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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6290
Hebrew Bible, Job, 1


nanHast not Thou made a hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath, on every side? Thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions are increased in the land.,And his sons used to go and hold a feast in the house of each one upon his day; and they would send and invite their three sisters to eat and to drink with them.,THERE was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was whole-hearted and upright, and one that feared God, and shunned evil.,that there came a messenger unto Job, and said: ‘The oxen were plowing, and the asses feeding beside them;,For all this Job sinned not, nor ascribed aught unseemly to God.,Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.,While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘A fire of God is fallen from heaven, and hath burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’,And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thy hand.’ So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD.,But put forth Thy hand now, and touch all that he hath, surely he will blaspheme Thee to Thy face.’,And it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and offered burnt-offerings according to the number of them all; for Job said: ‘It may be that my sons have sinned, and blasphemed God in their hearts.’ Thus did Job continually.,And he said; Naked came I out of my mother’s womb, And naked shall I return thither; The LORD gave, and the LORD hath taken away; Blessed be the name of the LORD.,And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Whence comest thou?’ Then Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.’,And there were born unto him seven sons and three daughters.,And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Hast thou considered My servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a whole-hearted and an upright man, one that feareth God, and shunneth evil?’,Then Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘Doth Job fear God for nought?,And it fell on a day when his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house,,His possessions also were seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five hundred yoke of oxen, and five hundred she-asses, and a very great household; so that this man was the greatest of all the children of the east.,And, behold, there came a great wind from across the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young people, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’,While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘The Chaldeans set themselves in three bands, and fell upon the camels, and have taken them away, yea, and slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’,and the Sabeans made a raid, and took them away; yea, they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’,Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped;,While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘Thy sons and thy daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

37 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3-3.6, 2.5, 3.1, 3.6, 3.10, 3.17, 4.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 6.2, 7.7, 12.13, 13.14, 14, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.8, 32.48-32.50, 34.1-34.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.48. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 32.49. עֲלֵה אֶל־הַר הָעֲבָרִים הַזֶּה הַר־נְבוֹ אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרֵחוֹ וּרְאֵה אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לַאֲחֻזָּה׃ 34.1. וְלֹא־קָם נָבִיא עוֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר יְדָעוֹ יְהוָה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים׃ 34.1. וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה מֵעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב אֶל־הַר נְבוֹ רֹאשׁ הַפִּסְגָּה אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרֵחוֹ וַיַּרְאֵהוּ יְהוָה אֶת־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַגִּלְעָד עַד־דָּן׃ 34.2. וְאֵת כָּל־נַפְתָּלִי וְאֶת־אֶרֶץ אֶפְרַיִם וּמְנַשֶּׁה וְאֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה עַד הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן׃ 34.3. וְאֶת־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶת־הַכִּכָּר בִּקְעַת יְרֵחוֹ עִיר הַתְּמָרִים עַד־צֹעַר׃ 34.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו זֹאת הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לֵאמֹר לְזַרְעֲךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה הֶרְאִיתִיךָ בְעֵינֶיךָ וְשָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲבֹר׃ 34.5. וַיָּמָת שָׁם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב עַל־פִּי יְהוָה׃ 34.6. וַיִּקְבֹּר אֹתוֹ בַגַּיְ בְּאֶרֶץ מוֹאָב מוּל בֵּית פְּעוֹר וְלֹא־יָדַע אִישׁ אֶת־קְבֻרָתוֹ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.48. And the LORD spoke unto Moses that selfsame day, saying:" 32.49. ’Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, unto mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab, that is over against Jericho; and behold the land of Canaan, which I give unto the children of Israel for a possession;" 32.50. and die in the mount whither thou goest up, and be gathered unto thy people; as Aaron thy brother died in mount Hor, and was gathered unto his people." 34.1. And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the LORD showed him all the land, even Gilead as far as Dan;" 34.2. and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah as far as the hinder sea;" 34.3. and the South, and the Plain, even the valley of Jericho the city of palm-trees, as far as Zoar." 34.4. And the LORD said unto him: ‘This is the land which I swore unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying: I will give it unto thy seed; I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.’" 34.5. So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD." 34.6. And he was buried in the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth-peor; and no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 26.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.35. וְשַׂמְתָּ אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן מִחוּץ לַפָּרֹכֶת וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה נֹכַח הַשֻּׁלְחָן עַל צֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן תֵּימָנָה וְהַשֻּׁלְחָן תִּתֵּן עַל־צֶלַע צָפוֹן׃ 26.35. And thou shalt set the table without the veil, and the candlestick over against the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south; and thou shalt put the table on the north side."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2, 1.28-1.30, 2.5, 2.7-2.8, 2.15-2.17, 2.23, 3.1-3.3, 3.6-3.7, 3.10, 3.13, 3.17-3.19, 3.22-3.24, 4.10, 6.1-6.4, 21.12, 22.1, 25.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.29. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כָּל־עֵשֶׂב זֹרֵעַ זֶרַע אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ פְרִי־עֵץ זֹרֵעַ זָרַע לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה׃ 2.5. וְכֹל שִׂיחַ הַשָּׂדֶה טֶרֶם יִהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה טֶרֶם יִצְמָח כִּי לֹא הִמְטִיר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְאָדָם אַיִן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.8. וַיִּטַּע יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים גַּן־בְעֵדֶן מִקֶּדֶם וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁם אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יָצָר׃ 2.15. וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃ 2.16. וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃ 2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 2.23. וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם זֹאת הַפַּעַם עֶצֶם מֵעֲצָמַי וּבָשָׂר מִבְּשָׂרִי לְזֹאת יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה כִּי מֵאִישׁ לֻקֳחָה־זֹּאת׃ 3.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־קֹלְךָ שָׁמַעְתִּי בַּגָּן וָאִירָא כִּי־עֵירֹם אָנֹכִי וָאֵחָבֵא׃ 3.1. וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.2. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ מִפְּרִי עֵץ־הַגָּן נֹאכֵל׃ 3.2. וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ חַוָּה כִּי הִוא הָיְתָה אֵם כָּל־חָי׃ 3.3. וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בּוֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.6. וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב הָעֵץ לְמַאֲכָל וְכִי תַאֲוָה־הוּא לָעֵינַיִם וְנֶחְמָד הָעֵץ לְהַשְׂכִּיל וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּתֵּן גַּם־לְאִישָׁהּ עִמָּהּ וַיֹּאכַל׃ 3.7. וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת׃ 3.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לָאִשָּׁה מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הַנָּחָשׁ הִשִּׁיאַנִי וָאֹכֵל׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.18. וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 3.22. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃ 3.23. וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִגַּן־עֵדֶן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם׃ 3.24. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 21.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אַל־יֵרַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ עַל־הַנַּעַר וְעַל־אֲמָתֶךָ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמַר אֵלֶיךָ שָׂרָה שְׁמַע בְּקֹלָהּ כִּי בְיִצְחָק יִקָּרֵא לְךָ זָרַע׃ 22.1. וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃ 22.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת לִשְׁחֹט אֶת־בְּנוֹ׃ 25.8. וַיִּגְוַע וַיָּמָת אַבְרָהָם בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה זָקֵן וְשָׂבֵעַ וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל־עַמָּיו׃ 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.29. And God said: ‘Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed—to you it shall be for food;" 1.30. and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is a living soul, [I have given] every green herb for food.’ And it was so." 2.5. No shrub of the field was yet in the earth, and no herb of the field had yet sprung up; for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground;" 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 2.8. And the LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed." 2.15. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." 2.16. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;" 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’" 2.23. And the man said: ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’" 3.1. Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman: ‘Yea, hath God said: Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden?’" 3.2. And the woman said unto the serpent: ‘of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat;" 3.3. but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’" 3.6. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat." 3.7. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles." 3.10. And he said: ‘I heard Thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.’" 3.13. And the LORD God said unto the woman: ‘What is this thou hast done?’ And the woman said: ‘The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.’" 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’" 3.22. And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’" 3.23. Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken." 3.24. So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life." 4.10. And He said: ‘What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto Me from the ground." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 21.12. And God said unto Abraham: ‘Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah saith unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall seed be called to thee." 22.1. And it came to pass after these things, that God did prove Abraham, and said unto him: ‘Abraham’; and he said: ‘Here am I.’" 25.8. And Abraham expired, and died in a good old age, an old man, and full of years; and was gathered to his people."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.1-1.22, 2.1-2.13, 3.1, 3.3-3.6, 3.8-3.9, 3.13-3.26, 5.13, 31.39, 38.7, 40.14, 41.3, 42.1-42.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. הֲלֹא־את [אַתָּה] שַׂכְתָּ בַעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד־בֵּיתוֹ וּבְעַד כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ מִסָּבִיב מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו בֵּרַכְתָּ וּמִקְנֵהוּ פָּרַץ בָּאָרֶץ׃ 1.1. אִישׁ הָיָה בְאֶרֶץ־עוּץ אִיּוֹב שְׁמוֹ וְהָיָה הָאִישׁ הַהוּא תָּם וְיָשָׁר וִירֵא אֱלֹהִים וְסָר מֵרָע׃ 1.2. וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לוֹ שִׁבְעָה בָנִים וְשָׁלוֹשׁ בָּנוֹת׃ 1.2. וַיָּקָם אִיּוֹב וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־מְעִלוֹ וַיָּגָז אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּפֹּל אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ׃ 1.3. וַיְהִי מִקְנֵהוּ שִׁבְעַת אַלְפֵי־צֹאן וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אַלְפֵי גְמַלִּים וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת צֶמֶד־בָּקָר וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אֲתוֹנוֹת וַעֲבֻדָּה רַבָּה מְאֹד וַיְהִי הָאִישׁ הַהוּא גָּדוֹל מִכָּל־בְּנֵי־קֶדֶם׃ 1.4. וְהָלְכוּ בָנָיו וְעָשׂוּ מִשְׁתֶּה בֵּית אִישׁ יוֹמוֹ וְשָׁלְחוּ וְקָרְאוּ לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת אחיתיהם [אַחְיוֹתֵיהֶם] לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת עִמָּהֶם׃ 1.5. וַיְהִי כִּי הִקִּיפוּ יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה וַיִּשְׁלַח אִיּוֹב וַיְקַדְּשֵׁם וְהִשְׁכִּים בַּבֹּקֶר וְהֶעֱלָה עֹלוֹת מִסְפַּר כֻּלָּם כִּי אָמַר אִיּוֹב אוּלַי חָטְאוּ בָנַי וּבֵרֲכוּ אֱלֹהִים בִּלְבָבָם כָּכָה יַעֲשֶׂה אִיּוֹב כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 1.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן מֵאַיִן תָּבֹא וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר מִשּׁוּט בָּאָרֶץ וּמֵהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ׃ 1.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הֲשַׂמְתָּ לִבְּךָ עַל־עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב כִּי אֵין כָּמֹהוּ בָּאָרֶץ אִישׁ תָּם וְיָשָׁר יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים וְסָר מֵרָע׃ 1.9. וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר הַחִנָּם יָרֵא אִיּוֹב אֱלֹהִים׃ 1.11. וְאוּלָם שְׁלַח־נָא יָדְךָ וְגַע בְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אִם־לֹא עַל־פָּנֶיךָ יְבָרֲכֶךָּ׃ 1.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הִנֵּה כָל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ בְּיָדֶךָ רַק אֵלָיו אַל־תִּשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ וַיֵּצֵא הַשָּׂטָן מֵעִם פְּנֵי יְהוָה׃ 1.13. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וּבָנָיו וּבְנֹתָיו אֹכְלִים וְשֹׁתִים יַיִן בְּבֵית אֲחִיהֶם הַבְּכוֹר׃ 1.14. וּמַלְאָךְ בָּא אֶל־אִיּוֹב וַיֹּאמַר הַבָּקָר הָיוּ חֹרְשׁוֹת וְהָאֲתֹנוֹת רֹעוֹת עַל־יְדֵיהֶם׃ 1.15. וַתִּפֹּל שְׁבָא וַתִּקָּחֵם וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִים הִכּוּ לְפִי־חָרֶב וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 1.16. עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר אֵשׁ אֱלֹהִים נָפְלָה מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַתִּבְעַר בַּצֹּאן וּבַנְּעָרִים וַתֹּאכְלֵם וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 1.17. עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר כַּשְׂדִּים שָׂמוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה רָאשִׁים וַיִּפְשְׁטוּ עַל־הַגְּמַלִּים וַיִּקָּחוּם וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִים הִכּוּ לְפִי־חָרֶב וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 1.18. עַד זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר בָּנֶיךָ וּבְנוֹתֶיךָ אֹכְלִים וְשֹׁתִים יַיִן בְּבֵית אֲחִיהֶם הַבְּכוֹר׃ 1.19. וְהִנֵּה רוּחַ גְּדוֹלָה בָּאָה מֵעֵבֶר הַמִּדְבָּר וַיִּגַּע בְּאַרְבַּע פִּנּוֹת הַבַּיִת וַיִּפֹּל עַל־הַנְּעָרִים וַיָּמוּתוּ וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 1.21. וַיֹּאמֶר עָרֹם יצתי [יָצָאתִי] מִבֶּטֶן אִמִּי וְעָרֹם אָשׁוּב שָׁמָה יְהוָה נָתַן וַיהוָה לָקָח יְהִי שֵׁם יְהוָה מְבֹרָךְ׃ 1.22. בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־חָטָא אִיּוֹב וְלֹא־נָתַן תִּפְלָה לֵאלֹהִים׃ 2.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ כְּדַבֵּר אַחַת הַנְּבָלוֹת תְּדַבֵּרִי גַּם אֶת־הַטּוֹב נְקַבֵּל מֵאֵת הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֶת־הָרָע לֹא נְקַבֵּל בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־חָטָא אִיּוֹב בִּשְׂפָתָיו׃ 2.1. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתֹכָם לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן אֵי מִזֶּה תָּבֹא וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר מִשֻּׁט בָּאָרֶץ וּמֵהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ׃ 2.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הֲשַׂמְתָּ לִבְּךָ אֶל־עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב כִּי אֵין כָּמֹהוּ בָּאָרֶץ אִישׁ תָּם וְיָשָׁר יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים וְסָר מֵרָע וְעֹדֶנּוּ מַחֲזִיק בְּתֻמָּתוֹ וַתְּסִיתֵנִי בוֹ לְבַלְּעוֹ חִנָּם׃ 2.4. וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר עוֹר בְּעַד־עוֹר וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לָאִישׁ יִתֵּן בְּעַד נַפְשׁוֹ׃ 2.5. אוּלָם שְׁלַח־נָא יָדְךָ וְגַע אֶל־עַצְמוֹ וְאֶל־בְּשָׂרוֹ אִם־לֹא אֶל־פָּנֶיךָ יְבָרֲכֶךָּ׃ 2.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הִנּוֹ בְיָדֶךָ אַךְ אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ שְׁמֹר׃ 2.7. וַיֵּצֵא הַשָּׂטָן מֵאֵת פְּנֵי יְהוָה וַיַּךְ אֶת־אִיּוֹב בִּשְׁחִין רָע מִכַּף רַגְלוֹ עד [וְעַד] קָדְקֳדוֹ׃ 2.8. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ חֶרֶשׂ לְהִתְגָּרֵד בּוֹ וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ־הָאֵפֶר׃ 2.9. וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ עֹדְךָ מַחֲזִיק בְּתֻמָּתֶךָ בָּרֵךְ אֱלֹהִים וָמֻת׃ 2.11. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת רֵעֵי אִיּוֹב אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת הַבָּאָה עָלָיו וַיָּבֹאוּ אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי וּבִלְדַּד הַשּׁוּחִי וְצוֹפַר הַנַּעֲמָתִי וַיִּוָּעֲדוּ יַחְדָּו לָבוֹא לָנוּד־לוֹ וּלְנַחֲמוֹ׃ 2.12. וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־עֵינֵיהֶם מֵרָחוֹק וְלֹא הִכִּירֻהוּ וַיִּשְׂאוּ קוֹלָם וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיִּקְרְעוּ אִישׁ מְעִלוֹ וַיִּזְרְקוּ עָפָר עַל־רָאשֵׁיהֶם הַשָּׁמָיְמָה׃ 2.13. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ אִתּוֹ לָאָרֶץ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְשִׁבְעַת לֵילוֹת וְאֵין־דֹּבֵר אֵלָיו דָּבָר כִּי רָאוּ כִּי־גָדַל הַכְּאֵב מְאֹד׃ 3.3. יֹאבַד יוֹם אִוָּלֶד בּוֹ וְהַלַּיְלָה אָמַר הֹרָה גָבֶר׃ 3.4. הַיּוֹם הַהוּא יְהִי חֹשֶׁךְ אַל־יִדְרְשֵׁהוּ אֱלוֹהַּ מִמָּעַל וְאַל־תּוֹפַע עָלָיו נְהָרָה׃ 3.5. יִגְאָלֻהוּ חֹשֶׁךְ וְצַלְמָוֶת תִּשְׁכָּן־עָלָיו עֲנָנָה יְבַעֲתֻהוּ כִּמְרִירֵי יוֹם׃ 3.6. הַלַּיְלָה הַהוּא יִקָּחֵהוּ אֹפֶל אַל־יִחַדְּ בִּימֵי שָׁנָה בְּמִסְפַּר יְרָחִים אַל־יָבֹא׃ 3.8. יִקְּבֻהוּ אֹרְרֵי־יוֹם הָעֲתִידִים עֹרֵר לִוְיָתָן׃ 3.9. יֶחְשְׁכוּ כּוֹכְבֵי נִשְׁפּוֹ יְקַו־לְאוֹר וָאַיִן וְאַל־יִרְאֶה בְּעַפְעַפֵּי־שָׁחַר׃ 3.13. כִּי־עַתָּה שָׁכַבְתִּי וְאֶשְׁקוֹט יָשַׁנְתִּי אָז יָנוּחַ לִי׃ 3.14. עִם־מְלָכִים וְיֹעֲצֵי אָרֶץ הַבֹּנִים חֳרָבוֹת לָמוֹ׃ 3.15. אוֹ עִם־שָׂרִים זָהָב לָהֶם הַמְמַלְאִים בָּתֵּיהֶם כָּסֶף׃ 3.16. אוֹ כְנֵפֶל טָמוּן לֹא אֶהְיֶה כְּעֹלְלִים לֹא־רָאוּ אוֹר׃ 3.17. שָׁם רְשָׁעִים חָדְלוּ רֹגֶז וְשָׁם יָנוּחוּ יְגִיעֵי כֹחַ׃ 3.18. יַחַד אֲסִירִים שַׁאֲנָנוּ לֹא שָׁמְעוּ קוֹל נֹגֵשׂ׃ 3.19. קָטֹן וְגָדוֹל שָׁם הוּא וְעֶבֶד חָפְשִׁי מֵאֲדֹנָיו׃ 3.21. הַמְחַכִּים לַמָּוֶת וְאֵינֶנּוּ וַיַּחְפְּרֻהוּ מִמַּטְמוֹנִים׃ 3.22. הַשְּׂמֵחִים אֱלֵי־גִיל יָשִׂישׂוּ כִּי יִמְצְאוּ־קָבֶר׃ 3.23. לְגֶבֶר אֲשֶׁר־דַּרְכּוֹ נִסְתָּרָה וַיָּסֶךְ אֱלוֹהַּ בַּעֲדוֹ׃ 3.24. כִּי־לִפְנֵי לַחְמִי אַנְחָתִי תָבֹא וַיִּתְּכוּ כַמַּיִם שַׁאֲגֹתָי׃ 3.25. כִּי פַחַד פָּחַדְתִּי וַיֶּאֱתָיֵנִי וַאֲשֶׁר יָגֹרְתִּי יָבֹא לִי׃ 3.26. לֹא שָׁלַוְתִּי וְלֹא שָׁקַטְתִּי וְלֹא־נָחְתִּי וַיָּבֹא רֹגֶז׃ 5.13. לֹכֵד חֲכָמִים בְּעָרְמָם וַעֲצַת נִפְתָּלִים נִמְהָרָה׃ 31.39. אִם־כֹּחָהּ אָכַלְתִּי בְלִי־כָסֶף וְנֶפֶשׁ בְּעָלֶיהָ הִפָּחְתִּי׃ 38.7. בְּרָן־יַחַד כּוֹכְבֵי בֹקֶר וַיָּרִיעוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים׃ 40.14. וְגַם־אֲנִי אוֹדֶךָּ כִּי־תוֹשִׁעַ לְךָ יְמִינֶךָ׃ 41.3. מִי הִקְדִּימַנִי וַאֲשַׁלֵּם תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמַיִם לִי־הוּא׃ 42.1. וַיַּעַן אִיּוֹב אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר׃ 42.1. וַיהוָה שָׁב אֶת־שבית [שְׁבוּת] אִיּוֹב בְּהִתְפַּלְלוֹ בְּעַד רֵעֵהוּ וַיֹּסֶף יְהוָה אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר לְאִיּוֹב לְמִשְׁנֶה׃ 42.2. ידעת [יָדַעְתִּי] כִּי־כֹל תּוּכָל וְלֹא־יִבָּצֵר מִמְּךָ מְזִמָּה׃ 42.3. מִי זֶה מַעְלִים עֵצָה בְּלִי דָעַת לָכֵן הִגַּדְתִּי וְלֹא אָבִין נִפְלָאוֹת מִמֶּנִּי וְלֹא אֵדָע׃ 42.4. שְׁמַע־נָא וְאָנֹכִי אֲדַבֵּר אֶשְׁאָלְךָ וְהוֹדִיעֵנִי׃ 42.5. לְשֵׁמַע־אֹזֶן שְׁמַעְתִּיךָ וְעַתָּה עֵינִי רָאָתְךָ׃ 42.6. עַל־כֵּן אֶמְאַס וְנִחַמְתִּי עַל־עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 42.7. וַיְהִי אַחַר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֶל־אִיּוֹב וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי חָרָה אַפִּי בְךָ וּבִשְׁנֵי רֵעֶיךָ כִּי לֹא דִבַּרְתֶּם אֵלַי נְכוֹנָה כְּעַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב׃ 42.8. וְעַתָּה קְחוּ־לָכֶם שִׁבְעָה־פָרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אֵילִים וּלְכוּ אֶל־עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב וְהַעֲלִיתֶם עוֹלָה בַּעַדְכֶם וְאִיּוֹב עַבְדִּי יִתְפַּלֵּל עֲלֵיכֶם כִּי אִם־פָּנָיו אֶשָּׂא לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת עִמָּכֶם נְבָלָה כִּי לֹא דִבַּרְתֶּם אֵלַי נְכוֹנָה כְּעַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב׃ 42.9. וַיֵּלְכוּ אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי וּבִלְדַּד הַשּׁוּחִי צֹפַר הַנַּעֲמָתִי וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם יְהוָה וַיִּשָּׂא יְהוָה אֶת־פְּנֵי אִיּוֹב׃ 42.11. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־אֶחָיו וְכָל־אחיתיו [אַחְיוֹתָיו] וְכָל־יֹדְעָיו לְפָנִים וַיֹּאכְלוּ עִמּוֹ לֶחֶם בְּבֵיתוֹ וַיָּנֻדוּ לוֹ וַיְנַחֲמוּ אֹתוֹ עַל כָּל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִיא יְהוָה עָלָיו וַיִּתְּנוּ־לוֹ אִישׁ קְשִׂיטָה אֶחָת וְאִישׁ נֶזֶם זָהָב אֶחָד׃ 42.12. וַיהוָה בֵּרַךְ אֶת־אַחֲרִית אִיּוֹב מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ וַיְהִי־לוֹ אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר אֶלֶף צֹאן וְשֵׁשֶׁת אֲלָפִים גְּמַלִּים וְאֶלֶף־צֶמֶד בָּקָר וְאֶלֶף אֲתוֹנוֹת׃ 42.13. וַיְהִי־לוֹ שִׁבְעָנָה בָנִים וְשָׁלוֹשׁ בָּנוֹת׃ 42.14. וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם־הָאַחַת יְמִימָה וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית קְצִיעָה וְשֵׁם הַשְּׁלִישִׁית קֶרֶן הַפּוּךְ׃ 42.15. וְלֹא נִמְצָא נָשִׁים יָפוֹת כִּבְנוֹת אִיּוֹב בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיִּתֵּן לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם נַחֲלָה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵיהֶם׃ 42.16. וַיְחִי אִיּוֹב אַחֲרֵי־זֹאת מֵאָה וְאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וירא [וַיִּרְאֶה] אֶת־בָּנָיו וְאֶת־בְּנֵי בָנָיו אַרְבָּעָה דֹּרוֹת׃ 42.17. וַיָּמָת אִיּוֹב זָקֵן וּשְׂבַע יָמִים׃ 1.1. THERE was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was whole-hearted and upright, and one that feared God, and shunned evil." 1.2. And there were born unto him seven sons and three daughters." 1.3. His possessions also were seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five hundred yoke of oxen, and five hundred she-asses, and a very great household; so that this man was the greatest of all the children of the east." 1.4. And his sons used to go and hold a feast in the house of each one upon his day; and they would send and invite their three sisters to eat and to drink with them." 1.5. And it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and offered burnt-offerings according to the number of them all; for Job said: ‘It may be that my sons have sinned, and blasphemed God in their hearts.’ Thus did Job continually." 1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them." 1.7. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Whence comest thou?’ Then Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.’" 1.8. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Hast thou considered My servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a whole-hearted and an upright man, one that feareth God, and shunneth evil?’" 1.9. Then Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘Doth Job fear God for nought?" 1.10. Hast not Thou made a hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath, on every side? Thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions are increased in the land." 1.11. But put forth Thy hand now, and touch all that he hath, surely he will blaspheme Thee to Thy face.’" 1.12. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thy hand.’ So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD." 1.13. And it fell on a day when his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house," 1.14. that there came a messenger unto Job, and said: ‘The oxen were plowing, and the asses feeding beside them;" 1.15. and the Sabeans made a raid, and took them away; yea, they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.16. While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘A fire of God is fallen from heaven, and hath burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.17. While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘The Chaldeans set themselves in three bands, and fell upon the camels, and have taken them away, yea, and slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.18. While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘Thy sons and thy daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house;" 1.19. And, behold, there came a great wind from across the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young people, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.20. Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped;" 1.21. And he said; Naked came I out of my mother’s womb, And naked shall I return thither; The LORD gave, and the LORD hath taken away; Blessed be the name of the LORD." 1.22. For all this Job sinned not, nor ascribed aught unseemly to God." 2.1. Again it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD." 2.2. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘From whence comest thou?’ And Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.’" 2.3. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a whole-hearted and an upright man, one that feareth God, and shunneth evil? and he still holdeth fast his integrity, although thou didst move Me against him, to destroy him without cause.’" 2.4. And Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘Skin for skin, yea, all that a man hath will he give for his life." 2.5. But put forth Thy hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh, surely he will blaspheme Thee to Thy face.’" 2.6. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Behold, he is in thy hand; only spare his life.’" 2.7. So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD, and smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot even unto his crown." 2.8. And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself therewith; and he sat among the ashes." 2.9. Then said his wife unto him: ‘Dost thou still hold fast thine integrity? blaspheme God, and die.’" 2.10. But he said unto her: ‘Thou speakest as one of the impious women speaketh. What? shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?’ For all this did not Job sin with his lips." 2.11. Now when Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite; and they made an appointment together to come to bemoan him and to comfort him." 2.12. And when they lifted up their eyes afar off, and knew him not, they lifted up their voice, and wept; and they rent every one his mantle, and threw dust upon their heads toward heaven." 2.13. So they sat down with him upon the ground seven days and seven nights, and none spoke a word unto him; for they saw that his grief was very great." 3.3. Let the day perish wherein I was born, And the night wherein it was said: ‘A man-child is brought forth.’" 3.4. Let that day be darkness; Let not God inquire after it from above, Neither let the light shine upon it." 3.5. Let darkness and the shadow of death claim it for their own; Let a cloud dwell upon it; Let all that maketh black the day terrify it." 3.6. As for that night, let thick darkness seize upon it; Let it not rejoice among the days of the year; Let it not come into the number of the months." 3.8. Let them curse it that curse the day, Who are ready to rouse up leviathan." 3.9. Let the stars of the twilight thereof be dark; Let it look for light, but have none; Neither let it behold the eyelids of the morning;" 3.13. For now should I have lain still and been quiet; I should have slept; then had I been at rest—" 3.14. With kings and counsellors of the earth, Who built up waste places for themselves;" 3.15. Or with princes that had gold, Who filled their houses with silver;" 3.16. Or as a hidden untimely birth I had not been; As infants that never saw light." 3.17. There the wicked cease from troubling; And there the weary are at rest." 3.18. There the prisoners are at ease together; They hear not the voice of the taskmaster." 3.19. The small and great are there alike; And the servant is free from his master." 3.20. Wherewith is light given to him that is in misery, And life unto the bitter in soul—" 3.21. Who long for death, but it cometh not; And dig for it more than for hid treasures;" 3.22. Who rejoice unto exultation, And are glad, when they can find the grave?—" 3.23. To a man whose way is hid, And whom God hath hedged in?" 3.24. For my sighing cometh instead of my food, And my roarings are poured out like water." 3.25. For the thing which I did fear is come upon me, And that which I was afraid of hath overtaken me." 3.26. I was not at ease, neither was I quiet, Neither had I rest; but trouble came." 5.13. He taketh the wise in their own craftiness; And the counsel of the wily is carried headlong." 31.39. If I have eaten the fruits thereof without money, Or have caused the tillers thereof to be disappointed—" 38.7. When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?" 40.14. Then will I also confess unto thee That thine own right hand can save thee." 41.3. Who hath given Me anything beforehand, that I should repay him? Whatsoever is under the whole heaven is Mine." 42.1. Then Job answered the LORD, and said:" 42.2. I know that Thou canst do every thing, And that no purpose can be withholden from Thee." 42.3. Who is this that hideth counsel without knowledge? Therefore have I uttered that which I understood not, Things too wonderful for me, which I knew not." 42.4. Hear, I beseech Thee, and I will speak; I will demand of Thee, and declare Thou unto me." 42.5. I had heard of Thee by the hearing of the ear; But now mine eye seeth Thee;" 42.6. Wherefore I abhor my words, and repent, Seeing I am dust and ashes." 42.7. And it was so, that after the LORD had spoken these words unto Job, the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite: ‘My wrath is kindled against thee, and against thy two friends; for ye have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, as My servant Job hath." 42.8. Now therefore, take unto you seven bullocks and seven rams, and go to My servant Job, and offer up for yourselves a burnt-offering; and My servant Job shall pray for you; for him will I accept, that I do not unto you aught unseemly; for ye have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, as my servant Job hath.’" 42.9. So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite went, and did according as the LORD commanded them; and the LORD accepted Job." 42.10. And the LORD changed the fortune of Job, when he prayed for his friends; and the LORD gave Job twice as much as he had before." 42.11. Then came there unto him all his brethren, and all his sisters, and all they that had been of his acquaintance before, and did eat bread with him in his house; and they bemoaned him, and comforted him concerning all the evil that the LORD had brought upon him; every man also gave him a piece of money, and every one a ring of gold." 42.12. So the LORD blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning; and he had fourteen thousand sheep, and six thousand camels, and a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she-asses. ." 42.13. He had also seven sons and three daughters." 42.14. And he called the name of the first, Jemimah; and the name of the second, Keziah; and the name of the third, Keren-happuch." 42.15. And in all the land were no women found so fair as the daughters of Job; and their father gave them inheritance among their brethren." 42.16. And after this Job lived a hundred and forty years, and saw his sons, and his sons’sons, even four generations." 42.17. So Job died, being old and full of days."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.17-19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 2.7, 3.7, 3.18, 8.13, 14.16, 16.6, 25.2, 31.11-31.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. וצפן [יִצְפֹּן] לַיְשָׁרִים תּוּשִׁיָּה מָגֵן לְהֹלְכֵי תֹם׃ 3.7. אַל־תְּהִי חָכָם בְּעֵינֶיךָ יְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה וְסוּר מֵרָע׃ 3.18. עֵץ־חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ וְתֹמְכֶיהָ מְאֻשָּׁר׃ 8.13. יִרְאַת יְהוָה שְׂנֹאת רָע גֵּאָה וְגָאוֹן וְדֶרֶךְ רָע וּפִי תַהְפֻּכוֹת שָׂנֵאתִי׃ 14.16. חָכָם יָרֵא וְסָר מֵרָע וּכְסִיל מִתְעַבֵּר וּבוֹטֵחַ׃ 16.6. בְּחֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת יְכֻפַּר עָוֺן וּבְיִרְאַת יְהוָה סוּר מֵרָע׃ 25.2. כְּבֹד אֱלֹהִים הַסְתֵּר דָּבָר וּכְבֹד מְלָכִים חֲקֹר דָּבָר׃ 25.2. מַעֲדֶה בֶּגֶד בְּיוֹם קָרָה חֹמֶץ עַל־נָתֶר וְשָׁר בַּשִּׁרִים עַל לֶב־רָע׃ 31.11. בָּטַח בָּהּ לֵב בַּעְלָהּ וְשָׁלָל לֹא יֶחְסָר׃ 31.12. גְּמָלַתְהוּ טוֹב וְלֹא־רָע כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיה׃ 2.7. He layeth up sound wisdom for the upright, He is a shield to them that walk in integrity;" 3.7. Be not wise in thine own eyes; Fear the LORD, and depart from evil;" 3.18. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, And happy is every one that holdest her fast." 8.13. The fear of the LORD is to hate evil; Pride, and arrogancy, and the evil way, And the froward mouth, do I hate." 14.16. A wise man feareth, and departeth from evil; But the fool behaveth overbearingly, and is confident." 16.6. By mercy and truth iniquity is expiated; And by the fear of the LORD men depart from evil." 25.2. It is the glory of God to conceal a thing; but the glory of kings is to search out a matter." 31.11. The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, and he hath no lack of gain." 31.12. She doeth him good and not evil all the days of her life."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 17.3, 26.2, 29.1, 44.4, 82.1, 89.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.3. בָּחַנְתָּ לִבִּי פָּקַדְתָּ לַּיְלָה צְרַפְתַּנִי בַל־תִּמְצָא זַמֹּתִי בַּל־יַעֲבָר־פִּי׃ 26.2. בְּחָנֵנִי יְהוָה וְנַסֵּנִי צרופה [צָרְפָה] כִלְיוֹתַי וְלִבִּי׃ 29.1. מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד הָבוּ לַיהוָה בְּנֵי אֵלִים הָבוּ לַיהוָה כָּבוֹד וָעֹז׃ 29.1. יְהוָה לַמַּבּוּל יָשָׁב וַיֵּשֶׁב יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ לְעוֹלָם׃ 44.4. כִּי לֹא בְחַרְבָּם יָרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וּזְרוֹעָם לֹא־הוֹשִׁיעָה לָּמוֹ כִּי־יְמִינְךָ וּזְרוֹעֲךָ וְאוֹר פָּנֶיךָ כִּי רְצִיתָם׃ 82.1. מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אֱ‍לֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת־אֵל בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט׃ 89.7. כִּי מִי בַשַּׁחַק יַעֲרֹךְ לַיהוָה יִדְמֶה לַיהוָה בִּבְנֵי אֵלִים׃ 17.3. Thou hast tried my heart, Thou hast visited it in the night; Thou hast tested me, and Thou findest not That I had a thought which should not pass my mouth." 26.2. Examine me, O LORD, and try me; test my reins and my heart." 29.1. A Psalm of David. Ascribe unto the LORD, O ye sons of might, Ascribe unto the LORD glory and strength." 44.4. For not by their own sword did they get the land in possession, Neither did their own arm save them; but Thy right hand, and Thine arm, and the light of Thy countece, because Thou wast favourable unto them." 82.1. A Psalm of Asaph. God standeth in the congregation of God; in the midst of the judges He judgeth:" 89.7. For who in the skies can be compared unto the LORD, Who among the sons of might can be likened unto the LORD,"
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 7.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.23. וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־הַיָּם מוּצָק עֶשֶׂר בָּאַמָּה מִשְּׂפָתוֹ עַד־שְׂפָתוֹ עָגֹל סָבִיב וְחָמֵשׁ בָּאַמָּה קוֹמָתוֹ וקוה [וְקָו] שְׁלֹשִׁים בָּאַמָּה יָסֹב אֹתוֹ סָבִיב׃ 7.23. And he made the molten sea of ten cubits from brim to brim, round in compass, and the height thereof was five cubits; and a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 25.26, 25.31, 25.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.26. וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנִי חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אֲשֶׁר מְנָעֲךָ יְהוָה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהוֹשֵׁעַ יָדְךָ לָךְ וְעַתָּה יִהְיוּ כְנָבָל אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהַמְבַקְשִׁים אֶל־אֲדֹנִי רָעָה׃ 25.31. וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זֹאת לְךָ לְפוּקָה וּלְמִכְשׁוֹל לֵב לַאדֹנִי וְלִשְׁפָּךְ־דָּם חִנָּם וּלְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֲדֹנִי לוֹ וְהֵיטִב יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 25.33. וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי׃ 25.26. Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord lives, and as thy soul lives, seeing the Lord has prevented thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thy own hand, now let thy enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Naval." 25.31. that this shall not be a cause of stumbling to thee, nor offence of heart to my lord, that thou hast shed blood causelessly, or that my lord has avenged himself: and the Lord shall deal well with my lord, and thou shalt remember thy handmaid." 25.33. and blessed be thy discretion, and blessed be thou who hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with my own hand."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 15.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15.1. וַיְהִי מֵאַחֲרֵי כֵן וַיַּעַשׂ לוֹ אַבְשָׁלוֹם מֶרְכָּבָה וְסֻסִים וַחֲמִשִּׁים אִישׁ רָצִים לְפָנָיו׃ 15.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְשָׁלוֹם מְרַגְּלִים בְּכָל־שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם אֶת־קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וַאֲמַרְתֶּם מָלַךְ אַבְשָׁלוֹם בְּחֶבְרוֹן׃ 15.1. And it came to pass after this, that Avshalom prepared him chariots and horses, and fifty men to run before him."
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 11.20, 20.14-20.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

20.14. אָרוּר הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר יֻלַּדְתִּי בּוֹ יוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יְלָדַתְנִי אִמִּי אַל־יְהִי בָרוּךְ׃ 20.15. אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר בִּשַּׂר אֶת־אָבִי לֵאמֹר יֻלַּד־לְךָ בֵּן זָכָר שַׂמֵּחַ שִׂמֳּחָהוּ׃ 20.17. אֲשֶׁר לֹא־מוֹתְתַנִי מֵרָחֶם וַתְּהִי־לִי אִמִּי קִבְרִי וְרַחְמָה הֲרַת עוֹלָם׃ 20.18. לָמָּה זֶּה מֵרֶחֶם יָצָאתִי לִרְאוֹת עָמָל וְיָגוֹן וַיִּכְלוּ בְּבֹשֶׁת יָמָי׃ 11.20. But, O LORD of hosts, that judgest righteously, That triest the reins and the heart, Let me see Thy vengeance on them; For unto Thee have I revealed my cause." 20.14. Cursed be the day Wherein I was born; The day wherein my mother bore me, Let it not be blessed." 20.15. Cursed be the man who brought tidings To my father, saying: ‘A man-child is born unto thee’; Making him very glad." 20.17. Because He slew me not from the womb; And so my mother would have been my grave, And her womb always great." 20.18. Wherefore came I forth out of the womb To see labour and sorrow, That my days should be consumed in shame?"
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.13 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.13. וּדְמוּת הַחַיּוֹת מַרְאֵיהֶם כְּגַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ בֹּעֲרוֹת כְּמַרְאֵה הַלַּפִּדִים הִיא מִתְהַלֶּכֶת בֵּין הַחַיּוֹת וְנֹגַהּ לָאֵשׁ וּמִן־הָאֵשׁ יוֹצֵא בָרָק׃ 1.13. As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like coals of fire, burning like the appearance of torches; it flashed up and down among the living creatures; and there was brightness to the fire, and out of the fire went forth lightning."
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 21.1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.1. וַיַּעֲמֹד שָׂטָן עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּסֶת אֶת־דָּוִיד לִמְנוֹת אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.1. לֵךְ וְדִבַּרְתָּ אֶל־דָּוִיד לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה שָׁלוֹשׁ אֲנִי נֹטֶה עָלֶיךָ בְּחַר־לְךָ אַחַת מֵהֵנָּה וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃ 21.1. And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel."
15. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 13.9, 14.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13.9. וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶת־הַשְּׁלִשִׁית בָּאֵשׁ וּצְרַפְתִּים כִּצְרֹף אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף וּבְחַנְתִּים כִּבְחֹן אֶת־הַזָּהָב הוּא יִקְרָא בִשְׁמִי וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה אֹתוֹ אָמַרְתִּי עַמִּי הוּא וְהוּא יֹאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי׃ 14.8. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵצְאוּ מַיִם־חַיִּים מִירוּשָׁלִַם חֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הַקַּדְמוֹנִי וְחֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן בַּקַּיִץ וּבָחֹרֶף יִהְיֶה׃ 13.9. And I will bring the third part through the fire, And will refine them as silver is refined, And will try them as gold is tried; They shall call on My name, And I will answer them; I will say: ‘It is My people’, And they shall say: ‘The LORD is my God.’" 14.8. And it shall come to pass in that day, That living waters shall go out from Jerusalem: Half of them toward the eastern sea, And half of them toward the western sea; In summer and in winter shall it be."
16. Septuagint, Tobit, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3-3.6, 2.5, 3.1, 3.6, 3.10, 3.17, 4.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 6.2, 7.7, 12.13, 13.14, 14, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17. Anon., 1 Enoch, 94.5 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

94.5. And hold fast my words in the thoughts of your hearts, And suffer them not to be effaced from your hearts;For I know that sinners will tempt men to evilly-entreat wisdom, So that no place may be found for her, And no manner of temptation may minish.
18. Anon., Jubilees, 17.15-18.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 9.2-9.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 16.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

22. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 17 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 8.79 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.79. 5. Solomon also cast a brazen sea, whose figure was that of a hemisphere. This brazen vessel was called a sea for its largeness, for the laver was ten feet in diameter, and cast of the thickness of a palm. Its middle part rested on a short pillar that had ten spirals round it, and that pillar was ten cubits in diameter.
25. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 3.362 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.362. when he said thus to them:—“O my friends, why are we so earnest to kill ourselves? and why do we set our soul and body, which are such dear companions, at such variance?
26. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 3.19-3.20, 7.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. Forthe wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written,"He has taken the wise in their craftiness. 3.20. And again, "TheLord knows the reasoning of the wise, that it is worthless. 7.5. Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for aseason, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may betogether again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack ofself-control.
27. New Testament, Apocalypse, 4.3-4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.3. that looked like a jasper stone and a sardius. There was a rainbow around the throne, like an emerald to look at. 4.4. Around the throne were twenty-four thrones. On the thrones were twenty-four elders sitting, dressed in white garments, with crowns of gold on their heads. 4.5. Out of the throne proceed lightnings, sounds, and thunders. There were seven lamps of fire burning before his throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. 4.6. Before the throne was something like a sea of glass, like a crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind.
28. New Testament, James, 1.12-1.15, 5.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. Blessed is the man who endures temptation, for when he has been approved, he will receive the crown of life, which the Lord promised to those who love him. 1.13. Let no man say when he is tempted, "I am tempted by God," for God can't be tempted by evil, and he himself tempts no one. 1.14. But each one is tempted, when he is drawn away by his own lust, and enticed. 1.15. Then the lust, when it has conceived, bears sin; and the sin, when it is full grown, brings forth death. 5.11. Behold, we call them blessed who endured. You have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the Lord in the outcome, and how the Lord is full of compassion and mercy.
29. New Testament, Romans, 11.33-11.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.33. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past tracing out! 11.34. For who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor? 11.35. Or who has first given to him, And it will be repaid to him again? 11.36. For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things. To him be the glory for ever! Amen.
30. New Testament, Luke, 4.1-4.13, 4.34, 10.18, 22.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness 4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.3. The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread. 4.4. Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.' 4.5. The devil, leading him up on a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 4.6. The devil said to him, "I will give you all this authority, and their glory, for it has been delivered to me; and I give it to whomever I want. 4.7. If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours. 4.8. Jesus answered him, "Get behind me Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.9. He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here 4.10. for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you, to guard you;' 4.11. and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, Lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.' 4.12. Jesus answering, said to him, "It has been said, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.' 4.13. When the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from him until another time. 4.34. saying, "Ah! what have we to do with you, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 10.18. He said to them, "I saw Satan having fallen like lightning from heaven. 22.3. Satan entered into Judas, who was surnamed Iscariot, who was numbered with the twelve.
31. New Testament, Mark, 1.13, 1.24, 4.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. He was there in the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; and the angels ministered to him. 1.24. saying, "Ha! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 4.19. and the cares of this age, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful.
32. New Testament, Matthew, 4.1-4.11, 4.13, 8.29, 13.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 4.2. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward. 4.3. The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. 4.4. But he answered, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.' 4.5. Then the devil took him into the holy city. He set him on the pinnacle of the temple 4.6. and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you.' and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, So that you don't dash your foot against a stone.' 4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 4.8. Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. 4.9. He said to him, "I will give you all of these things, if you will fall down and worship me. 4.10. Then Jesus said to him, "Get behind me, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.11. Then the devil left him, and behold, angels came and ministered to him. 4.13. Leaving Nazareth, he came and lived in Capernaum, which is by the sea, in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali 8.29. Behold, they cried out, saying, "What do we have to do with you, Jesus, Son of God? Have you come here to torment us before the time? 13.22. What was sown among the thorns, this is he who hears the word, but the cares of this world and the deceitfulness of riches choke the word, and he becomes unfruitful.
33. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

62b. תניא בן עזאי אומר על כל משכב שכב חוץ מן הקרקע על כל מושב שב חוץ מן הקורה אמר שמואל שינה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא יציאה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא,בר קפרא הוה מזבן מילי בדינרי עד דכפנת אכול עד דצחית שתי עד דרתחא קדרך שפוך קרנא קריא ברומי בר מזבין תאני תאני דאבוך זבין,אמר להו אביי לרבנן כי עייליתו בשבילי דמחוזא למיפק ביה בחקלא לא תחזו לא להך גיסא ולא להך גיסא דלמא יתבי נשי ולאו אורח ארעא לאסתכולי בהו,רב ספרא על לבית הכסא אתא רבי אבא נחר ליה אבבא אמר ליה ליעול מר בתר דנפק אמר ליה עד השתא לא עיילת לשעיר וגמרת לך מילי דשעיר לאו הכי תנן מדורה היתה שם ובית הכסא של כבוד וזה היה כבודו מצאו נעול בידוע שיש שם אדם מצאו פתוח בידוע שאין שם אדם אלמא לאו אורח ארעא הוא,והוא סבר מסוכן הוא דתניא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר עמוד החוזר מביא את האדם לידי הדרוקן סילון החוזר מביא את האדם לידי ירקון,רבי אלעזר על לבית הכסא אתא ההוא פרסאה דחקיה קם ר' אלעזר ונפק אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה קרי עליה רבי אלעזר (ישעיהו מג, ד) ואתן אדם תחתיך אל תקרי אדם אלא אדום:,(שמואל א כד, יא) ואמר להרגך ותחס עליך,ואמר ואמרתי מיבעי ליה ותחס וחסתי מיבעי ליה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר לו דוד לשאול מן התורה בן הריגה אתה שהרי רודף אתה והתורה אמרה בא להרגך השכם להרגו אלא צניעות שהיתה בך היא חסה עליך,ומאי היא דכתיב (שמואל א כד, ד) ויבא אל גדרות הצאן על הדרך ושם מערה ויבא שאול להסך את רגליו תנא גדר לפנים מן גדר ומערה לפנים ממערה להסך אמר ר' אלעזר מלמד שסכך עצמו כסוכה:,(שמואל א כד, ה) ויקם דוד ויכרת את כנף המעיל אשר לשאול בלט אמר ר' יוסי בר' חנינא כל המבזה את הבגדים סוף אינו נהנה מהם שנאמר (מלכים א א, א) והמלך דוד זקן בא בימים ויכסוהו בבגדים ולא יחם לו:,(שמואל א כו, יט) אם ה' הסיתך בי ירח מנחה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקב"ה לדוד מסית קרית לי הרי אני מכשילך בדבר שאפי' תינוקות של בית רבן יודעים אותו דכתיב (שמות ל, יב) כי תשא את ראש בני ישראל לפקודיהם ונתנו איש כפר נפשו וגו' מיד (דברי הימים א כא, א) ויעמוד שטן על ישראל וכתיב (שמואל ב כד, א) ויסת את דוד בהם לאמר לך מנה את ישראל וכיון דמנינהו לא שקל מינייהו כופר דכתיב (שמואל ב כד, טו) ויתן ה' דבר בישראל מהבקר ועד עת מועד,מאי עת מועד אמר שמואל סבא חתניה דרבי חנינא משמיה דרבי חנינא משעת שחיטת התמיד עד שעת זריקתו רבי יוחנן אמר עד חצות ממש:,(שמואל ב כד, טז) ויאמר למלאך המשחית בעם רב אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקב"ה למלאך טול לי רב שבהם שיש בו ליפרע מהם כמה חובות באותה שעה מת אבישי בן צרויה ששקול כרובה של סנהדרין:,(דברי הימים א כא, טו) ובהשחית ראה ה' וינחם מאי ראה,אמר רב ראה יעקב אבינו דכתיב (בראשית לב, ג) ויאמר יעקב כאשר ראם ושמואל אמר אפרו של יצחק ראה שנאמר (בראשית כב, ח) אלהים יראה לו השה,רבי יצחק נפחא אמר כסף כפורים ראה שנאמר (שמות ל, טז) ולקחת את כסף הכפורים מאת בני ישראל וגו' רבי יוחנן אמר בית המקדש ראה דכתיב (בראשית כב, יד) בהר ה' יראה,פליגי בה ר' יעקב בר אידי ורבי שמואל בר נחמני חד אמר כסף הכפורים ראה וחד אמר בית המקדש ראה ומסתברא כמאן דאמר בית המקדש ראה שנאמר (בראשית כב, יד) אשר יאמר היום בהר ה' יראה:,לא יכנס אדם להר הבית במקלו וכו': מאי קפנדריא אמר רבא קפנדריא כשמה ורב חנא בר אדא משמיה דרב סמא בריה דרב מרי אמר כמאן דאמר אינש אדמקיפנא אדרי איעול בהא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה הנכנס לבית הכנסת על מנת שלא לעשותו קפנדריא מותר לעשותו קפנדריא,רבי אבהו אמר אם היה שביל מעיקרו מותר אמר ר' חלבו אמר רב הונא הנכנס לבית הכנסת להתפלל מותר לעשותו קפנדריא שנאמר (יחזקאל מו, ט) ובבא עם הארץ לפני ה' במועדים וגו':,ורקיקה מקל וחומר: אמר רב ביבי אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי כל הרוקק בהר הבית בזמן הזה כאילו רוקק בבת עינו שנאמר (מלכים א ט, ג) והיה עיני ולבי שם כל הימים,אמר רבא רקיקה בבית הכנסת שריא מידי דהוה אמנעל מה מנעל בהר הבית אסור בבית הכנסת מותר אף רקיקה בהר הבית הוא דאסור בבית הכנסת שרי,אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא ואמרי לה רבינא לרבא ואמרי לה רב אדא בר מתנא לרבא אדיליף ממנעל נילף מקפנדריא,אמר ליה תנא יליף ממנעל ואת אמרת מקפנדריא מאי היא דתניא לא יכנס אדם להר הבית לא במקלו שבידו ולא במנעלו שברגלו ולא במעות הצרורים לו בסדינו ובפונדתו מופשלת לאחוריו ולא יעשנה קפנדריא ורקיקה מקל וחומר ממנעל ומה מנעל שאין בו דרך בזיון אמרה תורה (שמות ג, ה) של נעליך מעל רגליך רקיקה שהיא דרך בזיון לא כל שכן,רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (אסתר ד, ב) כי אין לבא אל שער המלך בלבוש שק והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה שק שאינו מאוס לפני בשר ודם כך רקיקה שהיא מאוסה לפני מלך מלכי המלכים לא כל שכן,אמר ליה אנא הכי קאמינא נימא הכא לחומרא והכא לחומרא 62b. Continuing with the subject of health, bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bBen Azzai says: On all beds, lie, except for the ground. On all seats, sit, except for a beam,lest you fall off. bShmuel said: Sleeping at dawn isas effective bas forging [ iistema /i]is bto iron. Abowel bmovement at dawnis as beneficial bas forgingis bto iron. /b,Similarly, the Gemara relates: bBar Kappara would sell sayings for dinars;he would express his ideas in brief maxims. For example: bIf you are hungry, eat;do not delay eating, as the hunger may pass and your food will be of no benefit. So too, bif you are thirsty, drink; while the pot is still boiling, pour itout before it cools off. This is a metaphor for relieving oneself. Bar Kappara also said: bWhen the horn is sounded in Rome,signifying that there is demand for figs in the Roman market, bson of a fig seller, sell your father’s figs,even without his permission, so as not to miss the opportunity., bAbaye said to the Sages: When you enter the pathsof the city of bMeḥoza in order to go outand defecate bin a field, look neither to one side nor to the other, as perhaps women are sitting there and it is improper to look at them. /b,The Gemara relates: bRav Safra once entered a bathroom,when bRabbi Abba came along.To determine if he could enter, Rabbi Abba bcoughed next to the door.Rav Safra bsaid to him: Enter, master. When he came out, Rabbi Abba said to him: Until now, you never entered Seir,the land of the Edomites, who are not strict in their practice of modesty, bandyet byoualready blearned thecustoms of bSeir? Didn’t we learnin the mishna concerning the Temple: bThere was a firenext to the ritual bath, band a bathroom of honor. And this was its honor: If one found it locked, it was known that someone was inside;if bhe found it open, it was known that no one was inside.Speaking in the bathroom bis not a desired mode of behavior /b.,The Gemara explains the opinion of Rav Safra, who told Rabbi Abba that he could enter while in the bathroom: Rav Safra bheld that it was dangerousfor Rabbi Abba. If he waited and was uncertain whether or not he could enter, he would endanger himself. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: A columnof feces bthat is held backbecause one cannot relieve himself bcauses dropsy [ ihidrokan /i]. A stream [ isilon /i]of urine bthat is held back causes jaundice. /b,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Elazar entered a bathroom. This Roman came and pushed himaway. bRabbi Elazar stood and left,and ba serpent came and ripped out the intestinesof the Roman. bRabbi Elazar recited thefollowing bverse aboutthe Roman: b“Therefore I will give man [ iadam /i] for you”(Isaiah 43:4); bdo not readit as iadam /i, but rather readit as bEdom,meaning a Roman.,With regard to modesty in a bathroom, the Gemara cites an additional biblical allusion. When David found Saul in the cave and spared him, tearing the corner of his coat, he said to him: “Behold this day, your eyes have seen how the Lord has delivered you today into my hand in the cave, band he said to kill you; and you spared you”(I Samuel 24:10).,The Gemara asks: Why does the verse say: bAnd he said? It shouldsay: bAnd I said.Why does the verse say: bAnd you spared? It shouldsay: bAnd I spared.Rather, bRabbi Elazar said: David said to Saul: By Torah law, you should be killed, as you are a pursuerwho seeks to kill me, band the Torah says: If one comes to kill you, kill him first. But it was the modesty that you displayed that spared you. /b, bAnd what is thismodesty? bAs it is written: “And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where there was a cave, and Saul went in to cover his feet,to defecate. Now David and his men were sitting in the innermost parts of the cave” (I Samuel 24:3). bIt was taughtthat the Sages said: bThere was a fence within a fence, and a cave within a cave,and Saul entered to defecate in the interest of modesty. With regard to the use of the term, bto coverhis feet, bRabbi Elazar said:This bteaches that,even there, bhe covered himselfwith his garment blike a isukka /i. /b,The Gemara continues with a homiletic interpretation of the verse: b“Then David arose, and cut off the corner of Saul’s robe privily”(I Samuel 24:4). bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Anyone who treats clothing with contempt,like David who tore Saul’s robe for no reason, will be punished in that bultimately he will not benefit fromhis garments, bas it is stated: “Now King David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he could get no heat”(I Kings 1:1).,As for David’s statement to Saul: b“If it be the Lord that has incited you against me, let Him accept an offering”(I Samuel 26:19), bRabbi Elazar saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Do you call Me an inciter?In retribution, bI will cause you to fail in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is written: “When you take the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soulunto the Lord, when you number them; that there be no plague among them, when you number them” (Exodus 30:12). bImmediatelyafter God said this to David, b“Satan stood up against Israeland incited David to number Israel” (I Chronicles 21:1). Moreover, bit is written:“And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, band He incited David against them, saying: Go, number Israel and Judea”(II Samuel 24:1). The proportional response to David’s calling God an inciter was that He incited David. bAnd when he counted them, he did not take a ransom from them,and he was punished, bas it is written: “So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel from the morning even to the appointed time”(II Samuel 24:15).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of bthe appointed time? Shmuel the elder, father-in-law of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina:It means bfrom when the daily offering is slaughtered until whenits blood bis sprinkled. Rabbi Yoḥa said:It means bprecisely until noon. /b,It is also stated there: “The Lord repented Him of the evil band said to the angel that destroyed the many [ irav /i] people:It is enough; now stay your hand” (II Samuel 24:16). Explaining the meaning of the word irav /i, bRabbi Elazar saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the angel: Take for me a great one [ irav /i] from among them, who is worthy of defraying severalof Israel’s bdebts.As a result, bat that moment Avishai ben Tzeruya, who was equivalent to the majority of the Sanhedrin, died.His death atoned for the entire nation.,On a parallel note, it is said: b“The Lord beheld, and He repented himof the evil” (I Chronicles 21:15). The Gemara asks: bWhat did the Lord behold? /b, bRav said: He sawand remembered bthe patriarch, Jacob,about whom the term seeing is used: b“And Jacob said when he saw them [ ira’am /i]:This is God’s camp” (Genesis 32:3). bAnd Shmuel said: He sawand remembered bIsaac’s ashes, as it is saidin the portion of the binding of Isaac: b“God will provide [ iyireh /i] Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering”(Genesis 22:8)., bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: He saw the money of atonementthat Israel gave when they were counted during the Exodus from Egypt, bas it is stated: “And you shall take the atonement money from the children of Israel,and shall appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting, that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before the Lord, to make atonement for your souls” (Exodus 30:16). bRabbi Yoḥa said: He saw the Temple, as it is written: “On the mount where the Lord is seen [ iyera’e /i]”(Genesis 22:14).,Additional iamora’im /i, bRabbi Ya’akov bar Idi and Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, differedin their opinions of what God saw. bOne said: He saw the money of atonement, and one said: He saw the Temple. And /bitstands to reason like the one who says /bthathe saw the Temple, as it is stated:“And Abraham called the name of that place: The Lord will see; bas it is said to this day: On the mount where the Lord is seen”(Genesis 22:14); generations later, they will recall the initial revelation on Mount Moria, as the angel also appeared to David on this mountain.,We learned in the mishna that, in deference to the Temple, ba person may not enter the Temple Mount with his staffand his shoes. He may not make it a ikappandarya /i. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of ikappandarya /i? Rava said: iKappandarya,as its nameimplies; a shortcut. bRav Ḥana bar Adda in the name of Rav Sama, son of Rav Mari, said:One may interpret this as an acrostic, bas people say: Instead of circumventing the rowsof houses b[ iademakifna adarei /i], I will enter this [ iei’ol beha /i]one. bRav Naḥman saidthat bRabba bar Avuh said:This ihalakhaapplies in a synagogue as well. However, bone who enters a synagogue notintending bto make it a shortcut is permitted to make it a shortcutif he later changed his mind.,Similarly, bRabbi Abbahu said: If it was originally a paththat passed through the site where the synagogue was erected, bone is permittedto pass through, as the public right of passage is not negated by the construction of a synagogue. bRabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said: One who enters a synagogue to pray is permitted to make it a shortcut, as it is stated: “But when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons,he that enters by way of the north gate to worship shall go forth by the way of the south gate” (Ezekiel 46:9).,We learned in the mishna that bspittingon the Temple Mount is prohibited bthrough an ia fortioriinference. Rav Beivai saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anyone who spits on the Temple Mount,even btoday, it is as if he spit in the pupil ofGod’s beye, as it is stated: “And My eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually”(I Kings 9:3)., bRava said: Spitting in a synagogue is permitted, just as in the case of shoes. Just as wearing shoes is prohibited on the Temple Mountbut bpermitted in a synagogue, so, too, spitting is prohibited on the Temple Mountbut bpermitted in a synagogue. /b, bRav Pappa said to Rava, and some saythat bRavina said to Rava, and some say that Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: Instead of derivingthis bfromthe case of wearing ba shoe, derive it fromthe case of ba shortcut.Just as a shortcut through a synagogue is prohibited, so too is spitting prohibited.,Rava bsaid to him:The itannaderivesthe prohibition of spitting bfromthe case of ba shoe, and you saythat it should be derived bfromthe case of ba shortcut?The Gemara elaborates: bWhat is thisderivation from the case of a shoe? bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may neither enter the Temple Mount with his staff in his hand, nor with his shoes on his feet, nor with money tied in his cloth and with his money-belt slung behind him, norshould one bmake it a shortcut. All the more so, spittingis prohibited ia fortiorifromthe ihalakhawith regard to wearing ba shoe. Just aswith regard to ba shoe, which is generally not considered contemptuous, the Torah said: “Put off your shoes from off your feet, for the place upon which you stand is holy ground”(Exodus 3:5), ball the more so spitting, which is considered contemptuous,should be prohibited., bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, says: This ia fortioriinference bis unnecessary.It could be otherwise derived. bIt says: “For none may enter within the king’s gate clothed with sackcloth”(Esther 4:2). bThis mattercan be inferred ia fortiori /i: Just as sackcloth, which isgenerally bnotconsidered brepulsive beforeone who is bflesh and blood, isforbidden within the king’s gate, ball the more so spitting, which is repulsive,should be forbidden bbefore the King of Kings. /b,The one who challenged him, Rav Pappa or Ravina, bsaid to Rava: Iintended to bsay the following: Let us say, be stringent here,with regard to the Temple Mount, band be stringent here,with regard to the synagogue
34. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

81b. bSit properlyand do not act in a revolting manner. Satan then bsaid to him: Give me a cup. They gave him a cup. He coughed up his phlegm and spat it intothe cup. bThey berated himfor acting this way, at which point Satan pretended to bsinkdown band die. They heardpeople around them bsaying: Peleimu killed a man! Peleimu killed a man!Peleimu bfled and hid himself in the bathroom.Satan bfollowed himand bfell before him. Upon seeing thatPeleimu bwas suffering, he revealed himself to him.Satan bsaid to him: What is the reason that you spoke this way,provoking me by saying: An arrow in the eye of Satan? He replied: bBut what then should I say?Satan bsaid to him: Let the Master,i.e., Peleimu, bsay:Let bthe Merciful One rebuke the Satan. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi was accustomed to say, whenever he would fall on his facein prayer: bMay the Merciful One save us from the evil inclination. One day his wife heard himsaying this prayer. bShe said: After all, it has been several years since he has withdrawn fromengaging in intercourse with bmedue to his advanced years. bWhat is the reason that he says thisprayer, as there is no concern that he will engage in sinful sexual behavior?, bOne day,while bhe was studying in his garden, she adorned herself and repeatedly walked past him. He said: Who are you? She said: I am Ḥaruta,a well-known prostitute, breturning from my dayat work. bHe propositioned her. She said to him: Give me that pomegranate from the top of the treeas payment. bHe leapt up, went,and bbrought it to her,and they engaged in intercourse., bWhen he came home, his wife was lightinga fire in the boven. He went and sat inside it. She said to him: What is this? He said to her: Such and such an incidentoccurred; he told her that he engaged in intercourse with a prostitute. bShe said to him: It was I. He paid no attention to her,thinking she was merely trying to comfort him, buntil she gave him signsthat it was indeed she. bHe said to her: I, in any event, intended to transgress.The Gemara relates: bAll the days of that righteous man he would fastfor the transgression he intended to commit, buntil he died by that deathin his misery.,The Gemara explains the source that one who intended to transgress is punished even though he did not actually sin. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitaconcerning a husband who nullified the vow of his wife: b“Her husband has made them null; and the Lord will forgive her”(Numbers 30:13). bWith regard to whatcase bis the verse speaking?Why would the woman require forgiveness if her husband has nullified her vow? It is referring bto a woman who vowedto bbe a nazirite, and her husband heard and nullified hervow. bAnd she did not know that her husband had nullified hervow, band she drank wine and contracted impurity from a corpse,violating her presumed vow.,The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry. He said: And ifwith regard to bone who intended to eat pork, andkosher blamb came up in his hand,like this woman who intended to violate her vow but in fact did not, bthe Torahnevertheless bsays: She requires atonement and forgiveness, all the more sodoes bone who intended to eat pork and pork came up in his handrequire atonement and forgiveness., bIn a similar manner, youcan bsaythat the same lesson can be derived from the verse: b“Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity”(Leviticus 5:17). bWhen Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry.He said: bAnd ifwith regard to bone who intended to eatpermitted bfat, andforbidden bfatmistakenly bcame up in his hand, the Torah states: “Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity,” all the more sois this true for bone who intended to eatforbidden bfat andforbidden bfat came up in his hand. Isi ben Yehuda sayswith regard to the verse b“Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity”: With regard to this matter all sufferers shall grieve,since the verse teaches that one is punished even for sinning unawares.,§ The mishna teaches that ba man may be secluded with his mother. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav Asi says: A man may be secluded with his sister, and live with his mother or with his daughterin a permanent arrangement, without concern. bWhen he said this before Shmuel,the latter bsaid: It is prohibited to be secluded with all those with whom relations are forbidden by the Torah, and even with an animal,as it is prohibited to engage in intercourse with an animal as well., bWe learnedin the mishna: bA man may be secluded with his mother, and with his daughter, and sleep alongside them with bodily contact, andthis appears to be ba conclusive refutation ofthe statement of bShmuel.The Gemara answers: bShmuelcould have bsaid to you: And according to your reasoning,how should one explain bthat which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bhis sister, and his mother-in-law, and all those with whom relations are forbidden,including his mother and daughter, bone may be secluded with them onlyin the presence bof witnesses,from which it can be inferred: In the presence bof witnesses, yes; withoutthe presence bof witnesses, no.This ibaraitasupports the opinion of Shmuel that one may not be secluded with his mother or sister., bRather,it bisa dispute between itanna’im /ias to whether one may be secluded with his mother or sister. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Meir said: Be careful with me because of my daughter,i.e., make sure I am not left secluded with her. Similarly, bRabbi Tarfon said: Be careful with me because of my daughter-in-law. A certain student mocked himfor being wary of the possibility of sinning with his daughter-in-law. bRabbi Abbahu said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel: Not many days passed until that student stumbledinto sin bwith his mother-in-law. /b,The Gemara stated that according to Shmuel it is prohibited for one to be alone beven with an animal.The Gemara relates: bAbaye removedthe animals bfrom the entire fieldhe was in. bRav Sheshet transferredthe animals to the other side bof the fence. Rav Ḥa from Neharde’a happenedto come bto Rav Kahana in Pum Nahara. He saw thathe bwas sitting and studying, and an animal was standing before him.Rav Ḥa bsaid to him: Doesn’t the Master holdthat one may not be secluded beven with an animal?Rav Kahana bsaid to him: Itdid bnotenter bmy mindthat an animal was before me., bRava says: A man may be secluded with two sisters-in-law and with two rival wives,i.e., two women who share a husband; bwith a woman and her mother-in-law;and bwith a woman and her husband’s daughter.Since these women typically dislike each other, each fears that the other will publicize her sins, and they will be careful not to transgress. Similarly, a man may be secluded bwith a woman and a girl who knows the meaning of sexual intercourse,i.e., one who is old enough to understand the nature of intercourse, bbutis still young enough that bshe does not submit herself to intercourse,since she does not yet desire it. In such a situation, the woman is concerned that the child will reveal her behavior.,§ The mishna teaches that bwhenone’s children bhave grown up, this one sleeps in his garmentand that one sleeps in her garment, but they may share a bed. The Gemara asks: bAnd howold must a child be to be considered grown up for the purposes of this ihalakha /i? bRav Adda bar Rav Azza saysthat bRav Asi says: A girlmust reach the bageof bnine years and one day; a boymust reach the bageof btwelve years and one day. There arethose bwho say: A girlmust reach the bageof btwelve years and one day; a boymust reach the bageof bthirteenyears band one day. Andaccording to bthis and that,according to both opinions, the girl is considered a child buntilshe has reached the stage of: b“Your breasts were fashioned, and your hair was grown”(Ezekiel 16:7), meaning the onset of puberty., bRafram bar Pappa saysthat bRav Ḥisda says: They taughtthat a man may sleep in close proximity to his minor daughter bonly if she is not ashamed to stand naked before him, butif she is bashamed to stand naked before him, it is prohibitedfor him to sleep close to her, regardless of her age. bWhat is the reason?It is that the binclination has a hold upon her,as otherwise she would not be ashamed.,The Gemara relates: bRav Aḥa bar Abba arrived at the house of Rav Ḥisda, his son-in-law. He took his daughter’s daughter and placed her on his lap.Rav Ḥisda bsaid to him: Doesn’t the Master think that shemight already be bbetrothed?Rav Aḥa bsaid to him:If that is true, byou have transgressedthe ruling bof Rav, as Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says, and some sayit was said by bRabbi Elazar: It is prohibited for a man to betroth his daughter when she is a minor, until she grows up and says: I wantto marry bso-and-so,as otherwise she might reject the designated husband and ultimately sin by committing adultery. Rav Ḥisda replied: bThe Master has likewise transgressedthe words bof Shmuel. As Shmuel says: One may not make use of a woman,so how can you hold her on your lap? bHe said to him: I hold in accordance with anotherstatement bof Shmuel, as Shmuel says: /b
35. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

81a. לאתרויי ביה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ל"ש אלא בעיר אבל בדרך עד שיהיו שלשה שמא יצטרך אחד מהם להשתין ונמצא אחד מתייחד עם הערוה נימא מסייע ליה מוסרים לו שני תלמידי חכמים שמא יבא עליה בדרך תרי ואיהו הא תלתא התם כי היכי דניהוו עליה סהדי,רב ורב יהודה הוו קאזלי באורחא הוה קאזלא ההיא אתתא קמייהו א"ל רב לרב יהודה דל כרעיך מקמי גיהנם אמר ליה והא מר הוא דאמר בכשרים שפיר דמי א"ל מי יימר דבכשרים כגון אנא ואת אלא כגון מאי כגון רבי חנינא בר פפי וחביריו,אמר רב מלקין על ייחוד ואין אוסרין על הייחוד אמר רב אשי לא אמרן אלא בייחוד פנויה אבל בייחוד דאשת איש לא שלא תהא מוציא לעז על בניה,מר זוטרא מלקי ומכריז א"ל רב נחמן מפרהטיא לרב אשי מר נמי לילקי ולכריז א"ל איכא דשמע בהא ולא שמע בהא,אמר רב מלקין על לא טובה השמועה שנאמר (שמואל א ב, כד) אל בני כי לא טובה השמועה מר זוטרא מותיב לה אפסירה על כתפיה ומקרי ליה אל בני,אמר רבה בעלה בעיר אין חוששין משום ייחוד אמר רב יוסף פתח פתוח לרשות הרבים אין חוששין משום ייחוד רב ביבי איקלע לבי רב יוסף בתר דכרך ריפתא אמר להו שקולי דרגא מתותי ביבי והא אמר רבה בעלה בעיר אין חוששין משום ייחוד שאני רב ביבי דשושבינתיה הואי וגייסא ביה,אמר רב כהנא אנשים מבחוץ ונשים מבפנים אין חוששין משום ייחוד אנשים מבפנים ונשים מבחוץ חוששין משום ייחוד,במתניתא תנא איפכא אמר אביי השתא דאמר רב כהנא הכי ותנא מתניתא איפכא אנא נעביד לחומרא,אביי דייר גולפי רבא דייר קנה אמר אבין סקבא דשתא ריגלא,הנך שבוייתא דאתאי לנהרדעא אסקינהו לבי רב עמרם חסידא אשקולו דרגא מקמייהו בהדי דקא חלפה חדא מנייהו נפל נהורא באיפומא שקליה רב עמרם לדרגא דלא הוו יכלין בי עשרה למדלייא דלייא לחודיה סליק ואזיל,כי מטא לפלגא דרגא איפשח רמא קלא נורא בי עמרם אתו רבנן אמרו ליה כסיפתינן אמר להו מוטב תיכספו בי עמרם בעלמא הדין ולא תיכספו מיניה לעלמא דאתי אשבעיה דינפק מיניה נפק מיניה כי עמודא דנורא אמר ליה חזי דאת נורא ואנא בישרא ואנא עדיפנא מינך,רבי מאיר הוה מתלוצץ בעוברי עבירה יומא חד אידמי ליה שטן כאיתתא בהך גיסא דנהרא לא הוה מברא נקט מצרא וקא עבר כי מטא פלגא מצרא שבקיה אמר אי לאו דקא מכרזי ברקיעא הזהרו בר' מאיר ותורתו שויתיה לדמך תרתי מעי,ר' עקיבא הוה מתלוצץ בעוברי עבירה יומא חד אידמי ליה שטן כאיתתא בריש דיקלא נקטיה לדיקלא וקסליק ואזיל כי מטא לפלגיה דדיקלא שבקיה אמר אי לאו דמכרזי ברקיעא הזהרו ברבי עקיבא ותורתו שויתיה לדמך תרתי מעי,פלימו הוה רגיל למימר כל יומא גירא בעיניה דשטן יומא חד מעלי יומא דכיפורי הוה אידמי ליה כעניא אתא קרא אבבא אפיקו ליה ריפתא אמר ליה יומא כי האידנא כולי עלמא גואי ואנא אבראי עייליה וקריבו ליה ריפתא אמר ליה יומא כי האידנא כולי עלמא אתכא ואנא לחודאי אתיוהו אותבוהו אתכא הוה יתיב מלא נפשיה שיחנא וכיבי עליה והוה קעביד ביה מילי דמאיס א"ל 81a. how bto warn himnot to engage in intercourse with her, since that would neutralize the effectiveness of the examination of the waters., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The Sages btaughtthat two men may seclude themselves with one woman bonly in a city,where others are present, bbut on the roadit is not permitted bunless there are three.Why are two men insufficient on the road? bPerhaps one of them will need to urinateand will walk away, band it will turn out that oneperson bwill be secluded with a woman forbidden to him.The Gemara suggests: Shall bwe saythe mishna quoted above bsupports him: They provide him with two Torah scholarsto accompany them blest he engage in sexual intercourse with her along the way? He and twoTorah scholars bare three,which indicates that there is a requirement for three men when they are traveling. The Gemara answers: That is no proof, as bthere,in the case of the isota /i, there is a requirement for an additional two men bin order that they shouldserve as bwitnesses about him,to testify whether or not he engaged in intercourse with her along the way.,The Gemara relates: bRav and Rav Yehuda were walking along the way,and ba certain woman was walking ahead of them. Rav said to Rav Yehuda: Raise your feetand walk quickly baway from Gehennaso that we do not remain secluded with her. Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: But wasn’t ityou, bMaster, who said thatit is bpermittedin the case bofmen of bfitmorals? Rav bsaid to him: Who saysthat I referred btomen of bfitmorals bsuch as you and me?Rav Yehuda responded: bRather, such as whom?Rav answered: bSuch as Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi and his colleagues,who have proven that they can withstand temptation (see 39b). All other people are not trusted in this matter., bRav says:The court bflogsa man bdue tohis being bsecludedwith a woman. But a wife bis not forbiddento her husband, and an unmarried woman is not prohibited from marrying a priest bdue tobeing bsecluded,as it cannot be stated definitively that the secluded pair engaged in sexual intercourse. bRav Ashi says: We statedthe ihalakhathat one is flogged bdue tobeing bsecluded onlywith ban unmarriedwoman, bbut forbeing bsecludedwith ba married woman,one is bnotflogged. Why not? It is bso that there should not be rumors spread concerning her children.If the secluded pair is flogged, everyone will assume that they engaged in intercourse, and people will consider her children to be imamzerim /i, whereas in fact they were flogged only for being secluded.,The Gemara relates: bMar Zutra wouldeven bflogone who was secluded with a married woman, band he would proclaimthe reason for the punishment. bRav Naḥman from Parhatya said to Rav Ashi: Let the Master also flog and proclaimthe reason. Rav Ashi bsaid to him:I am hesitant to do so, in case bthere are those who hear about this,i.e., the flogging, band do not hear about that,i.e., the reason for the flogging., bRav says:The court bflogsone bdue tohis being the subject of ba bad rumor,meaning that not only is a person flogged when the facts have been ascertained, but even when he has only reportedly committed transgressions he may be flogged. bAs it is stated: “No, my sons, for it is no good report”(I Samuel 2:24). When bMar Zutrawould flog a person for being the subject of a bad rumor, bhe would placethe bbridleof a donkey bonthe person’s bshoulders and recite before himwhen administering lashes: b“No, my sons,for it is no good report,” so that people would know why he was being flogged., bRabba says:If a woman’s bhusband is in town, there is no concern due toher being bsecludedwith a man. People are afraid to sin with her, since they cannot be sure when her husband will return. bRav Yosef says:If there is ban open entrance to the public domain there is no concern due tobeing bsecluded.The Gemara relates: bRav Beivai arrived at Rav Yosef’s house. After he wrappedhis bbread,i.e., ate his meal, he bsaid tothe members of the household: bRemove the ladder from beneath Beivai,who was going to sleep in the upper story, so that he not be able to climb down, due to the prohibition of being secluded with Rav Yosef’s wife. The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rabba say:If bher husband is in town, there is no concern due toher being bsecludedwith a man? The Gemara answers: bRav Beivai is different, sinceRav Yosef’s wife bwas his friend and she was familiar with him,and therefore there was more cause for concern., bRav Kahana says:If the bmenare located bon the outside,i.e., in the outer room, band the women in the inside,i.e., in the inner room, bthere is no concern due tobeing bsecluded.Even if one of the men were to enter the inner room, he would be seen by the other men. By contrast, if there were bmen in the inside and women on the outside, there is a concern due tobeing bsecluded,since one of the men can claim that he is leaving and in fact join the women.,The Gemara comments: bThe opposite was taught in a ibaraita /i,that if the men are on the outside and the women are inside there is concern due to being secluded, as one of the men might venture inside without being noticed, but if the men are inside and the women are outside, he knows that one of the other men might go out through the women’s quarters at any time, and therefore there is no concern due to being secluded. bAbaye said: Now that Rav Kahana has saidthe ihalakhain bthismanner band a ibaraitateaches the opposite, we shall act stringentlyin both cases., bAbayewould barrange rowsof bpitchersbetween the men and women, so that they would not be able to cross from one area to the other without making noise. bRavawould barrange rowsof breedsto prevent passage. bAvin said: The wound [ isakva /i],i.e., the vulnerable point, bof the yearis bthe Festival,since men and women would come together on these joyous occasions, and this would lead to sin.,§ The Gemara relates: bThose captivewomen bwho were brought to Neharde’a,where they were redeemed, bwere brought up to the house of Rav Amram the Pious. They removed the ladder from before themto prevent men from climbing up after them to the attic where they were to sleep. bWhen one of them passedby the entrance to the upper chamber, it was as though ba light shone in the aperturedue to her great beauty. Out of his desire for her, bRav Amram grabbed a ladder that tenmen btogether could not lift, lifted it on his ownand bbegan climbing. /b, bWhen he was halfwayup bthe ladder, he strengthenedhis legs against the sides of the ladder to stop himself from climbing further, braised his voice,and cried out: There is ba fire in the house of Amram.Upon hearing this, bthe Sages cameand found him in that position. bThey said to him: You have embarrassed us,since everyone sees what you had intended to do. Rav Amram bsaid to them: It is better that you be shamed in Amram’s house in this world, and not be ashamed of him in the World-to-Come. He took an oath thathis evil inclination bshould emerge from him, andan apparition bsimilar to a pillar of fire emerged from him. He said tohis evil inclination: bSee, as you are fire and I ammere bflesh, andyet, bI amstill bsuperior to you,as I was able to overcome you.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Meir would ridicule transgressorsby saying it is easy to avoid temptation. bOne day, Satan appeared to him as a womanstanding bon the other side of the river.Since bthere was no ferryto cross the river, bhe took hold of a rope bridge and crossedthe river. bWhen he reached halfwayacross bthe rope bridge,the evil inclination bleft him and saidto him: bWere it not forthe fact that bthey proclaim about you in heaven: Be careful with regard to Rabbi Meir and his Torah, I would have made your blood like two ima’a /i,i.e., completely worthless, since you would have fallen completely from your spiritual level., bRabbi Akiva wouldlikewise bridicule transgressors. One day, Satan appeared to him as a woman at the top of a palm tree.Rabbi Akiva bgrabbed hold of the palm tree and began climbing. When he was halfway up the palm tree,the evil inclination bleft him and saidto him: bWere it not forthe fact that bthey proclaim about you in heaven: Be careful with regard to Rabbi Akiva and his Torah, I would have made your blood like two ima’a /i. /b,The Sage bPeleimu had the habit to say every day: An arrow in the eye of Satan,mocking the temptations of the evil inclination. bOne day, it was the eve of Yom Kippur,and Satan bappeared to him as a pauperwho bcame and calledhim bto the door,requesting alms. Peleimu bbrought out bread to him.Satan bsaid to him: On a day like today, everyone is insideeating, bandshall bIstand boutsideand eat? Peleimu bbrought him inside and gave him bread. He said to him: On a day like today, everyoneis sitting bat the table, andshall bIsit bby myself? They brought him and sat him at the table. He was sittingand had bcovered himself with boils and pus, and he was doing repulsive thingsat the table. Peleimu bsaid tothe pauper:
36. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107a. אוכל לחמי הגדיל עלי עקב,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם אל יביא אדם עצמו לידי נסיון שהרי דוד מלך ישראל הביא עצמו לידי נסיון ונכשל אמר לפניו רבש"ע מפני מה אומרים אלהי אברהם אלהי יצחק ואלהי יעקב ואין אומרים אלהי דוד אמר אינהו מינסו לי ואת לא מינסית לי אמר לפניו רבש"ע בחנני ונסני שנאמר (תהלים כו, ב) בחנני ה' ונסני וגו',אמר מינסנא לך ועבידנא מילתא בהדך דלדידהו לא הודעתינהו ואילו אנא קא מודענא לך דמנסינא לך בדבר ערוה מיד (שמואל ב יא, ב) ויהי לעת הערב ויקם דוד מעל משכבו וגו',אמר רב יהודה שהפך משכבו של לילה למשכבו של יום ונתעלמה ממנו הלכה אבר קטן יש באדם משביעו רעב ומרעיבו שבע,(שמואל ב יא, ב) ויתהלך על גג בית המלך וירא אשה רוחצת מעל הגג והאשה טובת מראה מאד בת שבע הוה קא חייפא רישא תותי חלתא אתא שטן אידמי ליה כציפרתא פתק ביה גירא פתקה לחלתא איגליה וחזייה,מיד (שמואל ב יא, ג) וישלח דוד וידרוש לאשה ויאמר הלא זאת בת שבע בת אליעם אשת אוריה החתי וישלח דוד מלאכים ויקחה ותבא אליו וישכב עמה והיא מתקדשת מטומאתה ותשב אל ביתה והיינו דכתיב (תהלים יז, ג) בחנת לבי פקדת לילה צרפתני בל תמצא זמותי בל יעבר פי אמר איכו זממא נפל בפומיה דמאן דסני לי ולא אמר כי הא מילתא,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים יא, א) למנצח לדוד בה' חסיתי איך תאמרו לנפשי נודי הרכם צפור אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון שלא יאמרו הר שבכם צפור נדדתו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים נא, ו) לך לבדך חטאתי והרע בעיניך עשיתי למען תצדק בדברך תזכה בשפטך אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה גליא וידיעא קמך דאי בעיא למכפייה ליצרי הוה כייפינא אלא אמינא דלא לימרו עבדא זכי למריה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לח, יח) כי אני לצלע נכון ומכאובי נגדי תמיד ראויה היתה בת שבע בת אליעם לדוד מששת ימי בראשית אלא שבאה אליו במכאוב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ראויה היתה לדוד בת שבע בת אליעם אלא שאכלה פגה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לה, טו) ובצלעי שמחו ונאספו נאספו עלי נכים [ולא ידעתי] קרעו ולא דמו אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע גלוי וידוע לפניך שאם היו קורעין בשרי לא היה דמי שותת,ולא עוד אלא בשעה שהם עוסקין בארבע מיתות ב"ד פוסקין ממשנתן ואומרים לי דוד הבא על אשת איש מיתתו במה אמרתי להם הבא על אשת איש מיתתו בחנק ויש לו חלק לעוה"ב אבל המלבין פני חבירו ברבים אין לו חלק לעולם הבא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אפילו בשעת חליו של דוד קיים שמנה עשרה עונות שנאמר (תהלים ו, ז) יגעתי באנחתי אשחה בכל לילה מטתי בדמעתי ערשי אמסה ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בקש דוד לעבוד ע"ז שנאמר (שמואל ב טו, לב) ויהי דוד בא עד הראש אשר ישתחוה שם לאלהים ואין ראש אלא ע"ז שנאמר (דניאל ב, לב) והוא צלמא רישיה די דהב טב,(שמואל ב טו, לב) והנה לקראתו חושי הארכי קרוע כתנתו ואדמה על ראשו אמר לו לדוד יאמרו מלך שכמותך יעבוד ע"ז אמר לו מלך שכמותי יהרגנו בנו מוטב יעבוד ע"ז ואל יתחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא,אמר מאי טעמא קנסיבת יפת תואר א"ל יפת תואר רחמנא שרייה א"ל לא דרשת סמוכין דסמיך ליה (דברים כא, יח) כי יהיה לאיש בן סורר ומורה כל הנושא יפת תואר יש לו בן סורר ומורה,דרש ר' דוסתאי דמן בירי למה דוד דומה לסוחר כותי אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע (תהלים יט, יג) שגיאות מי יבין [א"ל] שביקי לך ומנסתרות נקני שביקי לך גם מזדים חשוך עבדך שביקי לך אל ימשלו בי אז איתם דלא לישתעו בי רבנן שביקי לך,ונקיתי מפשע רב שלא יכתב סרחוני אמר לו א"א ומה יו"ד שנטלתי משרי עומד וצווח כמה שנים עד שבא יהושע והוספתי לו שנאמר (במדבר יג, טז) ויקרא משה להושע בן נון יהושע כל הפרשה כולה עאכ"ו,ונקיתי מפשע רב אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון כולו אמר כבר עתיד שלמה בנך לומר בחכמתו (משלי ו, כז) היחתה איש אש בחיקו ובגדיו לא תשרפנה אם יהלך איש על הגחלים ורגליו לא תכוינה כן הבא על אשת רעהו לא ינקה כל הנוגע בה א"ל כל הכי נטרד ההוא גברא א"ל קבל עליך יסורין קבל עליו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ששה חדשים נצטרע דוד ונסתלקה הימנו שכינה ופירשו ממנו סנהדרין נצטרע דכתיב (תהלים נא, ט) תחטאני באזוב ואטהר תכבסני ומשלג אלבין נסתלקה הימנו שכינה דכתיב (תהלים נא, יד) השיבה לי ששון ישעך ורוח נדיבה תסמכני ופרשו ממנו סנהדרין דכתי' (תהלים קיט, עט) ישובו לי יראיך וגו' ששה חדשים מנלן דכתי' (מלכים א ב, יא) והימים אשר מלך דוד על ישראל ארבעים שנה 107a. bwho did eat of my bread, has lifted his heel against me”(Psalms 41:10). Bread is a metaphor for Torah knowledge.,§ Apropos Ahithophel, the Gemara relates the events that led to his death. bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: A person should never bring himself toundergo ban ordeal, as David, king of Israel, brought himself toundergo ban ordeal and failed.David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, for whatreason bdoes one sayin prayer: bGod of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, and one does not say: God of David?God bsaidto David: bThey have undergone ordeals before Me, and you have not undergone an ordeal before Me.David bsaid before Him: Examine me and subject me to an ordeal, as it is stated: “Examine me, Lord, and subject me to an ordeal;try my kidneys and my heart” (Psalms 26:2).,God bsaidto him: bI will subject you to an ordeal, and I will perform a matter for youthat I did not perform for the Patriarchs, bas for them, I did not inform themof the nature of the ordeal, bwhile I am informing you that I will subject you to an ordeal involving a matter ofa married woman, with whom brelationsare bforbidden. Immediately,it is written: b“And it came to pass one evening that David rose from his bed”(II Samuel 11:2)., bRav Yehuda says:Once David heard the nature of his ordeal, he sought to prevent himself from experiencing lust. bHe transformed his nighttime bed into his daytime bed,i.e., he engaged in intercourse with his wives during the day, in an attempt to quell his lust. bBut a ihalakha /i,i.e., a Torah statement, bescaped him: There is a small limb in manthat he employs in sexual intercourse. If bhe starvesthe limb, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated; butif bhe satiatesthe limb and overindulges in sexual intercourse, it bis starving,and desires more. Therefore, his plan had the opposite effect.,The verse states: b“And he walked upon the roof of the king’s house; from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very fair to look upon”(II Samuel 11:2). bBathsheba was shampooing her head behind a beehive,which concealed her from sight. bSatan came and appeared toDavid bas a bird.David bshot an arrow atthe bird, the arrow bsevered the beehive,Bathsheba bwas exposed, andDavid bsaw her. /b, bImmediately,it is written: b“And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said: Is not this Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite? And David sent messengers, and took her, and she came to him, and he lay with her, for she was purified from her impurity, and then she returned to her house”(II Samuel 11:3–4). bAnd that isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “You have proved my heart; You have visited me in the night: You have tried me, but You find nothing; let no presumptuous thought pass my lips”(Psalms 17:3). David bsaid: Oh, that a muzzle would have fallen upon the mouth of the one who hates me,a euphemism for his own mouth, band I would not have said anything like thatand I would have withstood the ordeal., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “To the leader, of David. In the Lord I put my trust; how can you say to my soul: Flee like a bird to your mountain”(Psalms 11:1)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, pardon me for that sinwith Bathsheba so bthatthe wicked people bwill not say: The mountain that is among you,i.e., the luminary of the generation, David, bwas drivenfrom the world due to ba birdthat led to his transgression., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Against You, only You, have I sinned, and done what is evil in Your eyes; that You are justified when You speak, and right when You judge”(Psalms 51:6)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: It is revealed and known before You that if I sought to suppress myevil binclination, I would have suppressed it; but I said:I will sin, so bthat they will not say a servant overcame his masterand withstood the ordeal even though God said that he would not., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For I am ready to stumble [ iletzela /i] and my pain is always before me”(Psalms 38:18)? bBathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David from the six days of Creation.Rava interprets that the term iletzelais referring to Eve, who was taken from the side [ itzela /i] of Adam, the first man, and explains that she was destined for him, just as Eve was destined for Adam. bBut she came to him through pain. And likewise, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David, but he partook of her unripe,before the appointed time. David would have ultimately married her in a permitted manner after the death of Uriah., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And when I limped they rejoiced and gathered, the wretched gather themselves together against me, and those whom I know not; they tore and did not cease [ idammu /i]”(Psalms 35:15)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. It is revealed and known before you that ifmy enemies bwere to tear my flesh, my blood [ idami /i] would not flow to the ground,due to excessive fasting (see II Samuel 12:16–17).,David continued: bMoreover,my enemies torment me to the extent that bat the time when they are engaged inthe public study of the ihalakhotof the bfour court-imposed death penalties they interrupt their study and say to me: David,concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his deathis effected bwith whatform of execution? And bI said to them:Concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married womanbefore witnesses and with forewarning, bhis death is by strangulation, and he has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another before the multitudes has no share in the World-to-Come.The transgression of those who humiliated David is clearly more severe than the transgression of David himself., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Even during the time of his illness he fulfilledthe mitzva of bconjugal rights for eighteenwives, bas it is stated: “I am weary with my groaning; every night I speak in my bed; I melt away my couch with tears”(Psalms 6:7). Even when he was weary and groaning he still spoke in his bed, a euphemism for sexual intercourse. bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: David sought to engage in idol worshipduring Absalom’s coup, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass when David was at the top [ irosh /i] of the ascent, where he would bow to God”(II Samuel 15:32), band irosh /imeans bnothing other than idol worship, as it is stated: “As for that image, its head [ ireishei /i] was of fine gold”(Daniel 2:32).,It is written: b“Behold Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent and earth upon his head”(II Samuel 15:32). Hushai bsaid to David: Shall they say a king like you will engage in idol worship?David bsaid to him:Is it preferable that they say with regard to ba king like me,known to be righteous, that bhis son will kill him?David continued, referring to himself in third person: bIt is preferable that he shall engage in idol worship and the name of Heaven shall not be desecrated in publicthrough the murder of a righteous king in this manner.,Hushai bsaidto him: bWhat is the reasonthat byou married a beautiful woman,the mother of Absalom? David bsaid to him:With regard to ba beautiful woman, the Merciful One permittedmarrying bher.Hushai bsaid to him:But byou did not interpret the juxtaposedverses, bas juxtaposed tothe portion of the beautiful woman is the portion beginning: b“If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son”(Deuteronomy 21:18). From that juxtaposition it is derived: bAnyone who marries a beautiful woman has a stubborn and rebellious son.Therefore, even if Absalom kills you, there will be no desecration of God’s name, as the people will attribute his actions to his mother., bRabbi Dostai from Biri taught: To what is David comparable?He is comparable bto a Samaritan merchant,who incrementally lowers the price until the buyer agrees to purchase the merchandise. bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: “Who can discern his errors”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., forgive me for the unwitting sins that I committed. God bsaid to him: They are forgiven for you.David asked more: b“Cleanse me from hidden faults”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., pardon me for transgressions that I committed in private, even if I performed them intentionally. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Keep back your servant also from intentional sins”(Psalms 19:14). God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Let them not have dominion over me, then I shall be faultless”(Psalms 19:14), and I further request bthat the Sages will not speak of meand condemn me. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you. /b,David requested: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14), meaning bthat my transgressionwith Bathsheba and Uriah bwill not be writtenin the Bible. God bsaid to him:That is bimpossible. And just asthe letter iyodthat I removed fromthe name of bSarai,wife of Abraham, when I changed her name to Sarah, was bstanding and screaming several yearsover its omission from the Bible buntil Joshua came and I addedthe iyod bto hisname, bas it is stated: “And Moses called Hosea, son of Nun, Joshua [ iYehoshua /i]”(Numbers 13:16); bthe entire portionof your transgression, which is fit to be included in the Bible, ball the more soit cannot be omitted.,The verse states: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14). David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, pardon me for that entire sin.God bsaidto him: bYour son Solomon is already destined to say with his wisdom: “Can a man take fire in his lap and his garments not be burned? Can one walk on hot coals and his feet not be scorched? So too one who lies with his neighbor’s wife; anyone who touches her shall not go unpunished”(Proverbs 6:27–29). David bsaid to Him: Will that man,David, bbe expelledfor bthat entiretransgression, with no remedy? God bsaid toDavid: bAccept upon yourself afflictions,and that will atone for your sins. bHe acceptedafflictions bupon himself. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:For bsix months David was afflicted with leprosy and the Divine Presence abandoned him andthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him. He was afflicted with leprosy, as it is stated: “Purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow”(Psalms 51:9), indicating that he required purification like a leper. bThe Divine Presence abandoned him, as it is stated: “Restore me to joy of Your salvation; and uphold me with a willing spirit”(Psalms 51:14). bAndthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him, as it is stated: “Let those who fear You turn to me,and those who have known Your testimonies” (Psalms 119:79). bFrom where do wederive that this lasted for bsix months?It is derived bas it is written: “And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years; /b
37. Anon., Ascension of Isaiah, 9.9



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abarim, mt. Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
abraham, patriarch Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
abraham Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 129; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40; Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 209
adam Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 88, 89, 90, 91
afterlife Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
akedah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 129
allowance, permission (of god or providence) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
angel Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 129
angels of the divine presence, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
apostle, paul Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
aramaic forms of book of tobit, qumran (4q196-199) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77
archetypes, as a source Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111
archetypes, as a vorlage, basic text Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105
aḥiqar, aḥiqar, book of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 209
aḥiqar, integrity Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152
aḥiqar, literary genre Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152
aḥiqar, story of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152
aḥiqar, title Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152
aḥiqar, versions, aramaic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152, 209
aḥiqar, versions, wisdom (maxims, proverbs) of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152
babylonian Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 517; Lunn-Rockliffe, The Letter of Mara bar Sarapion in Context (2007) 76
canaan, canaanite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
christian, early christian, anti-christian, christianity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
circulation Lunn-Rockliffe, The Letter of Mara bar Sarapion in Context (2007) 76
darkness Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84
dead sea scrolls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40
death, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84
debate Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111, 152, 181
demons, demonic, evil spirits Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
demons, in rabbinic literature Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 161
demons, in the babylonian talmud Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 161
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40
devil, satan Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
devil Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40
disease, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77
dispensations, economy (of god), plans (of god) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
divine/heavenly (beings, status) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
divine council Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 88
dominus Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
double treatise Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
doubt Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
drama, structure of, in job, comedy Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96
drama, structure of, in job, tragedy Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96
drama, structure of, in tobit, comedy Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96
drama Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84
egypt Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 129
egyptian Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111
elephantine, account, papyrus, text, version of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152, 209
eschatology Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77
eschaton Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40
esther, book of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 209
eve, statement of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 517
eve Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 91
exile, in assyria Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
exile, post-exile Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94
ezekiel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
fabula, motif Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152
fabula, plot Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96
fabula, theme Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 94, 105, 111, 152, 181
faith, jews Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
faith, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 105, 181
faith, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 94, 98, 105, 111, 181
faith/belief Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 129
faith (belief, fidelity, trust), human Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
faithfulness, fidelity to the law, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 111
family, in odyssey Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152, 181
family, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152, 181
father-son relationship, in odyssey Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
fear of god, in job Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 86, 87, 88, 89
firmament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
foreknowledge (prògnvsiw), anticipate Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
friendship, friend Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
fruit, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 517
god, will of Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40
greco-roman world, culture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
greek epic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 209
hananiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
hayyot Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
hittite (hurrian) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
homer, odysseus, figure, character Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 209
homer, odyssey, circe Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 209
homer, odyssey, themes of plot, home and family affections Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
homer, similarities with respect to odyssey Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 209
homer Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 209
homeric, account Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
homeric, echoes Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
homeric, poem Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
imperium Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
inheritance, moral and religious Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111, 152
innocent suffering of the just man, in ancient near eastern poems Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111, 152
innocent suffering of the just man, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 98, 111, 152
innocent suffering of the just man, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 111
intermediaries, divine, azariah, angel in disguise Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
invocation of death, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84
irony, in job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96
irony, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96, 98
isaac Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 129; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40
israel, ancient Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96, 111, 152
israelites Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105, 181
j source Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 87, 88
jealousy, envy, envious Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
jeremiah, confession of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
jesus christ Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
jew Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
jewish, identity, sensibility Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96
jews, jewish, judaism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
job, autobiography Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94
job, book of, arabisms Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94
job, book of, author Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 84, 94
job, book of, date and place of composition Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94
job, book of, epilogue Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 94, 96, 105, 111, 152
job, book of, formation, history of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 96
job, book of, frame, narrative Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 94
job, book of, friends Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 92
job, book of, irony Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96
job, book of, legend, ancient Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111, 152
job, book of, literary genre Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 96, 111
job, book of, prologue Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 94, 96, 105, 111, 152
job, book of, reader Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 94, 98, 111
job, book of, sources Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111
job, book of, structure and outline Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96, 111
job, book of Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92
job, friends Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 98
job, ignorance Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
job, sons Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 94
job, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 84, 94, 96, 98, 111
job Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40; Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84
jonah, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
jotapata Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
journey, in job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
journey, in odyssey Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152, 181
journey, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98, 105, 152, 181
judith, book of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 209
justice, righteousness, human attribute Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
knowledge, and wisdom Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 92
knowledge, of good and evil Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 91
lamentation, protest, rebellion Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84, 98
latin forms of book of tobit, vetus latina (long) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105
latin forms of book of tobit, vulgate (short) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105
law, torah Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
lectio Lunn-Rockliffe, The Letter of Mara bar Sarapion in Context (2007) 76
literary genres, comedy Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96, 209
literary genres, epos, epic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 209
literary genres, fable Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 209
literary genres, legend Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105, 111, 152
literary genres, novel or roman/romance Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111, 152, 209
literary genres, short story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111, 152, 209
literary genres, tragedy Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84, 96
marriage, endogamic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
martyrs, martyrdom Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
mastema Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 129; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40
matter (ïlh) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
media Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
meier, sam Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 87, 88, 89
merkava xiii–xvi, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
michael Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
military discourse Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
misfortune, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 84
mortality, as edenic humans default state Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 88
moses Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
mythic, mythology (near eastern, semitic), demythologizing Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
narrative, edifying, didactic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 111, 152
narrative, happy ending Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96
narrative, level, structural, narrative Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94
narrative, narrator Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96, 98
narrative, omniscience Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96
narrative, philosophical Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111
narrative, reader Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 98, 111
narrative, supernatural Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
narrative, theological Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111
narrative, wisdom Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152
nathan Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
nature, natural phenomena, wind Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
near east, ancient, literature Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152
nineveh, locus of deportation Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
non-pentateuchal scripture, appeal to Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 223
nostos, νόστος, return home, from babylonia Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152
nostos, νόστος, return home, in odyssey Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
nostos, νόστος, return home, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 152, 181
nostos, νόστος, return home, odysseus Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
oaths Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 223
original core, tale, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105
original core, tale, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105
original textual form, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77
pain, suffering, in babylonian and egyptian poems Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 111, 152
pain, suffering, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 84, 94, 98, 105, 111, 152, 181
pain, suffering, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 94, 105, 111, 181
paradise, pardes, entered pardes Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
patience, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84
patience, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77
patriotism Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
pharaoh Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 129
piety, in job Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 86, 87
possessio Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
prayer, supplication, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77
prayer, supplication, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77
priestly source Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 87
principles (érxæ) (first) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
promise Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 129
prooftexts, non-pentateuchal Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 223
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 129
punishment Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
purpose Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
qumran, fragments of tobit ix Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105
qumran, tradition Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77
rages Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105
rainbow Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
raphael, angel Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96, 98
raphael, expert guide Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
raphael, hired Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
reception history Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 7
relative of tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
religion passim, hymn Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
retribution, traditional doctrine Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84, 94, 96
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
revelation Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
revenge Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 223
rhetoric, allusion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
righteousness, rectitude, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 84
righteousness, rectitude, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96, 152
salvation Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 85
sarah' Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 129
sarah, story of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96
sargon ii, śāṭān, tempter Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 98
satan, in rabbinic literature Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 161
satan Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 86, 87, 88; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 517; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40
sea of glass Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
second temple period, jewry, tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
seow, c. l. Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 7
serpent Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 88
seruitium Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
shelemiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
sheol Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84
sins, sinful, sinners Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
son of david Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
son of god, gods chosen, jesus divine sonship, jesus as son of god Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
son of god, gods chosen Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
sons of god, sons of heaven Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
speeches Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
structuralist, analysis, function, narrative Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94
suffering. pain, θλῖψις, θλίβειν, senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105, 181
suffering. pain, λύπη, λυπεῖν, senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105, 111, 181
suffering. pain, ḥālaṣ Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105
suicide Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
temple Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
testament of eve Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 517
theology Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 254
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
tobiah, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
tobit, author x Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 96, 98, 105, 181
tobit, autobiography Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94
tobit, formation, history of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94
tobit, frame, historical Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 209
tobit, integrity Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105
tobit, legend, ancient Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 105
tobit, literary genre Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96, 111
tobit, narrator Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96, 98
tobit, plot Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 96, 111
tobit, reader Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 98
tobit, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 94, 96, 98, 111, 152
tobit, structure and outline Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 111
tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77
torah, and askesis Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 161
traditional, version Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77
tree Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 517
trials, provocations, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 84
tribulation Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 181
tummah Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 90
ugaritic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 81
virtues Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
vision Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 88; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
vision of merkava Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 74
wicked Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40
will, volition, freedom of will Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
will, volition Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 58
wisdom, traditional Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84, 181
wisdom Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 40
worship, angels (angelic), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 517
worship Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 517
yhwh, in job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 84, 111
yhwh, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77, 111
yhwh, justice of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 94, 111
yhwh, mercy, providence Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77
ἐλεημοσύνη (elemosyna), senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 77