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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6293
Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 10.12-10.14


אָז יְדַבֵּר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לַיהוָה בְּיוֹם תֵּת יְהוָה אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֵינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמֶשׁ בְּגִבְעוֹן דּוֹם וְיָרֵחַ בְּעֵמֶק אַיָּלוֹן׃Then spoke Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel; and he said in the sight of Israel: ‘Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; And thou, Moon, in the valley of Aijalon.’


וַיִּדֹּם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ עָמָד עַד־יִקֹּם גּוֹי אֹיְבָיו הֲלֹא־הִיא כְתוּבָה עַל־סֵפֶר הַיָּשָׁר וַיַּעֲמֹד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בַּחֲצִי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־אָץ לָבוֹא כְּיוֹם תָּמִים׃And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, Until the nation had avenged themselves of their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jashar? And the sun stayed in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.


וְלֹא הָיָה כַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לְפָנָיו וְאַחֲרָיו לִשְׁמֹעַ יְהוָה בְּקוֹל אִישׁ כִּי יְהוָה נִלְחָם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל׃And there was no day like that before it or after it, that the LORD hearkened unto the voice of a man; for the LORD fought for Israel.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

48 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 2.25, 31.30, 33.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.25. הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אָחֵל תֵּת פַּחְדְּךָ וְיִרְאָתְךָ עַל־פְּנֵי הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁמְעוּן שִׁמְעֲךָ וְרָגְזוּ וְחָלוּ מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 33.14. וּמִמֶּגֶד תְּבוּאֹת שָׁמֶשׁ וּמִמֶּגֶד גֶּרֶשׁ יְרָחִים׃ 2.25. This day will I begin to put the dread of thee and the fear of thee upon the peoples that are under the whole heaven, who, when they hear the report of thee, shall tremble, and be in anguish because of thee.’" 31.30. And Moses spoke in the ears of all the assembly of Israel the words of this song, until they were finished:" 33.14. And for the precious things of the fruits of the sun, And for the precious things of the yield of the moons,"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.3, 15.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. וְלֹא־יָכְלָה עוֹד הַצְּפִינוֹ וַתִּקַּח־לוֹ תֵּבַת גֹּמֶא וַתַּחְמְרָה בַחֵמָר וּבַזָּפֶת וַתָּשֶׂם בָּהּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַתָּשֶׂם בַּסּוּף עַל־שְׂפַת הַיְאֹר׃ 15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃ 2.3. And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch; and she put the child therein, and laid it in the flags by the river’s brink." 15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.14, 3.9, 14.9, 22.17, 37.9, 38.12-38.13, 49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃ 3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 14.9. אֵת כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר מֶלֶךְ עֵילָם וְתִדְעָל מֶלֶךְ גּוֹיִם וְאַמְרָפֶל מֶלֶךְ שִׁנְעָר וְאַרְיוֹךְ מֶלֶךְ אֶלָּסָר אַרְבָּעָה מְלָכִים אֶת־הַחֲמִשָּׁה׃ 22.17. כִּי־בָרֵךְ אֲבָרֶכְךָ וְהַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכַחוֹל אֲשֶׁר עַל־שְׂפַת הַיָּם וְיִרַשׁ זַרְעֲךָ אֵת שַׁעַר אֹיְבָיו׃ 37.9. וַיַּחֲלֹם עוֹד חֲלוֹם אַחֵר וַיְסַפֵּר אֹתוֹ לְאֶחָיו וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה חָלַמְתִּי חֲלוֹם עוֹד וְהִנֵּה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהַיָּרֵחַ וְאַחַד עָשָׂר כּוֹכָבִים מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים לִי׃ 38.12. וַיִּרְבּוּ הַיָּמִים וַתָּמָת בַּת־שׁוּעַ אֵשֶׁת־יְהוּדָה וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוּדָה וַיַּעַל עַל־גֹּזֲזֵי צֹאנוֹ הוּא וְחִירָה רֵעֵהוּ הָעֲדֻלָּמִי תִּמְנָתָה׃ 38.13. וַיֻּגַּד לְתָמָר לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה חָמִיךְ עֹלֶה תִמְנָתָה לָגֹז צֹאנוֹ׃ 1.14. And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;" 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’" 14.9. against Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings against the five." 22.17. that in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the seashore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies;" 37.9. And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it to his brethren, and said: ‘Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream: and, behold, the sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed down to me.’" 38.12. And in process of time Shua’s daughter, the wife of Judah, died; and Judah was comforted, and went up unto his sheep-shearers to Timnah, he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite." 38.13. And it was told Tamar, saying: ‘Behold, thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his sheep.’" 49.10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be."
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 25.5, 31.27, 37.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.5. הֵן עַד־יָרֵחַ וְלֹא יַאֲהִיל וְכוֹכָבִים לֹא־זַכּוּ בְעֵינָיו׃ 37.6. כִּי לַשֶּׁלַג יֹאמַר הֱוֵא אָרֶץ וְגֶשֶׁם מָטָר וְגֶשֶׁם מִטְרוֹת עֻזּוֹ׃ 25.5. Behold, even the moon hath no brightness, And the stars are not pure in His sight;" 37.6. For He saith to the snow: ‘Fall thou on the earth’; Likewise to the shower of rain, and to the showers of His mighty rain."
5. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.10, 3.4, 4.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.4. הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יֵהָפֵךְ לְחֹשֶׁךְ וְהַיָּרֵחַ לְדָם לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃ 4.15. שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ קָדָרוּ וְכוֹכָבִים אָסְפוּ נָגְהָם׃ 2.10. Before them the earth quaketh, The heavens tremble; The sun and the moon are become black, And the stars withdraw their shining." 3.4. The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and terrible day of the LORD come. 4.15. The sun and the moon are become black, And the stars withdraw their shining."
6. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 2.1-2.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וַיְמַן יְהוָה דָּג גָּדוֹל לִבְלֹעַ אֶת־יוֹנָה וַיְהִי יוֹנָה בִּמְעֵי הַדָּג שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה לֵילוֹת׃ 2.1. וַאֲנִי בְּקוֹל תּוֹדָה אֶזְבְּחָה־לָּךְ אֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתִּי אֲשַׁלֵּמָה יְשׁוּעָתָה לַיהוָה׃ 2.2. וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל יוֹנָה אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו מִמְּעֵי הַדָּגָה׃ 2.3. וַיֹּאמֶר קָרָאתִי מִצָּרָה לִי אֶל־יְהוָה וַיַּעֲנֵנִי מִבֶּטֶן שְׁאוֹל שִׁוַּעְתִּי שָׁמַעְתָּ קוֹלִי׃ 2.1. And the LORD prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonah; and Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights." 2.2. Then Jonah prayed unto the LORD his God out of the fish’s belly." 2.3. And he said: I called out of mine affliction Unto the LORD, and He answered me; Out of the belly of the nether-world cried I, And Thou heardest my voice."
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.5, 16.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.5. וְהָיָה כִי־יֶאְשַׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְהִתְוַדָּה אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עָלֶיהָ׃ 16.21. וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת־שְׁתֵּי ידו [יָדָיו] עַל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר הַחַי וְהִתְוַדָּה עָלָיו אֶת־כָּל־עֲוֺנֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־כָּל־פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְנָתַן אֹתָם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשִׁלַּח בְּיַד־אִישׁ עִתִּי הַמִּדְבָּרָה׃ 5.5. and it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that wherein he hath sinned;" 16.21. And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, even all their sins; and he shall put them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of an appointed man into the wilderness."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 20.9-20.11, 21.17, 31.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.9. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּטֶּה מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּהוּ׃ 20.11. וַיָּרֶם מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיַּךְ אֶת־הַסֶּלַע בְּמַטֵּהוּ פַּעֲמָיִם וַיֵּצְאוּ מַיִם רַבִּים וַתֵּשְׁתְּ הָעֵדָה וּבְעִירָם׃ 21.17. אָז יָשִׁיר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עֲלִי בְאֵר עֱנוּ־לָהּ׃ 31.8. וְאֶת־מַלְכֵי מִדְיָן הָרְגוּ עַל־חַלְלֵיהֶם אֶת־אֱוִי וְאֶת־רֶקֶם וְאֶת־צוּר וְאֶת־חוּר וְאֶת־רֶבַע חֲמֵשֶׁת מַלְכֵי מִדְיָן וְאֵת בִּלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר הָרְגוּ בֶּחָרֶב׃ 20.9. And Moses took the rod from before the LORD, as He commanded him." 20.10. And Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together before the rock, and he said unto them: ‘Hear now, ye rebels; are we to bring you forth water out of this rock?’" 20.11. And Moses lifted up his hand, and smote the rock with his rod twice; and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their cattle." 21.17. Then sang Israel this song: Spring up, O well—sing ye unto it—" 31.8. And they slew the kings of Midian with the rest of their slain: Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, and Reba, the five kings of Midian; Balaam also the son of Beor they slew with the sword."
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 5.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.19. אַיֶּלֶת אֲהָבִים וְיַעֲלַת־חֵן דַּדֶּיהָ יְרַוֻּךָ בְכָל־עֵת בְּאַהֲבָתָהּ תִּשְׁגֶּה תָמִיד׃ 5.19. A lovely hind and a graceful doe, Let her breasts satisfy thee at all times; With her love be thou ravished always."
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.4, 90.4, 104.19, 106.3, 145.16, 148.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.4. כִּי־אֶרְאֶה שָׁמֶיךָ מַעֲשֵׂי אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנָנְתָּה׃ 90.4. כִּי אֶלֶף שָׁנִים בְּעֵינֶיךָ כְּיוֹם אֶתְמוֹל כִּי יַעֲבֹר וְאַשְׁמוּרָה בַלָּיְלָה׃ 104.19. עָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים שֶׁמֶשׁ יָדַע מְבוֹאוֹ׃ 106.3. אַשְׁרֵי שֹׁמְרֵי מִשְׁפָּט עֹשֵׂה צְדָקָה בְכָל־עֵת׃ 106.3. וַיַּעֲמֹד פִּינְחָס וַיְפַלֵּל וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה׃ 145.16. פּוֹתֵחַ אֶת־יָדֶךָ וּמַשְׂבִּיעַ לְכָל־חַי רָצוֹן׃ 148.3. הַלְלוּהוּ שֶׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ הַלְלוּהוּ כָּל־כּוֹכְבֵי אוֹר׃ 8.4. When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, The moon and the stars, which Thou hast established;" 90.4. For a thousand years in Thy sight Are but as yesterday when it is past, And as a watch in the night." 104.19. Who appointedst the moon for seasons; The sun knoweth his going down." 106.3. Happy are they that keep justice, that do righteousness at all times." 145.16. Thou openest Thy hand, And satisfiest every living thing with favour." 148.3. Praise ye Him, sun and moon; Praise Him, all ye stars of light."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3.16-3.28, 4.3, 4.5, 4.17, 5.2-5.3, 5.6-5.8, 9.16, 10.1, 10.4, 10.6-10.7, 10.9, 10.11, 10.14-10.23, 10.25-10.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.16. אָז תָּבֹאנָה שְׁתַּיִם נָשִׁים זֹנוֹת אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתַּעֲמֹדְנָה לְפָנָיו׃ 3.17. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הָאַחַת בִּי אֲדֹנִי אֲנִי וְהָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת יֹשְׁבֹת בְּבַיִת אֶחָד וָאֵלֵד עִמָּהּ בַּבָּיִת׃ 3.18. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְלִדְתִּי וַתֵּלֶד גַּם־הָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת וַאֲנַחְנוּ יַחְדָּו אֵין־זָר אִתָּנוּ בַּבַּיִת זוּלָתִי שְׁתַּיִם־אֲנַחְנוּ בַּבָּיִת׃ 3.19. וַיָּמָת בֶּן־הָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת לָיְלָה אֲשֶׁר שָׁכְבָה עָלָיו׃ 3.21. וָאָקֻם בַּבֹּקֶר לְהֵינִיק אֶת־בְּנִי וְהִנֵּה־מֵת וָאֶתְבּוֹנֵן אֵלָיו בַּבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה לֹא־הָיָה בְנִי אֲשֶׁר יָלָדְתִּי׃ 3.22. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הָאַחֶרֶת לֹא כִי בְּנִי הַחַי וּבְנֵךְ הַמֵּת וְזֹאת אֹמֶרֶת לֹא כִי בְּנֵךְ הַמֵּת וּבְנִי הֶחָי וַתְּדַבֵּרְנָה לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 3.23. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ זֹאת אֹמֶרֶת זֶה־בְּנִי הַחַי וּבְנֵךְ הַמֵּת וְזֹאת אֹמֶרֶת לֹא כִי בְּנֵךְ הַמֵּת וּבְנִי הֶחָי׃ 3.24. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ קְחוּ לִי־חָרֶב וַיָּבִאוּ הַחֶרֶב לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 3.25. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ גִּזְרוּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד הַחַי לִשְׁנָיִם וּתְנוּ אֶת־הַחֲצִי לְאַחַת וְאֶת־הַחֲצִי לְאֶחָת׃ 3.26. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר־בְּנָהּ הַחַי אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי־נִכְמְרוּ רַחֲמֶיהָ עַל־בְּנָהּ וַתֹּאמֶר בִּי אֲדֹנִי תְּנוּ־לָהּ אֶת־הַיָּלוּד הַחַי וְהָמֵת אַל־תְּמִיתֻהוּ וְזֹאת אֹמֶרֶת גַּם־לִי גַם־לָךְ לֹא יִהְיֶה גְּזֹרוּ׃ 3.27. וַיַּעַן הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר תְּנוּ־לָהּ אֶת־הַיָּלוּד הַחַי וְהָמֵת לֹא תְמִיתֻהוּ הִיא אִמּוֹ׃ 3.28. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּט אֲשֶׁר שָׁפַט הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּרְאוּ מִפְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי רָאוּ כִּי־חָכְמַת אֱלֹהִים בְּקִרְבּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט׃ 4.3. אֱלִיחֹרֶף וַאֲחִיָּה בְּנֵי שִׁישָׁא סֹפְרִים יְהוֹשָׁפָט בֶּן־אֲחִילוּד הַמַּזְכִּיר׃ 4.5. וַעֲזַרְיָהוּ בֶן־נָתָן עַל־הַנִּצָּבִים וְזָבוּד בֶּן־נָתָן כֹּהֵן רֵעֶה הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 4.17. יְהוֹשָׁפָט בֶּן־פָּרוּחַ בְּיִשָׂשכָר׃ 5.2. וְעַתָּה צַוֵּה וְיִכְרְתוּ־לִי אֲרָזִים מִן־הַלְּבָנוֹן וַעֲבָדַי יִהְיוּ עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ וּשְׂכַר עֲבָדֶיךָ אֶתֵּן לְךָ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמֵר כִּי אַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ כִּי אֵין בָּנוּ אִישׁ יֹדֵעַ לִכְרָת־עֵצִים כַּצִּדֹנִים׃ 5.2. וַיְהִי לֶחֶם־שְׁלֹמֹה לְיוֹם אֶחָד שְׁלֹשִׁים כֹּר סֹלֶת וְשִׁשִּׁים כֹּר קָמַח׃ 5.3. עֲשָׂרָה בָקָר בְּרִאִים וְעֶשְׂרִים בָּקָר רְעִי וּמֵאָה צֹאן לְבַד מֵאַיָּל וּצְבִי וְיַחְמוּר וּבַרְבֻּרִים אֲבוּסִים׃ 5.3. לְבַד מִשָּׂרֵי הַנִּצָּבִים לִשְׁלֹמֹה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמְּלָאכָה שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת הָרֹדִים בָּעָם הָעֹשִׂים בַּמְּלָאכָה׃ 5.6. וַיְהִי לִשְׁלֹמֹה אַרְבָּעִים אֶלֶף אֻרְוֺת סוּסִים לְמֶרְכָּבוֹ וּשְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר אֶלֶף פָּרָשִׁים׃ 9.16. פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם עָלָה וַיִּלְכֹּד אֶת־גֶּזֶר וַיִּשְׂרְפָהּ בָּאֵשׁ וְאֶת־הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַיֹּשֵׁב בָּעִיר הָרָג וַיִּתְּנָהּ שִׁלֻּחִים לְבִתּוֹ אֵשֶׁת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 10.1. וַתִּתֵּן לַמֶּלֶךְ מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים כִּכַּר זָהָב וּבְשָׂמִים הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד וְאֶבֶן יְקָרָה לֹא־בָא כַבֹּשֶׂם הַהוּא עוֹד לָרֹב אֲשֶׁר־נָתְנָה מַלְכַּת־שְׁבָא לַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 10.1. וּמַלְכַּת־שְׁבָא שֹׁמַעַת אֶת־שֵׁמַע שְׁלֹמֹה לְשֵׁם יְהוָה וַתָּבֹא לְנַסֹּתוֹ בְּחִידוֹת׃ 10.4. וַתֵּרֶא מַלְכַּת־שְׁבָא אֵת כָּל־חָכְמַת שְׁלֹמֹה וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה׃ 10.9. יְהִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּרוּךְ אֲשֶׁר חָפֵץ בְּךָ לְתִתְּךָ עַל־כִּסֵּא יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאַהֲבַת יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעֹלָם וַיְשִׂימְךָ לְמֶלֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה׃ 10.11. וְגַם אֳנִי חִירָם אֲשֶׁר־נָשָׂא זָהָב מֵאוֹפִיר הֵבִיא מֵאֹפִיר עֲצֵי אַלְמֻגִּים הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד וְאֶבֶן יְקָרָה׃ 10.14. וַיְהִי מִשְׁקַל הַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר־בָּא לִשְׁלֹמֹה בְּשָׁנָה אֶחָת שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת שִׁשִּׁים וָשֵׁשׁ כִּכַּר זָהָב׃ 10.15. לְבַד מֵאַנְשֵׁי הַתָּרִים וּמִסְחַר הָרֹכְלִים וְכָל־מַלְכֵי הָעֶרֶב וּפַחוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃ 10.16. וַיַּעַשׂ הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה מָאתַיִם צִנָּה זָהָב שָׁחוּט שֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת זָהָב יַעֲלֶה עַל־הַצִּנָּה הָאֶחָת׃ 10.17. וּשְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת מָגִנִּים זָהָב שָׁחוּט שְׁלֹשֶׁת מָנִים זָהָב יַעֲלֶה עַל־הַמָּגֵן הָאֶחָת וַיִּתְּנֵם הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית יַעַר הַלְּבָנוֹן׃ 10.18. וַיַּעַשׂ הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּסֵּא־שֵׁן גָּדוֹל וַיְצַפֵּהוּ זָהָב מוּפָז׃ 10.19. שֵׁשׁ מַעֲלוֹת לַכִּסֵּה וְרֹאשׁ־עָגֹל לַכִּסֵּה מֵאַחֲרָיו וְיָדֹת מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה אֶל־מְקוֹם הַשָּׁבֶת וּשְׁנַיִם אֲרָיוֹת עֹמְדִים אֵצֶל הַיָּדוֹת׃ 10.21. וְכֹל כְּלֵי מַשְׁקֵה הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה זָהָב וְכֹל כְּלֵי בֵּית־יַעַר הַלְּבָנוֹן זָהָב סָגוּר אֵין כֶּסֶף לֹא נֶחְשָׁב בִּימֵי שְׁלֹמֹה לִמְאוּמָה׃ 10.22. כִּי אֳנִי תַרְשִׁישׁ לַמֶּלֶךְ בַּיָּם עִם אֳנִי חִירָם אַחַת לְשָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים תָּבוֹא אֳנִי תַרְשִׁישׁ נֹשְׂאֵת זָהָב וָכֶסֶף שֶׁנְהַבִּים וְקֹפִים וְתֻכִּיִּים׃ 10.23. וַיִּגְדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה מִכֹּל מַלְכֵי הָאָרֶץ לְעֹשֶׁר וּלְחָכְמָה׃ 10.25. וְהֵמָּה מְבִאִים אִישׁ מִנְחָתוֹ כְּלֵי כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי זָהָב וּשְׂלָמוֹת וְנֵשֶׁק וּבְשָׂמִים סוּסִים וּפְרָדִים דְּבַר־שָׁנָה בְּשָׁנָה׃ 10.26. וַיֶּאֱסֹף שְׁלֹמֹה רֶכֶב וּפָרָשִׁים וַיְהִי־לוֹ אֶלֶף וְאַרְבַּע־מֵאוֹת רֶכֶב וּשְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר אֶלֶף פָּרָשִׁים וַיַּנְחֵם בְּעָרֵי הָרֶכֶב וְעִם־הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 10.27. וַיִּתֵּן הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף בִּירוּשָׁלִַם כָּאֲבָנִים וְאֵת הָאֲרָזִים נָתַן כַּשִּׁקְמִים אֲשֶׁר־בַּשְּׁפֵלָה לָרֹב׃ 10.28. וּמוֹצָא הַסּוּסִים אֲשֶׁר לִשְׁלֹמֹה מִמִּצְרָיִם וּמִקְוֵה סֹחֲרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ יִקְחוּ מִקְוֵה בִּמְחִיר׃ 10.29. וַתַּעֲלֶה וַתֵּצֵא מֶרְכָּבָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת כֶּסֶף וְסוּס בַּחֲמִשִּׁים וּמֵאָה וְכֵן לְכָל־מַלְכֵי הַחִתִּים וּלְמַלְכֵי אֲרָם בְּיָדָם יֹצִאוּ׃ 3.16. Then came there two women, that were harlots, unto the king, and stood before him." 3.17. And the one woman said: ‘Oh, my lord, I and this woman dwell in one house; and I was delivered of a child with her in the house." 3.18. And it came to pass the third day after I was delivered, that this woman was delivered also; and we were together; there was no stranger with us in the house, save we two in the house." 3.19. And this woman’s child died in the night; because she overlay it." 3.20. And she arose at midnight, and took my son from beside me, while thy handmaid slept, and laid it in her bosom, and laid her dead child in my bosom." 3.21. And when I rose in the morning to give my child suck, behold, it was dead; but when I had looked well at it in the morning, behold, it was not my son, whom I did bear.’" 3.22. And the other woman said: ‘Nay; but the living is my son, and the dead is thy son.’ And this said: ‘No; but the dead is thy son, and the living is my son.’ Thus they spoke before the king." 3.23. Then said the king: ‘The one saith: This is my son that liveth, and thy son is the dead; and the other saith: Nay; but thy son is the dead, and my son is the living.’" 3.24. And the king said: ‘Fetch me a sword.’ And they brought a sword before the king." 3.25. And the king said: ‘Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the other.’" 3.26. Then spoke the woman whose the living child was unto the king, for her heart yearned upon her son, and she said: ‘Oh, my lord, give her the living child, and in no wise slay it.’ But the other said: ‘It shall be neither mine nor thine; divide it.’" 3.27. Then the king answered and said: ‘Give her the living child, and in no wise slay it: she is the mother thereof.’ 3.28. And all Israel heard of the judgment which the king had judged; and they feared the king; for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him, to do justice." 4.3. Elihoreph and Ahijah, the sons of Shisha, scribes; Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud, the recorder;" 4.5. and Azariah the son of Nathan was over the officers; and Zabud the son of Nathan was chief minister and the king’s friend;" 4.17. Jehoshaphat the son of Paruah, in Issachar;" 5.2. And Solomon’s provision for one day was thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal;" 5.3. ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and a hundred sheep, beside harts, and gazelles, and roebucks, and fatted fowl." 5.6. And Solomon had forty thousand stalls of horses for his chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen." 9.16. Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up, and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city, and given it for a portion unto his daughter, Solomon’s wife." 10.1. And when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon because of the name of the LORD, she came to prove him with hard questions." 10.4. And when the queen of Sheba had seen all the wisdom of Solomon, and the house that he had built," 10.9. Blessed be the LORD thy God, who delighted in thee, to set thee on the throne of Israel; because the LORD loved Israel for ever, therefore made He thee king, to do justice and righteousness.’" 10.11. And the navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir, brought in from Ophir great plenty of sandal-wood and precious stones." 10.14. Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was six hundred threescore and six talents of gold," 10.15. beside that which came of the merchants, and of the traffic of the traders, and of all the kings of the mingled people and of the governors of the country." 10.16. And king Solomon made two hundred targets of beaten gold: six hundred shekels of gold went to one target." 10.17. And he made three hundred shields of beaten gold: three pounds of gold went to one shield; and the king put them in the house of the forest of Lebanon." 10.18. Moreover the king made a great throne of ivory, and overlaid it with the finest gold." 10.19. There were six steps to the throne, and the top of the throne was round behind; and there were arms on either side by the place of the seat, and two lions standing beside the arms." 10.20. And twelve lions stood there on the one side and on the other upon the six steps; there was not the like made in any kingdom." 10.21. And all king Solomon’s drinking-vessels were of gold, and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon were of pure gold; none were of silver; it was nothing accounted of in the days of Solomon." 10.22. For the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish with the navy of Hiram; once every three years came the navy of Tarshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks." 10.23. So king Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth in riches and in wisdom." 10.25. And they brought every man his present, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and raiment, and armour, and spices, horses, and mules, a rate year by year." 10.26. And Solomon gathered together chariots and horsemen; and he had a thousand and four hundred chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen, that he bestowed in the chariot cities, and with the king at Jerusalem." 10.27. And the king made silver to be in Jerusalem as stones, and cedars made he to be as the sycamore-trees that are in the Lowland, for abundance." 10.28. And the horses which Solomon had were brought out of Egypt; also out of Keveh, the king’s merchants buying them of the men of Keveh at a price." 10.29. And a chariot came up and went out of Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for a hundred and fifty; and so for all the kings of the Hittites, and for the kings of Aram, did they bring them out by their means."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.1, 10.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.1. יְהוָה יֵחַתּוּ מריבו [מְרִיבָיו] עלו [עָלָיו] בַּשָּׁמַיִם יַרְעֵם יְהוָה יָדִין אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ וְיִתֶּן־עֹז לְמַלְכּוֹ וְיָרֵם קֶרֶן מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 2.1. וַתִּתְפַּלֵּל חַנָּה וַתֹּאמַר עָלַץ לִבִּי בַּיהוָה רָמָה קַרְנִי בַּיהוָה רָחַב פִּי עַל־אוֹיְבַי כִּי שָׂמַחְתִּי בִּישׁוּעָתֶךָ׃ 10.25. וַיְדַבֵּר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־הָעָם אֵת מִשְׁפַּט הַמְּלֻכָה וַיִּכְתֹּב בַּסֵּפֶר וַיַּנַּח לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיְשַׁלַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת־כָּל־הָעָם אִישׁ לְבֵיתוֹ׃ 2.1. And Ĥanna prayed, and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord: my mouth is enlarged over my enemies; because I rejoice in Thy salvation." 10.25. Then Shemu᾽el told the people the rules of the kingdom, and wrote it in a book, and laid it up before the Lord. And Shemu᾽el sent all the people away, every man to his house."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 1.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.21. הָרֵי בַגִּלְבֹּעַ אַל־טַל וְאַל־מָטָר עֲלֵיכֶם וּשְׂדֵי תְרוּמֹת כִּי שָׁם נִגְעַל מָגֵן גִּבּוֹרִים מָגֵן שָׁאוּל בְּלִי מָשִׁיחַ בַּשָּׁמֶן׃ 1.21. Mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew, neither let there be rain, upon you, nor fields of offerings: for there the shield of the mighty is vilely cast away, the shield of Sha᾽ul, as though not anointed with oil."
15. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 3.11 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.11. שֶׁמֶשׁ יָרֵחַ עָמַד זְבֻלָה לְאוֹר חִצֶּיךָ יְהַלֵּכוּ לְנֹגַהּ בְּרַק חֲנִיתֶךָ׃ 3.11. The sun and moon stand still in their habitation; at the light of Thine arrows as they go, At the shining of Thy glittering spear."
16. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 10.16, 11.1, 13.9-13.11, 19.5, 30.29, 54.6, 54.12, 55.13, 60.19-60.20, 64.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.16. לָכֵן יְשַׁלַּח הָאָדוֹן יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּמִשְׁמַנָּיו רָזוֹן וְתַחַת כְּבֹדוֹ יֵקַד יְקֹד כִּיקוֹד אֵשׁ׃ 11.1. וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה׃ 11.1. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ יִשַׁי אֲשֶׁר עֹמֵד לְנֵס עַמִּים אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ וְהָיְתָה מְנֻחָתוֹ כָּבוֹד׃ 13.11. וּפָקַדְתִּי עַל־תֵּבֵל רָעָה וְעַל־רְשָׁעִים עֲוֺנָם וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי גְּאוֹן זֵדִים וְגַאֲוַת עָרִיצִים אַשְׁפִּיל׃ 19.5. וְנִשְּׁתוּ־מַיִם מֵהַיָּם וְנָהָר יֶחֱרַב וְיָבֵשׁ׃ 30.29. הַשִּׁיר יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כְּלֵיל הִתְקַדֶּשׁ־חָג וְשִׂמְחַת לֵבָב כַּהוֹלֵךְ בֶּחָלִיל לָבוֹא בְהַר־יְהוָה אֶל־צוּר יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 54.6. כִּי־כְאִשָּׁה עֲזוּבָה וַעֲצוּבַת רוּחַ קְרָאָךְ יְהוָה וְאֵשֶׁת נְעוּרִים כִּי תִמָּאֵס אָמַר אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃ 54.12. וְשַׂמְתִּי כַּדְכֹד שִׁמְשֹׁתַיִךְ וּשְׁעָרַיִךְ לְאַבְנֵי אֶקְדָּח וְכָל־גְּבוּלֵךְ לְאַבְנֵי־חֵפֶץ׃ 55.13. תַּחַת הַנַּעֲצוּץ יַעֲלֶה בְרוֹשׁ תחת [וְתַחַת] הַסִּרְפַּד יַעֲלֶה הֲדַס וְהָיָה לַיהוָה לְשֵׁם לְאוֹת עוֹלָם לֹא יִכָּרֵת׃ 60.19. לֹא־יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ עוֹד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם וּלְנֹגַהּ הַיָּרֵחַ לֹא־יָאִיר לָךְ וְהָיָה־לָךְ יְהוָה לְאוֹר עוֹלָם וֵאלֹהַיִךְ לְתִפְאַרְתֵּךְ׃ 64.3. וּמֵעוֹלָם לֹא־שָׁמְעוּ לֹא הֶאֱזִינוּ עַיִן לֹא־רָאָתָה אֱלֹהִים זוּלָתְךָ יַעֲשֶׂה לִמְחַכֵּה־לוֹ׃ 10.16. Therefore will the Lord, the LORD of hosts, Send among his fat ones leanness; And under his glory there shall be kindled A burning like the burning of fire." 11.1. And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, And a twig shall grow forth out of his roots." 13.10. For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof Shall not give their light; The sun shall be darkened in his going forth, And the moon shall not cause her light to shine." 13.11. And I will visit upon the world their evil, And upon the wicked their iniquity; And I will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, And will lay low the haughtiness of the tyrants." 19.5. And the waters shall fail from the sea, and the river shall be drained dry," 30.29. Ye shall have a song As in the night when a feast is hallowed; And gladness of heart, as when one goeth with the pipe To come into the mountain of the LORD, to the Rock of Israel." 54.6. For the LORD hath called thee As a wife forsaken and grieved in spirit; And a wife of youth, can she be rejected? Saith thy God." 54.12. And I will make thy pinnacles of rubies, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy border of precious stones." 55.13. Instead of the thorn shall come up the cypress, And instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle; And it shall be to the LORD for a memorial, For an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off." 60.19. The sun shall be no more thy light by day, Neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee; But the LORD shall be unto thee an everlasting light, And thy God thy glory." 60.20. Thy sun shall no more go down, Neither shall thy moon withdraw itself; For the LORD shall be thine everlasting light, And the days of thy mourning shall be ended." 64.3. And whereof from of old men have not heard, nor perceived by the ear, neither hath the eye seen a God beside Thee, who worketh for him that waiteth for Him."
17. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 18.22, 31.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18.22. תִּשָּׁמַע זְעָקָה מִבָּתֵּיהֶם כִּי־תָבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם גְּדוּד פִּתְאֹם כִּי־כָרוּ שיחה [שׁוּחָה] לְלָכְדֵנִי וּפַחִים טָמְנוּ לְרַגְלָי׃ 31.35. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה נֹתֵן שֶׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם חֻקֹּת יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְאוֹר לָיְלָה רֹגַע הַיָּם וַיֶּהֱמוּ גַלָּיו יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 18.22. Let a cry be heard from their houses, When thou shalt bring a troop suddenly upon them; For they have digged a pit to take me, And hid snares for my feet." 31.35. Thus saith the LORD, Who giveth the sun for a light by day, And the ordices of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, Who stirreth up the sea, that the waves thereof roar, The LORD of hosts is His name:"
18. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 3.13-3.17, 5.2-5.9, 10.6-10.11, 10.13-10.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.13. וְהָיָה כְּנוֹחַ כַּפּוֹת רַגְלֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן יְהוָה אֲדוֹן כָּל־הָאָרֶץ בְּמֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן מֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן יִכָּרֵתוּן הַמַּיִם הַיֹּרְדִים מִלְמָעְלָה וְיַעַמְדוּ נֵד אֶחָד׃ 3.14. וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָעָם מֵאָהֳלֵיהֶם לַעֲבֹר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן וְהַכֹּהֲנִים נֹשְׂאֵי הָאָרוֹן הַבְּרִית לִפְנֵי הָעָם׃ 3.15. וּכְבוֹא נֹשְׂאֵי הָאָרוֹן עַד־הַיַּרְדֵּן וְרַגְלֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים נֹשְׂאֵי הָאָרוֹן נִטְבְּלוּ בִּקְצֵה הַמָּיִם וְהַיַּרְדֵּן מָלֵא עַל־כָּל־גְּדוֹתָיו כֹּל יְמֵי קָצִיר׃ 3.16. וַיַּעַמְדוּ הַמַּיִם הַיֹּרְדִים מִלְמַעְלָה קָמוּ נֵד־אֶחָד הַרְחֵק מְאֹד באדם [מֵאָדָם] הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר מִצַּד צָרְתָן וְהַיֹּרְדִים עַל יָם הָעֲרָבָה יָם־הַמֶּלַח תַּמּוּ נִכְרָתוּ וְהָעָם עָבְרוּ נֶגֶד יְרִיחוֹ׃ 3.17. וַיַּעַמְדוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים נֹשְׂאֵי הָאָרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה בֶּחָרָבָה בְּתוֹךְ הַיַּרְדֵּן הָכֵן וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹבְרִים בֶּחָרָבָה עַד אֲשֶׁר־תַּמּוּ כָּל־הַגּוֹי לַעֲבֹר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן׃ 5.2. בָּעֵת הַהִיא אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ עֲשֵׂה לְךָ חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים וְשׁוּב מֹל אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל שֵׁנִית׃ 5.3. וַיַּעַשׂ־לוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים וַיָּמָל אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־גִּבְעַת הָעֲרָלוֹת׃ 5.4. וְזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־מָל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כָּל־הָעָם הַיֹּצֵא מִמִּצְרַיִם הַזְּכָרִים כֹּל אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה מֵתוּ בַמִּדְבָּר בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 5.5. כִּי־מֻלִים הָיוּ כָּל־הָעָם הַיֹּצְאִים וְכָל־הָעָם הַיִּלֹּדִים בַּמִּדְבָּר בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרַיִם לֹא־מָלוּ׃ 5.6. כִּי אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה הָלְכוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר עַד־תֹּם כָּל־הַגּוֹי אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה הַיֹּצְאִים מִמִּצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁמְעוּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לָהֶם לְבִלְתִּי הַרְאוֹתָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבוֹתָם לָתֶת לָנוּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃ 5.7. וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם הֵקִים תַּחְתָּם אֹתָם מָל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כִּי־עֲרֵלִים הָיוּ כִּי לֹא־מָלוּ אוֹתָם בַּדָּרֶךְ׃ 5.8. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר־תַּמּוּ כָל־הַגּוֹי לְהִמּוֹל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ תַחְתָּם בַּמַּחֲנֶה עַד חֲיוֹתָם׃ 5.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַיּוֹם גַּלּוֹתִי אֶת־חֶרְפַּת מִצְרַיִם מֵעֲלֵיכֶם וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא גִּלְגָּל עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 10.6. וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ אַנְשֵׁי גִבְעוֹן אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה הַגִּלְגָּלָה לֵאמֹר אַל־תֶּרֶף יָדֶיךָ מֵעֲבָדֶיךָ עֲלֵה אֵלֵינוּ מְהֵרָה וְהוֹשִׁיעָה לָּנוּ וְעָזְרֵנוּ כִּי נִקְבְּצוּ אֵלֵינוּ כָּל־מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי יֹשְׁבֵי הָהָר׃ 10.7. וַיַּעַל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מִן־הַגִּלְגָּל הוּא וְכָל־עַם הַמִּלְחָמָה עִמּוֹ וְכֹל גִּבּוֹרֵי הֶחָיִל׃ 10.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אַל־תִּירָא מֵהֶם כִּי בְיָדְךָ נְתַתִּים לֹא־יַעֲמֹד אִישׁ מֵהֶם בְּפָנֶיךָ׃ 10.9. וַיָּבֹא אֲלֵיהֶם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ פִּתְאֹם כָּל־הַלַּיְלָה עָלָה מִן־הַגִּלְגָּל׃ 10.11. וַיְהִי בְּנֻסָם מִפְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵם בְּמוֹרַד בֵּית־חוֹרֹן וַיהוָה הִשְׁלִיךְ עֲלֵיהֶם אֲבָנִים גְּדֹלוֹת מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם עַד־עֲזֵקָה וַיָּמֻתוּ רַבִּים אֲשֶׁר־מֵתוּ בְּאַבְנֵי הַבָּרָד מֵאֲשֶׁר הָרְגוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּחָרֶב׃ 10.13. וַיִּדֹּם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ עָמָד עַד־יִקֹּם גּוֹי אֹיְבָיו הֲלֹא־הִיא כְתוּבָה עַל־סֵפֶר הַיָּשָׁר וַיַּעֲמֹד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בַּחֲצִי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־אָץ לָבוֹא כְּיוֹם תָּמִים׃ 10.14. וְלֹא הָיָה כַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לְפָנָיו וְאַחֲרָיו לִשְׁמֹעַ יְהוָה בְּקוֹל אִישׁ כִּי יְהוָה נִלְחָם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 10.15. וַיָּשָׁב יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה הַגִּלְגָּלָה׃ 10.16. וַיָּנֻסוּ חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֵּחָבְאוּ בַמְּעָרָה בְּמַקֵּדָה׃ 10.17. וַיֻּגַּד לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ לֵאמֹר נִמְצְאוּ חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמְּלָכִים נֶחְבְּאִים בַּמְּעָרָה בְּמַקֵּדָה׃ 10.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ גֹּלּוּ אֲבָנִים גְּדֹלוֹת אֶל־פִּי הַמְּעָרָה וְהַפְקִידוּ עָלֶיהָ אֲנָשִׁים לְשָׁמְרָם׃ 10.19. וְאַתֶּם אַל־תַּעֲמֹדוּ רִדְפוּ אַחֲרֵי אֹיְבֵיכֶם וְזִנַּבְתֶּם אוֹתָם אַל־תִּתְּנוּם לָבוֹא אֶל־עָרֵיהֶם כִּי נְתָנָם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם׃ 10.21. וַיָּשֻׁבוּ כָל־הָעָם אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מַקֵּדָה בְּשָׁלוֹם לֹא־חָרַץ לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאִישׁ אֶת־לְשֹׁנוֹ׃ 10.22. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ פִּתְחוּ אֶת־פִּי הַמְּעָרָה וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֵלַי אֶת־חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה מִן־הַמְּעָרָה׃ 10.23. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כֵן וַיֹּצִיאוּ אֵלָיו אֶת־חֲמֵשֶׁת הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה מִן־הַמְּעָרָה אֵת מֶלֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֶת־מֶלֶךְ חֶבְרוֹן אֶת־מֶלֶךְ יַרְמוּת אֶת־מֶלֶךְ לָכִישׁ אֶת־מֶלֶךְ עֶגְלוֹן׃ 3.13. And it shall come to pass, when the soles of the feet of the priests that bear the ark of the LORD, the Lord of all the earth, shall rest in the waters of the Jordan, that the waters of the Jordan shall be cut off, even the waters that come down from above; and they shall stand in one heap.’" 3.14. And it came to pass, when the people removed from their tents, to pass over the Jordan, the priests that bore the ark of the covet being before the people;" 3.15. and when they that bore the ark were come unto the Jordan, and the feet of the priests that bore the ark were dipped in the brink of the water—for the Jordan overfloweth all its banks all the time of harvest—" 3.16. that the waters which came down from above stood, and rose up in one heap, a great way off from Adam, the city that is beside Zarethan; and those that went down toward the sea of the Arabah, even the Salt Sea, were wholly cut off; and the people passed over right against Jericho." 3.17. And the priests that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD stood firm on dry ground in the midst of the Jordan, while all Israel passed over on dry ground, until all the nation were passed clean over the Jordan." 5.2. At that time the LORD said unto Joshua: ‘Make thee knives of flint, and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time.’" 5.3. And Joshua made him knives of flint, and circumcised the children of Israel at Gibeath-ha-araloth." 5.4. And this is the cause why Joshua did circumcise: all the people that came forth out of Egypt, that were males, even all the men of war, died in the wilderness by the way, after they came forth out of Egypt." 5.5. For all the people that came out were circumcised; but all the people that were born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt, had not been circumcised." 5.6. For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, till all the nation, even the men of war that came forth out of Egypt, were consumed, because they hearkened not unto the voice of the LORD; unto whom the LORD swore that He would not let them see the land which the LORD swore unto their fathers that He would give us, a land flowing with milk and honey." 5.7. And He raised up their children in their stead; them did Joshua circumcise; for they were uncircumcised, because they had not been circumcised by the way." 5.8. And it came to pass, when all the nation were circumcised, every one of them, that they abode in their places in the camp, till they were whole." 5.9. And the LORD said unto Joshua: ‘This day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you.’ Wherefore the name of that place was called Gilgal, unto this day." 10.6. And the men of Gibeon sent unto Joshua to the camp to Gilgal, saying: ‘Slack not thy hands from thy servants; come up to us quickly, and save us, and help us; for all the kings of the Amorites that dwell in the hill-country are gathered together against us.’" 10.7. So Joshua went up from Gilgal, he, and all the people of war with him, and all the mighty men of valour." 10.8. And the LORD said unto Joshua: ‘Fear them not; for I have delivered them into thy hand; there shall not a man of them stand against thee.’" 10.9. Joshua therefore came upon them suddenly; for he went up from Gilgal all the night." 10.10. And the LORD discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon; and they chased them by the way of the ascent of Beth-horon, and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah." 10.11. And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, while they were at the descent of Beth-horon, that the LORD cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and they died; they were more who died with the hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword." 10.13. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, Until the nation had avenged themselves of their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jashar? And the sun stayed in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day." 10.14. And there was no day like that before it or after it, that the LORD hearkened unto the voice of a man; for the LORD fought for Israel." 10.15. And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, unto the camp to Gilgal." 10.16. And these five kings fled, and hid themselves in the cave at Makkedah." 10.17. And it was told Joshua, saying: ‘The five kings are found, hidden in the cave at Makkedah.’" 10.18. And Joshua said: ‘Roll great stones unto the mouth of the cave, and set men by it to keep them;" 10.19. but stay not ye; pursue after your enemies, and smite the hindmost of them; suffer them not to enter into their cities; for the LORD your God hath delivered them into your hand.’" 10.20. And it came to pass, when Joshua and the children of Israel had made an end of slaying them with a very great slaughter, till they were consumed, and the remt which remained of them had entered into the fortified cities," 10.21. that all the people returned to the camp to Joshua at Makkedah in peace; none whetted his tongue against any of the children of Israel." 10.22. Then said Joshua: ‘Open the mouth of the cave, and bring forth those five kings unto me out of the cave.’" 10.23. And they did so, and brought forth those five kings unto him out of the cave, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, the king of Eglon."
19. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.1. וַתָּשַׁר דְּבוֹרָה וּבָרָק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹעַם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר׃ 5.1. רֹכְבֵי אֲתֹנוֹת צְחֹרוֹת יֹשְׁבֵי עַל־מִדִּין וְהֹלְכֵי עַל־דֶּרֶךְ שִׂיחוּ׃ 5.1. Then sang Devora and Baraq the son of Avino῾am on that day, saying,"
20. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 9.4, 32.7-32.8 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אלו [אֵלָיו] עֲבֹר בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר בְּתוֹךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְהִתְוִיתָ תָּו עַל־מִצְחוֹת הָאֲנָשִׁים הַנֶּאֱנָחִים וְהַנֶּאֱנָקִים עַל כָּל־הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת הַנַּעֲשׂוֹת בְּתוֹכָהּ׃ 32.7. וְכִסֵּיתִי בְכַבּוֹתְךָ שָׁמַיִם וְהִקְדַּרְתִּי אֶת־כֹּכְבֵיהֶם שֶׁמֶשׁ בֶּעָנָן אֲכַסֶּנּוּ וְיָרֵחַ לֹא־יָאִיר אוֹרוֹ׃ 32.8. כָּל־מְאוֹרֵי אוֹר בַּשָּׁמַיִם אַקְדִּירֵם עָלֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי חֹשֶׁךְ עַל־אַרְצְךָ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 9.4. And the LORD said unto him: ‘Go through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that are done in the midst thereof.’" 32.7. And when I shall extinguish thee, I will cover the heaven, And make the stars thereof black; I will cover the sun with a cloud, And the moon shall not give her light." 32.8. All the bright lights of heaven Will I make black over thee, And set darkness upon thy land, Saith the Lord GOD."
21. Euripides, Electra, 706, 713-726, 699 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

699. ἀταλᾶς ὑπὸ ματρὸς ἄρν' 699. The story remains in old legend
22. Sophocles, Electra, 509 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23. Anon., 1 Enoch, 40.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

40.9. een and whose words I have heard and written down' And he said to me: 'This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, who is set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, who is set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, who is set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is named Phanuel.'
24. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.6. וַיְהִי בָהֶם מִבְּנֵי יְהוּדָה דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.6. Now among these were, of the children of Judah, Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah."
25. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 43.6-43.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

26. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 13.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13.2. but they supposed that either fire or wind or swift air,or the circle of the stars, or turbulent water,or the luminaries of heaven were the gods that rule the world.
27. New Testament, 2 Peter, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.8. But don't forget this one thing, beloved, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.
28. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 13.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

29. New Testament, Acts, 3.6, 16.16-16.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.6. But Peter said, "Silver and gold have I none, but what I have, that I give you. In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, rise and walk! 16.16. It happened, as we were going to prayer, that a certain girl having a spirit of divination met us, who brought her masters much gain by fortune telling. 16.17. The same, following after Paul and us, cried out, "These men are servants of the Most High God, who proclaim to us the way of salvation! 16.18. This she did for many days. But Paul, becoming greatly annoyed, turned and said to the spirit, "I charge you in the name of Jesus Christ to come out of her!" It came out that very hour.
30. New Testament, Apocalypse, 5.1-5.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. I saw, in the right hand of him who sat on the throne, a book written inside and outside, sealed shut with seven seals. 5.2. I saw a mighty angel proclaiming with a loud voice, "Who is worthy to open the book, and to break its seals?
31. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.26. Be angry, and don't sin." Don't let the sun go down on your wrath
32. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.7-4.11, 4.14-7.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. New Testament, Philippians, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.3. Yes, I beg you also, true yoke-fellow, help these women, for they labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life.
34. New Testament, Romans, 4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

35. New Testament, Luke, 8.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.25. He said to them, "Where is your faith?" Being afraid they marveled, saying one to another, "Who is this, then, that he commands even the winds and the water, and they obey him?
36. New Testament, Mark, 5.13, 6.45-6.52, 10.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.13. At once Jesus gave them permission. The unclean spirits came out and entered into the pigs. The herd of about two thousand rushed down the steep bank into the sea, and they were drowned in the sea. 6.45. Immediately he made his disciples get into the boat, and to go ahead to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he himself sent the multitude away. 6.46. After he had taken leave of them, he went up the mountain to pray. 6.47. When evening had come, the boat was in the midst of the sea, and he was alone on the land. 6.48. Seeing them distressed in rowing, for the wind was contrary to them, about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea, and he would have passed by them 6.49. but they, when they saw him walking on the sea, supposed that it was a ghost, and cried out; 6.50. for they all saw him, and were troubled. But he immediately spoke with them, and said to them, "Cheer up! It is I! Don't be afraid. 6.51. He got into the boat with them; and the wind ceased, and they were very amazed among themselves, and marveled; 6.52. for they hadn't understood about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened. 10.17. As he was going out into the way, one ran to him, knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?
37. New Testament, Matthew, 17.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.20. He said to them, "Because of your unbelief. For most assuredly I tell you, if you have faith as a grain of mustard seed, you will tell this mountain, 'Move from here to there,' and it will move; and nothing will be impossible for you.
38. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 8.3, 12.4, 16.1, 18.5, 19.12-19.13, 21.1, 21.5, 23.5, 30.5, 32.2-32.3, 40.2, 43.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 12.10 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

40. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

41. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

34b. כהן גדול בסוף כל ברכה וברכה והמלך תחלת כל ברכה וברכה וסוף כל ברכה וברכה,אמר רבי יצחק בר נחמני לדידי מפרשא לי מיניה דריב"ל הדיוט כמו שאמרנו כהן גדול תחלת כל ברכה וברכה המלך כיון שכרע שוב אינו זוקף שנאמר (מלכים א ח, נד) ויהי ככלות שלמה להתפלל וגו' קם מלפני מזבח ה' מכרוע על ברכיו:,ת"ר קידה על אפים שנאמר (מלכים א א, לא) ותקד בת שבע אפים ארץ כריעה על ברכים שנאמר מכרוע על ברכיו השתחואה זו פשוט ידים ורגלים שנאמר (בראשית לז, י) הבא נבא אני ואמך ואחיך להשתחות לך ארצה,אמר רב חייא בריה דרב הונא חזינא להו לאביי ורבא דמצלו אצלויי,תני חדא הכורע בהודאה הרי זה משובח ותניא אידך הרי זה מגונה,לא קשיא הא בתחלה הא לבסוף,רבא כרע בהודאה תחלה וסוף אמרי ליה רבנן אמאי קא עביד מר הכי אמר להו חזינא לרב נחמן דכרע וחזינא ליה לרב ששת דקא עבד הכי,והתניא הכורע בהודאה הרי זה מגונה,ההיא בהודאה שבהלל,והתניא הכורע בהודאה ובהודאה של הלל הרי זה מגונה,כי תניא ההיא בהודאה דברכת המזון:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המתפלל וטעה סימן רע לו ואם שליח צבור הוא סימן רע לשולחיו מפני ששלוחו של אדם כמותו אמרו עליו על ר' חנינא בן דוסא שהיה מתפלל על החולים ואומר זה חי וזה מת אמרו לו מנין אתה יודע אמר להם אם שגורה תפלתי בפי יודע אני שהוא מקובל ואם לאו יודע אני שהוא מטורף:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אהייא,א"ר חייא אמר רב ספרא משום חד דבי רבי באבות,איכא דמתני לה אברייתא המתפלל צריך שיכוין את לבו בכולן ואם אינו יכול לכוין בכולן יכוין את לבו באחת,א"ר חייא אמר רב ספרא משום חד דבי רבי באבות,אמרו עליו על רבי חנינא וכו': מנא הני מילי א"ר יהושע בן לוי דאמר קרא (ישעיהו נז, יט) בורא ניב שפתים שלום שלום לרחוק ולקרוב אמר ה' ורפאתיו,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל הנביאים כולן לא נתנבאו אלא למשיא בתו לתלמיד חכם ולעושה פרקמטיא לת"ח ולמהנה ת"ח מנכסיו אבל תלמידי חכמים עצמן (ישעיהו סד, ג) עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך יעשה למחכה לו,ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל הנביאים כולן לא נתנבאו אלא לימות המשיח אבל לעולם הבא עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך,ופליגא דשמואל דאמר שמואל אין בין העוה"ז לימות המשיח אלא שעבוד מלכיות בלבד שנאמר (דברים טו, יא) כי לא יחדל אביון מקרב הארץ,וא"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל הנביאים כולן לא נתנבאו אלא לבעלי תשובה אבל צדיקים גמורים עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך,ופליגא דר' אבהו דא"ר אבהו מקום שבעלי תשובה עומדין צדיקים גמורים אינם עומדין שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, יט) שלום שלום לרחוק ולקרוב לרחוק ברישא והדר לקרוב,ורבי יוחנן אמר לך מאי רחוק שהיה רחוק מדבר עבירה מעיקרא ומאי קרוב שהיה קרוב לדבר עבירה ונתרחק ממנו השתא,מאי עין לא ראתה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי זה יין המשומר בענביו מששת ימי בראשית רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר זה עדן שלא שלטה בו עין כל בריה,שמא תאמר אדם הראשון היכן היה בגן,ושמא תאמר הוא גן הוא עדן תלמוד לומר (בראשית ב, י) ונהר יוצא מעדן להשקות את הגן גן לחוד ועדן לחוד:,ת"ר מעשה שחלה בנו של ר"ג שגר שני ת"ח אצל רבי חנינא בן דוסא לבקש עליו רחמים כיון שראה אותם עלה לעלייה ובקש עליו רחמים בירידתו אמר להם לכו שחלצתו חמה אמרו לו וכי נביא אתה אמר להן לא נביא אנכי ולא בן נביא אנכי אלא כך מקובלני אם שגורה תפלתי בפי יודע אני שהוא מקובל ואם לאו יודע אני שהוא מטורף ישבו וכתבו וכוונו אותה שעה וכשבאו אצל ר"ג אמר להן העבודה לא חסרתם ולא הותרתם אלא כך היה מעשה באותה שעה חלצתו חמה ושאל לנו מים לשתות,ושוב מעשה ברבי חנינא בן דוסא שהלך ללמוד תורה אצל ר' יוחנן בן זכאי וחלה בנו של ריב"ז אמר לו חנינא בני בקש עליו רחמים ויחיה הניח ראשו בין ברכיו ובקש עליו רחמים וחיה אמר רבי יוחנן בן זכאי אלמלי הטיח בן זכאי את ראשו בין ברכיו כל היום כולו לא היו משגיחים עליו אמרה לו אשתו וכי חנינא גדול ממך אמר לה לאו אלא הוא דומה כעבד לפני המלך ואני דומה כשר לפני המלך:,ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן אל יתפלל אדם אלא בבית שיש שם חלונות שנאמר (דניאל ו, יא) וכוין פתיחן ליה בעליתיה (לקבל) [נגד],ירושלם אמר רב כהנא חציף עלי מאן דמצלי בבקתא,ואמר רב כהנא חציף עלי מאן דמפרש חטאיה שנאמר (תהלים לב, א) אשרי נשוי פשע כסוי חטאה:, br br big strongהדרן עלך אין עומדין /strong /big br br
42. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5b. אינו מהם אמרו ליה רבנן לרבא מר לא בהסתר פנים איתיה ולא בוהיה לאכול איתיה אמר להו מי ידעיתו כמה משדרנא בצנעא בי שבור מלכא אפי' הכי יהבו ביה רבנן עינייהו אדהכי שדור דבי שבור מלכא וגרבוהו אמר היינו דתניא אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כל מקום שנתנו חכמים עיניהם או מיתה או עוני,(דברים לא, יח) ואנכי הסתר אסתיר פני ביום ההוא אמר רבא אמר הקב"ה אף על פי שהסתרתי פני מהם בחלום אדבר בו רב יוסף אמר ידו נטויה עלינו שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ובצל ידי כסיתיך,ר' יהושע בן חנניה הוה קאי בי קיסר אחוי ליה ההוא אפיקורוסא עמא דאהדרינהו מריה לאפיה מיניה אחוי ליה ידו נטויה עלינו אמר ליה קיסר לר' יהושע מאי אחוי לך עמא דאהדרינהו מריה לאפיה מיניה ואנא מחוינא ליה ידו נטויה עלינו,אמרו ליה לההוא מינא מאי אחויית ליה עמא דאהדרינהו מריה מיניה ומאי אחוי לך לא ידענא אמרו גברא דלא ידע מאי מחוו ליה במחוג יחוי קמי מלכא אפקוהו וקטלוהו,כי קא ניחא נפשיה דרבי יהושע בן חנניה אמרו ליה רבנן מאי תיהוי עלן מאפיקורוסין אמר להם (ירמיהו מט, ז) אבדה עצה מבנים נסרחה חכמתם כיון שאבדה עצה מבנים נסרחה חכמתן של אומות העולם,ואי בעית אימא מהכא (בראשית לג, יב) ויאמר נסעה ונלכה ואלכה לנגדך,רבי אילא הוה סליק בדרגא דבי רבה בר שילא שמעיה לינוקא דהוה קא קרי (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח ומגיד לאדם מה שיחו אמר עבד שרבו מגיד לו מה שיחו תקנה יש לו מאי מה שיחו אמר רב אפילו שיחה יתירה שבין איש לאשתו מגידים לו לאדם בשעת מיתה,איני והא רב כהנא הוה גני תותי פורייה דרב ושמעיה דסח וצחק ועשה צרכיו אמר דמי פומיה דרב כמאן דלא טעים ליה תבשילא אמר ליה כהנא פוק לאו אורח ארעא,לא קשיא כאן דצריך לרצויה הא דלא צריך לרצויה,(ירמיהו יג, יז) ואם לא תשמעוה במסתרים תבכה נפשי מפני גוה אמר רב שמואל בר איניא משמיה דרב מקום יש לו להקב"ה ומסתרים שמו מאי מפני גוה אמר רב שמואל בר יצחק מפני גאוותן של ישראל שניטלה מהם ונתנה לעובדי כוכבים ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר מפני גאוותה של מלכות שמים,ומי איכא בכיה קמיה הקב"ה והאמר רב פפא אין עציבות לפני הקב"ה שנאמר (דברי הימים א טז, כז) הוד והדר לפניו עוז וחדוה במקומו לא קשיא הא בבתי גואי הא בבתי בראי,ובבתי בראי לא והא כתיב (ישעיהו כב, יב) ויקרא אדני ה' צבאות ביום ההוא לבכי ולמספד ולקרחה ולחגור שק שאני חרבן בית המקדש דאפילו מלאכי שלום בכו שנאמר (ישעיהו לג, ז) הן אראלם צעקו חוצה מלאכי שלום מר יבכיון:,(ירמיהו יג, יז) ודמע תדמע ותרד עיני דמעה כי נשבה עדר ה' אמר ר' אלעזר שלש דמעות הללו למה אחת על מקדש ראשון ואחת על מקדש שני ואחת על ישראל שגלו ממקומן ואיכא דאמרי אחת על ביטול תורה,בשלמא למאן דאמר על ישראל שגלו היינו דכתיב כי נשבה עדר ה' אלא למאן דאמר על ביטול תורה מאי כי נשבה עדר ה' כיון שגלו ישראל ממקומן אין לך ביטול תורה גדול מזה,תנו רבנן שלשה הקב"ה בוכה עליהן בכל יום על שאפשר לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק ועל שאי אפשר לעסוק בתורה ועוסק ועל פרנס המתגאה על הצבור,רבי הוה נקיט ספר קינות וקא קרי בגויה כי מטא להאי פסוקא (איכה ב, א) השליך משמים ארץ נפל מן ידיה אמר מאיגרא רם לבירא עמיקתא,רבי ורבי חייא הוו שקלי ואזלי באורחא כי מטו לההוא מתא אמרי איכא צורבא מרבנן הכא נזיל וניקביל אפיה אמרי איכא צורבא מרבנן הכא ומאור עינים הוא אמר ליה ר' חייא לרבי תיב את לא תזלזל בנשיאותך איזיל אנא ואקביל אפיה,תקפיה ואזל בהדיה כי הוו מיפטרי מיניה אמר להו אתם הקבלתם פנים הנראים ואינן רואין תזכו להקביל פנים הרואים ואינן נראין אמר ליה איכו השתא מנעתן מהאי בירכתא,אמרו ליה ממאן שמיעא לך מפרקיה דרבי יעקב שמיע לי דרבי יעקב איש כפר חיטייא הוה מקביל אפיה דרביה כל יומא כי קש א"ל לא נצטער מר דלא יכיל מר,אמר ליה מי זוטר מאי דכתיב בהו ברבנן (תהלים מט, י) ויחי עוד לנצח לא יראה השחת כי יראה חכמים ימותו ומה הרואה חכמים במיתתן יחיה בחייהן על אחת כמה וכמה,רב אידי אבוה דרבי יעקב בר אידי הוה רגיל דהוה אזיל תלתא ירחי באורחא וחד יומא בבי רב והוו קרו ליה רבנן בר בי רב דחד יומא חלש דעתיה קרי אנפשיה (איוב יב, ד) שחוק לרעהו אהיה וגו' א"ל ר' יוחנן במטותא מינך לא תעניש להו רבנן,נפק ר' יוחנן לבי מדרשא ודרש (ישעיהו נח, ב) ואותי יום יום ידרשון ודעת דרכי יחפצון וכי ביום דורשין אותו ובלילה אין דורשין אותו אלא לומר לך כל העוסק בתורה אפי' יום אחד בשנה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עסק כל השנה כולה,וכן במדת פורענות דכתיב (במדבר יד, לד) במספר הימים אשר תרתם את הארץ וכי ארבעים שנה חטאו והלא ארבעים יום חטאו אלא לומר לך כל העובר עבירה אפי' יום אחד בשנה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עבר כל השנה כולה:,אי זהו קטן כל שאינו יכול לרכוב על כתפו של אביו: מתקיף לה רבי זירא 5b. bis not fromamong bthem. The Sages said to Rava: Master, you are not subject toHis bhidingof the bface,as your prayers are heard, band you are not subject to: “And they shall be devoured,”as the authorities take nothing from you. bHe said to them: Do you know how manygifts bI send in private to the house of King Shapur?Although it might seem that the monarchy does not take anything from me, in actuality I am forced to give many bribes. bEven so, the Sages looked uponRava with suspicion. bIn the meantime,messengers bfrom the house of King Shapur sentfor him band imprisoned himto extort more money from him. Rava bsaid: This is as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Wherever the Sages looked uponsomeone, it resulted in beither death or poverty. /b,With regard to the verse: b“And I will hide my face in that day”(Deuteronomy 31:18), bRava saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Even though I hid my face from themand My Divine Presence is not revealed, nevertheless: b“I speak with him in a dream”(Numbers 12:6). bRav Yosef said: His hand is outstretched,guarding bover us, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of my hand”(Isaiah 51:16).,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya was standing inthe bhouse of the Caesar. A certain heretic,who was also present, bgestured to him,indicating that his was bthe nation whose Master,God, bturned His faceaway bfrom it.Rabbi Yehoshua bgestured to himthat bHis hand is outstretched over usin protection. bThe Caesar said to Rabbi Yehoshua: What did he gesture to you,and how did you respond? He replied: He indicated that mine is bthe nation whose Master turned His face from it, and I gestured to himthat bHis hand is outstretched over us. /b,The members of the Caesar’s household bsaid to that heretic: What did you gesture to him?He said to them: I gestured that his is bthe nation whose Master has turnedHis face bfrom it.They asked: bAnd what did he gesture to you?He said to them: bI don’t know;I did not understand. bThey said:How can ba man who does not know whatothers bgesture to himdare to bgesture in the presence of the king? They took him out and killed him. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya was dying, the Sages said to him: What will become of us, fromthe threat of bthe heretics,when there is no scholar like you who can refute them? bHe said to themthat the verse states: “Is wisdom no more in Teiman? bHas counsel perished from the prudent? Has their wisdom vanished?”(Jeremiah 49:7). He explained: bSince counsel has perished from the prudent,from the Jewish people, the bwisdom of the nations of the world has vanishedas well, and there will be no superior scholars among them., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that the same idea can be derived bfrom here: “And he said: Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go corresponding to you”(Genesis 33:12). Just as the Jewish people rise and fall, so too, the nations of the world simultaneously rise and fall, and they will never have an advantage.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Ila was ascending the stairs in the house of Rabba bar Sheila,a children’s teacher. bHe heard a child who was readinga verse out loud: b“For, lo, He Who forms the mountains, and creates the wind, and declares to man what is his speech”(Amos 4:13). Rabbi Ila bsaid:With regard to ba servant whose master declares to him what is hisproper bspeech, is there a remedy for him?The Gemara asks. bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“What is his speech”? Rav said: Even frivolous speech that is between a man and his wifebefore engaging in relations bis declared to a person at the time of death,and he will have to account for it.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Is it prohibited for a man to speak in this manner with his wife? bWasn’t Rav Kahana lying beneath Rav’s bed, and he heardRav bchatting and laughingwith his wife, band performing his needs,i.e., having relations with her. Rav Kahana bsaidout loud: bThe mouth of Rav is likeone who bhas never eaten a cooked dish,i.e., his behavior is lustful. Rav bsaid to him: Kahana, leave, asthis is bnot proper conduct.This shows that Rav himself engaged in frivolous talk before relations.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Here,where this type of speech is permitted, it is referring to a situation bwhere he must appeasehis wife before relations, and therefore this speech is appropriate. However, bthisstatement, that it is prohibited, is referring to a situation bwhere he doesn’t need to appease her.In these circumstances, it is prohibited to engage in excessively lighthearted chatter with one’s wife.,The verse states: b“But if you will not hear it, my soul shall weep in secret [ ibemistarim /i] for your pride”(Jeremiah 13:17). bRav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: The Holy One, Blessed be He, has a placewhere He cries, band its name is Mistarim. Whatis the meaning of b“for your pride”? Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak said:God cries bdue to the pride of the Jewish people, which was taken from them and given tothe gentile bnations. Rav Shmuel bar Naḥmani said:He cries bdue to the pride of the kingdom of Heaven,which was removed from the world.,The Gemara asks: bBut is there crying before the Holy One, Blessed be He? Didn’t Rav Pappa say: There is no sadness before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Honor and majesty are before Him; strength and gladness are in His place”(I Chronicles 16:27)? The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement, that God cries, is referring to bthe innermost chambers,where He can cry in secret, whereas bthisstatement, that He does not cry, is referring to bthe outer chambers. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd doesn’tGod cry bin the outer chambers? Isn’t it written: “And on that day the Lord, the God of hosts, called to weeping, and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth”(Isaiah 22:12)? The Gemara responds: bThe destruction of the Temple is different, as even the angels of peace cried, as it is stated: “Behold, their valiant ones cry without; the angels of peace weep bitterly”(Isaiah 33:7).,The verse continues: b“And my eye shall weep sore, and run down with tears, because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive”(Jeremiah 13:17). bRabbi Elazar said: Why these threereferences to btearsin the verse? bOneis bfor the First Temple; oneis bfor the Second Temple; and oneis bfor the Jewish people who were exiled from their place. And there arethose bwho say:The last boneis bforthe unavoidable bderelictionof the study of bTorahin the wake of the exile.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat the last tear is bfor the Jewish people who were exiled, this is as it is written: “Because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive.” However, according to the one who saidthat this tear is bfor the derelictionof the study of bTorah, whatis the meaning of: b“Because the Lord’s flock is carried away captive”?The Gemara answers: bSince the Jewish people were exiled from their place, there is no greaterinvoluntary bderelictionof the study of bTorah thanthat which was caused by bthis. /b, bThe Sages taughtthat there are bthreetypes of people bfor whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, cries every day: Forone bwho is able to engage in Torahstudy band does not engagein it; band forone bwho is unable to engage in Torahstudy and nevertheless he endeavors and bengagesin it; band for a leader who lords over the community. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas holdingthe bbook of Lamentations and was reading from it. When he reached the verse: “He has cast down from heaven to earththe beauty of Israel” (Lamentations 2:1), in his distress the book bfell from his hand. He said: From a high roof to a deep pit,i.e., it is terrible to tumble from the sky to the ground.,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band Rabbi Ḥiyya were walking along the road. When they arrived at a certain city, they said: Is there a Torah scholar here whom wecan bgo and greet?The people of the city bsaid: There is a Torah scholar here but he is blind. Rabbi Ḥiyya said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bYou sithere; bdo not demean yourdignified status as iNasi /ito visit someone beneath your stature. bI will go and greet him. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bgrabbed him and went with himanyway, and together they greeted the blind scholar. bWhen they were leaving him, he said to them: You greetedone who is bseen and does not see; may you be worthy to greetthe One Who bsees and is not seen.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid toRabbi Ḥiyya: bNow, ifI had listened to you and not gone to greet him, byou would have prevented me from receiving this blessing. /b, bThey said tothe blind scholar: bFrom whom did you hearthat we are worthy of this blessing? He said to them: bI heardit bfrom the instruction of Rabbi Ya’akov, as Rabbi Ya’akov of the village of Ḥitiyya would greet his teacher every day. WhenRabbi Ya’akov bgrew elderly,his teacher bsaid to him: Do not despair, my Master, that my Master is unableto make the effort to greet me. It is better that you should not visit me.,Rabbi Ya’akov bsaid to him: Is ita bminormatter, bthat which is written about the Sages: “That he should still live always, that he should not see the pit. For he sees that wise men die”(Psalms 49:10–11)? In this regard an ia fortiorireference applies: bJust as one who sees Sages in their death will live, all the more soone who sees them bin their lifetime.From here the blind scholar learned the importance of greeting Torah scholars, which is why he blessed the Sages who came to greet him.,The Gemara relates: bRav Idi, father of Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi, would regularly travel three months on the roadto reach the study hall bandas he would immediately travel back again to arrive home for the festival of iSukkot /i, he spent only bone day in the school of Rav. And the Sages woulddisparagingly bcall him: A studentof Torah bfor one day. He was offendedand breadthe following verse babout himself: “I am as one that is a laughingstock to his neighbor,a man who calls upon God, and He answers him” (Job 12:4). bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: Please do not punish the Sages,i.e., do not take offense and be harsh with them, as this will cause them to be punished by God., bRabbi Yoḥa leftRav Idi and went bto the study hall and taught: “Yet they seek Me daily, and delight to know My ways”(Isaiah 58:2). bBut isit possible that only bduring the day they seek Him and at night they do not seek Him?What is the meaning of daily? bRather,this verse comes bto say to youthat with regard to banyone who engages in Torahstudy beven one day a year, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he engagedin Torah study bthe entire year. /b, bAnd the sameapplies bto the attribute of punishment, as it is written: “After the number of the days in which you spied out the land,even forty days, for every day a year, shall you bear your iniquities” (Numbers 14:34). bBut did they sinfor bforty years? Didn’t they sinfor only bforty days? Rather,this comes bto say to youthat banyone who transgresses a sin even one day a year, the verse ascribes himliability bas though he transgressed the entire year. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWho is a minorwho is exempt from the mitzva of appearance in the Temple? bAnychild bwho is unable to ride on his father’s shouldersand ascend from Jerusalem to the Temple Mount. bRabbi Zeira strongly objects to this: /b
43. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

110a. וסתרתה למזיה כל דאתא חזיה הדר אדהכי והכי אבלעו להו,איתתיה דקרח אמרה ליה חזי מאי קעביד משה איהו הוה מלכא לאחוה שוויה כהנא רבא לבני אחוהי שוינהו סגני דכהנא אי אתיא תרומה אמר תיהוי לכהן אי אתו מעשר דשקילתו אתון אמר הבו חד מי' לכהן ועוד דגייז ליה למזייכו ומיטלל לכו כי כופתא עינא יהב במזייכו אמר לה הא איהו נמי קא עביד אמרה ליה כיון דכולהו רבותא דידיה אמר איהו נמי (שופטים טז, ל) תמות נפשי עם פלשתים,ועוד דקאמר לכו עבדיתו תכלתא אי ס"ד תכלתא חשיבא [מצוה] אפיק גלימי דתכלתא וכסינהו לכולהו מתיבתך היינו דכתיב (משלי יד, א) חכמות נשים בנתה ביתה זו אשתו של און בן פלת ואולת בידה תהרסנה זו אשתו של קרח,(במדבר טז, ב) ויקומו לפני משה ואנשים מבני ישראל חמשים ומאתים מיוחדים שבעדה קריאי מועד שהיו יודעים לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים אנשי שם שהיה להם שם בכל העולם,(במדבר טז, ד) וישמע משה ויפול על פניו מה שמועה שמע אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן שחשדוהו מאשת איש שנאמר (תהלים קו, טז) ויקנאו למשה במחנה א"ר שמואל בר יצחק מלמד שכל אחד ואחד קנא את אשתו ממשה שנאמר (שמות לג, ז) ומשה יקח את האהל ונטה לו מחוץ למחנה,(במדבר טז, כה) ויקם משה וילך אל דתן ואבירם אמר ר"ל מכאן שאין מחזיקין במחלוקת דאמר רב כל המחזיק במחלוקת עובר בלאו שנאמר (במדבר יז, ה) ולא יהיה כקרח וכעדתו,רב אשי אמר ראוי ליצטרע כתיב הכא ביד משה לו וכתיב התם (שמות ד, ו) ויאמר ה' לו עוד הבא נא ידך בחיקך,אמר ר' יוסי כל החולק על מלכות בית דוד ראוי להכישו נחש כתיב הכא (מלכים א א, ט) ויזבח אדוניהו צאן ובקר ומריא עם אבן הזוחלת וכתיב התם (דברים לב, כד) עם חמת זוחלי עפר,אמר רב חסדא כל החולק על רבו כחולק על השכינה שנאמר (במדבר כו, ט) בהצותם על ה' א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא כל העושה מריבה עם רבו כעושה עם שכינה שנאמר (במדבר כ, יג) המה מי מריבה אשר רבו בני ישראל (על) [את] ה',א"ר חנינא בר פפא כל המתרעם על רבו כאילו מתרעם על השכינה שנאמר (שמות טז, ח) לא עלינו תלונותיכם כי (אם) על ה' א"ר אבהו כל המהרהר אחר רבו כאילו מהרהר אחר שכינה שנאמר (במדבר כא, ה) וידבר העם באלהים ובמשה,(קהלת ה, יב) עושר שמור לבעליו לרעתו אמר ר"ל זה עושרו של קרח (דברים יא, ו) ואת כל היקום אשר ברגליהם א"ר אלעזר זה ממונו של אדם שמעמידו על רגליו ואמר רבי לוי משוי ג' מאות פרדות לבנות היו מפתחות של בית גנזיו של קרח וכולהו אקלידי וקילפי דגילדא,א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא ג' מטמוניות הטמין יוסף במצרים אחת נתגלתה לקרח ואחת נתגלתה לאנטונינוס בן אסוירוס ואחת גנוזה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא,וא"ר יוחנן קרח לא מן הבלועים ולא מן השרופין לא מן הבלועין דכתיב (במדבר טז, לב) ואת כל האדם אשר לקרח ולא קרח ולא מן השרופים דכתיב (במדבר כו, י) באכול האש את חמשים ומאתים איש ולא קרח,במתניתא תנא קרח מן השרופין ומן הבלועין מן הבלועים דכתיב (במדבר כו, י) ותבלע אותם ואת קרח מן השרופין דכתיב (במדבר טז, לה) (ותצא אש מלפני ה') [ואש יצאה מאת ה'] ותאכל את חמשים ומאתים איש וקרח בהדייהו,אמר רבא מאי דכתיב (חבקוק ג, יא) שמש ירח עמד זבולה לאור חציך יהלכו מלמד שעלו שמש וירח לזבול אמרו לפניו רבש"ע אם אתה עושה דין לבן עמרם נצא ואם לאו לא נצא עד שזרק בהם חצים אמר להן בכבודי לא מחיתם בכבוד בשר ודם מחיתם והאידנא לא נפקי עד דמחו להו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (במדבר טז, ל) ואם בריאה יברא ה' ופצתה האדמה את פיה אמר משה לפני הקב"ה אם בריאה גיהנם מוטב ואם לאו יברא ה' למאי אילימא למבריה ממש והא (קהלת א, ט) אין כל חדש תחת השמש אלא לקרובי פיתחא,(במדבר כו, יא) ובני קרח לא מתו תנא משום רבינו אמרו מקום נתבצר להם בגיהנם וישבו עליו ואמרו שירה אמר רבה בר בר חנה זימנא חדא הוה קאזלינא באורחא אמר לי ההוא טייעא תא ואחוי לך בלועי דקרח אזיל חזא תרי בזעי דהוה קא נפק קיטרא מנייהו שקל גבבא דעמרא אמשיי' מיא ואותביה בריש רומחיה ואחלפי' התם איחרך א"ל אצית מה שמעת ושמעית דהוו קאמרי הכי משה ותורתו אמת והן בדאים 110a. band exposed her hairas though she were bathing. bAnyone who cameand bsaw herstepped bback. In the meantimethe assembly of Korah bwas swallowedinto the ground, and On, son of Peleth, was spared., bKorah’s wife said to him: See what Moses is doing. He is the king, he appointed his brother High Priest,and bhe appointed his brother’s sons deputy priests. If iterumacomes, he says: Let it be for the priest; ifthe first btithe comes, which youas Levites btake, he says: Give one tenth to the priest. And furthermore, he shears your hair and waves youas if you are as insignificant bas excrement(see Numbers 8:5–11), as though bhe sethis bsights on your hairand wishes you to be shaven and unsightly. Korah bsaid to her: But didn’t he also do so;he shaved his hair like the rest of the Levites? bShe said to him: Since it is alldone bfor his own prominence, he also saidmetaphorically: b“Let me die with the Philistines”(Judges 16:30); he was willing to humiliate himself in order to humiliate you.,She said to him: bAnd furthermore,with regard to that bwhich he said to you, to prepare sky-blue dyefor your ritual fringes, one could respond to him: bIf it enters your mind,Moses, that using bsky-blue dye is considered a mitzva, take out robesthat are made entirely bofmaterial colored with bsky-blue dye, and dress allthe students bof your academyin sky-blue robes without ritual fringes; why could one not fulfill the mitzva in that manner? Clearly, Moses is fabricating all this. bThis isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The wisdom of women builds her house”(Proverbs 14:1); bthisis referring to bthe wife of On, son of Peleth.And: b“Folly plucks it down with her hands”(Proverbs 14:1); bthisis referring to bthe wife of Korah. /b,It is written: b“And they arose before Moses, with men from the children of Israel, two hundred and fiftyprinces of the congregation, the elect men of the assembly, men of renown” (Numbers 16:2). These men were bthe distinctive people of the assembly. “The elect men of the assembly [ ikeri’ei moed /i]”is referring to those bwho knewhow bto intercalate the years and establish the monthsin order to determine the time for each Festival [ imoed /i]. b“Men of renown [ ishem /i],”is referring to those bwho had a reputation [ ishem /i] throughout the world. /b,With regard to the verse: b“And Moses heard and he fell on his face”(Numbers 16:4), the Gemara asks: bWhat report did he hearthat elicited that reaction? bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:He heard bthat they suspected himof adultery bwith a married woman, as it is stated: “And they were jealous of Moses in the camp”(Psalms 106:16). bRabbi Shmuel bar Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that each and everyman bwarned his wifeto distance herself bfrom Mosesand not enter into seclusion with him, bas it is stated: “And Moses would take the tent and pitch it outside the camp”(Exodus 33:7). It was due to this slander that he withdrew from the camp.,§ With regard to the verse: b“And Moses arose and went to Dathan and Abiram”(Numbers 16:25), bReish Lakish says: From herewe derive bthat one may not perpetuate a dispute, as Rav says: Anyone who perpetuates a dispute violates a prohibition, as it is stated: “And he will not be like Korah and his assembly,as the Lord spoke by the hand of Moses to him” (Numbers 17:5). Even the aggrieved party must seek to end the dispute. Dathan and Abiram accused Moses and by right should have initiated the reconciliation. Nevertheless, Moses was not insistent on this; he went to them., bRav Ashi says:One who perpetuates a dispute bis fit to be afflicted with leprosy. It is written here: “By the hand of Moses to him,” and it is written there: “And the Lord said furthermore to him: Put now your hand into your bosom.And he put his hand into his bosom; and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous, as white as snow” (Exodus 4:6). Based on the verbal analogy based on the term “to him” written in both verses, it is derived that the punishment for perpetuating a dispute is leprosy.,Apropos the prohibition of perpetuating a dispute, bRabbi Yosei says:With regard to banyone who disputes the reign of the house of David, it is fitting for a snake to bite him.As bit is written here: “And Adonijah slaughtered sheep and cattle and fatlings by the stone of Zoheleth”(I Kings 1:9); band it is written there: “With the poison of crawling things [ izoḥalei /i] of the dust”(Deuteronomy 32:24). Adonijah, who rebelled against his father, King David, was fit to be bitten by a snake., bRav Ḥisda says: Anyone who disagrees with his teacher is like one who disagrees with the Divine Presence, as it is statedwith regard to Dathan and Abiram: b“When they strove against the Lord”(Numbers 26:9), although their dispute was with Moses. bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Anyone who initiates a quarrel [ imeriva /i] with his teacher is like one who initiates a quarrel with the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “These are the waters of Meribah, where the children of Israel quarreled with the Lord”(Numbers 20:13), although their quarrel was with Moses., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says: Anyone who expresses resentment against his teacherfor wronging him, bit is as though he is expressing resentment against the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “Your murmurings are not against us, but against the Lord”(Exodus 16:8). bRabbi Abbahu says: Anyone who suspects his teacherof wrongdoing, bit is as though he suspects the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “And the people spoke against God, and against Moses”(Numbers 21:5). The verse likens God and Moses with regard to this matter.,§ With regard to the verse: b“Wealth is kept for the owner to his detriment”(Ecclesiastes 5:12), bReish Lakish says: Thisis referring to bthe wealth of Korah,which was of no use to him. The fact that Korah was wealthy is derived from the verse: b“And all the substance that was at their feet”(Deuteronomy 11:6), as bRabbi Elazar says: Thisis referring to ba person’s property, which stands him on his feet. And Rabbi Levi says: The keysalone bto Korah’s treasury were a burdenrequiring bthree hundred white mulesto transport them, bandmoreover, ball the keys [ iaklidei /i] and locks were of leather.This conveys the vastness of his wealth., bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Joseph concealed three buried treasures in Egyptthat he accumulated from the sale of grain during the years of famine. The location of bone was revealed to Korah, andthe location of bone was revealed to Antoninus, son of Asveirus,emperor of Rome, band oneremains bhidden for the righteous in the future,i.e., in the messianic era., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Korah was neither among the swallowed nor among the burned;he died in a plague. He was bneither among the swallowed, as it is written:“And the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them and their houses band all the men who were with Korah”(Numbers 16:32), from which it is inferred: bBut not Korahhimself. bNorwas he bamong the burned, as it is written: “When the fire consumed two hundred and fifty men”(Numbers 26:10), bbut not Korah. /b,It bwas taught in a ibaraita /i: Korah wasboth bamong the burned and among the swallowed.He was bamong the swallowed, as it is written:“And the earth opened its mouth band swallowed them with Korah”(Numbers 26:10). He was bamong the burned, as it is written: “And fire came forth from the Lord, and devoured the two hundred and fifty menthat burned the incense” (Numbers 16:35), band Korah was with them. /b, bRava says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The sun and moon stand still in their habitation [ izevula /i], at the light of Your arrows as they go”(Habakkuk 3:11)? This bteaches that the sun and moon ascended to izevul /i,one of the seven firmaments, in which the upper Temple stands. bThey said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, if You perform justice forMoses, bthe son of Amram,and prove his righteousness, bwe will emergeand illuminate the world. bAnd if not, we will not emerge.They did not emerge buntilGod bfired arrows at themand bsaid to them: You did not protest with regard to My honor,as people would see the sun and the moon each day and worship them, but byou protested for the honor of flesh and blood? And today,the sun and the moon bdo not emerge until they are struck,as in deference to God they hesitate to emerge., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “But if the Lord creates a new creation and the earth opens its mouth”(Numbers 16:30)? bMoses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: If Gehenna isalready bcreated, good, but if not, God should createit now. The Gemara asks: bFor whatwas Moses asking? bIf we saythat his request was for God bto actually createGehenna, bbut isn’tit written: b“There is nothing new under the sun”(Ecclesiastes 1:9)? There are no new creations after the six days of Creation. bRather,Moses asked God bto bring the openingof Gehenna bcloseto there, so that the assembly of Korah would be buried alive.,With regard to the verse: b“And the sons of Korah did not die”(Numbers 26:11), it is btaughtin a ibaraitathat bin the name of our teacher,the Sages bsaid: A place was fortified for them in Gehenna and they sat upon it and recited songsof praise. bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: One time I was walking on the path,and ba certain Arab said to me: Come and I will show you thosefrom the assembly bof Korahwho were bswallowed. I wentand bI saw two fissuresin the ground bfrom which smoke was emerging.That Arab btook a woolen fleeceand bdampened it with water and placed it on the tip of his spear and passedit over the fissures bthere.The fleece bwas singed,indicating the level of heat there. bHe said to me: Listen; what do you hear? And I heard that thisis what bthey were saying: Moses and his Torah are truth, and they,referring to themselves, bare liars. /b
44. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

113b. שלא יהא דבורך של שבת כדבורך של חול דבור אסור הרהור מותר בשלמא כולהו לחיי אלא שלא יהא הילוכך של שבת כהילוכך של חול מאי היא כי הא דאמר רב הונא אמר רב ואמרי ליה אמר ר' אבא אמר רב הונא היה מהלך בשבת ופגע באמת המים אם יכול להניח את רגלו ראשונה קודם שתעקר שניה מותר ואם לאו אסור,מתקיף לה רבא היכי ליעביד ליקף קמפיש בהילוכא ליעבר זימנין דמיתווסן מאני מיא ואתי לידי סחיטה אלא בהא כיון דלא אפשר שפיר דמי אלא כדבעא מיניה ר' מר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי מהו לפסוע פסיעה גסה בשבת א"ל וכי בחול מי הותרה שאני אומר פסיעה גסה נוטלת אחד מחמש מאות ממאור עיניו של אדם ומהדר ליה בקידושא דבי שמשי,בעא מיניה ר' מר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי מהו לאכול אדמה בשבת א"ל וכי בחול מי הותרה שאני אומר אף בחול אסור מפני שהוא מלקה אמר ר' אמי כל האוכל מעפרה של בבל כאילו אוכל מבשר אבותיו וי"א כאילו אוכל שקצים ורמשים דכתיב (בראשית ז, כג) וימח את כל היקום וגו',אמר ריש לקיש למה נקרא שמה שנער שכל מתי מבול ננערו לשם א"ר יוחנן למה נקרא שמה מצולה שכל מתי מבול נצטללו לשם [וי"א כאילו אוכל] שקצים ורמשים והא ודאי איתמחויי איתמחו אמרי כיון דמלקי גזרו ביה רבנן דהא ההוא גברא דאכל גרגישתא ואכל תחלי וקדחו ליה תחליה בלביה ומית,(רות ג, ג) ורחצת וסכת ושמת שמלותיך א"ר אלעזר אלו בגדים של שבת (משלי ט, ט) תן לחכם ויחכם עוד אמר רבי אלעזר זו רות המואביה ושמואל הרמתי,רות דאילו נעמי קאמרה לה ורחצת וסכת ושמת שמלותיך עליך וירדת הגורן ואילו בדידה כתיב ותרד הגורן והדר ותעש ככל אשר צותה חמותה שמואל דאילו עלי קאמר ליה (שמואל א ג, ט) שכב והיה אם יקרא אליך ואמרת דבר ה' כי שומע עבדך ואילו בדידי' כתיב ביה ויבא ה' ויתיצב ויקרא כפעם בפעם שמואל שמואל ויאמר שמואל דבר כי שומע עבדך ולא אמר דבר ה',(רות ב, ג) ותלך ותבא ותלקט בשדה אמר רבי אלעזר שהלכה ובאת הלכה ובאת עד שמצאה בני אדם המהוגנין לילך עמהם (רות ב, ה) ויאמר בועז לנערו הנצב על הקוצרים למי הנערה הזאת וכי דרכו של בועז לשאול בנערה אמר ר' אלעזר דבר חכמה ראה בה שני שבלין לקטה שלשה שבלין אינה לקטה,במתניתא תנא דבר צניעות ראה בה עומדות מעומד נופלות מיושב (רות ב, ח) וכה תדבקין עם נערותי וכי דרכו של בועז לדבק עם הנשים א"ר אלעזר כיון דחזא (רות א, יד) ותשק ערפה לחמותה ורות דבקה בה אמר שרי לאידבוקי בה,(רות ב, יד) ויאמר לה בועז לעת האוכל גשי הלום א"ר אלעזר רמז רמז לה עתידה מלכות בית דוד לצאת ממך דכתיב ביה הלום שנאמר (שמואל ב ז, יח) ויבא המלך דוד וישב לפני ה' ויאמר מי אנכי אדני ה' ומי ביתי כי הביאתני עד הלום (רות ב, יד) וטבלת פתך בחומץ א"ר אלעזר מכאן שהחומץ יפה לשרב,ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר רמז רמז לה עתיד בן לצאת ממך שמעשיו קשין כחומץ ומנו מנשה (רות ב, יד) ותשב מצד הקוצרים א"ר אלעזר מצד הקוצרים ולא בתוך הקוצרים רמז רמז לה שעתידה מלכות בית דוד שתתחלק,(רות ב, יד) ויצבט לה קלי ותאכל אמר רבי אלעזר ותאכל בימי דוד ותשבע בימי שלמה ותותר בימי חזקיה ואיכא דאמרי ותאכל בימי דוד ובימי שלמה ותשבע בימי חזקיה ותותר בימי רבי דאמר מר אהוריריה דרבי הוה עתיר משבור מלכא במתניתא תנא ותאכל בעולם הזה ותשבע לימות המשיח ותותר לעתיד לבא:,(ישעיהו י, טז) ותחת כבודו יקד יקוד כיקוד אש א"ר יוחנן ותחת כבודו ולא כבודו ממש ר' יוחנן לטעמיה דר' יוחנן קרי למאניה מכבדותי,ר"א אומר ותחת כבודו תחת כבודו ממש ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר תחת כבודו כשריפת בני אהרן מה להלן שריפת נשמה וגוף קיים אף כאן שריפת נשמה וגוף קיים,א"ר אחא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן 113b. means bthat your speech on Shabbat should not be like your speech during the week,i.e., one should not discuss his weekday affairs on Shabbat. However, it is only bspeechthat they said is bprohibited,whereas merely bcontemplatingweekday affairs bis permitted.The Gemara asks: bGranted, all of thesedirectives, bfine,they are understood. bHowever, what isthe meaning of the following phrase: bThat your walking on Shabbat should not be like your walking during the week?The Gemara answers: bIt is in accordance with thatwhich bRav Huna saidthat bRav said, and some say that Rabbi Abba saidthat bRav Huna said:If bone were walking on Shabbat and came upon a stream of waterand had to cross it, bifthe stream is narrow and bone could place his first footdown on the other side bbefore raisingthe bsecond one, it is permittedto cross it; band ifit is bnotpossible and one must jump to cross it, bit is prohibited.That is the type of walking that is not permitted on Shabbat., bRava strongly objects to this:Since we have said that one’s walking on Shabbat should not be like his walking during the week, and jumping constitutes prohibited walking, if one encounters a stream on Shabbat, bwhat should he doto cross to the other side? If bhe circumventsthe stream, bhe is increasingthe distance that he is bwalkingand exerting extra effort on Shabbat. If bhe walks throughthe water, bsometimes his clothes will absorb water and he will come to wring them out.What then should he do? bRather, in thiscase, bsince it is not possibleto cross any other way, he may bwellcross it, i.e., it is permitted for him to jump over the stream. Therefore, brathersay that walking that is defined as characteristic of weekday walking involves taking large steps. bAs RabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: What isthe ruling with regard to btaking large steps on Shabbat?That is what the Gemara meant when it used the phrase: Your walking during the week. Rabbi Yishmael bsaid to him: And during the week arelarge steps bpermitted? As I say: A large step takesaway bone five-hundredth of a person’s eyesight.The Gemara comments: bAndhis eyesight bis restored to him during ikiddushonShabbat bevening. /b,And bRabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: What isthe ruling with regard to beating earthfor medicinal purposes bon Shabbat?Rabbi Yishmael bsaid to him: And during the week is it permittedto eat soil? bAs I say: Even during the week it is prohibited because it is harmful. Rabbi Ami said: Anyone who eats the dust of Babylonia, it is as if he is eating the flesh of his ancestorsburied there. bAnd some say: It is as if he eats abominations and creeping creatures, as it is written: “And He wiped out all that existedon the face of the earth, from humans to animals, to creeping creatures to the birds in the sky, and they were wiped off the land” (Genesis 7:23).,Apropos dead residue in the ground, bReish Lakish said: Why isBabylonia bcalled Shinar?It is bbecause all those who died inthe bFlood were deposited there [ ininaru lesham /i]. Rabbi Yoḥa said: Why isBabylonia bcalled Metzula?It is bbecause all those who died inthe bFlood sank there [ initztalelu lesham /i].The Gemara asks: We said that bsome saythat if one eats dirt from Babylonia, it is bas if he eats abominations and creeping creatures. However, certainly theirbodies bhaveputrefied and bdecomposed,and therefore they are no longer prohibited. Rather, bsincesoil bis harmful, the Sages issued a decreenot to eat it. The decree was not issued due to the prohibition of eating creeping creatures; rather, it was issued bbecause a certain person ate soilfor medicinal purposes bandalso bate cress.The cress took root in the soil that was inside him and began to grow. bAnd the cress punctured his heart and he died. /b,The Gemara continues to discuss Shabbat. Naomi advised Ruth: b“And you shall bathe, and anoint yourself, and put on your robes,and go down to the threshing floor. Do not make yourself known to the man until he has finished eating and drinking” (Ruth 3:3). bRabbi Elazar said: Theserobes bare Shabbat garmentsthat Naomi told her to wear in honor of the occasion. Apropos the book of Ruth, the Gemara cites additional statements of Rabbi Elazar with regard to Ruth: b“Give to the wise one and he will become wiser;let the righteous one know and he will learn more” (Proverbs 9:9). bRabbi Elazar said: Thisrefers to bRuth the Moabite and Samuel of Rama,who received advice and added to it with their wisdom.,The Gemara elaborates. bWhereas Naomi said to Ruth: “And you shall bathe, and anoint yourself, and put on your robes, and go down to the threshing floor,” but with regard toRuth bherself it is written, “And she went down to the threshing floor”(Ruth 3:6), bandonly bafterward does it say, “And she did according to all that her mother-in-law commanded her.”Ruth decided to anoint herself at the threshing floor and not on the road so that people would not meet her on the way there and suspect her of immorality. bWhereas Eli said to Samuel:“Go and blie down and if He calls you, you say: Speak, Lord, for Your servant is listening”(I Samuel 3:9), bbut with regard toSamuel bhimself it is written: “And the Lord came and stood, and He called like He did the other times: Samuel, Samuel. And Samuel said: Speak, for Your servant is listening”(I Samuel 3:10), band he did not say: Speak, Lord,since he would not assume it was God speaking to him until he was sure of it.,And the verse in Ruth states: b“And she went, and she came, and she collected in the fieldafter the harvesters” (Ruth 2:3). bRabbi Elazar said:This verse teaches bthat she went and came, went and came, until she found suitable people with whom to walk.It also says: b“And Boaz said to his youth who was standing over the harvesters: To whom does this young woman belong?”(Ruth 2:5). This is surprising: bAnd was it Boaz’s habit to inquire about a young woman? Rabbi Elazar said: He saw in her a matter of wisdomand Torah, and that is why he asked about her. What he saw was that bshe collected two stalks,but bshe did not collect three stalks.She thereby acted in accordance with the ihalakhathat three stalks lying together are not considered to be gleanings left for the poor; rather, they remain in the possession of the owner of the field., bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i: He saw a matter of modesty in herwhen she was collecting stalks. She picked stalks that were buprightwhile she was bstanding,and stalks that had bfallenshe picked while bsitting;due to her modesty she did not bend over to take them. It also says: “And Boaz said to Ruth: Do you hear, my daughter? Do not go to glean in another field and do not leave from here, bbut cling to my maidens”(Ruth 2:8). This is also surprising. bAnd was it Boaz’s habit to cling to women? Rabbi Elazar said: Since he saw “And Orpah kissed her mother-in-law and Ruth clung to her”(Ruth 1:14), bhe said: It is permitted to cling toa woman like this.,It also says: b“And Boaz said to her at mealtime: Come here [ ihalom /i]and eat from the bread and dip your bread in vinegar. And she sat beside the harvesters and he gave her roasted grain and she ate, and she was satiated, and she left some over” (Ruth 2:14). bRabbi Elazarinterpreted this and bsaidthat bhe hinted to herprophetically: bIn the future the kingdom of David will come from you, as it is written with regard to it,i.e., the kingdom of David: b“Here,” as it is stated: “And King David came and sat before God and said: Who am I, Lord, God, and who is my family that You have brought me to here [ ihalom /i]?”(II Samuel 7:18). With regard to his saying: b“And dip your bread in vinegar”(Ruth 2:14), bRabbi Elazar said: From herewe see bthat vinegaris bgoodto have bin hot weather. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bhe hinted to her: A son will come from you in the future whose actions will beas bsharp as vinegar, and who is he?King bManasseh. “And she sat beside the harvesters.” Rabbi Elazar said with regard to this: Beside the harvesters, and not among the harvesters. He hinted to her that the kingdom of David will be divided in the futureand her children will not always be in the center of Israel.,It also says in the verse: “And he gave her roasted grain and she ate, and she was satiated, and she left some over.” The Gemara explains: b“And he gave her roasted grain and she ate”;this is also interpreted as a prophetic message. bRabbi Elazar said: “And she ate”was fulfilled by her children’s children bin the days of David; “And she was satiated”was fulfilled bin the days of Solomon; “And she left some over”was fulfilled bin the days of Hezekiah. And some saythat there is a different interpretation: b“And she ate,”was fulfilled bin the days of David and Solomon; “And she was satiated,”was fulfilled bin the days of Hezekiah; “And she left some over”was fulfilled bin the days of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. bAs the Master said: RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhorsekeeper [ iahuriyarei /i] was richer than the kingof Persia. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i: “And she ate,” in this world; “and she was satiated,” in the days of the Messiah; “and she left some over,” in the future,at the end of days.,It was mentioned earlier that Rabbi Yoḥa called his clothing his honor. The Gemara cites the interpretation of the verse that speaks about the downfall of the king of Assyria: “Therefore, the Lord, the Lord of hosts, will send leanness to his fat ones band under his honor He will burn a burning like a burning fire”(Isaiah 10:16). br bRabbi Yoḥa said: “And under his honor,” but not his actual honor.The Gemara explains: bRabbi Yoḥafollows bhis own reasoning,for he bcalled his clothing my honor,which means that the bodies of the king of Assyria’s soldiers were burned. However, their garments were miraculously not burned., bRabbi Elazar said: “And under his honor”means bin place of his actual honor.That is to say, their bodies were burned. Since, in Rabbi Elazar’s opinion, the word under means in the place of, the verse accordingly means that in the place of his honor, i.e., the body, there remain ashes. br bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Under his honormeans beneath his flesh, bsimilar to the burning of the sons of Aaron. Just as there,i.e., the burning of Aaron’s sons, bthe soul burned whilethe bbodyremained bintact, so too here,i.e., the burning of Assyrian soldiers, bthe soul burned whilethe bbodyremained bintact. /b, bRabbi Aḥa bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: /b
45. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. בפרך רבי אלעזר אמר בפה רך רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר בפריכה,(שמות א, יד) וימררו את חייהם בעבודה קשה בחומר ובלבנים וגו' אמר רבא בתחילה בחומר ובלבנים ולבסוף ובכל עבודה בשדה,את כל עבודתם אשר עבדו בהם בפרך אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן שהיו מחליפין מלאכת אנשים לנשים ומלאכת נשים לאנשים ולמ"ד נמי התם בפה רך הכא ודאי בפריכה,דרש רב עוירא בשכר נשים צדקניות שהיו באותו הדור נגאלו ישראל ממצרים בשעה שהולכות לשאוב מים הקב"ה מזמן להם דגים קטנים בכדיהן ושואבות מחצה מים ומחצה דגים ובאות ושופתות שתי קדירות אחת של חמין ואחת של דגים,ומוליכות אצל בעליהן לשדה ומרחיצות אותן וסכות אותן ומאכילות אותן ומשקות אותן ונזקקות להן בין שפתים שנאמר (תהלים סח, יד) אם תשכבון בין שפתים וגו' בשכר תשכבון בין שפתים זכו ישראל לביזת מצרים שנאמר (תהלים סח, יד) כנפי יונה נחפה בכסף ואברותיה בירקרק חרוץ,וכיון שמתעברות באות לבתיהם וכיון שמגיע זמן מולדיהן הולכות ויולדות בשדה תחת התפוח שנאמר (שיר השירים ח, ה) תחת התפוח עוררתיך וגו',והקב"ה שולח משמי מרום מי שמנקיר ומשפיר אותן כחיה זו שמשפרת את הולד שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, ד) ומולדותיך ביום הולדת אותך לא כרת שרך ובמים לא רחצת למשעי וגו' ומלקט להן שני עגולין אחד של שמן ואחד של דבש שנאמר (דברים לב, יג) ויניקהו דבש מסלע ושמן וגו',וכיון שמכירין בהן מצרים באין להורגן ונעשה להם נס ונבלעין בקרקע ומביאין שוורים וחורשין על גבן שנאמר (תהלים קכט, ג) על גבי חרשו חורשים וגו לאחר שהולכין היו מבצבצין ויוצאין כעשב השדה שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, ז) רבבה כצמח השדה נתתיך,וכיון שמתגדלין באין עדרים עדרים לבתיהן שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, ז) ותרבי ותגדלי ותבואי בעדי עדים אל תקרי בעדי עדים אלא בעדרי עדרים,וכשנגלה הקב"ה על הים הם הכירוהו תחלה שנאמר (שמות טו, ב) זה אלי ואנוהו,(שמות א, טו) ויאמר מלך מצרים למילדות העבריות וגו' רב ושמואל חד אמר אשה ובתה וחד אמר כלה וחמותה מ"ד אשה ובתה יוכבד ומרים ומ"ד כלה וחמותה יוכבד ואלישבע,תניא כמ"ד אשה ובתה דתניא שפרה זו יוכבד ולמה נקרא שמה שפרה שמשפרת את הולד ד"א שפרה שפרו ורבו ישראל בימיה,פועה זו מרים ולמה נקרא שמה פועה שהיתה פועה (ומוציאה את הולד) ד"א פועה שהיתה פועה ברוח הקודש ואומרת עתידה אמי שתלד בן שמושיע את ישראל,(שמות א, טז) ויאמר בילדכן את העבריות וגו' מאי אבנים א"ר חנן סימן גדול מסר להן אמר להן בשעה שכורעת לילד יריכותיה מצטננות כאבנים,ואית דאמר כדכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ג) וארד בית היוצר והנה הוא עושה מלאכה על האבנים מה יוצר זה ירך מכאן וירך מכאן וסדן באמצע אף אשה ירך מכאן וירך מכאן והולד באמצע,(שמות א, טז) אם בן הוא והמתן אותו א"ר חנינא סימן גדול מסר להן בן פניו למטה בת פניה למעלה,(שמות א, יז) ותיראן המילדות את האלהים ולא עשו כאשר דבר אליהן וגו' להן מיבעי ליה א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא מלמד שתבען לדבר עבירה ולא נתבעו,(שמות א, יז) ותחיין את הילדים תנא לא דיין שלא המיתו אותן אלא שהיו מספיקות להם מים ומזון,(שמות א, יט) ותאמרן המילדות אל פרעה כי לא כנשים וגו' מאי חיות אילימא חיות ממש אטו חיה מי לא צריכה חיה אחריתי לאולודה,אלא אמרו לו אומה זו כחיה נמשלה יהודה (בראשית מט, ט) גור אריה דן יהי דן נחש נפתלי אילה שלוחה יששכר חמור גרם יוסף בכור שור בנימין זאב יטרף,דכתיב ביה כתיב ביה ודלא כתיב ביה כתיב (ביה) (יחזקאל יט, ב) מה אמך לביא בין אריות רבצה וגו',(שמות א, כא) ויהי כי יראו המילדות את האלהים ויעש להם בתים רב ושמואל חד אמר בתי כהונה ולויה וחד אמר בתי מלכות מ"ד בתי כהונה ולויה אהרן ומשה ומ"ד בתי מלכות דוד נמי ממרים קאתי דכתיב (דברי הימים א ב, יט) ותמת עזובה (אשת כלב) ויקח לו כלב את אפרת ותלד לו את חור וכתיב (שמואל א יז, יב) ודוד בן איש אפרתי וגו',(דברי הימים א ב, יח) וכלב בן חצרון הוליד את עזובה אשה ואת יריעות ואלה בניה ישר ושובב וארדון בן חצרון (במדבר יג, ו) בן יפנה הוא בן שפנה מעצת מרגלים,ואכתי בן קנז הוא דכתיב (שופטים א, יג) וילכדה עתניאל בן קנז אחי כלב אמר רבא חורגו דקנז הוה 11b. bwith rigor [ ibefarekh /i]”(Exodus 1:13). bRabbi Elazar says:The word ibefarekhis a conjugation of the words: bWith a soft mouth [ ibifeh rakh /i],as the Egyptians enticed the Jewish people into slavery, gradually subjugating them until they had lost their freedom completely. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says:The word ibefarekhshould be understood as: bWith crushing [ ibifrikha /i],as the Egyptians subjugated Israel with backbreaking labor.,The next verse states: b“And they made their lives bitter through hard service, with mortar and brick,and with every laborious service in the field” (Exodus 1:14). bRava says:The verse mentions specifically mortar and brick and then all forms of labor, as binitiallythe Egyptians had them work bwith mortar and bricks, and ultimatelythey subjugated them b“and with every laborious service in the field.” /b,The verse concludes: b“In all their service, wherein they made them serve with rigor”(Exodus 1:14). bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:The meaning of ibefarekhis that the Egyptians bwould exchangethe responsibilities of men and women, giving bmen’s work to women and women’s work to men,requiring everyone to do work to which they were unaccustomed. bAnd even according to the one who saysthat bthere,in the previous verse, ibifarekhindicates that the Egyptians enslaved the Jews bwith a soft mouth, here,in this verse, which describes the physical hardship of the labor, the word befarekh bcertainlymeans bwith crushinglabor.,§ bRav Avira taught: In the merit ofthe brighteous women that were in that generation, the Jewish people were redeemed from Egypt.He tells of their righteous actions: bAt the timewhen these women bwould goto the river bto draw water, the Holy One, Blessed be He, would materialize for them small fishthat would enter binto their pitchers, and they wouldtherefore bdrawpitchers that were bhalffilled with bwater and halffilled with bfish. And they wouldthen bcome and place two pots on the fire, onepot bof hotwater for washing their husbands band onepot bof fishwith which to feed them., bAnd they wouldthen btakewhat they prepared bto their husbands, to the field, and would bathetheir husbands band anoint themwith oil band feed themthe fish band give them to drink and bond with themin sexual intercourse bbetween the sheepfolds,i.e., between the borders and fences of the fields, bas it is stated: “When you lie among the sheepfolds,the wings of the dove are covered with silver, and her pinions with the shimmer of gold” (Psalms 68:14), which is interpreted to mean that bas a rewardfor “when you blie among the sheepfolds,” the Jewish people merited toreceive bthe plunder of Egypt, as it is statedin the continuation of the verse, as a reference to the Jewish people: b“The wings of the dove are covered with silver, and her pinions with the shimmer of gold”(Psalms 68:14)., bAnd whenthese women would bbecome pregt, they would comeback bto their homes, and when the time for them to give birthwould arrive bthey would go and give birth in the field under the apple tree, as it is stated: “Under the apple tree I awakened you;there your mother was in travail with you; there was she in travail and brought you forth” (Song of Songs 8:5)., bAnd the Holy One, Blessed be He, would send from the heavens abovean angel bwho would clean and preparethe newborns, bjust as a midwife prepares the newborn, as it is stated: “And as for your birth, on the day you were born, your navel was not cut nor were you washed with water for cleansing;you were not salted at all, nor swaddled at all” (Ezekiel 16:4). This indicates that there were no midwives to take care of the Jews born in Egypt. bAndthen, the angel bwould gather for them two roundstones from the field and the babies would nurse from that which would flow out of them. bOne ofthe stones flowed with boil and one ofthe stones flowed with bhoney, as it is stated: “And He would suckle them with honey from a crag and oilfrom a flinty rock” (Deuteronomy 32:13)., bAnd once the Egyptians would notice them,realizing that they were Jewish babies, bthey would come to kill them. But a miracle would occur for them and they would be absorbed by the earth. Andthe Egyptians bwouldthen bbring oxen and would plow upon them, as it is stated: “The plowers plowed upon my back;they made long their furrows” (Psalms 129:3). bAfterthe Egyptians bwould leave,the babies bwould emerge and exitthe ground blike grass of the field, as it is stated: “I caused you to increase even as the growth of the field”(Ezekiel 16:7)., bAnd oncethe babies bwould grow, they would come like many flocksof sheep bto their homes, as it is statedin the continuation of the verse: b“And you did increase and grow up and you came with excellent beauty [ iba’adi adayim /i]”(Ezekiel 16:7). bDo not readthe verse as: b“ iBa’adi adayim /i,”“with excellent beauty.” bRather,read it as: iBe’edrei adarim /i,meaning: As many flocks., bAnd when the Holy One, Blessed be He, revealed Himself at theRed bSea,these children brecognized Him first, as it is stated: “This is my God, and I will glorify Him”(Exodus 15:2). They recognized Him from the previous time that He revealed Himself to them in their infancy, enabling them to say: “This is my God.”,§ The verse states: b“And the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives,of whom the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah” (Exodus 1:15). bRav and Shmueldisagree as to the proper interpretation of this verse. bOne saysthat these midwives were ba woman and her daughter, and one saysthat they were ba daughter-in-law and her mother-in-law.According to the bone who saysthat they were ba woman and her daughter,the women were bJochebed,the mother of Moses and Aaron, bandher daughter, bMiriam. Andaccording to the bone who saysthat they were ba daughter-in-law and her mother-in-law,the verse is referring to bJochebed andher daughter-in-law bElisheba,the wife of Aaron.,It bis taughtin a ibaraita baccording to the one who saysthat they were ba woman and her daughter, because itis btaughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bShiphrah,who is referred to in the verse, bthisis really a reference to bJochebed. And why was she called Shiphrah? Because she would prepare [ imishapperet /i] the newborn. Alternatively,she is referred to as bShiphrah because the Jewish people increased and multiplied [ ishepparu verabbu /i] in her days,due to her assistance.,The ibaraitacontinues: With regard to bPuah,who is referred to in the verse, bthisis really a reference to bMiriam. And why was she called Puah? Because she would make a comforting sound [ ipo’a /i] as she would remove the childfrom the womb of the mother. bAlternatively,the word bPuahis related to one of the verbs that describe speaking, bas she would speak [ ipo’a /i] through divine inspiration and say: In the future, my mother will give birth to a son who will save the Jewish people. /b,The next verse relates the instructions of Pharaoh to the midwives: b“And he said: When you deliver the Hebrew women,and you look upon the stones [ iovnayim /i], if it be a son, then you shall kill him; but if it be a daughter, then she shall live” (Exodus 1:16). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of b“stones”? Rabbi Ḥa says:Pharaoh btransmitted a great sign to them. He said to them: At the timewhen a woman bcrouches to give birth, her thighs become as cold as stones,and, therefore, this shall be for you a sign that the woman is about to give birth., bAnd there are those who sayan alternative explanation for iovnayim /i: bAs it is written: “So I went down to the potter’s shop, and behold, he was at his work on the wheels [ iovnayim /i]”(Jeremiah 18:3). bJust as this pottersits so that one bthighis bhere andone bthighis bthere and the blockupon which he works bis in the middle, so too, a womangiving birth also has one bthigh here andone bthigh there and the newborn is in the middle. /b,The verse continues: b“If it be a son, then you shall kill him;but if it be a daughter, then she shall live” (Exodus 1:16). bRabbi Ḥanina says:Pharaoh btransmitted to them a great signto enable them to know the gender of the infant from the beginning of the birth process: bA boyis born with bhis face downward; a girlis born with bher face upward.Pharaoh provided them with this sign so that they could kill the boys secretly even before the mother realized what was happening.,The next verse states: b“But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt spoke about them [ ialeihen /i],but they kept the male children alive” (Exodus 1:17). The Gemara comments: bIt should havestated: “Spoke bto them [ ilahen /i].” Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:This bteaches thatPharaoh bproposed to them toengage in ba sinful act,i.e., sexual intercourse, with him, bbut they did not accepthis overtures. The word ialeihenis often used in reference to sexual intercourse, for example: “And brought her to him; and he consorted with her [ ieileha /i]” (Genesis 29:23), and that is its connotation here as well.,The verse concludes: b“But they kept the male children alive”(Exodus 1:17). A Sage bteaches:It is bnot only that they did not killthe children as Pharaoh had commanded them, bbut that they wouldeven bprovide for them water and food,as the phrase “But they kept the male children alive” indicates.,After being questioned by Pharaoh concerning their failure to obey his command, the midwives responded, as it is written: b“And the midwives said to Pharaoh: Becausethe Hebrew women bare not as theEgyptian bwomen,for they are lively [ iḥayot /i], and are delivered before the midwife comes to them” (Exodus 1:19). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of b“ iḥayot /i”? If we saythat the Hebrew women are like iḥayot /i, meaning bactual midwivesfor themselves, and therefore they do not need assistance from others, bis that to saythat ba midwife does not needthe assistance of banother midwifein order bto help her give birth? /b, bRather,the midwives bsaid toPharaoh: bThis nation is compared to an animal [ iḥayya /i],and animals give birth without a midwife. For example, with regard to bJudahit is written: “Judah is ba lion’s whelp”(Genesis 49:9); with regard to bDanit is written: b“Dan shall be a serpentin the way” (Genesis 49:17); with regard to bNaphtaliit is written: b“A hind let loose”(Genesis 49:21); with regard to bIssacharit is written: b“A large-boned donkey”(Genesis 49:14); with regard to bJosephit is written: “His bfirst bullock”(Deuteronomy 33:17); with regard to bBenjaminit is written: b“A ravenous wolf”(Genesis 49:27).,The Gemara comments: Concerning those individuals bwherea comparison to an animal bis written with regard to him,it bisalready bwritten with regard to him. Andconcerning those bwhere nospecific metaphor comparing them to an animal is bwritten with regard to himexplicitly, in any case a general comparison bis written aboutthe Jewish people: b“How your mother was a lioness; among lions she crouched,in the midst of the young lions she reared her whelps” (Ezekiel 19:2), indicating that all the Jewish people are compared to animals.,The verse relates the midwives’ reward: b“And it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that He made them houses”(Exodus 1:21). bRav and Shmueldisagree as to the precise interpretation of these houses: bOne saysthat God made bthe houses ofthe bpriesthood andthe bLevitesdescend from the midwives, band one saysthat God made the bhouses of royaltydescend from them. bThe one who saysthat it is referring to the bhouses ofthe bpriesthood andthe bLevitesis referring to bAaron and Moses,who were sons of Jochebed. bAnd the one who saysthat it is referring to bhouses of royaltyis referring to bDavid,who balso comes from Miriam, as it is written: “And Azubah,” the wife of Caleb, “died, and Caleb took to him Ephrath, who bore him Hur”(I Chronicles 2:19) and, as will be explained further, Ephrath is Miriam. bAnd it is written: “David was the son of that Ephrathiteof Bethlehem in Judah” (I Samuel 17:12). Therefore, he was a descendant of Miriam.,The Gemara discusses the family of Caleb: In Chronicles it says: b“And Caleb, the son of Hezron, begot children of Azubah his wife, and of Jerioth, and these were her sons: Jesher, and Shobab, and Ardon”(I Chronicles 2:18). The Gemara asks: Was Caleb actually the bson of Hezron? Wasn’t hethe bson of Jephunneh,as the verse states in Numbers 13:6? The Gemara answers: He was the son of Hezron, but he is called “son of Jephunneh” as an appellation indicating that he was ba son who turned away [ isheppana /i] from the counsel of the spies. /b,The Gemara asks: bButit is bstilldifficult. Hezron could not be his father, as Caleb bwasthe bson of Kenaz, as it is written: “And Othniel, the son of Kenaz, Caleb’syounger bbrother, took it”(Judges 1:13). This would mean that Caleb was also a son of Kenaz. bRava said:Caleb bwas the stepson of Kenaz,as he and Othniel shared a mother but had different fathers.
46. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8b. נאמרה עצירה באשה שנאמר (בראשית כ, יח) כי עצר עצר ה' בעד כל רחם ונאמרה עצירה בגשמים דכתיב (דברים יא, יז) ועצר את השמים,נאמר לידה באשה ונאמר לידה בגשמים נאמר לידה באשה דכתיב (בראשית ל, כג) ותהר ותלד בן ונאמר לידה בגשמים דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, י) והולידה והצמיחה,נאמר פקידה באשה ונאמר פקידה בגשמים נאמר פקידה באשה דכתיב (בראשית כא, א) וה' פקד את שרה ונאמר פקידה בגשמים דכתיב (תהלים סה, י) פקדת הארץ ותשקקה רבת תעשרנה פלג אלהים מלא מים,מאי פלג אלהים מלא מים תנא כמין קובה יש ברקיע שממנה גשמים יוצאין,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני מאי דכתיב (איוב לז, יג) אם לשבט אם לארצו אם לחסד ימציאהו אם לשבט בהרים ובגבעות אם לחסד ימציאהו לארצו בשדות ובכרמים,אם לשבט לאילנות אם לארצו לזרעים אם לחסד ימציאהו בורות שיחין ומערות,בימי רבי שמואל בר נחמני הוה כפנא ומותנא אמרי היכי נעביד ניבעי רחמי אתרתי לא אפשר אלא ליבעי רחמי אמותנא וכפנא ניסבול אמר להו ר' שמואל בר נחמני ניבעי רחמי אכפנא דכי יהיב רחמנא שובעא לחיי הוא דיהיב דכתיב (תהלים קמה, טז) פותח את ידך ומשביע לכל חי רצון,ומנלן דלא מצלינן אתרתי דכתיב (עזרא ח, כג) ונצומה ונבקשה מאלהינו על זאת מכלל דאיכא אחריתי במערבא אמרי משמיה דר' חגי מהכא (דניאל ב, יח) ורחמין למבעא מן קדם אלה שמיא על רזא דנא מכלל דאיכא אחריתי,בימי ר' זירא גזור גזרה וגזור דלא למיתב בתעניתא אמר להו ר' זירא נקבליה עילוון ולכי בטיל הגזירה ליתביה,אמרי ליה מנא לך הא אמר להו דכתיב (דניאל י, יב) ויאמר אלי אל תירא דניאל כי מן היום הראשון אשר נתת את לבך להבין ולהתענות לפני אלהיך נשמעו דבריך,אמר רבי יצחק אפילו שנים כשני אליהו וירדו גשמים בערבי שבתות אינן אלא סימן קללה היינו דאמר רבה בר שילא קשה יומא דמיטרא כיומא דדינא אמר אמימר אי לא דצריך לברייתא בעינן רחמי ומבטלינן ליה,ואמר רבי יצחק שמש בשבת צדקה לעניים שנאמר (מלאכי ג, כ) וזרחה לכם יראי שמי שמש צדקה ומרפא ואמר רבי יצחק גדול יום הגשמים שאפילו פרוטה שבכיס מתברכת בו שנאמר (דברים כח, יב) לתת מטר ארצך בעתו ולברך את כל מעשה ידיך,ואמר רבי יצחק אין הברכה מצויה אלא בדבר הסמוי מן העין שנאמר (דברים כח, ח) יצו ה' אתך את הברכה באסמיך תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל אין הברכה מצויה אלא בדבר שאין העין שולטת בו שנאמר יצו ה' אתך את הברכה באסמיך,ת"ר הנכנס למוד את גרנו אומר יר"מ ה' אלהינו שתשלח ברכה במעשה ידינו התחיל למוד אומר ברוך השולח ברכה בכרי הזה מדד ואח"כ בירך הרי זו תפלת שוא לפי שאין הברכה מצויה לא בדבר השקול ולא בדבר המדוד ולא בדבר המנוי אלא בדבר הסמוי מן העין:,קיבוץ גייסות צדקה (מעשה) פרנס סימן: אמר רבי יוחנן גדול יום הגשמים כיום קבוץ גליות שנאמר (תהלים קכו, ד) שובה ה' את שביתנו כאפיקים בנגב ואין אפיקים אלא מטר שנאמר (שמואל ב כב, טז) ויראו אפיקי ים,ואמר רבי יוחנן גדול יום הגשמים שאפילו גייסות פוסקות בו שנאמר (תהלים סה, יא) תלמיה רוה נחת גדודיה ואמר רבי יוחנן אין הגשמים נעצרין אלא בשביל פוסקי צדקה ברבים ואין נותנין שנאמר (משלי כה, יד) נשיאים ורוח וגשם אין איש מתהלל במתת שקר,וא"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב 8b. Reish Lakish elaborates: bClosing up is stated with regard to a womanwho cannot give birth, bas it is stated: “For the Lord has fast closed up all the wombs”(Genesis 20:18), band closing up is stated with regard to rains, as it is written: “And He will close up the heavens”(Deuteronomy 11:17).,Likewise, an expression of bgiving birth is stated with regard to a woman, andan expression of bgiving birth isalso bstated with regard to rain.Specifically, bgiving birth is stated with regard to a woman, as it is writtenin the case of Rachel, when God had mercy on her: b“And she conceived and gave birth to a son”(Genesis 30:23). bAnd giving birth is stated with regard to rain, as it is written:“For as the rain comes down, and the snow from heaven, and does not return there, except it waters the earth band causes it to give birth and bud”(Isaiah 55:10).,Lastly, an expression of bremembering is statedin connection bwith a woman, andan expression of bremembering isalso bstatedin connection bto rain. Remembering is statedin connection bwith a woman, as it is written: “And the Lord remembered Sarah”(Genesis 21:1), band remembering is statedin connection bto rain, as it is written: “You have remembered the earth and have watered it; greatly enriching it, with the pool of God that is full of water”(Psalms 65:10).,The Gemara asks a question with regard to this verse. bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“With the pool of God that is full of water”?The Gemara answers that it was btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bThere is a kind of vault [ ikuba /i] in the sky, out of which the rain falls. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written:“Whatever he commands them upon the face of the habitable world, bwhether it is for correction, or for His earth, or for mercy that He causes it to come”(Job 37:12–13)? The phrase b“whether it is for correction”means that if the people are judged unfavorably, the rain will fall bon the mountains and on the hills.The phrase “or for His earth” indicates that if they have been judged b“for mercy,” He will cause it to come “for His earth,” on the fields and on the vineyards. /b,Alternatively, the phrase b“whether it is for correction”means that the rain will provide benefit only bfor the trees; “or for His earth”indicates that rain will fall solely for the benefit bof seeds;and b“or for mercy that He causes it to come”means that rain will fill the bcisterns, ditches, and caveswith enough water to last the dry season.,§ The Gemara relates: bIn the days of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani there was a famine and a plague.The Sages bsaid: Whatshould we bdo? Should we pray for mercy for twotroubles, both the famine and the plague? This is bnot possible,as it is improper to pray for the alleviation of two afflictions at once. bRather, let us pray for mercy for the plague, andas for the bfamine, wemust bbearit. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said to them:On the contrary, blet us pray for mercy for the famine, as when the Merciful One provides plenty, He gives it forthe sake of bthe living,i.e., if God answers this prayer then he will certainly bring an end to the plague as well, bas it is written: “You open Your hand and satisfy every living thing with favor”(Psalms 145:16).,The Gemara explains: bAnd from where do wederive bthatone should not pray bfor twotroubles simultaneously? bAs it is written: “So we fasted and beseeched our God for this”(Ezra 8:23). bFrom the factthat the verse states: “For this,” it may be inferred bthat there is anothertrouble about which the people did not pray. bIn the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey say in the name of Rabbi Ḥaggaithat this idea comes bfrom here: “That they might ask mercy of the God of Heaven concerning this secret”(Daniel 2:18). bFrom the factthat the verse states: “This secret,” it may be inferred bthat there is anothertrouble about which they did not pray.,In a similar vein, the Gemara relates: bIn the days of Rabbi Zeira a decree ofreligious bpersecutionwas decreed against the Jews. bAndas the bdecreewas bthat they were notallowed bto fast,the Jews were certainly unable to fast and pray for the nullification of the decree itself. bRabbi Zeira said tothe people: bLet us takea fast bupon ourselves,despite the fact that in practice we cannot observe it, band whenthe decree of religious bpersecution is annulled we will observe the fast. /b, bThey said to him: From where do youknow bthis,the fact that one may take a fast upon himself that he cannot observe? Rabbi Zeira bsaid to themthat the reason is bas it is written: “Then he said to me: Fear not, Daniel, for from the first day that you set your heart to understand, and to fast before your God, your words were heard”(Daniel 10:12). This verse indicates that from the moment one turns his heart to fast, his prayers are heard.,The Gemara returns to the topic of rain. bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Evenin byears like the years of Elijah,when God decreed that no rain would fall, if brain falls on Shabbat eves it is nothing otherthan ba sign of a curse,as the rain disrupts the preparations for Shabbat. bThis isthe same as that bwhich Rabba bar Sheila said: A rainy day is as difficult as a judgment day. Ameimareven bsaid: Wereit bnotfor the fact bthatrain is needed bby people, we would pray for mercy andto bannul it,due to the nuisances that rain causes., bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Sun on Shabbat is charity for the poor,who are then able to enjoy the outdoors without suffering from cold. bAs it is stated: “But for you who fear My name, the sun of righteousness shall arise with healing in its wings”(Malachi 3:20). bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥakfurther bsaid: The day of the rains is great, as even a iperutainone’s bpocket is blessed on it, as it is stated: “To give the rain of your land in its due time, and to bless all the work of your hand”(Deuteronomy 28:12)., bAndapropos blessings, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: A blessing is found only in an object that is hidden [ isamui /i] from the eye,not in an item visible to all, as public miracles are exceedingly rare. bAs it is stated: “The Lord will command His blessing upon you in your barns [ iba’asamekha /i]”(Deuteronomy 28:8). Rabbi Yitzḥak’s exposition is based on the linguistic similarity between isamuiand iasamekha /i. Likewise, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: A blessing is found only in an object that is not exposed to the eye, as it is stated: “The Lord will command His blessing upon you in your barns.” /b, bThe Sages taught: One who enters to measureproduce bin his granary recites: May it be Your will, Lord our God, that You send a blessing upon the work of our hands.After he has bbegun to measure, he recites: Blessedis He bwho sends a blessing upon this pile.If one first bmeasured and afterward recited the blessing, it is a prayerin bvain, as a blessing is not found either in an object that is weighed or in an object that is measured or in an object that is counted,as these would constitute open miracles. bRather,a blessing is found only bin an object that is hidden from the eye. /b,§ The Gemara cites five statements of Rabbi Yoḥa, in accordance with the following bmnemonic: Ingathering; armies; charity; tithe; sustainer. Rabbi Yoḥa said: The day of the rains is as great as the day of the ingathering of the exiles, as it is stated: “Turn our captivity, O Lord, as the streams in the dry land”(Psalms 126:4), band “streams”means bnothing otherthan brain, as it is stated: “And the streams of the sea appeared”(II Samuel 22:16)., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: The day of the rains is great, as even armies stop fighting on itdue to the rain and mud. bAs it is stated: “Watering its ridges abundantly; settling down its furrows [ igedudeha /i]”(Psalms 65:11). As the word igedudimcan mean both furrows or armies and is spelled identically with each meaning, this alludes to the idea that during the rainy season soldiers become entrenched in place. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥafurther bsaid: Rain is withheld only due to those who pledge charity in public but do not giveit, bas it is stated: “As vapors and wind without rain, so is he who boasts of a false gift”(Proverbs 25:14)., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: /b
47. Origen, On First Principles, 3.1.2, 4.2.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1.2. of all things which move, some have the cause of their motion within themselves, others receive it from without: and all those things only are moved from without which are without life, as stones, and pieces of wood, and whatever things are of such a nature as to be held together by the constitution of their matter alone, or of their bodily substance. That view must indeed be dismissed which would regard the dissolution of bodies by corruption as motion, for it has no bearing upon our present purpose. Others, again, have the cause of motion in themselves, as animals, or trees, and all things which are held together by natural life or soul; among which some think ought to be classed the veins of metals. Fire, also, is supposed to be the cause of its own motion, and perhaps also springs of water. And of those things which have the causes of their motion in themselves, some are said to be moved out of themselves, others by themselves. And they so distinguish them, because those things are moved out of themselves which are alive indeed, but have no soul; whereas those things which have a soul are moved by themselves, when a phantasy, i.e., a desire or incitement, is presented to them, which excites them to move towards something. Finally, in certain things endowed with a soul, there is such a phantasy, i.e., a will or feeling, as by a kind of natural instinct calls them forth, and arouses them to orderly and regular motion; as we see to be the case with spiders, which are stirred up in a most orderly manner by a phantasy, i.e., a sort of wish and desire for weaving, to undertake the production of a web, some natural movement undoubtedly calling forth the effort to work of this kind. Nor is this very insect found to possess any other feeling than the natural desire of weaving; as in like manner bees also exhibit a desire to form honeycombs, and to collect, as they say, aerial honey. 3.1.2. But with respect to the declaration of the apostle, Therefore has He mercy on whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He hardens. You will say then unto me, Why does He yet find fault? For who has resisted His will? Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why have you made me thus? Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour? Some one will perhaps say, that as the potter out of the same lump makes some vessels to honour, and others to dishonour, so God creates some men for perdition, and others for salvation; and that it is not therefore in our own power either to be saved or to perish; by which reasoning we appear not to be possessed of free-will. We must answer those who are of this opinion with the question, Whether it is possible for the apostle to contradict himself? And if this cannot be imagined of an apostle, how shall he appear, according to them, to be just in blaming those who committed fornication in Corinth, or those who sinned, and did not repent of their unchastity, and fornication, and uncleanness, which they had committed? How, also, does he greatly praise those who acted rightly, like the house of Onesiphorus, saying, The Lord give mercy to the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain: but, when he had come to Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found me. The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day. Now it is not consistent with apostolic gravity to blame him who is worthy of blame, i.e., who has sinned, and greatly to praise him who is deserving of praise for his good works; and again, as if it were in no one's power to do any good or evil, to say that it was the Creator's doing that every one should act virtuously or wickedly, seeing He makes one vessel to honour, and another to dishonour. And how can he add that statement, We must all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one of us may receive in his body, according to what he has done, whether it be good or bad? For what reward of good will be conferred on him who could not commit evil, being formed by the Creator to that very end? Or what punishment will deservedly be inflicted on him who was unable to do good in consequence of the creative act of his Maker? Then, again, how is not this opposed to that other declaration elsewhere, that in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and of earth, and some to honour, and some to dishonour. If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, and meet for the Master's use, prepared unto every good work. He, accordingly, who purges himself, is made a vessel unto honour, while he who has disdained to cleanse himself from his impurity is made a vessel unto dishonour. From such declarations, in my opinion, the cause of our actions can in no degree be referred to the Creator. For God the Creator makes a certain vessel unto honour, and other vessels to dishonour; but that vessel which has cleansed itself from all impurity He makes a vessel unto honour, while that which has stained itself with the filth of vice He makes a vessel unto dishonour. The conclusion from which, accordingly, is this, that the cause of each one's actions is a pre-existing one; and then every one, according to his deserts, is made by God either a vessel unto honour or dishonour. Therefore every individual vessel has furnished to its Creator out of itself the causes and occasions of its being formed by Him to be either a vessel unto honour or one unto dishonour. And if the assertion appear correct, as it certainly is, and in harmony with all piety, that it is due to previous causes that every vessel be prepared by God either to honour or to dishonour, it does not appear absurd that, in discussing remoter causes in the same order, and in the same method, we should come to the same conclusion respecting the nature of souls, and (believe) that this was the reason why Jacob was beloved before he was born into this world, and Esau hated, while he still was contained in the womb of his mother. 3.1.2. Nay, that very declaration, that from the same lump a vessel is formed both to honour and to dishonour, will not push us hard; for we assert that the nature of all rational souls is the same, as one lump of clay is described as being under the treatment of the potter. Seeing, then, the nature of rational creatures is one, God, according to the previous grounds of merit, created and formed out of it, as the potter out of the one lump, some persons to honour and others to dishonour. Now, as regards the language of the apostle, which he utters as if in a tone of censure, Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? he means, I think, to point out that such a censure does not refer to any believer who lives rightly and justly, and who has confidence in God, i.e., to such an one as Moses was, of whom Scripture says that Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice; and as God answered Moses, so also does every saint answer God. But he who is an unbeliever, and loses confidence in answering before God owing to the unworthiness of his life and conversation, and who, in relation to these matters, does not seek to learn and make progress, but to oppose and resist, and who, to speak more plainly, is such an one as to be able to say those words which the apostle indicates, when he says, Why, then, does He yet find fault? For who will resist His will?— to such an one may the censure of the apostle rightly be directed, Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? This censure accordingly applies not to believers and saints, but to unbelievers and wicked men. 3.1.2. But since the words of the apostle, in what he says regarding vessels of honour or dishonour, that if a man therefore purge himself, he will be a vessel unto honour, sanctified and meet for the Master's service, and prepared unto every good work, appear to place nothing in the power of God, but all in ourselves; while in those in which he declares that the potter has power over the clay, to make of the same lump one vessel to honour, another to dishonour, he seems to refer the whole to God — it is not to be understood that those statements are contradictory, but the two meanings are to be reduced to agreement, and one signification must be drawn from both, viz., that we are not to suppose either that those things which are in our own power can be done without the help of God, or that those which are in God's hand can be brought to completion without the intervention of our acts, and desires, and intention; because we have it not in our own power so to will or do anything, as not to know that this very faculty, by which we are able to will or to do, was bestowed on us by God, according to the distinction which we indicated above. Or again, when God forms vessels, some to honour and others to dishonour, we are to suppose that He does not regard either our wills, or our purposes, or our deserts, to be the causes of the honour or dishonour, as if they were a sort of matter from which He may form the vessel of each one of us either to honour or to dishonour; whereas the very movement of the soul itself, or the purpose of the understanding, may of itself suggest to him, who is not unaware of his heart and the thoughts of his mind, whether his vessel ought to be formed to honour or to dishonour. But let these points suffice, which we have discussed as we best could, regarding the questions connected with the freedom of the will. 3.1.2. of things that move, some have the cause of their motion within themselves; others, again, are moved only from without. Now only portable things are moved from without, such as pieces of wood, and stones, and all matter that is held together by their constitution alone. And let that view be removed from consideration which calls the flux of bodies motion, since it is not needed for our present purpose. But animals and plants have the cause of their motion within themselves, and in general whatever is held together by nature and a soul, to which class of things they say that metals also belong. And besides these, fire too is self-moved, and perhaps also fountains of water. Now, of those things which have the cause of their movement within themselves, some, they say, are moved out of themselves, others from themselves: things without life, out of themselves; animate things, from themselves. For animate things are moved from themselves, a phantasy springing up in them which incites to effort. And again, in certain animals phantasies are formed which call forth an effort, the nature of the phantasy stirring up the effort in an orderly manner, as in the spider is formed the phantasy of weaving; and the attempt to weave follows, the nature of its phantasy inciting the insect in an orderly manner to this alone. And besides its phantasial nature, nothing else is believed to belong to the insect. And in the bee there is formed the phantasy to produce wax. 3.1.2. But since the apostle in one place does not pretend that the becoming of a vessel unto honour or dishonour depends upon God, but refers back the whole to ourselves, saying, If, then, a man purge himself, he will be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, meet for the Master's use, and prepared unto every good work; and elsewhere does not even pretend that it is dependent upon ourselves, but appears to attribute the whole to God, saying, The potter has power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour and another to dishonour; and as his statements are not contradictory, we must reconcile them, and extract one complete statement from both. Neither does our own power, apart from the knowledge of God, compel us to make progress; nor does the knowledge of God (do so), unless we ourselves also contribute something to the good result; nor does our own power, apart from the knowledge of God, and the use of the power that worthily belongs to us, make a man become (a vessel) unto honour or dishonour; nor does the will of God alone form a man to honour or to dishonour, unless He hold our will to be a kind of matter that admits of variation, and that inclines to a better or worse course of conduct. And these observations are sufficient to have been made by us on the subject of free-will.
48. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.96

7.96. The fifth order, they rejoice that they have now escaped what is corruptible, and shall inherit what is to come; and besides they see the straits and toil from which they have been delivered, and the spacious liberty which they are to receive and enjoy in immortality.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
1 enoch book of Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 27
abraham Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
aegis Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
aggadah, in biblical interpretation Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 202
agrippa ii (king of the jews) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
amorites Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
amram Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
anan, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 202
angel DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 301
anger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
antitheses, marcions Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 289
apocalypse/apocalyptic, genre Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 321
arrogance/arrogant Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
atreus Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
bessarion, abba Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 175
biblical texts, aggadah and Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 202
blood Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
body DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 301
cannibalism Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
catalogues, of biblical songs in song of songs targum Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 354
chariot Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
charlemagne Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 175
circumcision Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
cloud Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
covenant Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
darkness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
david Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
day, god (lord), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
death Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 321
deborah Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
deification James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 110
demon / daimon DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 301
descendants Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
editing / editors Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
edom, king of Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
egypt/ägypten Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 93
elisha, prophet Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
eros, in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 354
eschatology Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 321
eusebius of caesarea DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 301
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 163
exorcism DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 301
figurative language James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 110
genre Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
gens, gentes Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
gideon Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 175
gideon (gideon-jerubbaal) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
god, as source of prophetic revelation Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 51
golden fleece, and anatolia Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
golden fleece Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
grooms qedushta, the (qallir), song and singing as motifs in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 354
grooms qedushta, the (qallir) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 354
ha᾽azinu (song of moses) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
health & healing Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
helbo, r. Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 202
hippodameia Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
iamblichus DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 301
imitatio scripturae James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 110
imperatives James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 110
isaac Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
israelites Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
jacob Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
jason Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
jehoram, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
jehoshaphat, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), jerusalem temple, scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), liturgy and scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), repository of holy writings, temple as Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), second temple period Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
jerusalem talmud Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
jewish antiquities Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
jewish antiquities (josephus) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
jordan Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
josephus (flavius josephus), on jerusalem temple and scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
joshua Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 175
judah Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
judaism, early Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 321
karaite Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
kata lexin, as deeper sense James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 110
kurša, and aegis Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
kurša Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
law Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
laws Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
lectionary manuscripts, in jewish liturgies Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
lesbos Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
light Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 321
liturgy and scripture, in jerusalem temple Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
liturgy and scripture, psalms, liturgical use of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
logos (λόγος) James, Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation (2021) 110
magic / magia DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 301
mani, manichaeism Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 289
medea Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
mesha, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
midrash Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
midrash of the ten songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 354
miracles Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227; Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 175; DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 301
mishnah, on temple liturgy Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
moon Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 36; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
moses, ha᾽azinu (song of moses) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
moses Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93; Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 321; Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 36, 37; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
mudawwin (ar. biblical scribe, or author-redactor) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
mursilis ii Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
muʾarriḫ (ar. historian, chronicler) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
myrtilos Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
mythology Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
nineveh Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 93
oenomaos Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
oral tradition Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
papyri graecae magicae (pgm) DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 301
patermuthius Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 175
paul Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 289
peter, st. Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 175
plato DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 301
prayer Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
prophecy Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 289
psalms, in jewish liturgies Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
queen of sheba Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
rahit, rehitim, in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 354
redemption, song of (in midrash of the ten songs) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 354
revision, textual Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 163
samaria Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
samson Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93; Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
samuel Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
samuel b. nahman, r. (nahmani), interpretations of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 202
samuel b. nahman, r. (nahmani) Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 202
scetis Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 175
silluq, contains motif of restoration in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 354
sinner Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
sipylos, mt. Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
sleep Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
solomon (king of israel) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
song and singing, a motif in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 354
song of moses (ha᾽azinu) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 341
speech act Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 36, 37
sun Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
syrians Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 227
tantalus/ids Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
targum Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
testament genre Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 163
thyestes Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 317
time, concepts of Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 321
time, manipulation of Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 321
torah, oral Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
typology' Cain, The Greek Historia Monachorum in Aegypto: Monastic Hagiography in the Late Fourth Century (2016) 175
vision, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
wisdom Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 129
wrath Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 870
zeira, r., on aggadah Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 202
zion Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 93
ägypten/egypt Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 93