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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6296
Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 15.31-15.33


וְהִזַּרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִטֻּמְאָתָם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ בְּטֻמְאָתָם בְּטַמְּאָם אֶת־מִשְׁכָּנִי אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָם׃Thus shall ye separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness; that they die not in their uncleanness, when they defile My tabernacle that is in the midst of them.


זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַזָּב וַאֲשֶׁר תֵּצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ׃This is the law of him that hath an issue, and of him from whom the flow of seed goeth out, so that he is unclean thereby;


וְהַדָּוָה בְּנִדָּתָהּ וְהַזָּב אֶת־זוֹבוֹ לַזָּכָר וְלַנְּקֵבָה וּלְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עִם־טְמֵאָה׃and of her that is sick with her impurity, and of them that have an issue, whether it be a man, or a woman; and of him that lieth with her that is unclean.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

23 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.26, 21.23, 23.10-23.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.26. הַעִידֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ כִּי־אָבֹד תֹּאבֵדוּן מַהֵר מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ לֹא־תַאֲרִיכֻן יָמִים עָלֶיהָ כִּי הִשָּׁמֵד תִּשָּׁמֵדוּן׃ 21.23. לֹא־תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל־הָעֵץ כִּי־קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי־קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־אַדְמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 23.11. כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְךָ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִהְיֶה טָהוֹר מִקְּרֵה־לָיְלָה וְיָצָא אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה לֹא יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 23.12. וְהָיָה לִפְנוֹת־עֶרֶב יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וּכְבֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 23.13. וְיָד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָצָאתָ שָׁמָּה חוּץ׃ 23.14. וְיָתֵד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ עַל־אֲזֵנֶךָ וְהָיָה בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ חוּץ וְחָפַרְתָּה בָהּ וְשַׁבְתָּ וְכִסִּיתָ אֶת־צֵאָתֶךָ׃ 23.15. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּקֶרֶב מַחֲנֶךָ לְהַצִּילְךָ וְלָתֵת אֹיְבֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהָיָה מַחֲנֶיךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹא־יִרְאֶה בְךָ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְשָׁב מֵאַחֲרֶיךָ׃ 4.26. I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that ye shall soon utterly perish from off the land whereunto ye go over the Jordan to possess it; ye shall not prolong your days upon it, but shall utterly be destroyed." 21.23. his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt surely bury him the same day; for he that is hanged is a reproach unto God; that thou defile not thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance." 23.10. When thou goest forth in camp against thine enemies, then thou shalt keep thee from every evil thing." 23.11. If there be among you any man, that is not clean by reason of that which chanceth him by night, then shall he go abroad out of the camp, he shall not come within the camp." 23.12. But it shall be, when evening cometh on, he shall bathe himself in water; and when the sun is down, he may come within the camp." 23.13. Thou shalt have a place also without the camp, whither thou shalt go forth abroad." 23.14. And thou shalt have a paddle among thy weapons; and it shall be, when thou sittest down abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, and shalt turn back and cover that which cometh from thee." 23.15. For the LORD thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall thy camp be holy; that He see no unseemly thing in thee, and turn away from thee."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 25.8-25.9, 28.35, 28.43, 29.45-29.46, 30.20, 40.34-40.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.8. וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם׃ 25.9. כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מַרְאֶה אוֹתְךָ אֵת תַּבְנִית הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְאֵת תַּבְנִית כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְכֵן תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 28.35. וְהָיָה עַל־אַהֲרֹן לְשָׁרֵת וְנִשְׁמַע קוֹלוֹ בְּבֹאוֹ אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּבְצֵאתוֹ וְלֹא יָמוּת׃ 28.43. וְהָיוּ עַל־אַהֲרֹן וְעַל־בָּנָיו בְּבֹאָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אוֹ בְגִשְׁתָּם אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְשָׁרֵת בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עָוֺן וָמֵתוּ חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו׃ 29.45. וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃ 29.46. וְיָדְעוּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לְשָׁכְנִי בְתוֹכָם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 40.34. וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.35. וְלֹא־יָכֹל מֹשֶׁה לָבוֹא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד כִּי־שָׁכַן עָלָיו הֶעָנָן וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 25.8. And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them." 25.9. According to all that I show thee, the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the furniture thereof, even so shall ye make it." 28.35. And it shall be upon Aaron to minister; and the sound thereof shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the LORD, and when he cometh out, that he die not." 28.43. And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they go in unto the tent of meeting, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and die; it shall be a statute for ever unto him and unto his seed after him." 29.45. And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will be their God." 29.46. And they shall know that I am the LORD their God, that brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, that I may dwell among them. I am the LORD their God." 30.20. when they go into the tent of meeting, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to cause an offering made by fire to smoke unto the LORD;" 40.34. Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle." 40.35. And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.—"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.28, 9.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.7. וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָהּ׃ 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 9.7. And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; swarm in the earth, and multiply therein.’ ."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.4, 3, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 5.2, 5.3, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 7.6, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 8, 9, 10, 10.2, 10.6, 10.7, 10.10, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 11.33, 11.34, 11.35, 11.36, 11.37, 11.38, 11.39, 11.40, 11.41, 11.42, 11.43, 11.44, 11.45, 11.46, 11.47, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 13, 13.1-14.32, 13.47, 13.48, 13.49, 13.50, 13.51, 13.52, 13.53, 13.54, 13.55, 13.56, 13.57, 13.58, 13.59, 14, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 14.25, 14.26, 14.27, 14.28, 14.29, 14.30, 14.31, 14.32, 14.33, 14.34, 14.35, 14.36, 14.37, 14.38, 14.39, 14.40, 14.41, 14.42, 14.43, 14.44, 14.45, 14.46, 14.47, 14.48, 14.49, 14.50, 14.51, 14.52, 14.53, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.32, 15.33, 16, 16.1, 16.2, 16.3, 16.4, 16.5, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17, 16.18, 16.19, 16.20, 16.21, 16.22, 16.23, 16.24, 16.25, 16.26, 16.27, 16.28, 16.29, 16.30, 16.31, 16.32, 16.33, 16.34, 17, 17.10, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 18, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.19, 18.20, 18.27, 18.28, 19, 19.2, 19.8, 19.12, 19.29, 19.30, 20, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.5, 20.7, 20.10, 20.18, 20.22, 20.25, 20.26, 21, 21.1, 21.2, 21.3, 21.4, 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 21.8, 21.9, 21.10, 21.11, 21.12, 21.13, 21.14, 21.15, 21.23, 22, 22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.7, 22.8, 22.9, 22.32, 23, 24, 25, 26, 26.2, 26.11, 27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הָעֹלָה וְנִרְצָה לוֹ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו׃ 1.4. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 1.51, 3.4, 5.1-5.16, 6.6-6.20, 15.30-15.31, 16.3, 17.28, 18.22, 18.32, 19.7-19.8, 19.10-19.22, 30.3, 35.33-35.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.51. וּבִנְסֹעַ הַמִּשְׁכָּן יוֹרִידוּ אֹתוֹ הַלְוִיִּם וּבַחֲנֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן יָקִימוּ אֹתוֹ הַלְוִיִּם וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃ 3.4. וַיָּמָת נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה בְּהַקְרִבָם אֵשׁ זָרָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה בְּמִדְבַּר סִינַי וּבָנִים לֹא־הָיוּ לָהֶם וַיְכַהֵן אֶלְעָזָר וְאִיתָמָר עַל־פְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן אֲבִיהֶם׃ 3.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה פְּקֹד כָּל־בְּכֹר זָכָר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ וָמָעְלָה וְשָׂא אֵת מִסְפַּר שְׁמֹתָם׃ 5.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.1. וְאִישׁ אֶת־קֳדָשָׁיו לוֹ יִהְיוּ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִתֵּן לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 5.2. וְאַתְּ כִּי שָׂטִית תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ וְכִי נִטְמֵאת וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ בָּךְ אֶת־שְׁכָבְתּוֹ מִבַּלְעֲדֵי אִישֵׁךְ׃ 5.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִישַׁלְּחוּ מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה כָּל־צָרוּעַ וְכָל־זָב וְכֹל טָמֵא לָנָפֶשׁ׃ 5.3. מִזָּכָר עַד־נְקֵבָה תְּשַׁלֵּחוּ אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה תְּשַׁלְּחוּם וְלֹא יְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־מַחֲנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 5.3. אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲבֹר עָלָיו רוּחַ קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהֶעֱמִיד אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְעָשָׂה לָהּ הַכֹּהֵן אֵת כָּל־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 5.4. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ־כֵן בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ אוֹתָם אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֵּן עָשׂוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.5. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.6. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַעֲשׂוּ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאת הָאָדָם לִמְעֹל מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְאָשְׁמָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא׃ 5.7. וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת־חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִישִׁתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַאֲשֶׁר אָשַׁם לוֹ׃ 5.8. וְאִם־אֵין לָאִישׁ גֹּאֵל לְהָשִׁיב הָאָשָׁם אֵלָיו הָאָשָׁם הַמּוּשָׁב לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן מִלְּבַד אֵיל הַכִּפֻּרִים אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ עָלָיו׃ 5.9. וְכָל־תְּרוּמָה לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 5.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.12. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־תִשְׂטֶה אִשְׁתּוֹ וּמָעֲלָה בוֹ מָעַל׃ 5.13. וְשָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְנֶעְלַם מֵעֵינֵי אִישָׁהּ וְנִסְתְּרָה וְהִיא נִטְמָאָה וְעֵד אֵין בָּהּ וְהִוא לֹא נִתְפָּשָׂה׃ 5.14. וְעָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִוא נִטְמָאָה אוֹ־עָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִיא לֹא נִטְמָאָה׃ 5.15. וְהֵבִיא הָאִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנָהּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵיפָה קֶמַח שְׂעֹרִים לֹא־יִצֹק עָלָיו שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלָיו לְבֹנָה כִּי־מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הוּא מִנְחַת זִכָּרוֹן מַזְכֶּרֶת עָוֺן׃ 5.16. וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶעֱמִדָהּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 6.6. כָּל־יְמֵי הַזִּירוֹ לַיהוָה עַל־נֶפֶשׁ מֵת לֹא יָבֹא׃ 6.7. לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לְאָחִיו וּלְאַחֹתוֹ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא לָהֶם בְּמֹתָם כִּי נֵזֶר אֱלֹהָיו עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 6.8. כֹּל יְמֵי נִזְרוֹ קָדֹשׁ הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 6.9. וְכִי־יָמוּת מֵת עָלָיו בְּפֶתַע פִּתְאֹם וְטִמֵּא רֹאשׁ נִזְרוֹ וְגִלַּח רֹאשׁוֹ בְּיוֹם טָהֳרָתוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יְגַלְּחֶנּוּ׃ 6.11. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְאֶחָד לְעֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו מֵאֲשֶׁר חָטָא עַל־הַנָּפֶשׁ וְקִדַּשׁ אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא׃ 6.12. וְהִזִּיר לַיהוָה אֶת־יְמֵי נִזְרוֹ וְהֵבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְאָשָׁם וְהַיָּמִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים יִפְּלוּ כִּי טָמֵא נִזְרוֹ׃ 6.13. וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת הַנָּזִיר בְּיוֹם מְלֹאת יְמֵי נִזְרוֹ יָבִיא אֹתוֹ אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 6.14. וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ תָמִים אֶחָד לְעֹלָה וְכַבְשָׂה אַחַת בַּת־שְׁנָתָהּ תְּמִימָה לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל־אֶחָד תָּמִים לִשְׁלָמִים׃ 6.15. וְסַל מַצּוֹת סֹלֶת חַלֹּת בְּלוּלֹת בַּשֶּׁמֶן וּרְקִיקֵי מַצּוֹת מְשֻׁחִים בַּשָּׁמֶן וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם׃ 6.16. וְהִקְרִיב הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְעָשָׂה אֶת־חַטָּאתוֹ וְאֶת־עֹלָתוֹ׃ 6.17. וְאֶת־הָאַיִל יַעֲשֶׂה זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה עַל סַל הַמַּצּוֹת וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־מִנְחָתוֹ וְאֶת־נִסְכּוֹ׃ 6.18. וְגִלַּח הַנָּזִיר פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֶת־רֹאשׁ נִזְרוֹ וְלָקַח אֶת־שְׂעַר רֹאשׁ נִזְרוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תַּחַת זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים׃ 6.19. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַזְּרֹעַ בְּשֵׁלָה מִן־הָאַיִל וְחַלַּת מַצָּה אַחַת מִן־הַסַּל וּרְקִיק מַצָּה אֶחָד וְנָתַן עַל־כַּפֵּי הַנָּזִיר אַחַר הִתְגַּלְּחוֹ אֶת־נִזְרוֹ׃ 15.31. כִּי דְבַר־יְהוָה בָּזָה וְאֶת־מִצְוָתוֹ הֵפַר הִכָּרֵת תִּכָּרֵת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא עֲוֺנָה בָהּ׃ 16.3. וְאִם־בְּרִיאָה יִבְרָא יְהוָה וּפָצְתָה הָאֲדָמָה אֶת־פִּיהָ וּבָלְעָה אֹתָם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר לָהֶם וְיָרְדוּ חַיִּים שְׁאֹלָה וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי נִאֲצוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 16.3. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֲלֵהֶם רַב־לָכֶם כִּי כָל־הָעֵדָה כֻּלָּם קְדֹשִׁים וּבְתוֹכָם יְהוָה וּמַדּוּעַ תִּתְנַשְּׂאוּ עַל־קְהַל יְהוָה׃ 17.28. כֹּל הַקָּרֵב הַקָּרֵב אֶל־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה יָמוּת הַאִם תַּמְנוּ לִגְוֺעַ׃ 18.22. וְלֹא־יִקְרְבוּ עוֹד בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לָשֵׂאת חֵטְא לָמוּת׃ 18.32. וְלֹא־תִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְאֶת־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תְחַלְּלוּ וְלֹא תָמוּתוּ׃ 19.7. וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמַּיִם וְאַחַר יָבוֹא אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וְטָמֵא הַכֹּהֵן עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 19.8. וְהַשֹּׂרֵף אֹתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו בַּמַּיִם וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 19.11. הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.12. הוּא יִתְחַטָּא־בוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יִטְהָר וְאִם־לֹא יִתְחַטָּא בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי לֹא יִטְהָר׃ 19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃ 19.14. זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה אָדָם כִּי־יָמוּת בְּאֹהֶל כָּל־הַבָּא אֶל־הָאֹהֶל וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאֹהֶל יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.15. וְכֹל כְּלִי פָתוּחַ אֲשֶׁר אֵין־צָמִיד פָּתִיל עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא׃ 19.16. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בַּחֲלַל־חֶרֶב אוֹ בְמֵת אוֹ־בְעֶצֶם אָדָם אוֹ בְקָבֶר יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.17. וְלָקְחוּ לַטָּמֵא מֵעֲפַר שְׂרֵפַת הַחַטָּאת וְנָתַן עָלָיו מַיִם חַיִּים אֶל־כֶּלִי׃ 19.18. וְלָקַח אֵזוֹב וְטָבַל בַּמַּיִם אִישׁ טָהוֹר וְהִזָּה עַל־הָאֹהֶל וְעַל־כָּל־הַכֵּלִים וְעַל־הַנְּפָשׁוֹת אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ־שָׁם וְעַל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בַּעֶצֶם אוֹ בֶחָלָל אוֹ בַמֵּת אוֹ בַקָּבֶר׃ 19.19. וְהִזָּה הַטָּהֹר עַל־הַטָּמֵא בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְחִטְּאוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר בָּעָרֶב׃ 19.21. וְהָיְתָה לָּהֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם וּמַזֵּה מֵי־הַנִּדָּה יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵי הַנִּדָּה יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 19.22. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַטָּמֵא יִטְמָא וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ הַנֹּגַעַת תִּטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 30.3. אִישׁ כִּי־יִדֹּר נֶדֶר לַיהוָה אוֹ־הִשָּׁבַע שְׁבֻעָה לֶאְסֹר אִסָּר עַל־נַפְשׁוֹ לֹא יַחֵל דְּבָרוֹ כְּכָל־הַיֹּצֵא מִפִּיו יַעֲשֶׂה׃ 35.33. וְלֹא־תַחֲנִיפוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּהּ כִּי הַדָּם הוּא יַחֲנִיף אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְלָאָרֶץ לֹא־יְכֻפַּר לַדָּם אֲשֶׁר שֻׁפַּךְ־בָּהּ כִּי־אִם בְּדַם שֹׁפְכוֹ׃ 35.34. וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹשְׁבִים בָּהּ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָהּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.51. And when the tabernacle setteth forward, the Levites shall take it down; and when the tabernacle is to be pitched, the Levites shall set it up; and the common man that draweth nigh shall be put to death." 3.4. And Nadab and Abihu died before the LORD, when they offered strange fire before the LORD, in the wilderness of Sinai, and they had no children; and Eleazar and Ithamar ministered in the priest’s office in the presence of Aaron their father." 5.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.2. ’Command the children of Israel, that they put out of the camp every leper, and every one that hath an issue, and whosoever is unclean by the dead;" 5.3. both male and female shall ye put out, without the camp shall ye put them; that they defile not their camp, in the midst whereof I dwell.’" 5.4. And the children of Israel did so, and put them out without the camp; as the LORD spoke unto Moses, so did the children of Israel." 5.5. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.6. Speak unto the children of Israel: When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to commit a trespass against the LORD, and that soul be guilty;" 5.7. then they shall confess their sin which they have done; and he shall make restitution for his guilt in full, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him in respect of whom he hath been guilty." 5.8. But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution may be made for the guilt, the restitution for guilt which is made shall be the LORD’S, even the priest’s; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby atonement shall be made for him." 5.9. And every heave-offering of all the holy things of the children of Israel, which they present unto the priest, shall be his." 5.10. And every man’s hallowed things shall be his: whatsoever any man giveth the priest, it shall be his." 5.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.12. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: If any man’s wife go aside, and act unfaithfully against him," 5.13. and a man lie with her carnally, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, and there be no witness against her, neither she be taken in the act;" 5.14. and the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be defiled; or if the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be not defiled;" 5.15. then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is a meal-offering of jealousy, a meal-offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance." 5.16. And the priest shall bring her near, and set her before the LORD." 6.6. All the days that he consecrateth himself unto the LORD he shall not come near to a dead body." 6.7. He shall not make himself unclean for his father, or for his mother, for his brother, or for his sister, when they die; because his consecration unto God is upon his head." 6.8. All the days of his Naziriteship he is holy unto the LORD." 6.9. And if any man die very suddenly beside him, and he defile his consecrated head, then he shall shave his head in the day of his cleansing, on the seventh day shall he shave it." 6.10. And on the eighth day he shall bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, to the priest, to the door of the tent of meeting." 6.11. And the priest shall prepare one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering, and make atonement for him, for that he sinned by reason of the dead; and he shall hallow his head that same day." 6.12. And he shall consecrate unto the LORD the days of his Naziriteship, and shall bring a he-lamb of the first year for a guilt-offering; but the former days shall be void, because his consecration was defiled. ." 6.13. And this is the law of the Nazirite, when the days of his consecration are fulfilled: he shall abring it unto the door of the tent of meeting;" 6.14. and he shall present his offering unto the LORD, one he-lamb of the first year without blemish for a burnt-offering, and one ewe-lamb of the first year without blemish for a sin-offering, and one ram without blemish for peace-offerings," 6.15. and a basket of unleavened bread, cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers spread with oil, and their meal-offering, and their drink-offerings." 6.16. And the priest shall bring them before the LORD, and shall offer his sin-offering, and his burnt-offering." 6.17. And he shall offer the ram for a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the LORD, with the basket of unleavened bread; the priest shall offer also the meal-offering thereof, and the drink-offering thereof." 6.18. And the Nazirite shall shave his consecrated head at the door of the tent of meeting, and shall take the hair of his consecrated head, and put it on the fire which is under the sacrifice of peace-offerings." 6.19. And the priest shall take the shoulder of the ram when it is sodden, and one unleavened cake out of the basket, and one unleavened wafer, and shall put them upon the hands of the Nazirite, after he hath shaven his consecrated head." 6.20. And the priest shall wave them for a wave-offering before the LORD; this is holy for the priest, together with the breast of waving and the thigh of heaving; and after that the Nazirite may drink wine." 15.30. But the soul that doeth aught with a high hand, whether he be home-born or a stranger, the same blasphemeth the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people." 15.31. Because he hath despised the word of the LORD, and hath broken His commandment; that soul shall utterly be cut off, his iniquity shall be upon him." 16.3. and they assembled themselves together against Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them: ‘Ye take too much upon you, seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the LORD is among them; wherefore then lift ye up yourselves above the assembly of the LORD?’" 17.28. Every one that cometh near, that cometh near unto the tabernacle of the LORD, is to die; shall we wholly perish?’" 18.22. And henceforth the children of Israel shall not come nigh the tent of meeting, lest they bear sin, and die." 18.32. And ye shall bear no sin by reason of it, seeing that ye have set apart from it the best thereof; and ye shall not profane the holy things of the children of Israel, that ye die not.’" 19.7. Then the priest shall wash his clothes, and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he may come into the camp, and the priest shall be unclean until the even." 19.8. And he that burneth her shall wash his clothes in water, and bathe his flesh in water, and shall be unclean until the even." 19.10. And he that gathereth the ashes of the heifer shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; and it shall be unto the children of Israel, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among them, for a statute for ever." 19.11. He that toucheth the dead, even any man’s dead body, shall be unclean seven days;" 19.12. the same shall purify himself therewith on the third day and on the seventh day, and he shall be clean; but if he purify not himself the third day and the seventh day, he shall not be clean." 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him." 19.14. This is the law: when a man dieth in a tent, every one that cometh into the tent, and every thing that is in the tent, shall be unclean seven days." 19.15. And every open vessel, which hath no covering close-bound upon it, is unclean." 19.16. And whosoever in the open field toucheth one that is slain with a sword, or one that dieth of himself, or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days." 19.17. And for the unclean they shall take of the ashes of the burning of the purification from sin, and running water shall be put thereto in a vessel." 19.18. And a clean person shall take hyssop, and dip it in the water, and sprinkle it upon the tent, and upon all the vessels, and upon the persons that were there, and upon him that touched the bone, or the slain, or the dead, or the grave." 19.19. And the clean person shall sprinkle upon the unclean on the third day, and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify him; and he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be clean at even." 19.20. But the man that shall be unclean, and shall not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off from the midst of the assembly, because he hath defiled the sanctuary of the LORD; the water of sprinkling hath not been dashed against him: he is unclean." 19.21. And it shall be a perpetual statute unto them; and he that sprinkleth the water of sprinkling shall wash his clothes; and he that toucheth the water of sprinkling shall be unclean until even." 19.22. And whatsoever the unclean person toucheth shall be unclean; and the soul that toucheth him shall be unclean until even." 30.3. When a man voweth a vow unto the LORD, or sweareth an oath to bind his soul with a bond, he shall not break his word; he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth." 35.33. So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are; for blood, it polluteth the land; and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it." 35.34. And thou shalt not defile the land which ye inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the LORD dwell in the midst of the children of Israel.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.41-8.43 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.41. וְגַם אֶל־הַנָּכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־מֵעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא וּבָא מֵאֶרֶץ רְחוֹקָה לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ׃ 8.42. כִּי יִשְׁמְעוּן אֶת־שִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל וְאֶת־יָדְךָ הַחֲזָקָה וּזְרֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה וּבָא וְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.43. אַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע הַשָּׁמַיִם מְכוֹן שִׁבְתֶּךָ וְעָשִׂיתָ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא אֵלֶיךָ הַנָּכְרִי לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּן כָּל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ לְיִרְאָה אֹתְךָ כְּעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלָדַעַת כִּי־שִׁמְךָ נִקְרָא עַל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי׃ 8.41. Moreover concerning the stranger that is not of Thy people Israel, when he shall come out of a far country for Thy name’s sake—" 8.42. for they shall hear of Thy great name, and of Thy mighty hand, and of Thine outstretched arm—when he shall come and pray toward this house;" 8.43. hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling-place, and do according to all that the stranger calleth to Thee for; that all the peoples of the earth may know Thy name, to fear Thee, as doth Thy people Israel, and that they may know that Thy name is called upon this house which I have built."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 12.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.17. כֶּסֶף אָשָׁם וְכֶסֶף חַטָּאוֹת לֹא יוּבָא בֵּית יְהוָה לַכֹּהֲנִים יִהְיוּ׃ 12.17. The forfeit money, and the sin money, was not brought into the house of the LORD; it was the priests."
8. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.8, 1.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. חֵטְא חָטְאָה יְרוּשָׁלִַם עַל־כֵּן לְנִידָה הָיָתָה כָּל־מְכַבְּדֶיהָ הִזִּילוּהָ כִּי־רָאוּ עֶרְוָתָהּ גַּם־הִיא נֶאֶנְחָה וַתָּשָׁב אָחוֹר׃ 1.17. פֵּרְשָׂה צִיּוֹן בְּיָדֶיהָ אֵין מְנַחֵם לָהּ צִוָּה יְהוָה לְיַעֲקֹב סְבִיבָיו צָרָיו הָיְתָה יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְנִדָּה בֵּינֵיהֶם׃ 1.8. Jerusalem sinned grievously, therefore she became a wanderer; all who honored her despised her, for they have seen her shame; moreover, she herself sighed and turned away." 1.17. Zion spreads out her hands [for help], but there is none to comfort her; the Lord has commanded concerning Jacob [that] his adversaries shall be round about him; Jerusalem has become an outcast among them."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 7.19, 8.1-11.25, 16.6, 18.6, 22.10, 22.26, 36.17, 36.18, 43.20, 44.7, 44.8, 44.9, 44.23 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.6. וָאֶעֱבֹר עָלַיִךְ וָאֶרְאֵךְ מִתְבּוֹסֶסֶת בְּדָמָיִךְ וָאֹמַר לָךְ בְּדָמַיִךְ חֲיִי וָאֹמַר לָךְ בְּדָמַיִךְ חֲיִי׃ 16.6. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֲנִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אוֹתָךְ בִּימֵי נְעוּרָיִךְ וַהֲקִמוֹתִי לָךְ בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 16.6. And when I passed by thee, and saw thee wallowing in thy blood, I said unto thee: In thy blood, live; yea, I said unto thee: In thy blood, live;"
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 6.32-6.33 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.32. וְגַם אֶל־הַנָּכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא מֵעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא וּבָא מֵאֶרֶץ רְחוֹקָה לְמַעַן שִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל וְיָדְךָ הַחֲזָקָה וּזְרוֹעֲךָ הַנְּטוּיָה וּבָאוּ וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 6.33. וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם מִמְּכוֹן שִׁבְתֶּךָ וְעָשִׂיתָ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא אֵלֶיךָ הַנָּכְרִי לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ כָל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ אֶת־שְׁמֶךָ וּלְיִרְאָה אֹתְךָ כְּעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלָדַעַת כִּי־שִׁמְךָ נִקְרָא עַל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר בָּנִיתִי׃ 6.32. Moreover concerning the stranger, that is not of Thy people Israel, when be shall come out of a far country for Thy great name’s sake, and Thy mighty hand, and Thine outstretched arm; when they shall come and pray toward this house;" 6.33. then hear Thou from heaven, even from Thy dwelling-place, and do according to all that the stranger calleth to Thee for; that all the peoples of the earth may know Thy name, and fear Thee, as doth Thy people Israel, and that they may know that Thy name is called upon this house which I have built."
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 8.24, 9.11-9.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.24. וָאַבְדִּילָה מִשָּׂרֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר לְשֵׁרֵבְיָה חֲשַׁבְיָה וְעִמָּהֶם מֵאֲחֵיהֶם עֲשָׂרָה׃ 9.11. אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָ בְּיַד עֲבָדֶיךָ הַנְּבִיאִים לֵאמֹר הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּאִים לְרִשְׁתָּהּ אֶרֶץ נִדָּה הִיא בְּנִדַּת עַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת בְּתוֹעֲבֹתֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר מִלְאוּהָ מִפֶּה אֶל־פֶּה בְּטֻמְאָתָם׃ 9.12. וְעַתָּה בְּנוֹתֵיכֶם אַל־תִּתְּנוּ לִבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶם אַל־תִּשְׂאוּ לִבְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא־תִדְרְשׁוּ שְׁלֹמָם וְטוֹבָתָם עַד־עוֹלָם לְמַעַן תֶּחֶזְקוּ וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֶת־טוּב הָאָרֶץ וְהוֹרַשְׁתֶּם לִבְנֵיכֶם עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 9.13. וְאַחֲרֵי כָּל־הַבָּא עָלֵינוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂינוּ הָרָעִים וּבְאַשְׁמָתֵנוּ הַגְּדֹלָה כִּי אַתָּה אֱלֹהֵינוּ חָשַׂכְתָּ לְמַטָּה מֵעֲוֺנֵנוּ וְנָתַתָּה לָּנוּ פְּלֵיטָה כָּזֹאת׃ 9.14. הֲנָשׁוּב לְהָפֵר מִצְוֺתֶיךָ וּלְהִתְחַתֵּן בְּעַמֵּי הַתֹּעֵבוֹת הָאֵלֶּה הֲלוֹא תֶאֱנַף־בָּנוּ עַד־כַּלֵּה לְאֵין שְׁאֵרִית וּפְלֵיטָה׃ 8.24. Then I separated twelve of the chiefs of the priests, besides Sherebiah, Hashabiah, and ten of their brethren with them," 9.11. which Thou hast commanded by Thy servants the prophets, saying: The land, unto which ye go to possess it, is an unclean land through the uncleanness of the peoples of the lands, through their abominations, wherewith they have filled it from one end to another with their filthiness." 9.12. Now therefore give not your daughters unto their sons, neither take their daughters unto your sons, nor seek their peace or their prosperity for ever; that ye may be strong, and eat the good of the land, and leave it for an inheritance to your children for ever." 9.13. And after all that is come upon us for our evil deeds, and for our great guilt, seeing that Thou our God hast punished us less than our iniquities deserve, and hast given us such a remt," 9.14. shall we again break Thy commandments, and make marriages with the peoples that do these abominations? wouldest not Thou be angry with us till Thou hadst consumed us, so that there should be no remt, nor any to escape?"
12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 9.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 3.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.29. Then he saw that the money in the treasury was exhausted, and that the revenues from the country were small because of the dissension and disaster which he had caused in the land by abolishing the laws that had existed from the earliest days.
14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.145-12.146 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.145. 4. And these were the contents of this epistle. He also published a decree through all his kingdom in honor of the temple, which contained what follows: “It shall be lawful for no foreigner to come within the limits of the temple round about; which thing is forbidden also to the Jews, unless to those who, according to their own custom, have purified themselves. 12.146. Nor let any flesh of horses, or of mules, or of asses, he brought into the city, whether they be wild or tame; nor that of leopards, or foxes, or hares; and, in general, that of any animal which is forbidden for the Jews to eat. Nor let their skins be brought into it; nor let any such animal be bred up in the city. Let them only be permitted to use the sacrifices derived from their forefathers, with which they have been obliged to make acceptable atonements to God. And he that transgresseth any of these orders, let him pay to the priests three thousand drachmae of silver.”
15. Mishnah, Berachot, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. From what time may one recite the Shema in the evening? From the time that the priests enter [their houses] in order to eat their terumah until the end of the first watch, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say: until midnight. Rabban Gamaliel says: until dawn. Once it happened that his sons came home [late] from a wedding feast and they said to him: we have not yet recited the [evening] Shema. He said to them: if it is not yet dawn you are still obligated to recite. And not in respect to this alone did they so decide, but wherever the sages say “until midnight,” the mitzvah may be performed until dawn. The burning of the fat and the pieces may be performed till dawn. Similarly, all [the offerings] that are to be eaten within one day may be eaten till dawn. Why then did the sages say “until midnight”? In order to keep a man far from transgression."
16. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. The garments of an am haaretz possess midras-impurity for Pharisees. The garments of Pharisees possess midras-impurity for those who eat terumah. The garments of those who eat terumah possess midras-impurity for [those who eat] sacred things. The garments of [those who eat] sacred things possess midras-impurity for [those who occupy themselves with the waters of] purification. Yose ben Yoezer was the most pious in the priesthood, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who ate] sacred things. Yoha ben Gudgada all his life used to eat [unconsecrated food] in accordance with the purity required for sacred things, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who occupied themselves with the water of] purification."
17. Mishnah, Kelim, 1.1-1.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. The fathers of impurity are a: sheretz, semen, [an Israelite] who has contracted corpse impurity, a metzora during the days of his counting, and the waters of purification whose quantity is less than the minimum needed for sprinkling. Behold, these convey impurity to people and vessels by contact and to earthenware by presence within their airspace, But they do not convey impurity by being carried." 1.2. Above them are nevelah and waters of purification whose quantity is sufficient to be sprinkled, for these convey impurity to a person [even] by being carried so that he in turn conveys impurity to clothing by contact. Clothing, however, is free from impurity where there was contact alone." 1.3. Above them is one who had intercourse with a menstruant, for he defiles the bottom [bedding] upon which he lies as he does the top [bedding]. Above them is the issue of a zav, his spit, his semen and his urine, and the blood of a menstruant, for they convey impurity both by contact and by carrying. Above them is an object on which one can ride, for it conveys impurity even when it lies under a heavy stone. Above the object on which one can ride is that on which one can lie, for contact is the same as its carrying. Above the object on which one can lie is the zav, for a zav conveys impurity to the object on which he lies, while the object on which he lies cannot convey the same impurity to that upon which it lies." 1.4. Above the zav is the zavah, for she conveys impurity to the man who has intercourse with her. Above the zavah is the metzora, for he conveys impurity by entering into a house. Above the metzora is a [human] bone the size of a barley grain, for it conveys impurity for seven days. More strict than all these is a corpse, for it conveys impurity by ohel (tent) whereby all the others convey no impurity." 1.5. There are ten [grades of] impurity that emanate from a person:A person before the offering of his obligatory sacrifices is forbidden to eat holy things but permitted to eat terumah and [second] tithe. If he is a tevul yom he is forbidden to eat holy things and terumah but permitted to eat [second] tithe. If he emitted semen he is forbidden to eat any of the three. If he had intercourse with a menstruant he defiles the bottom [bedding] upon which he lies as he does the top [bedding]. If he is a zav who has seen two discharges he conveys impurity to that on which he lies or sits and is required to undergo immersion in running water, but he is exempt from the sacrifice. If he saw three discharges he must bring the sacrifice. If he is a metzora that was only enclosed he conveys impurity by entry [into an ohel] but is exempt from loosening his hair, from rending his clothes, from shaving and from the birds offering. But if he was a confirmed metzora, he is liable for all these. If a limb on which there was not the proper quantity of flesh was severed from a person, it conveys impurity by contact and by carriage but not by ohel. But if it has the proper quantity of flesh it conveys impurity by contact, by carriage and by ohel. A \"proper quantity of flesh\" is such as is capable of healing. Rabbi Judah says: if in one place it has flesh sufficient to surround it with [the thickness of] a thread of the woof it is capable of healing."
18. New Testament, Luke, 1.59, 2.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.59. It happened on the eighth day, that they came to circumcise the child; and they would have called him Zacharias, after the name of the father. 2.21. When eight days were fulfilled for the circumcision of the child, his name was called Jesus, which was given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb.
19. Tosefta, Demai, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Tosefta, Sukkah, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.3. The watchmen of the city who watch by day are exempt from the law of the sukkah by day, but under obligation by night; those who watch by day and by night are exempted both by day and by night. Travellers are under obligation by night, but exempted by day. Keepers of gardens and parks are exempted both by day and by night. "
21. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

2a. מתני׳ big strongמאימתי /strong /big קורין את שמע בערבין. משעה שהכהנים נכנסים לאכול בתרומתן עד סוף האשמורה הראשונה דברי רבי אליעזר.,וחכמים אומרים עד חצות.,רבן גמליאל אומר עד שיעלה עמוד השחר.,מעשה ובאו בניו מבית המשתה אמרו לו לא קרינו את שמע אמר להם אם לא עלה עמוד השחר חייבין אתם לקרות ולא זו בלבד אמרו אלא כל מה שאמרו חכמים עד חצות מצותן עד שיעלה עמוד השחר,הקטר חלבים ואברים מצותן עד שיעלה עמוד השחר וכל הנאכלים ליום אחד מצותן עד שיעלה עמוד השחר אם כן למה אמרו חכמים עד חצות כדי להרחיק אדם מן העבירה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא היכא קאי דקתני מאימתי,ותו מאי שנא דתני בערבית ברישא לתני דשחרית ברישא,תנא אקרא קאי דכתיב בשכבך ובקומך והכי קתני זמן קריאת שמע דשכיבה אימת משעה שהכהנים נכנסין לאכול בתרומתן,ואי בעית אימא יליף מברייתו של עולם דכתיב ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד,אי הכי סיפא דקתני בשחר מברך שתים לפניה ואחת לאחריה ובערב מברך שתים לפניה ושתים לאחריה לתני דערבית ברישא.,תנא פתח בערבית והדר תני בשחרית עד דקאי בשחרית פריש מילי דשחרית והדר פריש מילי דערבית:,אמר מר משעה שהכהנים נכנסים לאכול בתרומתן. מכדי כהנים אימת קא אכלי תרומה משעת צאת הכוכבים לתני משעת צאת הכוכבים.,מלתא אגב אורחיה קמשמע לן כהנים אימת קא אכלי בתרומה משעת צאת הכוכבים והא קמשמע לן דכפרה לא מעכבא כדתניא ובא השמש וטהר ביאת שמשו מעכבתו מלאכול בתרומה ואין כפרתו מעכבתו מלאכול בתרומה.,וממאי דהאי ובא השמש ביאת השמש והאי וטהר טהר יומא 2a. The beginning of tractate iBerakhot /i, the first tractate in the first of the six orders of Mishna, opens with a discussion of the recitation of iShema /i, as the recitation of iShemaencompasses an acceptance of the yoke of Heaven and of the mitzvot, and as such, forms the basis for all subsequent teachings. The Mishna opens with the laws regarding the appropriate time to recite iShema /i: br br strongMISHNA: /strong bFrom when,that is, from what time, does bone recite iShemain the evening? From the time when the priests enter to partake of their iteruma. /iUntil when does the time for the recitation of the evening iShemaextend? bUntil the end of the first watch.The term used in the Torah (Deuteronomy 6:7) to indicate the time for the recitation of the evening iShemais ibeshokhbekha /i, when you lie down, which refers to the time in which individuals go to sleep. Therefore, the time for the recitation of iShemais the first portion of the night, when individuals typically prepare for sleep. bThat is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. /b, bThe Rabbis say:The time for the recitation of the evening iShemais buntil midnight. /b, bRabban Gamliel says:One may recite iShema buntil dawn,indicating that ibeshokhbekhais to be understood as a reference to the entire time people sleep in their beds, the whole night.,The mishna relates that Rabban Gamliel practiced in accordance with his ruling. There was an bincidentwhere Rabban Gamliel’s bsons returnedvery late bfrom a wedding hall. They said to him,as they had been preoccupied with celebrating with the groom and bride: bWe did not recite iShema.He said to them: If the dawn has notyet barrived, you are obligated to recite iShema /i. Since Rabban Gamliel’s opinion disagreed with that of the Rabbis, he explained to his sons that the Rabbis actually agree with him, bandthat it is bnot onlywith regard to the ihalakhaof the recitation of iShema /i, bbut rather, wherever the Sages say until midnight, the mitzvamay be performed buntil dawn. /b,Rabban Gamliel cites several cases in support of his claim, such as bthe burning of fats and limbson the altar. Due to the quantity of offerings each day, the priests were often unable to complete the burning of all of the fats and limbs, so they continued to be burned into the night, as it is written: “This is the law of the burnt offering: The burnt offering shall remain upon the pyre on the altar all night until morning, while the fire on the altar burns it” (Leviticus 6:2). bAnd,with regard to ballsacrifices, such as the sin-offerings and the guilt-offerings bthat are eaten for one dayand night; although the Sages state that they may be eaten only until midnight, by Torah law they may be eaten buntil dawn.This is in accordance with the verse: “On the day on which it is offered must you eat. Do not leave it until the morning” (Leviticus 7:15). bIf so, why did the Sages saythat they may be eaten only buntil midnight?This is bin order to distance a person from transgression,as if one believes that he has until dawn to perform the mitzva, he might be negligent and postpone it until the opportunity to perform the mitzva has passed., strongGEMARA: /strong The Mishna opens with the laws concerning the appropriate time to recite iShemawith the question: From when does one recite iShemain the evening? With regard to this question, the Gemara asks: bOn the basis of whatprior knowledge bdoesthe itanna /iof our mishna ask: bFrom when?It would seem from his question that the obligation to recite iShemain the evening was already established, and that the itannaseeks only to clarify details that relate to it. But our mishna is the very first mishna in the Talmud.,The Gemara asks: bAnd furthermore, what distinguishes the evening iShema /i, that it was taught bfirst? Letthe itanna bteachregarding the recitation of bthe morning iShema bfirst.Since most mitzvot apply during the day, the itannashould discuss the morning iShemabefore discussing the evening iShema /i, just as the daily morning offering is discussed before the evening offering ( iTosefot HaRosh /i).,The Gemara offers a single response to both questions: bThe itannabases himself on the verse as it is written:“You will talk of them when you sit in your home, and when you walk along the way, bwhen you lie down, and when you arise”(Deuteronomy 6:7). By teaching the laws of the evening iShemafirst, the itannahas established that the teachings of the Oral Torah correspond to that which is taught in the Written Torah. bAndbased on the Written Torah, bthe itannateachesthe oral law: bWhen is the time for the recitation of iShemaof lying downas commanded in the Torah? bFrom when the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i.Just as the Written Torah begins with the evening iShema /i, so too must the Oral Torah.,However, there is another possible explanation for why the mishna opens with the evening iShemarather than with the morning iShema /i. bIf you wish,you could bsayinstead that the itanna bderivesthe precedence of the evening iShema bfrom theorder of the bcreation of the world. As it is writtenin the story of creation: b“And there was evening, and there was morning, one day”(Genesis 1:5). According to this verse, day begins with the evening and not the morning. For both of these reasons it was appropriate to open the discussion of the laws of the recitation of iShemawith the evening iShema /i.,The Gemara asks: bIf so,why does the blatter clauseof the mishna, which appears later in the chapter, bteach: In the morning one recites twoblessings bbefore iShema band oneblessing bafterward, and in the evening one recites twoblessings bbefore iShema band two afterward?Based upon the above reasoning, the mishna bshould have taughtthe blessing recited before and after the bevening iShema bfirst. /b,The Gemara answers: Indeed, the itannabeganby discussing the laws regarding the recitation of bthe evening iShema /i, band then taughtthe laws regarding the recitation of bthe morning iShema /i. bOncehe bwas already dealing with the morning iShema /i, bhe explained the matters of the morning iShema /i, band then explained the matters of the evening iShema /i.,The Gemara proceeds to clarify the rest of the mishna. bThe Master saidin the mishna that the beginning of the period when one recites iShemain the evening is bwhen the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i.However, this does not specify a definitive time. bWhen do the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i? From the time of the emergence of the stars.If that is the case, then bletthe itanna bteachthat the time for the recitation of the evening iShemais bfrom the time of the emergence of the stars. /b,The Gemara responds: Indeed it would have been simpler to say that the time for the recitation of the evening iShemabegins with the emergence of the stars, but the particular expression used by the itanna bteaches usanother bmatter in passing: When do priests partake of their iteruma /i? From the time of the emergence of the stars. Andthe itanna bteaches usa new ihalakhaparenthetically: failure to bring an batonementoffering bdoes not preventa priest from eating iteruma /i. In cases where an impure priest is required to immerse himself in a ritual bath and bring an atonement offering, even if he already immersed himself, he is not completely ritually pure until he brings the atonement offering. Nevertheless, he is still permitted to partake of iteruma /i. Taught in passing in our mishna, this is articulated fully in a ibaraita /i, based on a close reading of the biblical passages. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the laws of ritual impurity, it is said: “One who touches it remains impure until evening. He should not eat of the consecrated items and he must wash his flesh with water. And the sun sets and it is purified. Afterwards, he may eat from the iteruma /i, for it is his bread” (Leviticus 22:6–7). From the passage: b“And the sun sets and it is purified,”that the absence of bthe setting of his sun prevents him from partaking of iteruma /i, butfailure to bring bthe atonementoffering bdoes not prevent him from partaking of iteruma /i,may be inferred.,The Gemara discusses the proof offered in the ibaraita /i: bFrom wheredo we know bthat thephrase: b“And the sun sets”refers to bthecomplete bsetting of the sun,and therefore, b“and it is purified”refers to the fact that bthe day is pure,i.e., and the sun sets and it is purified is one phrase meaning that the sun will set, the air will clear, and the stars will emerge (Rav Hai Gaon)?
22. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

47b. לא רוב טובה ולא רוב פורענות ואין מרבין עליו ואין מדקדקין עליו,קיבל מלין אותו מיד נשתיירו בו ציצין המעכבין את המילה חוזרים ומלין אותו שניה נתרפא מטבילין אותו מיד ושני ת"ח עומדים על גביו ומודיעין אותו מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות טבל ועלה הרי הוא כישראל לכל דבריו,אשה נשים מושיבות אותה במים עד צוארה ושני ת"ח עומדים לה מבחוץ ומודיעין אותה מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות,אחד גר ואחד עבד משוחרר ובמקום שנדה טובלת שם גר ועבד משוחרר טובלין וכל דבר שחוצץ בטבילה חוצץ בגר ובעבד משוחרר ובנדה,אמר מר גר שבא להתגייר אומרים לו מה ראית שבאת להתגייר ומודיעים אותו מקצת מצות קלות ומקצת מצות חמורות מ"ט דאי פריש נפרוש דא"ר חלבו קשים גרים לישראל כספחת דכתיב (ישעיהו יד, א) ונלוה הגר עליהם ונספחו על בית יעקב:,ומודיעים אותו עון לקט שכחה ופאה ומעשר עני: מ"ט א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן בן נח נהרג על פחות משוה פרוטה ולא ניתן להשבון,(ומודיעים אותו עון שכחה ופאה): ואין מרבים עליו ואין מדקדקים עליו: אמר רבי אלעזר מאי קראה דכתיב (רות א, יח) ותרא כי מתאמצת היא ללכת אתה ותחדל לדבר אליה,אמרה לה אסיר לן תחום שבת (רות א, טז) באשר תלכי אלך אסיר לן יחוד (רות א, טז) באשר תליני אלין,מפקדינן שש מאות וי"ג מצות (רות א, טז) עמך עמי אסיר לן עבודת כוכבים (רות א, טז) ואלהיך אלהי ארבע מיתות נמסרו לב"ד (רות א, יז) באשר תמותי אמות ב' קברים נמסרו לב"ד (רות א, יז) ושם אקבר,מיד ותרא כי מתאמצת היא וגו':,קיבל מלין אותו מיד: מ"ט שהויי מצוה לא משהינן:,נשתיירו בו ציצין המעכבין המילה וכו': כדתנן אלו הן ציצין המעכבין המילה בשר החופה את רוב העטרה ואינו אוכל בתרומה וא"ר ירמיה בר אבא אמר רב בשר החופה רוב גובהה של עטרה:,נתרפא מטבילין אותו מיד: נתרפא אין לא נתרפא לא מאי טעמא משום דמיא מרזו מכה:,ושני ת"ח עומדים על גביו: והא א"ר חייא א"ר יוחנן גר צריך שלשה הא א"ר יוחנן לתנא תני שלשה:,טבל ועלה הרי הוא כישראל לכל דבריו: למאי הלכתא דאי הדר ביה ומקדש בת ישראל ישראל מומר קרינא ביה וקידושיו קידושין:,אחד גר ואחד עבד משוחרר: קסלקא דעתך לקבל עליו עול מצות ורמינהו במה דברים אמורים בגר אבל בעבד משוחרר אין צריך לקבל,אמר רב ששת לא קשיא הא ר"ש בן אלעזר הא רבנן,דתניא (דברים כא, יג) ובכתה את אביה ואת אמה וגו' בד"א שלא קבלה עליה אבל קבלה עליה מטבילה ומותר בה מיד,ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר אע"פ שלא קבלה עליה כופה ומטבילה לשם שפחות וחוזר ומטבילה לשם שחרור ומשחררה 47b. they are bnotable to receive either ban abundance of good nor an abundance of calamities,since the primary place for reward and punishment is in the World-to-Come. bAnd they do not overwhelm himwith threats, band they are not exacting with himabout the details of the mitzvot.,If bhe acceptsupon himself all of these ramifications, then bthey circumcise him immediately.If btherestill bremain on him shredsof flesh from the foreskin bthat invalidate the circumcision, they circumcise him again a secondtime to remove them. When bhe is healedfrom the circumcision, bthey immerse him immediately, and two Torah scholars stand over himat the time of his immersion band inform him of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot.Once bhe has immersed and emerged, he is likea born bJew in every sense. /b,For the immersion of ba woman: Womenappointed by the court bseat her in the waterof the ritual bath bup to her neck, and two Torah scholars stand outsidethe bath house so as not to compromise her modesty, bandfrom there bthey inform her of some of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot. /b,The procedure applies for bboth a convert and an emancipated slavewho, upon immersion at the time of his emancipation, becomes a Jew in every sense. bAnd in the same place that a menstruating woman immerses,i.e., in a ritual bath of forty ise’aof water, bthere a convert and an emancipated slave also immerse. And anything that interposesbetween one’s body and the water of the ritual bath bwith regard to immersionof a ritually impure person, in a manner that would invalidate the immersion, also binterposesand invalidates the immersion bfor a convert, and for an emancipated slave, and for a menstruating woman. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master saidin the ibaraita /i: With regard to a potential bconvert who comes toa court in order to bconvert,the judges of the court bsay to him: What did you see thatmotivated byouto bcome to convert? And they inform himof bsome of the lenient mitzvot and some of the stringent mitzvot.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonto say this to him? It is so bthat if heis going to bwithdrawfrom the conversion process, blet him withdrawalready at this stage. He should not be convinced to continue, bas Rabbi Ḥelbo said: Converts are as harmful to the Jewish people as aleprous bscab [ isappaḥat /i]on the skin, bas it is written: “And the convert shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave [ ivenispeḥu /i] to the house of Jacob”(Isaiah 14:1). This alludes to the fact that the cleaving of the convert to the Jewish people is like a scab.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd they inform himof bthe sinof neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take bgleanings, forgotten sheaves, andproduce in the bcornerof one’s field, bandabout the bpoor man’s tithe.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonto specifically mention these mitzvot? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:Because ba gentile is executedeven bon account ofstealing bless than the value of a iperuta /i,since gentiles are particular about even such a small loss, bandan item that a gentile steals bis not subject to being returned,i.e., he is not obligated to return it to its owner. Since gentiles are unwilling to separate even from items of little value, a potential convert must be made aware that he if converts, he will be required to relinquish some of his property to others.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd they inform himof bthe sinof neglecting the mitzva to allow the poor to take bgleanings, forgotten sheaves, andproduce in the bcornerof one’s field. bAnd they do not overwhelm himwith threats, band they are not exacting with himabout the details of the mitzvot, i.e., the court should not overly dissuade the convert from converting. bRabbi Elazar said: What is the versefrom which this ruling is derived? bAs it is written: “And when she saw that she was steadfastly minded to go with her, she left off speaking with her”(Ruth 1:18). When Naomi set out to return to Eretz Yisrael, Ruth insisted on joining her. The Gemara understands this to mean that Ruth wished to convert. Naomi attempted to dissuade her, but Ruth persisted. The verse states that once Naomi saw Ruth’s resolve to convert, she desisted from her attempts to dissuade her. The Gemara infers from here that the same approach should be taken by a court in all cases of conversion.,The Gemara reconstructs the original dialogue in which Naomi attempted to dissuade Ruth from converting: Naomi bsaid to her:On Shabbat, bit is prohibited for usto go beyond bthe Shabbat limit.Ruth responded: b“Where you go, I shall go”(Ruth 1:16), and no further. Naomi said to her: bIt is forbidden for us to be alone togetherwith a man with whom it is forbidden to engage in relations. Ruth responded: b“Where you lodge, I shall lodge”(Ruth 1:16), and in the same manner.,Naomi said to her: bWe are commandedto observe bsix hundred and thirteen mitzvot.Ruth responded: b“Your people are my people”(Ruth 1:16). Naomi said to her: bIdolatrous worship is forbidden to us.Ruth responded: b“Your God is my God”(Ruth 1:16). Naomi said to her: bFour types of capital punishment were handed over to a courtwith which to punish those who transgress the mitzvot. Ruth responded: b“Where you die, I shall die”(Ruth 1:17). Naomi said to her: bTwo burial grounds were handed over to the court,one for those executed for more severe crimes and another for those executed for less severe crimes. Ruth responded: b“And there I shall be buried”(Ruth 1:17)., bImmediatelyfollowing this dialogue, the verse states: b“And when she saw that she was steadfastly mindedshe left off speaking with her” (Ruth 1:18). Once Naomi saw Ruth’s resolve to convert, she desisted from her attempts to dissuade her.,The ibaraitacontinues: If bhe acceptsupon himself all of these ramifications, then bthey circumcise him immediately.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonto act immediately? It is that bwe do not delaythe performance of ba mitzva. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: If btherestill bremain on him shredsof flesh from the foreskin bthat invalidate the circumcision,he is circumcised a second time to remove them. The Gemara explains: This is bas we learnedin a mishna ( iShabbat137a): bThese are the shredsof flesh bthat invalidate the circumcisionif they are not cut: Any fragments of bthe flesh that cover the greater part of the corona.If such shreds remain, the child is considered uncircumcised, band he may not partake of iteruma /i. Andin explanation of this mishna, bRav Yirmeya bar Abba saidthat bRav said:This also includes bthe flesh that covers the greater part of the height of the corona. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: When bhe is healedfrom the circumcision, bthey immerse him immediately.The Gemara infers from the precise formulation of the ibaraitathat when bhe has healed,then byes,he is immersed, but as long as bhe has not healed,then bno,he is not. bWhat is the reasonfor this? It is bbecause water agitates a wound. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd two Torah scholars stand over himat the time of his immersion. The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya saythat bRabbi Yoḥa saidthat ba convert requiresa court of bthreeto be present at his conversion? The Gemara answers: In fact, bRabbi Yoḥa said to the itanna /ireciting the mishna: Do not teach that there are two Torah scholars; rather, bteachthat there are bthree. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: Once bhe has immersed and emerged he is a Jew in every sense.The Gemara asks: bWith regard to what ihalakha /iis this said? It is bthat if he reverts backto behaving as a gentile, he nevertheless remains Jewish, bandso if bhe betroths a Jewish woman,although bhe is considered to be an apostate Jew, his betrothal isa valid bbetrothal. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: This applies bboth for a convert and for an emancipated slave.The Gemara considers the meaning of this clause: If bit enters your mindto interpret the ibaraitato mean that a convert and an emancipated slave are the same bwith regard to accepting upon oneself the yoke of mitzvot,then one could braise a contradictionfrom that which is taught in another ibaraita /i: bIn whatcase bis this statementthat there is a need to accept the yoke of mitzvot bsaid?It is bwith respect to a convert; however, an emancipated slave does not need to acceptupon himself the yoke of mitzvot when he immerses for the sake of emancipation. Rather, the immersion alone is sufficient to emancipate him and thereby render him a Jew., bRav Sheshet said:This is bnot difficult,as bthis ibaraitathat states that an emancipated slave is not required to accept the yoke of mitzvot bisin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar,whereas bthat ibaraitathat implies he is required to do so bisin accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,the first itannaof the following ibaraita /i., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The Torah permits a Jewish soldier to take a beautiful female prisoner of war out of her captivity in order to marry her. Before he may do so, she must first undergo the process that the Torah describes: “And she shall shave her head, and do her nails; and she shall remove the raiment of her captivity from upon her, and she shall remain in your house band bewail her father and her mothera month of days” (Deuteronomy 21:12–13). She may then be immersed for the sake of conversion, even though she does not accept upon herself the yoke of mitzvot. At that point it is permitted to marry her. The ibaraitaasks: bUnder whatcircumstance bare these matters stated?It is bwhen she did not accept upon herselfthe yoke of mitzvot; bhowever,if bshewillingly baccepted upon herselfthe yoke of mitzvot, bhe may immerse herfor the sake of conversion, band he is permitted tomarry bher immediatelywithout the need for her to undergo the process described in the Torah., bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Even if she did not accept upon herselfthe yoke of mitzvot, the need for the process can still be circumvented if bhe forcesher band immerses her for the sake of slavery, and then he again immerses her for the sake of emancipation andthereby bemancipates her,rendering her a Jewess. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar holds that the immersion of a slave for the sake of emancipation is effective even if the slave does not accept upon himself the yoke of mitzvot.
23. Epigraphy, Cij, 18, 145



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
animal Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 336
antiochus, iii Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 370
atonement, in the levitical cult nan
atonement Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 370; Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 71
babylonian, halakha/tradition Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
bible (hebrew bible and/or new testament) Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
bloodguilt Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 404
borders v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 28
circumcision, non-circumcision of women used as anti-jewish argument Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 448
circumcision Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
circumcision blood, equating with the blood of menstruation Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 448
cleanness/uncleanness Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
concept of holiness Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 465
concept of impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 465
day of atonement Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 345
death Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 402
degree Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 28
discharge Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 402
divine glory Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 71
divine presence Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 71
douglas, mary Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 28
education, applications of, to address historical, religious or social issues Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
education, rabbinic Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
ejaculants/baal qeri Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 395, 396
evans, craig a. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 71
foreigners, protecting sancta against Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 386
gender Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140, 199
genital discharge, abnormal Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
genital discharge, blood (non-menstrual) Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
gentiles Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
god Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 402
high priest, levitical nan
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 345, 402, 403, 404, 465
holiness Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 465
holiness of god Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 403
holiness of humans Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 335
holiness of israel Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 341
holy land Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 28
humans Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 36
identity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 465
incense Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 53
israel Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 341, 402
judaism, as religio-cultural system Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
judaism, late second temple Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
kpr(-rite) Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 345
kābôd Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 28
land Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 28, 36
levitical/ritual purity Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
limit Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 36
marriage Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 465
menstrual blood, equated to circumcision blood Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 448
menstrual impurity and menstruating women Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
menstrual taboos, biblical background Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 395, 396
menstruants/niddah, and the ark Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 386
menstruants/niddah, and the sacred Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 386
menstruants/niddah, intercourse with Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 395, 396
menstruants/niddah, objects rendered impure by Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 395
messiah, purification/sin nan
mikva, mikvaot (ritual bathhouse) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
milgrom, jacob Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 28
mishnah, judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
mishnah Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
moral defilement Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 53, 71
moral impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 321, 349
multiform (~ judaism, pharisaism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
noam, vered Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 199
performance Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 36
pharaohs daughter (wife of solomon), reason for separation from city of david Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 386
pollution Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 321
priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 335, 336
priesthood Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 370
priestly code Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
priests, and their influence Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 177
priests Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 36
public domain, impurity in Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
purification, of the earthly tabernacle nan
purification ritual Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 345
purity, ritual Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 404
purity Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
purity laws Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
purity of the land Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 341
purity system Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
qumran Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 370
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
redaction/writing of mishna Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
religion within a cultural system' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
ritual Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
ritual bathing/washing Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 177
ritual impurity, and moral impurity, compared Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 53, 54
ritual impurity, hebrew bible Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 28, 53, 54
ritual impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 321, 349
ritual purity, as prerequisite for sacrifice Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 53, 54
ritual purity, symbolism of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 28
ritual system Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 349
sacrifice, process of, in hebrew bible Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 53, 54, 71
sacrifice Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 465; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 36
saliva Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
sanctification Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 28, 36
sanctuary Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 335, 336, 345, 349; Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 177; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 28, 36
scale disease Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140, 192
seleucid monarchy Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 370
seleucids, privileges granted jews Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 370
seminal emissions Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
social order/structure Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 335, 465
sources of pollution Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 321
summary justice, greek and roman Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 370
synagogue Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
tabernacle Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 71
temple, fines Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 370
temple, purity Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 370
temple, regulations Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 370
temple, seleucid proclamation Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 370
temple Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 199; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 336
temple in jerusalem Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
throne of god, hebrews appropriation of nan
throne of god, inner-sanctum cleansing rite in nan
throne of god, scapegoat rite in nan
throne of god, unified ritual sequence of nan
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 116
torah Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 100; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 341
transmission and contraction of impurity, through shift (heset) Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
transmission and contraction of impurity, through touch Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
transmission and contraction of impurity, through treading (midras) Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
transmission of impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 349
uncleanness Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 402
urine Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 140
vilnay, zev Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 71
water Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 402
zav/zavim Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 395, 396
ṭmʾt Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 345