילִים וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.5. וְכִי תִזְבְּחוּ זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה לִרְצֹנְכֶם תִּזְבָּחֻהוּ׃ 19.6. בְּיוֹם זִבְחֲכֶם יֵאָכֵל וּמִמָּחֳרָת וְהַנּוֹתָר עַד־יוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף׃ 19.7. וְאִם הֵאָכֹל יֵאָכֵל בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי פִּגּוּל הוּא לֹא יֵרָצֶה׃ 19.8. וְאֹכְלָיו עֲוֺנוֹ יִשָּׂא כִּי־אֶת־קֹדֶשׁ יְהוָה חִלֵּל וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃ 19.9. וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃ 19.12. וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.13. לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃ 19.14. לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.15. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃ 19.16. לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 19.23. וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃ 19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.25. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁת תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ לְהוֹסִיף לָכֶם תְּבוּאָתוֹ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.26. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַל־הַדָּם לֹא תְנַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא תְעוֹנֵנוּ׃ 19.27. לֹא תַקִּפוּ פְּאַת רֹאשְׁכֶם וְלֹא תַשְׁחִית אֵת פְּאַת זְקָנֶךָ׃ 19.31. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֹבֹת וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִים אַל־תְּבַקְשׁוּ לְטָמְאָה בָהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.32. מִפְּנֵי שֵׂיבָה תָּקוּם וְהָדַרְתָּ פְּנֵי זָקֵן וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.33. וְכִי־יָגוּר אִתְּךָ גֵּר בְּאַרְצְכֶם לֹא תוֹנוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 19.34. כְּאֶזְרָח מִכֶּם יִהְיֶה לָכֶם הַגֵּר הַגָּר אִתְּכֶם וְאָהַבְתָּ לוֹ כָּמוֹךָ כִּי־גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 19.35. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט בַּמִּדָּה בַּמִּשְׁקָל וּבַמְּשׂוּרָה׃ 19.36. מֹאזְנֵי צֶדֶק אַבְנֵי־צֶדֶק אֵיפַת צֶדֶק וְהִין צֶדֶק יִהְיֶה לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 19.37. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפָּטַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 24.21. וּמַכֵּה בְהֵמָה יְשַׁלְּמֶנָּה וּמַכֵּה אָדָם יוּמָת׃ 17.15. And every soul that eateth that which dieth of itself, or that which is torn of beasts, whether he be home-born or a stranger, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean." 18.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: I am the LORD your God." 18.4. Mine ordices shall ye do, and My statutes shall ye keep, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 18.21. And thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 18.30. Therefore shall ye keep My charge, that ye do not any of these abominable customs, which were done before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God." 19.3. Ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father, and ye shall keep My sabbaths: I am the LORD your God." 19.4. Turn ye not unto the idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God." 19.5. And when ye offer a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the LORD, ye shall offer it that ye may be accepted." 19.6. It shall be eaten the same day ye offer it, and on the morrow; and if aught remain until the third day, it shall be burnt with fire." 19.7. And if it be eaten at all on the third day, it is a vile thing; it shall not be accepted." 19.8. But every one that eateth it shall bear his iniquity, because he hath profaned the holy thing of the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from his people." 19.9. And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest." 19.10. And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God." 19.12. And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD." 19.13. Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning." 19.14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD." 19.15. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor favour the person of the mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour." 19.16. Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD." 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." 19.23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten." 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD." 19.25. But in the fifth year may ye eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you more richly the increase thereof: I am the LORD your God." 19.26. Ye shall not eat with the blood; neither shall ye practise divination nor soothsaying." 19.27. Ye shall not round the corners of your heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of thy beard." 19.30. Ye shall keep My sabbaths, and reverence My sanctuary: I am the LORD." 19.31. Turn ye not unto the ghosts, nor unto familiar spirits; seek them not out, to be defiled by them: I am the LORD your God." 19.32. Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honour the face of the old man, and thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD." 19.33. And if a stranger sojourn with thee in your land, ye shall not do him wrong." 19.34. The stranger that sojourneth with you shall be unto you as the home-born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God." 19.35. Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard, in weight, or in measure." 19.36. Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall ye have: I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt." 19.37. And ye shall observe all My statutes, and all Mine ordices, and do them: I am the LORD." 24.21. And he that killeth a beast shall make it good; and he that killeth a man shall be put to death."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5-6, 19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.12, 6.17, 9.8, 12.22, 13.24, 15.12, 27.5-27.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.12. כִּי אֶת אֲשֶׁר יֶאֱהַב יְהוָה יוֹכִיחַ וּכְאָב אֶת־בֵּן יִרְצֶה׃ 6.17. עֵינַיִם רָמוֹת לְשׁוֹן שָׁקֶר וְיָדַיִם שֹׁפְכוֹת דָּם־נָקִי׃ 9.8. אַל־תּוֹכַח לֵץ פֶּן־יִשְׂנָאֶךָּ הוֹכַח לְחָכָם וְיֶאֱהָבֶךָּ׃ 12.22. תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה שִׂפְתֵי־שָׁקֶר וְעֹשֵׂי אֱמוּנָה רְצוֹנוֹ׃ 13.24. חוֹשֵׂךְ שִׁבְטוֹ שׂוֹנֵא בְנוֹ וְאֹהֲבוֹ שִׁחֲרוֹ מוּסָר׃ 15.12. לֹא יֶאֱהַב־לֵץ הוֹכֵחַ לוֹ אֶל־חֲכָמִים לֹא יֵלֵךְ׃ 27.5. טוֹבָה תּוֹכַחַת מְגֻלָּה מֵאַהֲבָה מְסֻתָּרֶת׃ 27.6. נֶאֱמָנִים פִּצְעֵי אוֹהֵב וְנַעְתָּרוֹת נְשִׁיקוֹת שׂוֹנֵא׃ 3.12. For whom the LORD loveth He correcteth, Even as a father the son in whom he delighteth." 6.17. Haughty eyes, a lying tongue, And hands that shed innocent blood;" 9.8. Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee; reprove a wise man, and he will love thee." 12.22. Lying lips are an abomination to the LORD; But they that deal truly are His delight. ." 13.24. He that spareth his rod hateth his son; But he that loveth him chasteneth him betimes." 15.12. A scorner loveth not to be reproved; He will not go unto the wise." 27.5. Better is open rebuke Than love that is hidden." 27.6. Faithful are the wounds of a friend; But the kisses of an enemy are importunate."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 141.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

141.5. יֶהֶלְמֵנִי־צַדִּיק חֶסֶד וְיוֹכִיחֵנִי שֶׁמֶן רֹאשׁ אַל־יָנִי רֹאשִׁי כִּי־עוֹד וּתְפִלָּתִי בְּרָעוֹתֵיהֶם׃ 141.5. Let the righteous smite me in kindness, and correct me; Oil so choice let not my head refuse; For still is my prayer because of their wickedness."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5, 4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 38-71, 37 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

37. The second vision which he saw, the vision of wisdom -which Enoch the son of Jared, the son,of Mahalalel, the son of Cai, the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, saw. And this is the beginning of the words of wisdom which I lifted up my voice to speak and say to those which dwell on earth: Hear, ye men of old time, and see, ye that come after, the words of the Holy,One which I will speak before the Lord of Spirits. It were better to declare (them only) to the men of old time, but even from those that come after we will not withhold the beginning of wisdom.,Till the present day such wisdom has never been given by the Lord of Spirits as I have received according to my insight, according to the good pleasure of the Lord of Spirits by whom the lot of,eternal life has been given to me. Now three Parables were imparted to me, and I lifted up my voice and recounted them to those that dwell on the earth.
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.16, 18.13, 19.13-19.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

18.13. The compassion of man is for his neighbor,but the compassion of the Lord is for all living beings. He rebukes and trains and teaches them,and turns them back, as a shepherd his flock. 19.13. Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it;but if he did anything, so that he may do it no more. 19.14. Question a neighbor, perhaps he did not say it;but if he said it, so that he may not say it again. 19.15. Question a friend, for often it is slander;so do not believe everything you hear. 19.16. A person may make a slip without intending it. Who has never sinned with his tongue? 19.17. Question your neighbor before you threaten him;and let the law of the Most High take its course.
13. Septuagint, Judith, 5.12, 9.3, 9.13, 10.4, 13.8, 13.16, 13.20, 15.10, 16.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

5.12. Then they cried out to their God, and he afflicted the whole land of Egypt with incurable plagues; and so the Egyptians drove them out of their sight. 9.3. So thou gavest up their rulers to be slain, and their bed, which was ashamed of the deceit they had practiced, to be stained with blood, and thou didst strike down slaves along with princes, and princes on their thrones; 9.13. Make my deceitful words to be their wound and stripe, for they have planned cruel things against thy covet, and against thy consecrated house, and against the top of Zion, and against the house possessed by thy children. 10.4. And she put sandals on her feet, and put on her anklets and bracelets and rings, and her earrings and all her ornaments, and made herself very beautiful, to entice the eyes of all men who might see her. 13.8. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed it from his body. 13.16. As the Lord lives, who has protected me in the way I went, it was my face that tricked him to his destruction, and yet he committed no act of sin with me, to defile and shame me. 13.20. May God grant this to be a perpetual honor to you, and may he visit you with blessings, because you did not spare your own life when our nation was brought low, but have avenged our ruin, walking in the straight path before our God." And all the people said, "So be it, so be it! 15.10. You have done all this singlehanded; you have done great good to Israel, and God is well pleased with it. May the Almighty Lord bless you for ever!" And all the people said, "So be it! 16.8. For she took off her widow's mourning to exalt the oppressed in Israel. She anointed her face with ointment and fastened her hair with a tiara and put on a linen gown to deceive him.
14. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 2.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.13. It is sovereign over the relationship of friends, so that one rebukes friends when they act wickedly.
15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.271 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.271. 27. Let death be the punishment for stealing a man; but he that hath purloined gold or silver, let him pay double. If any one kill a man that is stealing something out of his house, let him be esteemed guiltless, although the man were only breaking in at the wall.
16. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.216 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.216. Moreover, if any one cheats another in measures or weights, or makes a knavish bargain and sale, in order to cheat another; if any one steals what belongs to another, and takes what he never deposited; all these have punishments allotted them, not such as are met with among other nations, but more severe ones.
17. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. An ox of an Israelite that gored an ox belonging to the Temple, or an ox belonging to the Temple that gored an ox of an Israelite, the owner is exempt, as it says, “The ox belonging to his neighbor” (Exodus 21:35), and not an ox belonging to the Temple. An ox of an Israelite that gores an ox of a gentile, the owner is exempt. And an ox of a gentile that gores the ox of an Israelite, whether the ox is harmless or an attested danger, its owner pays full damages."
18. Mishnah, Peah, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.4. What constitutes a defective cluster (olelet) of grapes? Any [cluster] which has neither a shoulder [a wide upper part] nor a pendant [a cone-shaped lower part]. If it has a shoulder or a pendant, it belongs to the owner. If there is a doubt, it belongs to the poor. A defective cluster on the joint of a vine [where a normal cluster hangs from the vine], if it can be cut off with the cluster, it belongs to the owner; but if it can not, it belongs to the poor. A single grape: Rabbi Judah says: It is deemed a whole cluster, But the sages say: It is deemed a defective cluster."
19. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.13. Don't you know that those who serve around sacred thingseat from the things of the temple, and those who wait on the altar havetheir portion with the altar?
20. New Testament, Hebrews, 7.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.12. For the priesthood being changed, there is of necessity a change made also in the law.
21. New Testament, Romans, 3.20, 15.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. 15.16. that I should be a servant of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering as a priest the gospel of God, that the offering up of the Gentiles might be made acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit.
22. New Testament, Luke, 10.36-10.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.36. Now which of these three do you think seemed to be a neighbor to him who fell among the robbers? 10.37. He said, "He who showed mercy on him."Then Jesus said to him, "Go and do likewise.
23. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

25. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

113a. אבל איתיה במתא לא דאמרינן אימר לא אמרו ליה דאמרי אשכחינהו שליחא דב"ד ואמר ליה,ולא אמרן אלא דלא חליף אבבא דבי דינא אבל חליף אבבא דבי דינא לא אמרי אשכחוה בי דינא ואמרי ליה,ולא אמרן אלא דאתי ביומיה אבל לא אתי ביומיה לא אימא אישתלויי אשתלי,אמר רבא האי מאן דכתיב עליה פתיחא על דלא אתי לדינא עד דאתי לדינא לא מקרעינן ליה על דלא ציית לדינא עד דציית לא מקרעינן ליה ולא היא כיון דאמר צייתנא קרעינן ליה:,אמר רב חסדא קובעים זמן שני וחמישי ושני זמנא וזמנא בתר זמנא ולמחר כתבינן,רב אסי איקלע בי רב כהנא חזא ההיא איתתא דאזמנה לדינא בפניא ובצפרא כתיב עלה פתיחא א"ל לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רב חסדא קובעין זמן שני וחמישי ושני,א"ל ה"מ גברא דאניס וליתיה במתא אבל איתתא כיון דאיתה במתא ולא אתיא מורדת היא:,אמר רב יהודה לא יהבינא זמנא לא ביומי ניסן ולא ביומי תשרי לא במעלי יומא טבא ולא במעלי שבתא אבל מניסן לבתר יומי ניסן וביומי תשרי לבתר תשרי קבעינן ממעלי שבתא לבתר מעלי שבתא לא קבעינן מאי טעמא בעבידתיה דשבתא טריד,אמר רב נחמן לא יהבינן זמנא לא לבני כלה בכלה ולא לבני ריגלא בריגלא כי הוו אתו לקמיה דרב נחמן אמר להו וכי לדידכו כנופייכו והאידנא דאיכא רמאי חיישינן:,אם היה דבר שיש בו אחריות חייב לשלם: מתני ליה רבי לר"ש בריה לא דבר שיש בו אחריות ממש אלא אפילו פרה וחורש בה חמור ומחמר אחריו חייבין להחזיר מפני כבוד אביהן,בעי מיניה רב כהנא מרב מטה ומיסב עליה שולחן ואוכל עליו מהו אמר לו (משלי ט, ט) תן לחכם ויחכם עוד:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין פורטין לא מתיבת המוכסין ולא מכיס של גבאין ואין נוטלין מהם צדקה אבל נוטל הוא מתוך ביתו או מן השוק:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא אבל נותן לו דינר ונותן לו את השאר:,ומוכסין והאמר שמואל דינא דמלכותא דינא,אמר רב חנינא בר כהנא אמר שמואל במוכס שאין לו קצבה דבי ר' ינאי אמרי במוכס העומד מאליו,איכא דמתני לה אהא לא ילבש אדם כלאים אפי' על גבי עשרה בגדים להבריח בו את המכס מתני' דלא כר"ע דתניא אסור להבריח את המכס ר"ש אומר משום ר"ע מותר להבריח את המכס,בשלמא לענין כלאים בהא קמיפלגי דמר סבר דבר שאין מתכוין מותר ומר סבר דבר שאין מתכוין אסור אלא להבריח בו את המכס מי שרי והאמר שמואל דינא דמלכותא דינא,א"ר חנינא בר כהנא אמר שמואל במוכס שאין לו קצבה דבי ר' ינאי אמרי במוכס העומד מאליו,ואיכא דמתני אהא נודרין להרגין ולחרמין ולמוכסין שהיא של תרומה שהיא של בית מלך אע"פ שאינה של תרומה אע"פ שאינה של מלך ולמוכסין והאמר שמואל דינא דמלכותא דינא,א"ר חנינא בר כהנא אמר שמואל במוכס שאין לו קצבה דבי ר' ינאי אמרי במוכס העומד מאליו,רב אשי אמר במוכס כנעני דתניא ישראל וכנעני אנס שבאו לדין אם אתה יכול לזכהו בדיני ישראל זכהו ואמור לו כך דינינו בדיני כנענים זכהו ואמור לו כך דינכם ואם לאו באין עליו בעקיפין דברי ר' ישמעאל ר"ע אומר אין באין עליו בעקיפין מפני קידוש השם,ור"ע טעמא דאיכא קידוש השם הא ליכא קידוש השם באין,וגזל כנעני מי שרי והתניא אמר ר' שמעון דבר זה דרש ר"ע כשבא מזפירין מנין לגזל כנעני שהוא אסור ת"ל (ויקרא כה, מח) אחרי נמכר גאולה תהיה לו 113a. bButif the defendant bis in the city,the court does bnotostracize him for failing to respond to a summons conveyed through a woman or a neighbor, bas we say:Perhaps bthey did not tell himof the court’s summons, bas they saidto themselves: Since the defendant is in the city, ba court agenthas already bfound him and told him.As a result, these unofficial messengers will not deliver the court’s summons to the defendant at all., bAndsimilarly, bwe saidthat the court will ostracize one who does not respond to a summons conveyed through a woman or a neighbor bonlyin a case bwhere he does not pass by the court’s entranceon his way home, bbutif he does bpass by the court’s entrance,the court does bnotostracize him. This is because it is possible that the unofficial messengers will bsayto themselves: Since he passes by the courthouse, bthe courthas already bfound him and told him. /b, bAndfurthermore, bwe saidthat the court will ostracize one who does not respond to a summons bonlyin a case bwhere he comeshome bon thesame bdaythat the woman or neighbor is sent to deliver the court summons. bButif he does bnot comehome bon thesame bday,he is bnotostracized, because it is possible to bsaythat bthey forgotto notify him., bRava said:With regard to bonewho had ba document of ostracism written about him due tothe fact that bhe did not come to court, we do not tear up the document for him until heactually bcomes to court,and it is not enough for him to simply commit to appearing. Similarly, if the document of ostracism was written bdue tothe fact that bhe did not obeythe ruling of bthe court, we do not tear it up for him until heactually bobeysthe ruling. The Gemara comments: This second statement bis not so.Rather, bonce hehas acquiesced and bsaid: I will obey, weimmediately btear up the document for him. /b, bRav Ḥisda said:The court bsets a datefor an individual to appear in court on the upcoming bMonday. Andif he does not appear, they set a date for that bThursday, andif he does not appear, they set a date for the following bMonday,so that he has a second bdate andthen a third bdate afterthe first bdate. Andif he does not appear in court by the third date, then bon the next day we writea document of ostracism.,The Gemara relates that bRav Asi happenedto come to bthe house of Rav Kahana. He sawthat there was ba certain woman whomRav Kahana had bsummoned toappear in bcourt in the evening,but she did not appear, band in the morningRav Kahana bwrote a document of ostracism concerning her.Rav Asi said bto him:Does bthe Master not holdin accordance with bthat which Rav Ḥisda says,that the court bsets a datefor the coming bMonday, andthen bThursday, andthen the following bMondaybefore it issues a document of ostracism?,Rav Kahana bsaid to him: That matterapplies only with regard to ba man, as he is a victim of circumstance and is notalways bin the citydue to his vocational activities. bButin the case of ba woman, since she isalways bin the city,when bshe does not cometo court the first time bshe isimmediately considered brebellious,and the court may issue a document of ostracism right away.,Continuing the discussion of court dates, bRav Yehuda says:The court bdoes not set a date forlegal proceedings bduring the days of Nisan, nor during the days of Tishrei,and also bnot on the eve of a Festival nor the eve of Shabbatbecause these are busy times. bBut during Nisan we may seta court date to take place bafter Nisan, andlikewise, bduring Tishreiwe may set a court date to take place bafter Tishrei.By contrast, bon the eve of Shabbat we do notset a court date to take place bafter the eve of Shabbat. What is the reasonfor this? It is because bone is preoccupied with his workin preparation bfor Shabbatand it is possible that he will forget about the court summons., bRav Naḥman says: We do not seta court bdate for participants in the ikalla /i,the gatherings for Torah study during Elul and Adar, bduringthe months of the ikalla /i, nor for participants inthe public discourses prior to bthe Festival during theperiod leading up to bthe Festival.The Gemara relates: bWhenpeople bwould come before Rav Naḥmanduring the ikallaperiod in order to make legal claims against others, bhe would say to them: Did I gather youhere bfor yourown needs? No, I gathered you to participate in Torah study. The Gemara adds: bBut now that there are scoundrels,who do not come to study Torah but rather to avoid trial, bwe are concernedthat they will continue to evade prosecution, and therefore we summon them to court even during these time periods.,§ The mishna teaches, with regard to one who left a stolen item to his children, bifthe item bwas something that may serveas a legal bguaranteeof a loan, the heirs bare obligated to paythe owner. The Gemara states that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi would bteachthis mishna to bRabbi Shimon, his son,and explain that it does bnotrefer only to bsomething that can actuallyserve as ba guaranteefor a loan, i.e., land. bRather,it refers bevento ba cowthat bhe plows with,or ba donkeythat bhe drivesby directing it from bbehind,which the heirs bare obligated to return because of the honor of their father,so that people will not continually point out that the inheritance was stolen and thereby disgrace their deceased parent., bRav Kahana raises a dilemma before Rav:If the robber left his heirs a stolen item that is used in relative privacy, such as ba bed that he lies onor ba table upon which he eats,rather than something as conspicuous as a large animal, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? Are the heirs obligated to return it to its owner? Rav bsaid to him: “Give to a wise man, and he will be yet wiser”(Proverbs 9:9), meaning that from the fact that the heirs must return a cow and a donkey, one can infer that they must also return a bed and a table., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne may not exchangelarger coins for smaller ones bfrom the trunk of customs collectors nor from the purse of tax collectors, and one may not take charity from them,as they are assumed to have obtained their funds illegally. bBut one may takemoney bfromthe collector’s bhouse or frommoney he has with him in bthe marketthat he did not take from his collection trunk or purse., strongGEMARA: /strong It was btaughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the prohibition against exchanging money from the trunk of a customs collector: bBut one may givethe customs collector ba dinaras payment for a debt that amounts to less than a dinar, bandwhen the collector bgives him change,he may accept it.,It was taught in the mishna that one may not exchange money from the trunks of bcustoms collectors,which are assumed to include stolen funds. The Gemara questions this ruling: bBut doesn’t Shmuel saythat bthe law of the kingdom is the law,i.e., ihalakharequires Jews to obey the laws of the state in which they live. Accordingly, the customs are collected legally and it should be permitted to make use of the funds.,The Gemara answers: bRabbi Ḥanina bar Kahana saidthat bShmuel says:The mishna is discussing ba customs collector who does not have a limitationplaced by the governor on the amount he may collect, and he collects as he pleases. Alternatively, the Sages of bthe school of Rabbi Yannai said:The mishna is discussing ba customs collector who stands on his own,i.e., he was not appointed by the government but, on his own, he forces people to give him money.,The Gemara notes: bThere arethose bwho teachthe statements of Rabbi Ḥanina bar Kahana and the Sages of the school of Rabbi Yannai bwith regard to thisfollowing mishna ( iKilayim9:2) and its attendant discussion. The customs collectors would not levy a duty for the garments one was wearing. In light of this, the mishna teaches: bA person may not weara garment made of bdiverse kinds,i.e., a combination of wool and linen, bevenif he wears it bon top of ten garments,in order bto avoidpaying bcustoms.It was noted that this bmishna is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIt is prohibited to avoidpaying bcustomsby wearing a garment of diverse kinds. bRabbi Shimon says in the name of Rabbi Akiva: It is permitted to avoidpaying bcustomsin this manner.,The Gemara comments: bGranted, with regard tothe prohibition of bdiverse kinds, they disagree about this:One bSage,i.e., Rabbi Akiva, bholdsthat ban unintentional act is permitted.In this case, the prohibition is to benefit from wearing the garment, and that is not his intent, as his intention is merely to avoid paying the customs duties. Therefore, it is permitted. bAndone bSage,i.e., the first itannain the ibaraita /i, bholdsthat ban unintentional act is prohibited. But isit ever bpermitted to avoid customs? Doesn’t Shmuel say: The law of the kingdom is the law? /b,In answer to this question, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Kahana saidthat bShmuel says:The dispute in the ibaraitais bwith regard to a customs collector who does not have a limitationplaced on the amount he may collect. Alternatively, Sages of bthe school of Rabbi Yannai said:The dispute is bwith regard to a customs collector who stands on his own,i.e., who is self-appointed.,The Gemara notes: bAnd there arethose bwho teachthe statements of Rabbi Ḥanina bar Kahana and the Sages of the school of Rabbi Yannai bwith regard to thismishna ( iNedarim27b): One bmay vow before murderers, plunderers, and customs collectorsin order to reinforce the claim bthata certain item that is being commandeered bis iteruma /i,or that bit belongs to the king’s house,and thereby avoid its seizure, bdespitethe fact bthat it is not iteruma /ior bthat it does not belong to the king’s house.It was asked: Can it be that it is permitted to pronounce such a vow bbefore customs collectors? But doesn’t Shmuel say: The law of the kingdom is the law?It should therefore be prohibited to state such a vow before the customs collectors., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Kahana saidthat bShmuel says:The mishna in iNedarimissues its ruling bwith regard to a customs collector who does not have a limitationplaced on the amount he may collect. Alternatively, the Sages of bthe school of Rabbi Yannai say:The mishna issues its ruling bwith regard to a customs collector who stands on his own. /b, bRav Ashi said:The mishna issues its ruling bwith regard to a gentile customs collector,whom one may deceive, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba Jew and a gentile who approachthe court bfor judgmentin a legal dispute, bif you can vindicatethe Jew bunder Jewish law, vindicate him, and say tothe gentile: bThis is our law.If he can be vindicated bunder gentile law, vindicate him, and say tothe gentile: bThis is your law. And ifit is bnotpossible to vindicate him under either system of law, bone approachesthe case bcircuitously,seeking a justification to vindicate the Jew. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akivadisagrees and bsays: One does not approachthe case bcircuitouslyin order to vindicate the Jew bdue to the sanctification of God’s name,as God’s name will be desecrated if the Jewish judge employs dishonest means.,The Gemara infers from this ibaraita /i: bAndeven according to bRabbi Akiva, the reasonthat the court does not employ trickery in order to vindicate the Jew is only bbecause there isthe consideration of bthe sanctification of God’s name. Consequently,if there bis noconsideration of bthe sanctification of God’s name,the court does bapproachthe case circuitously. Apparently, it is permitted to deceive a gentile.,The Gemara challenges this assertion: bBut is robberyfrom ba gentile permitted? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon saidthat bRabbi Akiva taught this matter when he came from Zephirin: From whereis it derived that it is bprohibitedto brob a gentile?It is from the fact that bthe verse stateswith regard to a Jew who has been sold as a slave to a gentile: b“After he is sold he may be redeemed”(Leviticus 25:48)
26. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

86a. תני תנא קמיה דרב ששת א"ל אני שונה רבי שמעון אומר מאחיו עד שיוציאנו מרשות אחיו ואת אמרת חייב תני פטור,מאי קושיא דילמא הא ר"ש הא רבנן,לא ס"ד דאמר ר' יוחנן סתם מתני' ר' מאיר סתם תוספתא ר' נחמיה סתם ספרא רבי יהודה סתם ספרי ר"ש וכולהו אליבא דר"ע:,הגונב בנו: מאי טעמא דרבנן,אמר אביי דאמר קרא (דברים כד, ז) כי ימצא פרט למצוי,א"ל רב פפא לאביי אלא מעתה (דברים כב, כב) כי ימצא איש שוכב עם אשה בעולת בעל הכי נמי כי ימצא פרט למצוי כגון של בית פלוני דשכיחן גבייהו הכי נמי דפטירי,א"ל אנא מונמצא בידו קאמינא,אמר רבא הלכך הני מיקרי דרדקי ומתנו רבנן כמצויין בידן דמו ופטירי:,גנב מי שחציו וכו': תנן התם רבי יהודה אומר אין לעבדים בושת,מאי טעמא דר' יהודה אמר קרא (דברים כה, יא) כי ינצו אנשים יחדיו איש ואחיו מי שיש לו אחוה יצא עבד שאין לו אחוה,ורבנן אחיו הוא במצות,והכא היכי דריש ר' יהודה,סבר מאחיו לאפוקי עבדים בני ישראל למעוטי מי שחציו עבד וחציו בן חורין מבני ישראל למעוטי מי שחציו עבד וחציו בן חורין הוי מיעוט אחר מיעוט ואין מיעוט אחר מיעוט אלא לרבות,ורבנן מאחיו לאפוקי עבדים לא משמע להו דהא אחיו הוא במצות בני ישראל מבני ישראל חד למעוטי עבד וחד למעוטי מי שחציו עבד וחציו בן חורין,אזהרה לגונב נפש מנין רבי יאשיה אמר (שמות כ, יב) מלא תגנב רבי יוחנן אמר (ויקרא כה, מב) מלא ימכרו ממכרת עבד ולא פליגי מר קא חשיב לאו דגניבה ומר קא חשיב לאו דמכירה,ת"ר (שמות כ, יב) לא תגנוב בגונב נפשות הכתוב מדבר אתה אומר בגונב נפשות או אינו אלא בגונב ממון אמרת צא ולמד משלש עשרה מדות שהתורה נדרשת בהן דבר הלמד מעניינו במה הכתוב מדבר בנפשות אף כאן בנפשות,תניא אידך (ויקרא יט, יא) לא תגנובו בגונב ממון הכתוב מדבר אתה אומר בגונב ממון או אינו אלא בגונב נפשות אמרת צא ולמד משלש עשרה מדות שהתורה נדרשת בהן דבר הלמד מעניינו במה הכתוב מדבר בממון אף כאן בממון,איתמר עידי גניבה ועידי מכירה בנפש שהוזמו חזקיה אמר אין נהרגין רבי יוחנן אמר נהרגין,חזקיה דאמר כר"ע דאמר דבר ולא חצי דבר ורבי יוחנן אמר כרבנן דאמרי דבר ואפי' חצי דבר,ומודה חזקיה בעדים האחרונים של בן סורר ומורה שהוזמו שנהרגין מתוך שיכולים לומר הראשונים 86a. bA itanna /iwho recited imishnayotand ibaraitotin the study hall brecitedthat ibaraita /i, where the itannaholds that one is liable for abducting another and selling him to the abductee’s father, bbefore Rav Sheshet.Rav Sheshet bsaid to him: I teachthat bRabbi Shimon says:From the term b“of his brethren”it is derived that there is no liability bunless he removesthe abductee bfrom the domain of his brethren, and you saythat one who sells the abductee to his father is bliable?Emend the ibaraitaand bteachinstead: He is bexempt. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhatis bthe difficultyraised by Rav Sheshet? bPerhaps thatstatement that he cited is the opinion of bRabbi Shimon,while bthis ibaraitais the opinion of bthe Rabbis,who disagree with him.,The Gemara responds: That should bnot enter your mind, asthe unattributed ibaraitathat was cited is a passage from the halakhic midrash on the books of Numbers and Deuteronomy entitled iSifrei /i, and bRabbi Yoḥa says: An unattributed mishnais in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Meir; an unattributed ibaraitain the iTosefta /iis in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Neḥemya; an unattributed ibaraitain the iSifra /i,the halakhic midrash on the book of Leviticus, is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda;and ban unattributed ibaraitain the iSifrei /iis in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Shimon. And all of these are in accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Akiva,as all the Sages mentioned were his disciples. Therefore, it is unlikely that an unattributed ibaraitafrom the iSifreiwould run counter to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon.,§ The mishna teaches that there is a dispute between Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis with regard to the liability of bone who abducts his son.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor the opinion bof the Rabbis,who deem him exempt?, bAbaye said:It is derived bfrom the versethat bstates: “Ifa man bshall be foundabducting a person of his brethren” (Deuteronomy 24:7), to bexcludeone who is already bfoundin the custody of the abductor before the abduction. Since the son is already in the custody of his father, the father is not liable for abducting him., bRav Pappa said to Abaye: If that is so,then the verse: b“If a man shall be found lying with a woman married to a husband,then they shall both of them die” (Deuteronomy 22:22), may balsobe interpreted: b“Ifa man bshall be found,”to bexcludeone who was already bfound. So too,would one say bthatadulterers bare exemptfrom liability if they commit adultery in, bfor example, the house of so-and-so, wheremarried women bare commonlyfound and they have a preexisting reputation for licentiousness?,Abaye bsaid toRav Pappa: The Rabbis’ opinion is derived from the phrase: b“Or if he is found in his possession,he shall be put to death” (Exodus 21:16), from which bI am sayingmy inference, that it is derived: If he is found, to the exclusion of one who was already found., bRava said: Therefore,with regard to bthose teachers of children [ idardekei /i] and those who recite imishnayot bto Torah scholars,the status of their students bis asthough they are bfound in their possession, andthe teachers bare exemptfrom liability for abducting them.,§ The mishna teaches that there is a dispute between Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis with regard to liability if bone abducted one who is half-slavehalf-freeman. bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iBava Kamma87a) that bRabbi Yehuda says: There is noindemnity for the bhumiliation of a slave,since he is not a full-fledged Jew.,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor the opinion bof Rabbi Yehuda?It is derived from bthe versethat bstates: “When men struggle together, a man and his brother,and the wife of the one drew near to deliver her husband from the hand of the one who smites him, and extended her hand, and grabbed his genitals” (Deuteronomy 25:11). This is the source for liability to pay restitution for humiliating another. From the term “his brother” it is derived that bone who has brotherhood,i.e., who is halakhically related to his biological family, receives payment for humiliation. bA slave is excluded, as he has no brotherhood,i.e., he is not halakhically related to his family., bAndwhat is the reason for the opinion of bthe Rabbis?They hold that although the slave has no family ties, he bis the brother ofthe assailant bwith regard tothe fulfillment of bmitzvot,as a Canaanite slave is obligated to fulfill the same mitzvot that a woman is obligated to fulfill.,The Gemara asks: bAnd here,with regard to abduction, bhow does Rabbi Yehuda interpretthe verses and arrive at the conclusion that one is liable for abducting one who is half-slave half-freeman? Shouldn’t the term “from his brethren” render exempt from liability one who abducts a slave?,The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yehuda bholdsthat the term in the verse: b“From his brethren”(Deuteronomy (24:7), serves bto excludefrom liability one who abducts bslaves.Had the verse continued: bThe children of Israel,that phrase would have been interpreted bto excludefrom liability one who abducts bone who is half-slave half-freeman.Since the verse states: b“From the children of Israel,”the prefix letter imem /i, meaning from, indicates that there are some from the children of Israel for whose abduction one is liable and there are some for whose abduction one is exempt. That prefix also serves bto excludefrom liability one who abducts bone who is half-slave half-freeman.Therefore, bthis isan example of ba restriction following a restriction, andthere is a hermeneutical principle that ba restriction following a restrictionserves bonly to amplifythe ihalakhaand to include in the category of those who are liable one who abducts one who is half-slave half-freeman., bAnd the Rabbis,who deem one who abducts one who is half-slave half-freeman exempt, how do they interpret the verse? bThey do not exclude slavesbased on the term b“from his brethren,” asthe slave bis the brother ofthe abductor bwith regard to thefulfillment of bmitzvot.Concerning the expression b“children of Israel”and the more expanded expression b“from the children of Israel,” oneserves bto excludefrom liability one who abducts bslaves,as the slave is not a full-fledged Jew, band oneserves bto excludefrom liability one who abducts bone who is half-slave half-freeman. /b,§ The Gemara asks: bFrom whereis ba prohibition against abducting a personderived? bRabbi Yoshiya saysthat it is derived bfromthe verse: b“You shall not steal”(Exodus 20:13). bRabbi Yoḥa saysthat it is derived bfromthe verse: b“They shall not be sold as slaves”(Leviticus 25:42). The Gemara comments: bAnd they do not disagree,as each requires both verses to derive the prohibition. One bSage,Rabbi Yoshiya, benumeratesthe bprohibition against abduction, andone bSage,Rabbi Yoḥa, benumeratesthe bprohibition against sellingthe abductee into slavery., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“You shall not steal”(Exodus 20:13), and it is bwith regard toone who babducts peoplethat bthe verse is speaking. Do you saythat the verse is speaking bwith regard toone who babducts people, orperhaps the verse is speaking bonly with regard toone who bsteals property? You say: Go out and learn fromone of bthe thirteen hermeneutical principles: A matter derived from its context. With regard to whatcontext are the adjacent prohibitions “You shall not kill; you shall not commit adultery” in bthe verse speaking?They are speaking bwith regard to capitalcases. bSo too here,the prohibition is speaking bwith regard to a capitalcase of abduction., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“You shall not steal”(Leviticus 19:11), and it is bwith regard toone who bsteals propertythat bthe verse is speaking. Do you saythat the verse is speaking bwith regard toone who bsteals property, orperhaps the verse is speaking bonly with regard toone who babducts people? You say: Go out and learn fromone of bthe thirteen hermeneutical principles: A matter derived from its context. With regard to whatcontext bis thesubsequent bverse:“You shall neither exploit your neighbor nor rob him” (Leviticus 19:13), bspeaking?It is speaking bwith regard to property. So too here,the verse is speaking bwith regard to property. /b, bIt was stated:If bthe witnesses to the abduction and the witnesses to the sale of a person were rendered conspiring witnesses, Ḥizkiyya says:The typical sentence of conspiring witnesses is not implemented and bthey are not executed. Rabbi Yoḥa says: They are executed. /b,The Gemara elaborates: It is bḤizkiyya who saidhis statement bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva, who saidone derives from the verse: “On the basis of two witnesses…shall a matter be established” (Deuteronomy 19:15), that the testimony of witnesses is valid only when they attest to an entire bmatter, but notto bhalf a matter.Since each pair of witnesses provides testimony concerning only half the transgression for which the perpetrator would be liable, i.e., they each testify to only the abduction or the sale, the testimony of each pair is not valid. Therefore, when they are deemed conspiring witnesses, they are not executed. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa sayshis statement bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe Rabbis, who saidthat one derives from the verse that the testimony is valid when they testify with regard to an entire bmatter, and evenwhen they testify with regard to bhalf a matter.Since the testimony of the two pairs of witnesses together constitutes a complete testimony, if they are rendered conspiring witnesses, they are executed.,The Gemara notes: bAnd Ḥizkiyya concedes with regard to the final witnesses of a stubborn and rebellious son who were rendered conspiring witnesses that they are executed.A stubborn and rebellious son is executed only if witnesses testified that he engaged in gluttonous and drunken conduct and he was flogged, and then a second pair of witnesses testifies that he again engaged in gluttonous and drunken conduct. His death sentence is based solely on the testimony of the second pair, bas the firstwitnesses bcould say: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
actions of israelite farmer Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 35
agriculture, division of Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 35
akinakes, holophernes sword Gera, Judith (2014) 319
alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 62
apologetic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 62
assyrians, court talesnan Gera, Judith (2014) 319
bar kochba Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 35
biblical women, lie and deceive Gera, Judith (2014) 319
boyarin, daniel Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 137
brodsky, david Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 137
brothers/sisters Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
community, preserving sanctity of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
covenant Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
cult prophets Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
de-orayta (laws from the torah), on tosefet shabbat Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
de-orayta (laws from the torah) Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
de-rabbanan (laws decreed by the rabbis), on tosefet shabbat Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
de-rabbanan (laws decreed by the rabbis) Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
death penalty Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 62
delilah Gera, Judith (2014) 319
deuteronomy Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 35
dinah Gera, Judith (2014) 319
douglas, mary Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
enemies Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
eschaton Brooks, Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah (1983) 35
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 62
exile, captivity, and return, exodus, story of Gera, Judith (2014) 319
faithfulness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
flesh Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
gentile/gentiles Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 351
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162; Gera, Judith (2014) 319
good samaritan Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 131
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 351
heart Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
holiness Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
holophernes, death and decapitation Gera, Judith (2014) 319
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 319
house Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
intercession Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
isaac Gera, Judith (2014) 319
ishmael, r. Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 137, 138
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 351
israelites, attack Gera, Judith (2014) 319
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 319
jesus christ Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 131
joakim of judith, celebrates victory Gera, Judith (2014) 319
judah Gera, Judith (2014) 319
judith, deceives and lies Gera, Judith (2014) 319
judith, moral stature Gera, Judith (2014) 319
judith, prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 319
language and style, book of judith, key words and internal echoes Gera, Judith (2014) 319
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 351
law Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
law of moses Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
lawyers and legal system, capital cases Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 138
lawyers and legal system, monetary cases Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 138
libanius, progymnasmata and Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 137
liturgy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
michal Gera, Judith (2014) 319
midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 62
midrash halakhah Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 137
moses Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
mowinckel, sigmund Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
neighbor Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 131, 134
nevela Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 77
nomos Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 351
non-israelite Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 131
parents Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
paul, pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
penal code, sectarian, biblical background of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
plato, protagoras Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 137
plato, symposium Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 137
poor, share of harvest for Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75, 76, 77
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 351
prayers and praying Gera, Judith (2014) 319
progymnasmata Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 137, 138
prophets, and the cult Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
punishments, in sectarian penal code Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
rabbinic tradition/literature, midrash Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 62
rahab Gera, Judith (2014) 319
rebecca Gera, Judith (2014) 319
reproof Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
roman, law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 62
root ªa.l.l Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 76, 77
rule of the community, references to the community in Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
sabbath, differing traditions of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
sabbath Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
sacrifice, at end of days Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
sadducees, legal tradition of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75, 76, 77
sadducees Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 62
sanctuary Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
saul Gera, Judith (2014) 319
schwartz, baruch Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 30
scripture, normative laws in Neusner, The Perfect Torah (2003) 1
second temple period, halakhic disputes from time of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75, 76, 77
secularisation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 168
shamor Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
shechem, city and people Gera, Judith (2014) 319
simeon, attacks shechem Gera, Judith (2014) 319
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 351
song of the sea Gera, Judith (2014) 319
stam/stammaim Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 137
system, halakhic ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 62
ta shema' Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 137
tamar, judahs daughter in law Gera, Judith (2014) 319
theft Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 62
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 351
tosefet shabbat (addition to the sabbath) Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 75
trefah Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 77
uzziah, admires/blesses judith Gera, Judith (2014) 319
vulgate judith Gera, Judith (2014) 319
weber, max Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 80
wisdom/wise Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
wound Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 162
ªolelot (grapes left to the poor) Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 76, 77