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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6288
Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 53


nanBut he was wounded because of our transgressions, He was crushed because of our iniquities: The chastisement of our welfare was upon him, And with his stripes we were healed.,Yet it pleased the LORD to crush him by disease; To see if his soul would offer itself in restitution, That he might see his seed, prolong his days, And that the purpose of the LORD might prosper by his hand:,Surely our diseases he did bear, and our pains he carried; Whereas we did esteem him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted.,He was despised, and forsaken of men, A man of pains, and acquainted with disease, And as one from whom men hide their face: He was despised, and we esteemed him not.,Therefore will I divide him a portion among the great, And he shall divide the spoil with the mighty; Because he bared his soul unto death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet he bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors.,And they made his grave with the wicked, And with the rich his tomb; Although he had done no violence, Neither was any deceit in his mouth.’,By oppression and judgment he was taken away, And with his generation who did reason? For he was cut off out of the land of the living, For the transgression of my people to whom the stroke was due.,All we like sheep did go astray, We turned every one to his own way; And the LORD hath made to light on him The iniquity of us all.,'Who would have believed our report? And to whom hath the arm of the LORD been revealed?,Of the travail of his soul he shall see to the full, even My servant, Who by his knowledge did justify the Righteous One to the many, And their iniquities he did bear.,He was oppressed, though he humbled himself And opened not his mouth; As a lamb that is led to the slaughter, And as a sheep that before her shearers is dumb; Yea, he opened not his mouth.,For he shot up right forth as a sapling, And as a root out of a dry ground; He had no form nor comeliness, that we should look upon him, Nor beauty that we should delight in him.


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1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4-6.5, 18.15, 21.8, 22.12, 29.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 18.15. נָבִיא מִקִּרְבְּךָ מֵאַחֶיךָ כָּמֹנִי יָקִים לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן׃ 21.8. כַּפֵּר לְעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־פָּדִיתָ יְהוָה וְאַל־תִּתֵּן דָּם נָקִי בְּקֶרֶב עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִכַּפֵּר לָהֶם הַדָּם׃ 22.12. גְּדִלִים תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע כַּנְפוֹת כְּסוּתְךָ אֲשֶׁר תְּכַסֶּה־בָּהּ׃ 29.4. וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בַּמִּדְבָּר לֹא־בָלוּ שַׂלְמֹתֵיכֶם מֵעֲלֵיכֶם וְנַעַלְךָ לֹא־בָלְתָה מֵעַל רַגְלֶךָ׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 18.15. A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;" 21.8. Forgive, O LORD, Thy people Israel, whom Thou hast redeemed, and suffer not innocent blood to remain in the midst of Thy people Israel.’ And the blood shall be forgiven them." 22.12. Thou shalt make thee twisted cords upon the four corners of thy covering, wherewith thou coverest thyself." 29.4. And I have led you forty years in the wilderness; your clothes are not waxen old upon you, and thy shoe is not waxen old upon thy foot."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.5, 12.2, 12.11, 12.42, 19.6, 23.20, 24.4-24.8, 32.32, 34.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.5. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּקְרַב הֲלֹם שַׁל־נְעָלֶיךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶיךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עוֹמֵד עָלָיו אַדְמַת־קֹדֶשׁ הוּא׃ 12.2. כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 12.2. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃ 12.11. וְכָכָה תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים נַעֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמַקֶּלְכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 12.42. לֵיל שִׁמֻּרִים הוּא לַיהוָה לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם הוּא־הַלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה לַיהוָה שִׁמֻּרִים לְכָל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְדֹרֹתָם׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.6. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 32.32. וְעַתָּה אִם־תִּשָּׂא חַטָּאתָם וְאִם־אַיִן מְחֵנִי נָא מִסִּפְרְךָ אֲשֶׁר כָּתָבְתָּ׃ 34.7. נֹצֵר חֶסֶד לָאֲלָפִים נֹשֵׂא עָוֺן וָפֶשַׁע וְחַטָּאָה וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־בְּנֵי בָנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים׃ 3.5. And He said: ‘Draw not nigh hither; put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.’" 12.2. ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you." 12.11. And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste—it is the LORD’s passover." 12.42. It was a night of watching unto the LORD for bringing them out from the land of Egypt; this same night is a night of watching unto the LORD for all the children of Israel throughout their generations." 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’" 23.20. Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared." 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.6. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’" 32.32. Yet now, if Thou wilt forgive their sin—; and if not, blot me, I pray Thee, out of Thy book which Thou hast written.’" 34.7. keeping mercy unto the thousandth generation, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin; and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and unto the fourth generation.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2, 1.26, 13.10, 14.2, 14.8, 14.23, 18.24, 19.22-19.23, 19.30, 28.12, 34.3, 50.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 14.2. עָשׂוּ מִלְחָמָה אֶת־בֶּרַע מֶלֶךְ סְדֹם וְאֶת־בִּרְשַׁע מֶלֶךְ עֲמֹרָה שִׁנְאָב מֶלֶךְ אַדְמָה וְשֶׁמְאֵבֶר מֶלֶךְ צביים [צְבוֹיִים] וּמֶלֶךְ בֶּלַע הִיא־צֹעַר׃ 14.2. וּבָרוּךְ אֵל עֶלְיוֹן אֲשֶׁר־מִגֵּן צָרֶיךָ בְּיָדֶךָ וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ מַעֲשֵׂר מִכֹּל׃ 14.8. וַיֵּצֵא מֶלֶךְ־סְדֹם וּמֶלֶךְ עֲמֹרָה וּמֶלֶךְ אַדְמָה וּמֶלֶךְ צביים [צְבוֹיִם] וּמֶלֶךְ בֶּלַע הִוא־צֹעַר וַיַּעַרְכוּ אִתָּם מִלְחָמָה בְּעֵמֶק הַשִּׂדִּים׃ 14.23. אִם־מִחוּט וְעַד שְׂרוֹךְ־נַעַל וְאִם־אֶקַּח מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ וְלֹא תֹאמַר אֲנִי הֶעֱשַׁרְתִּי אֶת־אַבְרָם׃ 18.24. אוּלַי יֵשׁ חֲמִשִּׁים צַדִּיקִם בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר הַאַף תִּסְפֶּה וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא לַמָּקוֹם לְמַעַן חֲמִשִּׁים הַצַּדִּיקִם אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבָּהּ׃ 19.22. מַהֵר הִמָּלֵט שָׁמָּה כִּי לֹא אוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר עַד־בֹּאֲךָ שָׁמָּה עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שֵׁם־הָעִיר צוֹעַר׃ 19.23. הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יָצָא עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְלוֹט בָּא צֹעֲרָה׃ 28.12. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ׃ 34.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב אֶל־שִׁמְעוֹן וְאֶל־לֵוִי עֲכַרְתֶּם אֹתִי לְהַבְאִישֵׁנִי בְּיֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ בַּכְּנַעֲנִי וּבַפְּרִזִּי וַאֲנִי מְתֵי מִסְפָּר וְנֶאֶסְפוּ עָלַי וְהִכּוּנִי וְנִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי׃ 34.3. וַתִּדְבַּק נַפְשׁוֹ בְּדִינָה בַּת־יַעֲקֹב וַיֶּאֱהַב אֶת־הַנַּעֲרָ וַיְדַבֵּר עַל־לֵב הַנַּעֲרָ׃ 50.17. כֹּה־תֹאמְרוּ לְיוֹסֵף אָנָּא שָׂא נָא פֶּשַׁע אַחֶיךָ וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי־רָעָה גְמָלוּךָ וְעַתָּה שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע עַבְדֵי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ וַיֵּבְךְּ יוֹסֵף בְּדַבְּרָם אֵלָיו׃ 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 13.10. And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of the Jordan, that it was well watered every where, before the LORD destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, like the garden of the LORD, like the land of Egypt, as thou goest unto Zoar." 14.2. that they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela—the same is Zoar." 14.8. And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela—the same is Zoar; and they set the battle in array against them in the vale of Siddim;" 14.23. that I will not take a thread nor a shoe-latchet nor aught that is thine, lest thou shouldest say: I have made Abram rich;" 18.24. Peradventure there are fifty righteous within the city; wilt Thou indeed sweep away and not forgive the place for the fifty righteous that are therein?" 19.22. Hasten thou, escape thither; for I cannot do any thing till thou be come thither.’—Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar.—" 19.23. The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot came unto Zoar." 19.30. And Lot went up out of Zoar, and dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters with him; for he feared to dwell in Zoar; and he dwelt in a cave, he and his two daughters." 28.12. And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it." 34.3. And his soul did cleave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spoke comfortingly unto the damsel." 50.17. So shall ye say unto Joseph: Forgive, I pray thee now, the transgression of thy brethren, and their sin, for that they did unto thee evil. And now, we pray thee, forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of thy father.’ And Joseph wept when they spoke unto him."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.2. יְחַיֵּנוּ מִיֹּמָיִם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יְקִמֵנוּ וְנִחְיֶה לְפָנָיו׃ 6.2. After two days will He revive us, On the third day He will raise us up, that we may live in His presence."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.3-1.17, 5.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. אִם־עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן־הַבָּקָר זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יַקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לִרְצֹנוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 1.4. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הָעֹלָה וְנִרְצָה לוֹ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו׃ 1.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־בֶּן הַבָּקָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 1.6. וְהִפְשִׁיט אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְנִתַּח אֹתָהּ לִנְתָחֶיהָ׃ 1.7. וְנָתְנוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן אֵשׁ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְעָרְכוּ עֵצִים עַל־הָאֵשׁ׃ 1.8. וְעָרְכוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֵת הַנְּתָחִים אֶת־הָרֹאשׁ וְאֶת־הַפָּדֶר עַל־הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 1.9. וְקִרְבּוֹ וּכְרָעָיו יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַכֹּל הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עֹלָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ־נִיחוֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 1.11. וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ עַל יֶרֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ צָפֹנָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְזָרְקוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־דָּמוֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב׃ 1.12. וְנִתַּח אֹתוֹ לִנְתָחָיו וְאֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וְאֶת־פִּדְרוֹ וְעָרַךְ הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָם עַל־הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 1.13. וְהַקֶּרֶב וְהַכְּרָעַיִם יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וְהִקְרִיב הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַכֹּל וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עֹלָה הוּא אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 1.14. וְאִם מִן־הָעוֹף עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה וְהִקְרִיב מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ׃ 1.15. וְהִקְרִיבוֹ הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמָלַק אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְנִמְצָה דָמוֹ עַל קִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 1.16. וְהֵסִיר אֶת־מֻרְאָתוֹ בְּנֹצָתָהּ וְהִשְׁלִיךְ אֹתָהּ אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ קֵדְמָה אֶל־מְקוֹם הַדָּשֶׁן׃ 1.17. וְשִׁסַּע אֹתוֹ בִכְנָפָיו לֹא יַבְדִּיל וְהִקְטִיר אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל־הָעֵצִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאֵשׁ עֹלָה הוּא אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 5.1. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.1. וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 1.3. If his offering be a burnt-offering of the herd, he shall offer it a male without blemish; he shall bring it to the door of the tent of meeting, that he may be accepted before the LORD." 1.4. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him." 1.5. And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall present the blood, and dash the blood round about against the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting." 1.6. And he shall flay the burnt-offering, and cut it into its pieces." 1.7. And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar, and lay wood in order upon the fire." 1.8. And Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall lay the pieces, and the head, and the suet, in order upon the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar;" 1.9. but its inwards and its legs shall he wash with water; and the priest shall make the whole smoke on the altar, for a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 1.10. And if his offering be of the flock, whether of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt-offering, he shall offer it a male without blemish." 1.11. And he shall kill it on the side of the altar northward before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall dash its blood against the altar round about." 1.12. And he shall cut it into its pieces; and the priest shall lay them, with its head and its suet, in order on the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar." 1.13. But the inwards and the legs shall he wash with water; and the priest shall offer the whole, and make it smoke upon the altar; it is a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 1.14. And if his offering to the LORD be a burnt-offering of fowls, then he shall bring his offering of turtle-doves, or of young pigeons." 1.15. And the priest shall bring it unto the altar, and pinch off its head, and make it smoke on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be drained out on the side of the altar." 1.16. And he shall take away its crop with the feathers thereof, and cast it beside the altar on the east part, in the place of the ashes." 1.17. And he shall rend it by the wings thereof, but shall not divide it asunder; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar, upon the wood that is upon the fire; it is a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD." 5.1. And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.1, 4.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. הָבִיאוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אֶל־בֵּית הָאוֹצָר וִיהִי טֶרֶף בְּבֵיתִי וּבְחָנוּנִי נָא בָּזֹאת אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אִם־לֹא אֶפְתַּח לָכֶם אֵת אֲרֻבּוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וַהֲרִיקֹתִי לָכֶם בְּרָכָה עַד־בְּלִי־דָי׃ 3.1. הִנְנִי שֹׁלֵחַ מַלְאָכִי וּפִנָּה־דֶרֶךְ לְפָנָי וּפִתְאֹם יָבוֹא אֶל־הֵיכָלוֹ הָאָדוֹן אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מְבַקְשִׁים וּמַלְאַךְ הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם חֲפֵצִים הִנֵּה־בָא אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 3.1. Behold, I send My messenger, and he shall clear the way before Me; and the Lord, whom ye seek, will suddenly come to His temple, and the messenger of the covet, Whom ye delight in, Behold, he cometh, Saith the LORD of hosts."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 14.18, 15.38, 20.7-20.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.18. יְהוָה אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד נֹשֵׂא עָוֺן וָפָשַׁע וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים׃ 15.38. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃ 20.7. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 20.8. קַח אֶת־הַמַּטֶּה וְהַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעֵדָה אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְדִבַּרְתֶּם אֶל־הַסֶּלַע לְעֵינֵיהֶם וְנָתַן מֵימָיו וְהוֹצֵאתָ לָהֶם מַיִם מִן־הַסֶּלַע וְהִשְׁקִיתָ אֶת־הָעֵדָה וְאֶת־בְּעִירָם׃ 20.9. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּטֶּה מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּהוּ׃ 20.11. וַיָּרֶם מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיַּךְ אֶת־הַסֶּלַע בְּמַטֵּהוּ פַּעֲמָיִם וַיֵּצְאוּ מַיִם רַבִּים וַתֵּשְׁתְּ הָעֵדָה וּבְעִירָם׃ 20.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן יַעַן לֹא־הֶאֱמַנְתֶּם בִּי לְהַקְדִּישֵׁנִי לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָכֵן לֹא תָבִיאוּ אֶת־הַקָּהָל הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתִּי לָהֶם׃ 20.13. הֵמָּה מֵי מְרִיבָה אֲשֶׁר־רָבוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־יְהוָה וַיִּקָּדֵשׁ בָּם׃ 14.18. The LORD is slow to anger, and plenteous in lovingkindness, forgiving iniquity and transgression, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, upon the third and upon the fourth generation." 15.38. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue." 20.7. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 20.8. ’Take the rod, and assemble the congregation, thou, and Aaron thy brother, and speak ye unto the rock before their eyes, that it give forth its water; and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of the rock; so thou shalt give the congregation and their cattle drink.’" 20.9. And Moses took the rod from before the LORD, as He commanded him." 20.10. And Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together before the rock, and he said unto them: ‘Hear now, ye rebels; are we to bring you forth water out of this rock?’" 20.11. And Moses lifted up his hand, and smote the rock with his rod twice; and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their cattle." 20.12. And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron: ‘Because ye believed not in Me, to sanctify Me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them.’" 20.13. These are the waters of Meribah, where the children of Israel strove with the LORD, and He was sanctified in them."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.1-2.2, 16.10, 32.1, 75.12-75.13, 107.16, 109.3, 110.1, 110.4, 118.25-118.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וְעַתָּה מְלָכִים הַשְׂכִּילוּ הִוָּסְרוּ שֹׁפְטֵי אָרֶץ׃ 2.1. לָמָּה רָגְשׁוּ גוֹיִם וּלְאֻמִּים יֶהְגּוּ־רִיק׃ 2.2. יִתְיַצְּבוּ מַלְכֵי־אֶרֶץ וְרוֹזְנִים נוֹסְדוּ־יָחַד עַל־יְהוָה וְעַל־מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 32.1. רַבִּים מַכְאוֹבִים לָרָשָׁע וְהַבּוֹטֵחַ בַּיהוָה חֶסֶד יְסוֹבְבֶנּוּ׃ 32.1. לְדָוִד מַשְׂכִּיל אַשְׁרֵי נְשׂוּי־פֶּשַׁע כְּסוּי חֲטָאָה׃ 107.16. כִּי־שִׁבַּר דַּלְתוֹת נְחֹשֶׁת וּבְרִיחֵי בַרְזֶל גִּדֵּעַ׃ 109.3. אוֹדֶה יְהוָה מְאֹד בְּפִי וּבְתוֹךְ רַבִּים אֲהַלְלֶנּוּ׃ 109.3. וְדִבְרֵי שִׂנְאָה סְבָבוּנִי וַיִּלָּחֲמוּנִי חִנָּם׃ 110.1. לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃ 110.4. נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה־כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל־דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק׃ 118.25. אָנָּא יְהוָה הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא אָנָּא יְהוָה הַצְלִיחָה נָּא׃ 118.26. בָּרוּךְ הַבָּא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה בֵּרַכְנוּכֶם מִבֵּית יְהוָה׃ 2.1. Why are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain?" 2.2. The kings of the earth stand up, And the rulers take counsel together, Against the LORD, and against His anointed:" 16.10. For Thou wilt not abandon my soul to the nether-world; Neither wilt Thou suffer Thy godly one to see the pit." 32.1. [A Psalm] of David. Maschil. Happy is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is pardoned." 107.16. For He hath broken the gates of brass, And cut the bars of iron in sunder." 109.3. They compassed me about also with words of hatred, And fought against me without a cause." 110.1. A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" 110.4. The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent: 'Thou art a priest for ever After the manner of Melchizedek.'" 118.25. We beseech Thee, O LORD, save now! We beseech Thee, O LORD, make us now to prosper!" 118.26. Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the LORD; We bless you out of the house of the LORD."
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.12, 24.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.12. כִּי יִמְלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ וְשָׁכַבְתָּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִי אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ׃ 24.17. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יְהוָה בִּרְאֹתוֹ אֶת־הַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּכֶּה בָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי חָטָאתִי וְאָנֹכִי הֶעֱוֵיתִי וְאֵלֶּה הַצֹּאן מֶה עָשׂוּ תְּהִי נָא יָדְךָ בִּי וּבְבֵית אָבִי׃ 7.12. And when the days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall issue from thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom." 24.17. And David spoke to the Lord when he saw the angel that smote the people, and said, Lo, I have sinned, and I have done perversely: but these sheep, what have they done? let Thy hand, I pray Thee, be against me, and against my father’s house."
11. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 2.6, 5.2, 8.6 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.6. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּשְׁעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָה לֹא אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ עַל־מִכְרָם בַּכֶּסֶף צַדִּיק וְאֶבְיוֹן בַּעֲבוּר נַעֲלָיִם׃ 8.6. לִקְנוֹת בַּכֶּסֶף דַּלִּים וְאֶבְיוֹן בַּעֲבוּר נַעֲלָיִם וּמַפַּל בַּר נַשְׁבִּיר׃ 2.6. Thus saith the LORD: For three transgressions of Israel, Yea, for four, I will not reverse it: Because they sell the righteous for silver, And the needy for a pair of shoes;" 8.6. That we may buy the poor for silver, And the needy for a pair of shoes, And sell the refuse of the corn?’"
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1, 1.26, 2, 3, 4, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 5, 6, 6.9, 6.10, 8, 9, 9.11, 9.14, 10, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 13, 14, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 15, 16, 17, 17.6, 18, 19, 19.16, 19.17, 19.18, 19.19, 19.20, 19.21, 19.22, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 24.21, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 35, 35.8, 36, 37, 38, 40, 40.1, 40.2, 40.3, 40.4, 40.5, 40.6, 40.7, 40.8, 40.9, 40.10, 40.11, 40.12, 40.13, 40.14, 40.15, 40.16, 40.17, 40.18, 40.19, 40.20, 40.21, 40.22, 40.23, 40.28, 41, 41.4, 41.22, 42, 42.1, 42.4, 42.5, 42.6, 42.9, 43, 43.1, 43.3, 43.6, 43.12, 43.13, 44, 44.8, 44.26, 45, 45.5, 45.14, 45.15, 45.16, 45.17, 45.19, 45.21, 45.23, 46, 46.10, 46.11, 47, 48, 48.13, 49, 49.6, 49.11, 49.12, 49.14, 49.22, 49.23, 49.25, 50, 50.2, 51, 51.9, 51.10, 51.12, 51.13, 51.15, 51.16, 51.17, 51.18, 52, 52.1, 52.2, 52.3, 52.4, 52.7, 52.8, 52.9, 52.11, 52.12, 52.13-53.12, 53.1, 53.7, 53.10, 53.11, 53.12, 54, 54.1, 54.4, 54.8, 54.11, 55, 55.8, 55.9, 55.10, 55.11, 56, 56.1, 56.3, 56.6, 56.7, 56.8, 57, 57.3, 57.4, 57.5, 57.6, 57.7, 57.8, 57.9, 57.13, 58, 59, 59.21, 60, 60.1, 60.2, 60.3, 60.4, 60.5, 60.6, 60.7, 60.8, 60.9, 60.10, 60.11, 60.12, 60.13, 60.14, 60.19, 60.20, 60.21, 60.22, 61, 61.1, 61.6, 61.10, 62, 62.1, 62.2, 62.3, 62.4, 62.8, 62.9, 62.10, 62.11, 62.12, 63, 63.1, 63.2, 63.3, 63.4, 63.5, 63.6, 64, 65, 66 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.11-3.14, 3.16-3.17, 4.23, 28.2-28.14, 31.21, 31.27-31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי צִדְּקָה נַפְשָׁהּ מְשֻׁבָה יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבֹּגֵדָה יְהוּדָה׃ 3.12. הָלֹךְ וְקָרָאתָ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה צָפוֹנָה וְאָמַרְתָּ שׁוּבָה מְשֻׁבָה יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם־יְהוָה לוֹא־אַפִּיל פָּנַי בָּכֶם כִּי־חָסִיד אֲנִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה לֹא אֶטּוֹר לְעוֹלָם׃ 3.13. אַךְ דְּעִי עֲוֺנֵךְ כִּי בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהַיִךְ פָּשָׁעַתְּ וַתְּפַזְּרִי אֶת־דְּרָכַיִךְ לַזָּרִים תַּחַת כָּל־עֵץ רַעֲנָן וּבְקוֹלִי לֹא־שְׁמַעְתֶּם נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה׃ 3.14. שׁוּבוּ בָנִים שׁוֹבָבִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָכֶם וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם אֶחָד מֵעִיר וּשְׁנַיִם מִמִּשְׁפָּחָה וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם צִיּוֹן׃ 3.16. וְהָיָה כִּי תִרְבּוּ וּפְרִיתֶם בָּאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה לֹא־יֹאמְרוּ עוֹד אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה וְלֹא יַעֲלֶה עַל־לֵב וְלֹא יִזְכְּרוּ־בוֹ וְלֹא יִפְקֹדוּ וְלֹא יֵעָשֶׂה עוֹד׃ 3.17. בָּעֵת הַהִיא יִקְרְאוּ לִירוּשָׁלִַם כִּסֵּא יְהוָה וְנִקְוּוּ אֵלֶיהָ כָל־הַגּוֹיִם לְשֵׁם יְהוָה לִירוּשָׁלִָם וְלֹא־יֵלְכוּ עוֹד אַחֲרֵי שְׁרִרוּת לִבָּם הָרָע׃ 4.23. רָאִיתִי אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה־תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְאֶל־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵין אוֹרָם׃ 28.2. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר שָׁבַרְתִּי אֶת־עֹל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃ 28.3. בְּעוֹד שְׁנָתַיִם יָמִים אֲנִי מֵשִׁיב אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֶת־כָּל־כְּלֵי בֵּית יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לָקַח נְבוּכַדנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיְבִיאֵם בָּבֶל׃ 28.4. וְאֶת־יְכָנְיָה בֶן־יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־כָּל־גָּלוּת יְהוּדָה הַבָּאִים בָּבֶלָה אֲנִי מֵשִׁיב אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶשְׁבֹּר אֶת־עֹל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל׃ 28.5. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא אֶל־חֲנַנְיָה הַנָּבִיא לְעֵינֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם הָעֹמְדִים בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 28.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא אָמֵן כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה יָקֵם יְהוָה אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִבֵּאתָ לְהָשִׁיב כְּלֵי בֵית־יְהוָה וְכָל־הַגּוֹלָה מִבָּבֶל אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 28.7. אַךְ־שְׁמַע־נָא הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי דֹּבֵר בְּאָזְנֶיךָ וּבְאָזְנֵי כָּל־הָעָם׃ 28.8. הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנַי וּלְפָנֶיךָ מִן־הָעוֹלָם וַיִּנָּבְאוּ אֶל־אֲרָצוֹת רַבּוֹת וְעַל־מַמְלָכוֹת גְּדֹלוֹת לְמִלְחָמָה וּלְרָעָה וּלְדָבֶר׃ 28.9. הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר יִנָּבֵא לְשָׁלוֹם בְּבֹא דְּבַר הַנָּבִיא יִוָּדַע הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר־שְׁלָחוֹ יְהוָה בֶּאֱמֶת׃ 28.11. וַיֹּאמֶר חֲנַנְיָה לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה כָּכָה אֶשְׁבֹּר אֶת־עֹל נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל בְּעוֹד שְׁנָתַיִם יָמִים מֵעַל צַוַּאר כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם וַיֵּלֶךְ יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא לְדַרְכּוֹ׃ 28.12. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יִרְמְיָה אַחֲרֵי שְׁבוֹר חֲנַנְיָה הַנָּבִיא אֶת־הַמּוֹטָה מֵעַל צַוַּאר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא לֵאמֹר׃ 28.13. הָלוֹךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־חֲנַנְיָה לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה מוֹטֹת עֵץ שָׁבָרְתָּ וְעָשִׂיתָ תַחְתֵּיהֶן מֹטוֹת בַּרְזֶל׃ 28.14. כִּי כֹה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹל בַּרְזֶל נָתַתִּי עַל־צַוַּאר כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲבֹד אֶת־נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וַעֲבָדֻהוּ וְגַם אֶת־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה נָתַתִּי לוֹ׃ 31.21. הַצִּיבִי לָךְ צִיֻּנִים שִׂמִי לָךְ תַּמְרוּרִים שִׁתִי לִבֵּךְ לַמְסִלָּה דֶּרֶךְ הלכתי [הָלָכְתְּ] שׁוּבִי בְּתוּלַת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֻׁבִי אֶל־עָרַיִךְ אֵלֶּה׃ 31.27. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְזָרַעְתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה זֶרַע אָדָם וְזֶרַע בְּהֵמָה׃ 31.28. וְהָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׁקַדְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם לִנְתוֹשׁ וְלִנְתוֹץ וְלַהֲרֹס וּלְהַאֲבִיד וּלְהָרֵעַ כֵּן אֶשְׁקֹד עֲלֵיהֶם לִבְנוֹת וְלִנְטוֹעַ נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.29. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם לֹא־יֹאמְרוּ עוֹד אָבוֹת אָכְלוּ בֹסֶר וְשִׁנֵּי בָנִים תִּקְהֶינָה׃ 31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃ 3.11. even the LORD said unto me—backsliding Israel hath proved herself more righteous than treacherous Judah." 3.12. Go, and proclaim these words toward the north, and say: Return, thou backsliding Israel, Saith the LORD; I will not frown upon you; For I am merciful, saith the LORD, I will not bear grudge for ever." 3.13. Only acknowledge thine iniquity, That thou hast transgressed against the LORD thy God, And hast scattered thy ways to the strangers Under every leafy tree, And ye have not hearkened to My voice, Saith the LORD." 3.14. Return, O backsliding children, saith the LORD; for I am a lord unto you, and I will take you one of a city, and two of a family, and I will bring you to Zion;" 3.16. And it shall come to pass, when ye are multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, saith the LORD, they shall say no more: The ark of the covet of the LORD; neither shall it come to mind; neither shall they make mention of it; neither shall they miss it; neither shall it be made any more." 3.17. At that time they shall call Jerusalem The throne of the LORD; and all the nations shall be gathered unto it, to the name of the LORD, to Jerusalem; neither shall they walk any more after the stubbornness of their evil heart." 4.23. I beheld the earth, And, lo, it was waste and void; And the heavens, and they had no light. ." 28.2. ’Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saying: I have broken the yoke of the king of Babylon." 28.3. Within two full years will I bring back into this place all the vessels of the LORD’S house, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon took away from this place, and carried them to Babylon;" 28.4. and I will bring back to this place Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, with all the captives of Judah, that went to Babylon, saith the LORD; for I will break the yoke of the king of Babylon.’" 28.5. Then the prophet Jeremiah said unto the prophet Haiah in the presence of the priests, and in the presence of all the people that stood in the house of the LORD," 28.6. even the prophet Jeremiah said: ‘Amen! the LORD do so! the LORD perform thy words which thou hast prophesied, to bring back the vessels of the LORD’S house, and all them that are carried away captive, from Babylon unto this place!" 28.7. Nevertheless hear thou now this word that I speak in thine ears, and in the ears of all the people:" 28.8. The prophets that have been before me and before thee of old prophesied against many countries, and against great kingdoms, of war, and of evil, and of pestilence." 28.9. The prophet that prophesieth of peace, when the word of the prophet shall come to pass, then shall the prophet be known, that the LORD hath truly sent him.’" 28.10. Then Haiah the prophet took the bar from off the prophet Jeremiah’s neck, and broke it." 28.11. And Haiah spoke in the presence of all the people, saying: ‘Thus saith the LORD: Even so will I break the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon from off the neck of all the nations within two full years.’ And the prophet Jeremiah went his way." 28.12. Then the word of the LORD came unto Jeremiah, after that Haiah the prophet had broken the bar from off the neck of the prophet Jeremiah, saying:" 28.13. ’Go, and tell Haiah, saying: Thus saith the LORD: Thou hast broken the bars of wood; but thou shalt make in their stead bars of iron." 28.14. For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: I have put a yoke of iron upon the neck of all these nations, that they may serve Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; and they shall serve him; and I have given him the beasts of the field also.’ ." 31.21. Set thee up waymarks, Make thee guide-posts; Set thy heart toward the high-way, Even the way by which thou wentest; Return, O virgin of Israel, Return to these thy cities." 31.27. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast." 31.28. And it shall come to pass, that like as I have watched over them to pluck up and to break down, and to overthrow and to destroy, and to afflict; so will I watch over them to build and to plant, saith the LORD." 31.29. In those days they shall say no more: ‘The fathers have eaten sour grapes, And the children’s teeth are set on edge.’" 31.30. But every one shall die for his own iniquity; every man that eateth the sour grapes, his teeth shall be set on edge." 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;" 31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more."
14. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 5.15, 9.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.15. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׂר־צְבָא יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שַׁל־נַעַלְךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹמֵד עָלָיו קֹדֶשׁ הוּא וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כֵּן׃ 9.5. וּנְעָלוֹת בָּלוֹת וּמְטֻלָּאוֹת בְּרַגְלֵיהֶם וּשְׂלָמוֹת בָּלוֹת עֲלֵיהֶם וְכֹל לֶחֶם צֵידָם יָבֵשׁ הָיָה נִקֻּדִים׃ 5.15. And the captain of the LORD’S host said unto Joshua: ‘Put off thy shoe from off thy foot; for the place whereon thou standest is holy.’ And Joshua did so." 9.5. and worn shoes and clouted upon their feet, and worn garments upon them; and all the bread of their provision was dry and was become crumbs."
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 18.20, 28.1-28.19, 37.15-37.28 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28.1. מוֹתֵי עֲרֵלִים תָּמוּת בְּיַד־זָרִים כִּי אֲנִי דִבַּרְתִּי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 28.1. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 28.2. בֶּן־אָדָם אֱמֹר לִנְגִיד צֹר כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה יַעַן גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ וַתֹּאמֶר אֵל אָנִי מוֹשַׁב אֱלֹהִים יָשַׁבְתִּי בְּלֵב יַמִּים וְאַתָּה אָדָם וְלֹא־אֵל וַתִּתֵּן לִבְּךָ כְּלֵב אֱלֹהִים׃ 28.2. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 28.3. הִנֵּה חָכָם אַתָּה מדנאל [מִדָּנִיֵּאל] כָּל־סָתוּם לֹא עֲמָמוּךָ׃ 28.4. בְּחָכְמָתְךָ וּבִתְבוּנָתְךָ עָשִׂיתָ לְּךָ חָיִל וַתַּעַשׂ זָהָב וָכֶסֶף בְּאוֹצְרוֹתֶיךָ׃ 28.5. בְּרֹב חָכְמָתְךָ בִּרְכֻלָּתְךָ הִרְבִּיתָ חֵילֶךָ וַיִּגְבַּהּ לְבָבְךָ בְּחֵילֶךָ׃ 28.6. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעַן תִּתְּךָ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ כְּלֵב אֱלֹהִים׃ 28.7. לָכֵן הִנְנִי מֵבִיא עָלֶיךָ זָרִים עָרִיצֵי גּוֹיִם וְהֵרִיקוּ חַרְבוֹתָם עַל־יְפִי חָכְמָתֶךָ וְחִלְּלוּ יִפְעָתֶךָ׃ 28.8. לַשַּׁחַת יוֹרִדוּךָ וָמַתָּה מְמוֹתֵי חָלָל בְּלֵב יַמִּים׃ 28.9. הֶאָמֹר תֹּאמַר אֱלֹהִים אָנִי לִפְנֵי הֹרְגֶךָ וְאַתָּה אָדָם וְלֹא־אֵל בְּיַד מְחַלְלֶיךָ׃ 28.11. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 28.12. בֶּן־אָדָם שָׂא קִינָה עַל־מֶלֶךְ צוֹר וְאָמַרְתָּ לּוֹ כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה חוֹתֵם תָּכְנִית מָלֵא חָכְמָה וּכְלִיל יֹפִי׃ 28.13. בְּעֵדֶן גַּן־אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ כָּל־אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וְיָהֲלֹם תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֵה סַפִּיר נֹפֶךְ וּבָרְקַת וְזָהָב מְלֶאכֶת תֻּפֶּיךָ וּנְקָבֶיךָ בָּךְ בְּיוֹם הִבָּרַאֲךָ כּוֹנָנוּ׃ 28.14. אַתְּ־כְּרוּב מִמְשַׁח הַסּוֹכֵךְ וּנְתַתִּיךָ בְּהַר קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ בְּתוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ הִתְהַלָּכְתָּ׃ 28.15. תָּמִים אַתָּה בִּדְרָכֶיךָ מִיּוֹם הִבָּרְאָךְ עַד־נִמְצָא עַוְלָתָה בָּךְ׃ 28.16. בְּרֹב רְכֻלָּתְךָ מָלוּ תוֹכְךָ חָמָס וַתֶּחֱטָא וָאֶחַלֶּלְךָ מֵהַר אֱלֹהִים וָאַבֶּדְךָ כְּרוּב הַסֹּכֵךְ מִתּוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ׃ 28.17. גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ בְּיָפְיֶךָ שִׁחַתָּ חָכְמָתְךָ עַל־יִפְעָתֶךָ עַל־אֶרֶץ הִשְׁלַכְתִּיךָ לִפְנֵי מְלָכִים נְתַתִּיךָ לְרַאֲוָה בָךְ׃ 28.18. מֵרֹב עֲוֺנֶיךָ בְּעֶוֶל רְכֻלָּתְךָ חִלַּלְתָּ מִקְדָּשֶׁיךָ וָאוֹצִא־אֵשׁ מִתּוֹכְךָ הִיא אֲכָלַתְךָ וָאֶתֶּנְךָ לְאֵפֶר עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְעֵינֵי כָּל־רֹאֶיךָ׃ 28.19. כָּל־יוֹדְעֶיךָ בָּעַמִּים שָׁמְמוּ עָלֶיךָ בַּלָּהוֹת הָיִיתָ וְאֵינְךָ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 37.15. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 37.16. וְאַתָּה בֶן־אָדָם קַח־לְךָ עֵץ אֶחָד וּכְתֹב עָלָיו לִיהוּדָה וְלִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל חברו [חֲבֵרָיו] וּלְקַח עֵץ אֶחָד וּכְתוֹב עָלָיו לְיוֹסֵף עֵץ אֶפְרַיִם וְכָל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל חברו [חֲבֵרָיו׃] 37.17. וְקָרַב אֹתָם אֶחָד אֶל־אֶחָד לְךָ לְעֵץ אֶחָד וְהָיוּ לַאֲחָדִים בְּיָדֶךָ׃ 37.18. וְכַאֲשֶׁר יֹאמְרוּ אֵלֶיךָ בְּנֵי עַמְּךָ לֵאמֹר הֲלוֹא־תַגִּיד לָנוּ מָה־אֵלֶּה לָּךְ׃ 37.19. דַּבֵּר אֲלֵהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנֵּה אֲנִי לֹקֵחַ אֶת־עֵץ יוֹסֵף אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד־אֶפְרַיִם וְשִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל חברו [חֲבֵרָיו] וְנָתַתִּי אוֹתָם עָלָיו אֶת־עֵץ יְהוּדָה וַעֲשִׂיתִם לְעֵץ אֶחָד וְהָיוּ אֶחָד בְּיָדִי׃ 37.21. וְדַבֵּר אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנֵּה אֲנִי לֹקֵחַ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבֵּין הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ־שָׁם וְקִבַּצְתִּי אֹתָם מִסָּבִיב וְהֵבֵאתִי אוֹתָם אֶל־אַדְמָתָם׃ 37.22. וְעָשִׂיתִי אֹתָם לְגוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ בְּהָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֶלֶךְ אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לְכֻלָּם לְמֶלֶךְ וְלֹא יהיה־[יִהְיוּ־] עוֹד לִשְׁנֵי גוֹיִם וְלֹא יֵחָצוּ עוֹד לִשְׁתֵּי מַמְלָכוֹת עוֹד׃ 37.23. וְלֹא יִטַמְּאוּ עוֹד בְּגִלּוּלֵיהֶם וּבְשִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם וּבְכֹל פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם וְהוֹשַׁעְתִּי אֹתָם מִכֹּל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר חָטְאוּ בָהֶם וְטִהַרְתִּי אוֹתָם וְהָיוּ־לִי לְעָם וַאֲנִי אֶהְיֶה לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃ 37.24. וְעַבְדִּי דָוִד מֶלֶךְ עֲלֵיהֶם וְרוֹעֶה אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לְכֻלָּם וּבְמִשְׁפָּטַי יֵלֵכוּ וְחֻקֹּתַי יִשְׁמְרוּ וְעָשׂוּ אוֹתָם׃ 37.25. וְיָשְׁבוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לְעַבְדִּי לְיַעֲקֹב אֲשֶׁר יָשְׁבוּ־בָהּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם וְיָשְׁבוּ עָלֶיהָ הֵמָּה וּבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֵי בְנֵיהֶם עַד־עוֹלָם וְדָוִד עַבְדִּי נָשִׂיא לָהֶם לְעוֹלָם׃ 37.26. וְכָרַתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית שָׁלוֹם בְּרִית עוֹלָם יִהְיֶה אוֹתָם וּנְתַתִּים וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אוֹתָם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־מִקְדָּשִׁי בְּתוֹכָם לְעוֹלָם׃ 37.27. וְהָיָה מִשְׁכָּנִי עֲלֵיהֶם וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 37.28. וְיָדְעוּ הַגּוֹיִם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּהְיוֹת מִקְדָּשִׁי בְּתוֹכָם לְעוֹלָם׃ 18.20. The soul that sinneth, it shall die; the son shall not bear the iniquity of the father with him, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son with him; the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him." 28.1. And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:" 28.2. ’Son of man, say unto the prince of Tyre: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Because thy heart is lifted up, And thou hast said: I am a god, I sit in the seat of God, In the heart of the seas; Yet thou art man, and not God, Though thou didst set thy heart as the heart of God—" 28.3. Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel! There is no secret that they can hide from thee!" 28.4. By thy wisdom and by thy discernment Thou hast gotten thee riches, And hast gotten gold and silver Into thy treasures;" 28.5. In thy great wisdom by thy traffic Hast thou increased thy riches, And thy heart is lifted up because of thy riches—" 28.6. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Because thou hast set thy heart As the heart of God;" 28.7. Therefore, behold, I will bring strangers upon thee, The terrible of the nations; And they shall draw their swords against the beauty of thy wisdom, And they shall defile thy brightness. ." 28.8. They shall bring thee down to the pit; And thou shalt die the deaths of them that are slain, In the heart of the seas." 28.9. Wilt thou yet say before him that slayeth thee: I am God? But thou art man, and not God, In the hand of them that defile thee." 28.10. Thou shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised By the hand of strangers; For I have spoken, saith the Lord GOD.’" 28.11. Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:" 28.12. ’Son of man, take up a lamentation for the king of Tyre, and say unto him: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Thou seal most accurate, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty," 28.13. thou wast in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared." 28.14. Thou wast the far-covering cherub; and I set thee, so that thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of stones of fire." 28.15. Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till unrighteousness was found in thee." 28.16. By the multitude of thy traffic they filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned; therefore have I cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God; and I have destroyed thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire." 28.17. Thy heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness; I have cast thee to the ground, I have laid thee before kings, that they may gaze upon thee." 28.18. By the multitude of thine iniquities, in the unrighteousness of thy traffic, thou hast profaned thy sanctuaries; therefore have I brought forth a fire from the midst of thee, it hath devoured thee, and I have turned thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee." 28.19. All they that know thee among the peoples shall be appalled at thee; thou art become a terror, and thou shalt never be any more.’" 37.15. And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:" 37.16. ’And thou, son of man, take thee one stick, and write upon it: For Judah, and for the children of Israel his companions; then take another stick, and write upon it: For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and of all the house of Israel his companions;" 37.17. and join them for thee one to another into one stick, that they may become one in thy hand." 37.18. And when the children of thy people shall speak unto thee, saying: Wilt thou not tell us what thou meanest by these?" 37.19. say into them: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel his companions; and I will put them unto him together with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they shall be one in My hand." 37.20. And the sticks whereon thou writest shall be in thy hand before their eyes." 37.21. And say unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I will take the children of Israel from among the nations, whither they are gone, and will gather them on every side, and bring them into their own land;" 37.22. and I will make them one nation in the land, upon the mountains of Israel, and one king shall be king to them all; and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all;" 37.23. neither shall they defile themselves any more with their idols, nor with their detestable things, nor with any of their transgressions; but I will save them out of all their dwelling-places, wherein they have sinned, and will cleanse them; so shall they be My people, and I will be their God." 37.24. And My servant David shall be king over them, and they all shall have one shepherd; they shall also walk in Mine ordices, and observe My statutes, and do them." 37.25. And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob My servant, wherein your fathers dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, they, and their children, and their children’s children, for ever; and David My servant shall be their prince for ever." 37.26. Moreover I will make a covet of peace with them—it shall be an everlasting covet with them; and I will establish them, and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in the midst of them for ever." 37.27. My dwelling-place also shall be over them; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people." 37.28. And the nations shall know that I am the LORD that sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary shall be in the midst of them for ever.’"
16. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 24.17-24.25 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.17. וְאַחֲרֵי מוֹת יְהוֹיָדָע בָּאוּ שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַמֶּלֶךְ אָז שָׁמַע הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 24.18. וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרִים וְאֶת־הָעֲצַבִּים וַיְהִי־קֶצֶף עַל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם בְּאַשְׁמָתָם זֹאת׃ 24.19. וַיִּשְׁלַח בָּהֶם נְבִאִים לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֶל־יְהוָה וַיָּעִידוּ בָם וְלֹא הֶאֱזִינוּ׃ 24.21. וַיִּקְשְׁרוּ עָלָיו וַיִּרְגְּמֻהוּ אֶבֶן בְּמִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֲצַר בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 24.22. וְלֹא־זָכַר יוֹאָשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוֹיָדָע אָבִיו עִמּוֹ וַיַּהֲרֹג אֶת־בְּנוֹ וּכְמוֹתוֹ אָמַר יֵרֶא יְהוָה וְיִדְרֹשׁ׃ 24.23. וַיְהִי לִתְקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה עָלָה עָלָיו חֵיל אֲרָם וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּשְׁחִיתוּ אֶת־כָּל־שָׂרֵי הָעָם מֵעָם וְכָל־שְׁלָלָם שִׁלְּחוּ לְמֶלֶךְ דַּרְמָשֶׂק׃ 24.24. כִּי בְמִצְעַר אֲנָשִׁים בָּאוּ חֵיל אֲרָם וַיהוָה נָתַן בְּיָדָם חַיִל לָרֹב מְאֹד כִּי עָזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְאֶת־יוֹאָשׁ עָשׂוּ שְׁפָטִים׃ 24.25. וּבְלֶכְתָּם מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי־עָזְבוּ אֹתוֹ במחליים [בְּמַחֲלוּיִם] רַבִּים הִתְקַשְּׁרוּ עָלָיו עֲבָדָיו בִּדְמֵי בְּנֵי יְהוֹיָדָע הַכֹּהֵן וַיַּהַרְגֻהוּ עַל־מִטָּתוֹ וַיָּמֹת וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בְּעִיר דָּוִיד וְלֹא קְבָרֻהוּ בְּקִבְרוֹת הַמְּלָכִים׃ 24.17. Now after the death of Jehoiada came the princes of Judah, and prostrated themselves before the king. Then the king hearkened unto them." 24.18. And they forsook the house of the LORD, the God of their fathers, and served the Asherim and the idols; and wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for this their guiltiness." 24.19. Yet He sent prophets to them, to bring them back unto the LORD; and they admonished them, but they would not give ear." 24.20. And the spirit of God clothed Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest; and he stood above the people, and said unto them: ‘Thus saith God: Why transgress ye the commandments of the LORD, that ye cannot prosper? because ye have forsaken the LORD, He hath also forsaken you.’" 24.21. And they conspired against him, and stoned him with stones at the commandment of the king in the court of the house of the LORD." 24.22. Thus Joash the king remembered not the kindness which Jehoiada his father had done to him, but slew his son. And when he died, he said: ‘The LORD look upon it, and require it.’" 24.23. And it came to pass, when the year was come about, that the army of the Arameans came up against him; and they came to Judah and Jerusalem, and destroyed all the princes of the people from among the people, and sent all the spoil of them unto the king of Damascus." 24.24. For the army of the Arameans came with a small company of men; and the LORD delivered a very great host into their hand, because they had forsaken the LORD, the God of their fathers. So they executed judgment upon Joash." 24.25. And when they were departed from him—for they left him in great diseases—his own servants conspired against him for the blood of the sons of Jehoiada the priest, and slew him on his bed, and he died; and they buried him in the city of David, but they buried him not in the sepulchres of the kings."
17. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.11 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.11. אֶת־הַכֹּל עָשָׂה יָפֶה בְעִתּוֹ גַּם אֶת־הָעֹלָם נָתַן בְּלִבָּם מִבְּלִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמְצָא הָאָדָם אֶת־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה הָאֱלֹהִים מֵרֹאשׁ וְעַד־סוֹף׃ 3.11. He hath made every thing beautiful in its time; also He hath set the world in their heart, yet so that man cannot find out the work that God hath done from the beginning even to the end."
18. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 1.1-1.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.1. כְּפוֹרֵי זָהָב שְׁלֹשִׁים כְּפוֹרֵי כֶסֶף מִשְׁנִים אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת וַעֲשָׂרָה כֵּלִים אֲחֵרִים אָלֶף׃ 1.1. וּבִשְׁנַת אַחַת לְכוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס לִכְלוֹת דְּבַר־יְהוָה מִפִּי יִרְמְיָה הֵעִיר יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחַ כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ־פָּרַס וַיַּעֲבֶר־קוֹל בְּכָל־מַלְכוּתוֹ וְגַם־בְּמִכְתָּב לֵאמֹר׃ 1.2. כֹּה אָמַר כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס כֹּל מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ נָתַן לִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהוּא־פָקַד עָלַי לִבְנוֹת־לוֹ בַיִת בִּירוּשָׁלִַם אֲשֶׁר בִּיהוּדָה׃ 1.3. מִי־בָכֶם מִכָּל־עַמּוֹ יְהִי אֱלֹהָיו עִמּוֹ וְיַעַל לִירוּשָׁלִַם אֲשֶׁר בִּיהוּדָה וְיִבֶן אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 1.4. וְכָל־הַנִּשְׁאָר מִכָּל־הַמְּקֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר הוּא גָר־שָׁם יְנַשְּׂאוּהוּ אַנְשֵׁי מְקֹמוֹ בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב וּבִרְכוּשׁ וּבִבְהֵמָה עִם־הַנְּדָבָה לְבֵית הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 1.1. NOW IN the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying:" 1.2. ’Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia: All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD, the God of heaven, given me; and He hath charged me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah." 1.3. Whosoever there is among you of all His people—his God be with him—let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and build the house of the LORD, the God of Israel, He is the God who is in Jerusalem." 1.4. And whosoever is left, in any place where he sojourneth, let the men of his place help him with silver, and with gold, and with goods, and with beasts, beside the freewill-offering for the house of God which is in Jerusalem.’"
19. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.30 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.30. Yet many years didst Thou extend mercy unto them, and didst forewarn them by Thy spirit through Thy prophets; yet would they not give ear; therefore gavest Thou them into the hand of the peoples of the lands."
20. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 7.12, 13.9, 14.1-14.21 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.12. וְלִבָּם שָׂמוּ שָׁמִיר מִשְּׁמוֹעַ אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה וְאֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּרוּחוֹ בְּיַד הַנְּבִיאִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים וַיְהִי קֶצֶף גָּדוֹל מֵאֵת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 13.9. וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶת־הַשְּׁלִשִׁית בָּאֵשׁ וּצְרַפְתִּים כִּצְרֹף אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף וּבְחַנְתִּים כִּבְחֹן אֶת־הַזָּהָב הוּא יִקְרָא בִשְׁמִי וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה אֹתוֹ אָמַרְתִּי עַמִּי הוּא וְהוּא יֹאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי׃ 14.1. הִנֵּה יוֹם־בָּא לַיהוָה וְחֻלַּק שְׁלָלֵךְ בְּקִרְבֵּךְ׃ 14.1. יִסּוֹב כָּל־הָאָרֶץ כָּעֲרָבָה מִגֶּבַע לְרִמּוֹן נֶגֶב יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְרָאֲמָה וְיָשְׁבָה תַחְתֶּיהָ לְמִשַּׁעַר בִּנְיָמִן עַד־מְקוֹם שַׁעַר הָרִאשׁוֹן עַד־שַׁעַר הַפִּנִּים וּמִגְדַּל חֲנַנְאֵל עַד יִקְבֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 14.2. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה עַל־מְצִלּוֹת הַסּוּס קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה וְהָיָה הַסִּירוֹת בְּבֵית יְהוָה כַּמִּזְרָקִים לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 14.2. וְאָסַפְתִּי אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִַם לַמִּלְחָמָה וְנִלְכְּדָה הָעִיר וְנָשַׁסּוּ הַבָּתִּים וְהַנָּשִׁים תשגלנה [תִּשָּׁכַבְנָה] וְיָצָא חֲצִי הָעִיר בַּגּוֹלָה וְיֶתֶר הָעָם לֹא יִכָּרֵת מִן־הָעִיר׃ 14.3. וְיָצָא יְהוָה וְנִלְחַם בַּגּוֹיִם הָהֵם כְּיוֹם הִלָּחֲמו בְּיוֹם קְרָב׃ 14.4. וְעָמְדוּ רַגְלָיו בַּיּוֹם־הַהוּא עַל־הַר הַזֵּתִים אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם מִקֶּדֶם וְנִבְקַע הַר הַזֵּיתִים מֵחֶצְיוֹ מִזְרָחָה וָיָמָּה גֵּיא גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד וּמָשׁ חֲצִי הָהָר צָפוֹנָה וְחֶצְיוֹ־נֶגְבָּה׃ 14.5. וְנַסְתֶּם גֵּיא־הָרַי כִּי־יַגִּיעַ גֵּי־הָרִים אֶל־אָצַל וְנַסְתֶּם כַּאֲשֶׁר נַסְתֶּם מִפְּנֵי הָרַעַשׁ בִּימֵי עֻזִּיָּה מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וּבָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי כָּל־קְדֹשִׁים עִמָּךְ׃ 14.6. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא־יִהְיֶה אוֹר יְקָרוֹת יקפאון [וְקִפָּאוֹן׃] 14.7. וְהָיָה יוֹם־אֶחָד הוּא יִוָּדַע לַיהוָה לֹא־יוֹם וְלֹא־לָיְלָה וְהָיָה לְעֵת־עֶרֶב יִהְיֶה־אוֹר׃ 14.8. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵצְאוּ מַיִם־חַיִּים מִירוּשָׁלִַם חֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הַקַּדְמוֹנִי וְחֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן בַּקַּיִץ וּבָחֹרֶף יִהְיֶה׃ 14.9. וְהָיָה יְהוָה לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה יְהוָה אֶחָד וּשְׁמוֹ אֶחָד׃ 14.11. וְיָשְׁבוּ בָהּ וְחֵרֶם לֹא יִהְיֶה־עוֹד וְיָשְׁבָה יְרוּשָׁלִַם לָבֶטַח׃ 14.12. וְזֹאת תִּהְיֶה הַמַּגֵּפָה אֲשֶׁר יִגֹּף יְהוָה אֶת־כָּל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר צָבְאוּ עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם הָמֵק בְּשָׂרוֹ וְהוּא עֹמֵד עַל־רַגְלָיו וְעֵינָיו תִּמַּקְנָה בְחֹרֵיהֶן וּלְשׁוֹנוֹ תִּמַּק בְּפִיהֶם׃ 14.13. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא תִּהְיֶה מְהוּמַת־יְהוָה רַבָּה בָּהֶם וְהֶחֱזִיקוּ אִישׁ יַד רֵעֵהוּ וְעָלְתָה יָדוֹ עַל־יַד רֵעֵהוּ׃ 14.14. וְגַם־יְהוּדָה תִּלָּחֵם בִּירוּשָׁלִָם וְאֻסַּף חֵיל כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם סָבִיב זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וּבְגָדִים לָרֹב מְאֹד׃ 14.15. וְכֵן תִּהְיֶה מַגֵּפַת הַסּוּס הַפֶּרֶד הַגָּמָל וְהַחֲמוֹר וְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּמַּחֲנוֹת הָהֵמָּה כַּמַּגֵּפָה הַזֹּאת׃ 14.16. וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנּוֹתָר מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִם הַבָּאִים עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְעָלוּ מִדֵּי שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לְמֶלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְלָחֹג אֶת־חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת׃ 14.17. וְהָיָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יַעֲלֶה מֵאֵת מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הָאָרֶץ אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לְמֶלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְלֹא עֲלֵיהֶם יִהְיֶה הַגָּשֶׁם׃ 14.18. וְאִם־מִשְׁפַּחַת מִצְרַיִם לֹא־תַעֲלֶה וְלֹא בָאָה וְלֹא עֲלֵיהֶם תִּהְיֶה הַמַּגֵּפָה אֲשֶׁר יִגֹּף יְהוָה אֶת־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יַעֲלוּ לָחֹג אֶת־חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת׃ 14.19. זֹאת תִּהְיֶה חַטַּאת מִצְרָיִם וְחַטַּאת כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יַעֲלוּ לָחֹג אֶת־חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת׃ 14.21. וְהָיָה כָּל־סִיר בִּירוּשָׁלִַם וּבִיהוּדָה קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּבָאוּ כָּל־הַזֹּבְחִים וְלָקְחוּ מֵהֶם וּבִשְּׁלוּ בָהֶם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה כְנַעֲנִי עוֹד בְּבֵית־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא׃ 7.12. Yea, they made their hearts as an adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the LORD of hosts had sent by His spirit by the hand of the former prophets; therefore came there great wrath from the LORD of hosts." 13.9. And I will bring the third part through the fire, And will refine them as silver is refined, And will try them as gold is tried; They shall call on My name, And I will answer them; I will say: ‘It is My people’, And they shall say: ‘The LORD is my God.’" 14.1. Behold, a day of the LORD cometh, When thy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee." 14.2. For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; And the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, And the women ravished; And half of the city shall go forth into captivity, But the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city." 14.3. Then shall the LORD go forth, And fight against those nations, As when He fighteth in the day of battle." 14.4. And His feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, Which is before Jerusalem on the east, And the mount of Olives shall cleft in the midst thereof Toward the east and toward the west, So that there shall be a very great valley; And half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, And half of it toward the south." 14.5. And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains; For the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azel; Yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake In the days of Uzziah king of Judah; And the LORD my God shall come, And all the holy ones with Thee." 14.6. And it shall come to pass in that day, that there shall not be light, But heavy clouds and thick;" 14.7. And there shall be one day Which shall be known as the LORD’S, Not day, and not night; But it shall come to pass, that at evening time there shall be light." 14.8. And it shall come to pass in that day, That living waters shall go out from Jerusalem: Half of them toward the eastern sea, And half of them toward the western sea; In summer and in winter shall it be." 14.9. And the LORD shall be King over all the earth; In that day shall the LORD be One, and His name one." 14.10. All the land shall be turned as the Arabah, from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem; and she shall be lifted up, and inhabited in her place, from Benjamin’s gate unto the place of the first gate, unto the corner gate, and from the tower of Hael unto the king’s winepresses." 14.11. And men shall dwell therein, And there shall be no more extermination; But Jerusalem shall dwell safely." 14.12. And this shall be the plague wherewith the LORD will smite All the peoples that have warred against Jerusalem: Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet, And their eyes shall consume away in their sockets, And their tongue shall consume away in their mouth." 14.13. And it shall come to pass in that day, That a great tumult from the LORD shall be among them; And they shall lay hold every one on the hand of his neighbour, And his hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour." 14.14. And Judah also shall fight against Jerusalem; And the wealth of all the nations round about shall be gathered together, Gold, and silver, and apparel, in great abundance." 14.15. And so shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, And of all the beasts that shall be in those camps, as this plague." 14.16. And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations that came against Jerusalem shall go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles." 14.17. And it shall be, that whoso of the families of the earth goeth not up unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, upon them there shall be no rain." 14.18. And if the family of Egypt go not up, and come not, they shall have no overflow; there shall be the plague, wherewith the LORD will smite the nations that go not up to keep the feast of tabernacles." 14.19. This shall be the punishment of Egypt, and the punishment of all the nations that go not up to keep the feast of tabernacles." 14.20. In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses: HOLY UNTO THE LORD; and the pots in the LORD’S house shall be like the basins before the altar." 14.21. Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holy unto the LORD of hosts; and all they that sacrifice shall come and take of them, and seethe therein; and in that day there shall be no more a trafficker in the house of the LORD of hosts."
21. Anon., 1 Enoch, 37-71, 21 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

21. And I proceeded to where things were chaotic. And I saw there something horrible: I saw neither",a heaven above nor a firmly founded earth, but a place chaotic and horrible. And there I saw,seven stars of the heaven bound together in it, like great mountains and burning with fire. Then,I said: 'For what sin are they bound, and on what account have they been cast in hither' Then said Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, and was chief over them, and said: 'Enoch, why,dost thou ask, and why art thou eager for the truth These are of the number of the stars of heaven, which have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and are bound here till ten thousand years,,the time entailed by their sins, are consummated.' And from thence I went to another place, which was still more horrible than the former, and I saw a horrible thing: a great fire there which burnt and blazed, and the place was cleft as far as the abyss, being full of great descending columns of,fire: neither its extent or magnitude could I see, nor could I conjecture. Then I said: 'How,fearful is the place and how terrible to look upon!' Then Uriel answered me, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: 'Enoch, why hast thou such fear and affright' And,I answered: 'Because of this fearful place, and because of the spectacle of the pain.' And he said unto me: 'This place is the prison of the angels, and here they will be imprisoned for ever.'
22. Anon., Jubilees, 1.11, 5.10-5.11, 6.27-6.29, 10.1-10.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.11. and this witness shall be heard for a witness against them. brFor they will forget all My commandments, (even) all that I command them, and they will walk after the Gentiles 5.10. and He bade us to bind them in the depths of the earth, and behold they are bound in the midst of them, and are (kept) separate. 5.11. And against their sons went forth a command from before His face that they should be smitten with the sword, and be removed from under heaven. 6.27. But Abraham observed it, and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it up to thy days 6.28. and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 6.29. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: 10.1. And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean demons began to lead astray the children of the sons of Noah; and to make to err and destroy them. 10.2. And the sons of Noah came to Noah their father, and they told him concerning the demons which were, leading astray and blinding and slaying his sons' sons. 10.3. And he prayed before the Lord his God, and said: God of the spirits of all flesh, who hast shown mercy unto me, And hast saved me and my sons from the waters of the flood, And hast not caused me to perish as Thou didst the sons of perdition; 10.4. For Thy grace hath been great towards me, And great hath been Thy mercy to my soul; 10.5. Let Thy grace be lift up upon my sons 10.6. But do Thou bless me and my sons, that we may increase and multiply and replenish the earth. 10.7. And Thou knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits, acted in my day: 10.8. and as for these spirits which are living, imprison them and hold them fast in the place of condemnation, and let them not bring destruction on the sons of thy servant, my God; for these are maligt, and created in order to destroy. 10.9. And let them not rule over the spirits of the living; for Thou alone canst exercise dominion over them. And let them not have power over the sons of the righteous from henceforth and for evermore. 10.10. And the Lord our God bade us to bind all. 10.11. And the chief of the spirits, Mastêmâ, came and said: "Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; 10.12. for if some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the power of my will on the sons of men; 10.13. for these are for corruption and leading astray before my judgment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men. 10.14. And He said: "Let the tenth part of them remain before him, and let nine parts descend into the place of condemnation.
23. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 12.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 13.10-13.12, 14.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.11-3.14, 3.20-3.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.6, 7.14, 7.19, 7.31-7.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.6. The Lord God is watching over us and in truth has compassion on us, as Moses declared in his song which bore witness against the people to their faces, when he said, `And he will have compassion on his servants.'' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 7.19. But do not think that you will go unpunished for having tried to fight against God!' 7.31. But you, who have contrived all sorts of evil against the Hebrews, will certainly not escape the hands of God.' 7.32. For we are suffering because of our own sins. 7.33. And if our living Lord is angry for a little while, to rebuke and discipline us, he will again be reconciled with his own servants.' 7.34. But you, unholy wretch, you most defiled of all men, do not be elated in vain and puffed up by uncertain hopes, when you raise your hand against the children of heaven.' 7.35. You have not yet escaped the judgment of the almighty, all-seeing God.' 7.36. For our brothers after enduring a brief suffering have drunk of everflowing life under God's covet; but you, by the judgment of God, will receive just punishment for your arrogance.'
27. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 16.26, 24.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.26. The works of the Lord have existed from the beginning by his creation, and when he made them, he determined their divisions. 24.9. From eternity, in the beginning, he created me,and for eternity I shall not cease to exist.
28. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.10-3.19, 6.22, 14.13, 19.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.10. But the ungodly will be punished as their reasoning deserves,who disregarded the righteous man and rebelled against the Lord; 3.11. for whoever despises wisdom and instruction is miserable. Their hope is vain, their labors are unprofitable,and their works are useless. 3.12. Their wives are foolish, and their children evil; 3.13. their offspring are accursed. For blessed is the barren woman who is undefiled,who has not entered into a sinful union;she will have fruit when God examines souls. 3.14. Blessed also is the eunuch whose hands have done no lawless deed,and who has not devised wicked things against the Lord;for special favor will be shown him for his faithfulness,and a place of great delight in the temple of the Lord. 3.15. For the fruit of good labors is renowned,and the root of understanding does not fail. 3.16. But children of adulterers will not come to maturity,and the offspring of an unlawful union will perish. 3.17. Even if they live long they will be held of no account,and finally their old age will be without honor. 3.18. If they die young, they will have no hope and no consolation in the day of decision. 3.19. For the end of an unrighteous generation is grievous. 6.22. I will tell you what wisdom is and how she came to be,and I will hide no secrets from you,but I will trace her course from the beginning of creation,and make knowledge of her clear,and I will not pass by the truth; 14.13. for neither have they existed from the beginning nor will they exist for ever. 19.6. For the whole creation in its nature was fashioned anew,complying with thy commands,that thy children might be kept unharmed.
29. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 9.9, 9.32, 10.11, 11.3, 11.23, 12.12, 18.5, 18.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.9. but you, because of your bloodthirstiness toward us, will deservedly undergo from the divine justice eternal torment by fire. 9.32. but you suffer torture by the threats that come from impiety. You will not escape, most abominable tyrant, the judgments of the divine wrath. 10.11. but you, because of your impiety and bloodthirstiness, will undergo unceasing torments. 11.3. I have come of my own accord, so that by murdering me you will incur punishment from the heavenly justice for even more crimes. 11.23. and I myself will bring a great avenger upon you, you inventor of tortures and enemy of those who are truly devout. 12.12. Because of this, justice has laid up for you intense and eternal fire and tortures, and these throughout all time will never let you go. 18.5. The tyrant Antiochus was both punished on earth and is being chastised after his death. Since in no way whatever was he able to compel the Israelites to become pagans and to abandon their ancestral customs, he left Jerusalem and marched against the Persians. 18.22. For these crimes divine justice pursued and will pursue the accursed tyrant.
30. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Anon., Didache, 4.1, 6.2, 8.2, 9.1, 9.4-9.5, 10.3, 10.5, 11.4, 11.8, 12.1, 14.1, 15.1, 15.4, 16.1, 16.7-16.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 9.169 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.169. for when God had appointed him to prophesy, he stood in the midst of the multitude, and gave this counsel to them and to the king: That they should act righteously; and foretold to them, that if they would not hearken to his admonitions, they should suffer a heavy punishment. But as Zechariah was ready to die, he appealed to God as a witness of what he suffered for the good counsel he had given them, and how he perished after a most severe and violent manner for the good deeds his father had done to Jehoash.
33. New Testament, 1 John, 1.1, 2.2, 3.8, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. That which was from the beginning, that which we have heard, that which we have seen with our eyes, that which we saw, and our hands touched, concerning the Word of life 2.2. And he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for the whole world. 3.8. He who sins is of the devil, for the devil has been sinning from the beginning. To this end the Son of God was revealed, that he might destroy the works of the devil. 3.11. For this is the message which you heard from the beginning, that we should love one another;
34. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.20-1.21, 1.24-1.25, 2.7, 3.18-3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.20. who was foreknown indeed before the foundation of the world, but was revealed at the end of times for your sake 1.21. who through him are believers in God, who raised him from the dead, and gave him glory; so that your faith and hope might be in God. 1.24. For, "All flesh is like grass, And all of man's glory like the flower in the grass. The grass withers, and its flower falls; 1.25. But the Lord's word endures forever."This is the word of good news which was preached to you. 2.7. For you therefore who believe is the honor, but for such as are disobedient, "The stone which the builders rejected, Has become the chief cornerstone 3.18. Because Christ also suffered for sins once, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring you to God; being put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit; 3.19. in which he also went and preached to the spirits in prison 3.20. who before were disobedient, when the longsuffering of God waited patiently in the days of Noah, while the ark was being built. In it, few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water.
35. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.6-2.8, 5.7, 6.3, 15.3-15.5, 15.17-15.19, 15.24, 15.44-15.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. We speak wisdom, however, among those who are fullgrown; yet a wisdom not of this world, nor of the rulers of this world,who are coming to nothing. 2.7. But we speak God's wisdom in amystery, the wisdom that has been hidden, which God foreordained beforethe worlds to our glory 2.8. which none of the rulers of this worldhas known. For had they known it, they wouldn't have crucified the Lordof glory. 5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 6.3. Don't youknow that we will judge angels? How much more, things that pertain tothis life? 15.3. For I delivered to youfirst of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures 15.4. that he was buried, that he wasraised on the third day according to the Scriptures 15.5. and that heappeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 15.17. If Christ has not been raised, your faithis vain; you are still in your sins. 15.18. Then they also who arefallen asleep in Christ have perished. 15.19. If we have only hoped inChrist in this life, we are of all men most pitiable. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly.
36. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost.
37. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 5.18-5.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

38. New Testament, Acts, 1.1-1.8, 2.27, 3.13, 3.26, 7.54, 7.56, 7.59-7.60, 8.26-8.40, 11.17, 15.1-15.12, 20.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. The first book I wrote, Theophilus, concerned all that Jesus began both to do and to teach 1.2. until the day in which he was received up, after he had given commandment through the Holy Spirit to the apostles whom he had chosen. 1.3. To these he also showed himself alive after his suffering by many proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days, and spoke about God's Kingdom. 1.4. Being assembled together with them, he charged them, "Don't depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which you heard from me. 1.5. For John indeed baptized in water, but you will be baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days from now. 1.6. Therefore, when they had come together, they asked him, "Lord, are you now restoring the kingdom to Israel? 1.7. He said to them, "It isn't for you to know times or seasons which the Father has set within His own authority. 1.8. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come on you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth. 2.27. Because you will not leave my soul in Hades, Neither will you allow your Holy One to see decay. 3.13. The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his Servant Jesus, whom you delivered up, and denied before the face of Pilate, when he had determined to release him. 3.26. God, having raised up his servant, Jesus, sent him to you first, to bless you, in turning away everyone of you from your wickedness. 7.54. Now when they heard these things, they were cut to the heart, and they gnashed at him with their teeth. 7.56. and said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God! 7.59. They stoned Stephen as he called out, saying, "Lord Jesus, receive my Spirit! 7.60. He kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, "Lord, don't hold this sin against them!" When he had said this, he fell asleep. 8.26. But an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip, saying, "Arise, and go toward the south to the way that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza. This is a desert. 8.27. He arose and went. Behold, there was a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch of great authority under Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, who was over all her treasure, who had come to Jerusalem to worship. 8.28. He was returning and sitting in his chariot, and was reading the prophet Isaiah. 8.29. The Spirit said to Philip, "Go near, and join yourself to this chariot. 8.30. Philip ran to him, and heard him reading Isaiah the prophet, and said, "Do you understand what you are reading? 8.31. He said, "How can I, unless someone explains it to me?" He begged Philip to come up and sit with him. 8.32. Now the passage of the Scripture which he was reading was this, "He was led as a sheep to the slaughter. As a lamb before his shearer is silent, So he doesn't open his mouth. 8.33. In his humiliation, his judgment was taken away. Who will declare His generations? For his life is taken from the earth. 8.34. The eunuch answered Philip, "Please tell who the prophet is talking about: about himself, or about some other? 8.35. Philip opened his mouth, and beginning from this Scripture, preached to him Jesus. 8.36. As they went on the way, they came to some water, and the eunuch said, "Behold, here is water. What is keeping me from being baptized? 8.38. He commanded the chariot to stand still, and they both went down into the water, both Philip and the eunuch, and he baptized him. 8.39. When they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught Philip away, and the eunuch didn't see him any more, for he went on his way rejoicing. 8.40. But Philip was found at Azotus. Passing through, he preached the gospel to all the cities, until he came to Caesarea. 11.17. If then God gave to them the same gift as us, when we believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I, that I could withstand God? 15.1. Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, "Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you can't be saved. 15.2. Therefore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. 15.3. They, being sent on their way by the assembly, passed through both Phoenicia and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles. They caused great joy to all the brothers. 15.4. When they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all things that God had done with them. 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses. 15.6. The apostles and the elders were gathered together to see about this matter. 15.7. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, "Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us. 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. 15.10. Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? 15.11. But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. 15.12. All the multitude kept silence, and they listened to Barnabas and Paul reporting what signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. 20.28. Take heed, therefore, to yourselves, and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the assembly of the Lord and God which he purchased with his own blood.
39. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.5-1.6, 1.9, 7.14, 12.9, 20.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; 1.6. and he made us to be a kingdom, priests to his God and Father; to him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen. 1.9. I John, your brother and partner with you in oppression, kingdom, and perseverance in Christ Jesus, was on the isle that is called Patmos because of God's Word and the testimony of Jesus Christ. 7.14. I told him, "My lord, you know."He said to me, "These are those who came out of the great tribulation. They washed their robes, and made them white in the Lamb's blood. 12.9. The great dragon was thrown down, the old serpent, he who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world. He was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. 20.2. He seized the dragon, the old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole inhabited earth, and bound him for a thousand years
40. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.
41. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1, 2.20, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.21-5.1, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead)
42. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.7, 9.15, 9.22, 9.28, 10.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.7. You made him a little lower than the angels; You crowned him with glory and honor. 9.15. For this reason he is the mediator of a new covet, since a death has occurred for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covet, that those who have been called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance. 9.22. According to the law, nearly everything is cleansed with blood, and apart from shedding of blood there is no remission. 9.28. so Christ also, having been once offered to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, without sin, to those who are eagerly waiting for him for salvation. 10.12. but he, when he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God;
43. New Testament, Romans, 3.25, 4.25, 5.1, 5.10-5.11, 8.32, 10.16-10.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.25. whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God's forbearance; 4.25. who was delivered up for our trespasses, and was raised for our justification. 5.1. Being therefore justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ; 5.10. For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we will be saved by his life. 5.11. Not only so, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation. 8.32. He who didn't spare his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how would he not also with him freely give us all things? 10.16. But they didn't all listen to the glad news. For Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed our report? 10.17. So faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. 10.18. But I say, didn't they hear? Yes, most assuredly, "Their sound went out into all the earth, Their words to the ends of the world.
44. New Testament, John, 1.4-1.5, 1.10-1.13, 1.18, 1.29, 1.36, 1.51, 8.56-8.59, 12.37-12.38, 12.40, 12.42-12.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 1.29. The next day, he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 1.36. and he looked at Jesus as he walked, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God! 1.51. He said to him, "Most assuredly, I tell you, hereafter you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man. 8.56. Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day. He saw it, and was glad. 8.57. The Jews therefore said to him, "You are not yet fifty years old, and have you seen Abraham? 8.58. Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly, I tell you, before Abraham came into existence, I AM. 8.59. Therefore they took up stones to throw at him, but Jesus was hidden, and went out of the temple, having gone through the midst of them, and so passed by. 12.37. But though he had done so many signs before them, yet they didn't believe in him 12.38. that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spoke, "Lord, who has believed our report? To whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed? 12.40. He has blinded their eyes and he hardened their heart, Lest they should see with their eyes, And perceive with their heart, And would turn, And I would heal them. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue 12.43. for they loved men's praise more than God's praise.
45. New Testament, Luke, 1.2, 3.6, 4.18-4.19, 8.10, 8.44, 9.31, 17.2, 17.21, 20.17, 23.1-23.15, 24.1-24.12, 24.36-24.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us 3.6. All flesh will see God's salvation.' 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 8.10. He said, "To you it is given to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of God, but to the rest in parables; that 'seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not understand.' 8.44. came behind him, and touched the fringe of his cloak, and immediately the flow of her blood stopped. 9.31. who appeared in glory, and spoke of his departure, which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. 17.2. It would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck, and he were thrown into the sea, rather than that he should cause one of these little ones to stumble. 17.21. neither will they say, 'Look, here!' or, 'Look, there!' for behold, the Kingdom of God is within you. 20.17. But he looked at them, and said, "Then what is this that is written, 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the chief cornerstone?' 23.1. The whole company of them rose up and brought him before Pilate. 23.2. They began to accuse him, saying, "We found this man perverting the nation, forbidding paying taxes to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king. 23.3. Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?"He answered him, "So you say. 23.4. Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, "I find no basis for a charge against this man. 23.5. But they insisted, saying, "He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee even to this place. 23.6. But when Pilate heard Galilee mentioned, he asked if the man was a Galilean. 23.7. When he found out that he was in Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem during those days. 23.8. Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad, for he had wanted to see him for a long time, because he had heard many things about him. He hoped to see some miracle done by him. 23.9. He questioned him with many words, but he gave no answers. 23.10. The chief priests and the scribes stood, vehemently accusing him. 23.11. Herod with his soldiers humiliated him and mocked him. Dressing him in luxurious clothing, they sent him back to Pilate. 23.12. Herod and Pilate became friends with each other that very day, for before that they were enemies with each other. 23.13. Pilate called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people 23.14. and said to them, "You brought this man to me as one that perverts the people, and see, I have examined him before you, and found no basis for a charge against this man concerning those things of which you accuse him. 23.15. Neither has Herod, for I sent you to him, and see, nothing worthy of death has been done by him. 24.1. But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they and some others came to the tomb, bringing the spices which they had prepared. 24.2. They found the stone rolled away from the tomb. 24.3. They entered in, and didn't find the Lord Jesus' body. 24.4. It happened, while they were greatly perplexed about this, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling clothing. 24.5. Becoming terrified, they bowed their faces down to the earth. They said to them, "Why do you seek the living among the dead? 24.6. He isn't here, but is risen. Remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee 24.7. saying that the Son of Man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again? 24.8. They remembered his words 24.9. returned from the tomb, and told all these things to the eleven, and to all the rest. 24.10. Now they were Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James. The other women with them told these things to the apostles. 24.11. These words seemed to them to be nonsense, and they didn't believe them. 24.12. But Peter got up and ran to the tomb. Stooping and looking in, he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves, and he departed to his home, wondering what had happened. 24.36. As they said these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, "Peace be to you. 24.37. But they were terrified and filled with fear, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. 24.38. He said to them, "Why are you troubled? Why do doubts arise in your hearts? 24.39. See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me. Touch me and see, for a spirit doesn't have flesh and bones, as you see that I have. 24.40. When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. 24.41. While they still didn't believe for joy, and wondered, he said to them, "Do you have anything here to eat? 24.42. They gave him a piece of a broiled fish and some honeycomb. 24.43. He took it, and ate in front of them. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled. 24.45. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. 24.48. You are witnesses of these things. 24.49. Behold, I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed with power from on high.
46. New Testament, Mark, 1.1, 1.8, 1.13, 6.24, 6.39-6.44, 6.56, 10.45, 15.17, 15.22-15.25, 15.29, 15.31, 15.38-15.39, 16.1-16.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.13. He was there in the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; and the angels ministered to him. 6.24. She went out, and said to her mother, "What shall I ask?"She said, "The head of John the Baptizer. 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 6.56. Wherever he entered, into villages, or into cities, or into the country, they laid the sick in the marketplaces, and begged him that they might touch just the fringe of his garment; and as many as touched him were made well. 10.45. For the Son of Man also came not to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. 15.17. They clothed him with purple, and weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on him. 15.22. They brought him to the place called Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, "The place of a skull. 15.23. They offered him wine mixed with myrrh to drink, but he didn't take it. 15.24. Crucifying him, they parted his garments among them, casting lots on them, what each should take. 15.25. It was the third hour, and they crucified him. 15.29. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Ha! You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days 15.31. Likewise, also the chief priests mocking among themselves with the scribes said, "He saved others. He can't save himself. 15.38. The veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. 15.39. When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God! 16.1. When the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint him. 16.2. Very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen. 16.3. They were saying among themselves, "Who will roll away the stone from the door of the tomb for us? 16.4. for it was very big. Looking up, they saw that the stone was rolled back. 16.5. Entering into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were amazed. 16.6. He said to them, "Don't be amazed. You seek Jesus, the Nazarene, who has been crucified. He has risen. He is not here. Behold, the place where they laid him! 16.7. But go, tell his disciples and Peter, 'He goes before you into Galilee. There you will see him, as he said to you.' 16.8. They went out, and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had come on them. They said nothing to anyone; for they were afraid. 16.9. Now when he had risen early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons. 16.10. She went and told those who had been with him, as they mourned and wept. 16.11. When they heard that he was alive, and had been seen by her, they disbelieved. 16.12. After these things he was revealed in another form to two of them, as they walked, on their way into the country. 16.13. They went away and told it to the rest. They didn't believe them, either. 16.14. Afterward he was revealed to the eleven themselves as they sat at the table, and he rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they didn't believe those who had seen him after he had risen. 16.15. He said to them, "Go into all the world, and preach the gospel to the whole creation. 16.16. He who believes and is baptized will be saved; but he who disbelieves will be condemned. 16.17. These signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will cast out demons; they will speak with new languages; 16.18. they will take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it will in no way hurt them; they will lay hands on the sick, and they will recover. 16.19. So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was received up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. 16.20. They went out, and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word by the signs that followed. Amen.
47. New Testament, Matthew, 6.13, 9.20, 14.36, 20.18-20.19, 21.9, 28.1-28.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 9.20. Behold, a woman who had an issue of blood for twelve years came behind him, and touched the tassels of his garment; 14.36. and they begged him that they might just touch the fringe of his garment. As many as touched it were made whole. 20.18. Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and scribes, and they will condemn him to death 20.19. and will hand him over to the Gentiles to mock, to scourge, and to crucify; and the third day he will be raised up. 21.9. The multitudes who went before him, and who followed kept shouting, "Hosanna to the son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest! 28.1. Now after the Sabbath, as it began to dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb. 28.2. Behold, there was a great earthquake, for an angel of the Lord descended from the sky, and came and rolled away the stone from the door, and sat on it. 28.3. His appearance was like lightning, and his clothing white as snow. 28.4. For fear of him, the guards shook, and became like dead men. 28.5. The angel answered the women, "Don't be afraid, for I know that you seek Jesus, who has been crucified. 28.6. He is not here, for he has risen, just like he said. Come, see the place where the Lord was lying. 28.7. Go quickly and tell his disciples, 'He has risen from the dead, and behold, he goes before you into Galilee; there you will see him.' Behold, I have told you. 28.8. They departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy, and ran to bring his disciples word. 28.9. As they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, "Rejoice!"They came and took hold of his feet, and worshiped him. 28.10. Then Jesus said to them, "Don't be afraid. Go tell my brothers that they should go into Galilee, and there they will see me.
48. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 14 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

50. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 2.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

2.4. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ פָּתַר קְרָיָא בַּגָּלֻיּוֹת, וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ד, כט): רָאִיתִי אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה תֹהוּ. וָבֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת מָדַי (אסתר ו, יד): וַיַּבְהִלוּ לְהָבִיא אֶת הָמָן. וְחשֶׁךְ, זֶה גָּלוּת יָוָן, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְזֵרוֹתֵיהֶן, שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם, כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם, זֶה גָּלוּת מַמְלֶכֶת הָרְשָׁעָה, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵקֶר כְּמוֹ הַתְּהוֹם, מַה הַתְּהוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין לוֹ חֵקֶר, אַף הָרְשָׁעִים כֵּן. וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', בְּאֵיזוֹ זְכוּת מְמַשְׁמֶשֶׁת וּבָאָה, הַמְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, בִּזְכוּת הַתְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלָה כַּמַּיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ב, יט): שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ. רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי פְּדָת אָמַר, בְּרִית כְּרוּתָה לַמַּיִם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת שָׁרָב רוּחָה שַׁיְיפָה, וּכְבָר הָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן זוֹמָא יוֹשֵׁב וְתוֹהֶא, וְעָבַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְשָׁאַל בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ, פַּעַם וּשְׁתַּיִם וְלֹא הֵשִׁיבוֹ, בַּשְׁלִישִׁית הֵשִׁיבוֹ בִּבְהִילוּת, אָמַר לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם, אָמַר לוֹ מְעַיֵּן הָיִיתִי, אָמַר לוֹ מֵעִיד אֲנִי עָלַי שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁתּוֹדִיעֵנִי מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם. אָמַר לוֹ מִסְתַּכֵּל הָיִיתִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, וְלֹא הָיָה בֵּין מַיִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַמַּיִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים אֶלָּא כִּשְׁתַּיִם וְשָׁלשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת, וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְנַשֶּׁבֶת אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא מְרַחֶפֶת, כָּעוֹף הַזֶּה שֶׁהוּא מְרַפְרֵף בִּכְנָפָיו וּכְנָפָיו נוֹגְעוֹת וְאֵינָן נוֹגְעוֹת. נֶהְפַּךְ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאָמַר לְתַלְמִידָיו, הָלַךְ לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא, וְלֹא שָׁהוּ יָמִים מֻעָטִים וּבֶן זוֹמָא בָּעוֹלָם.
51. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 1.16 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.16. חַד מִתַּלְמִידוֹי דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֲוָה יָתֵיב קוֹמֵיהּ מִיסְבַּר לֵיהּ וְלָא סְבַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה לֵית אַתְּ סָבַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלַת מִילִין קַשְׁיָן חֲמֵית בַּהֲדֵין לֵילְיָא וְלֵית אֲנָא יָדַע מָה אִינוּן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵימָא לִי מָה אִינוּן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי דְּאָמְרִין לִי בַּאֲדָר אַתְּ מַיְית, וְנִיסָן לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי, וְזָרַע וְלָא חָצַד. אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלָתֵיהוֹן הֵן טָבִין, בַּאֲדָר אַתְּ מַיְית, בְּהִדּוּרָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אַתְּ מַיְית, [פרוש מתגבר], וְנִיסָן לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי, נִסְיוֹנִין לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי. וְזָרַע וְלָא חֲצָד, מַה דִּילֵידִית לֵית אַתְּ קָבֵיר. אֲמַר לוֹ חוֹרָן חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי דְּלָא הֲוָה בְּרַגְלִי פְּטִישׁ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַיֶּיךָ לֵית הָא בִּישָׁא אֶלָּא טָבָא, דְּמָטֵי חַגָּא וְלָא הֲוָה לֵיהּ לְהַהוּא גַבְרָא כְּלוּם, מִן הָן יְלִיף רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, רֶגֶל בְּרָגֶל.
52. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.10.1, 3.5.3, 3.11.8, 3.12.1, 3.16.6, 3.18.5-3.18.6, 4.20.4, 4.22.1, 4.24.1, 4.40.2, 5.36.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

54. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 74.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Justin: And God himself proclaimed by Moses, speaking thus: 'And circumcise the hardness of your hearts, and no longer stiffen the neck. For the Lord your God is both Lord of lords, and a great, mighty, and terrible God, who regards not persons, and takes not rewards.' And in Leviticus: 'Because they have transgressed against Me, and despised Me, and because they have walked contrary to Me, I also walked contrary to them, and I shall cut them off in the land of their enemies. Then shall their uncircumcised heart be turned. Leviticus 26:40-41 For the circumcision according to the flesh, which is from Abraham, was given for a sign; that you may be separated from other nations, and from us; and that you alone may suffer that which you now justly suffer; and that your land may be desolate, and your cities burned with fire; and that strangers may eat your fruit in your presence, and not one of you may go up to Jerusalem.' For you are not recognised among the rest of men by any other mark than your fleshly circumcision. For none of you, I suppose, will venture to say that God neither did nor does foresee the events, which are future, nor foreordained his deserts for each one. Accordingly, these things have happened to you in fairness and justice, for you have slain the Just One, and His prophets before Him; and now you reject those who hope in Him, and in Him who sent Him- God the Almighty and Maker of all things- cursing in your synagogues those that believe in Christ. For you have not the power to lay hands upon us, on account of those who now have the mastery. But as often as you could, you did so. Wherefore God, by Isaiah, calls to you, saying, 'Behold how the righteous man perished, and no one regards it. For the righteous man is taken away from before iniquity. His grave shall be in peace, he is taken away from the midst. Draw near hither, you lawless children, seed of the adulterers, and children of the whore. Against whom have you sported yourselves, and against whom have you opened the mouth, and against whom have you loosened the tongue?' Isaiah 57:1-4
55. Tatian, Oration To The Greeks, 11.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

56. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. There is nothing without a beginning but God alone. Now, inasmuch as the beginning occupies the first place in the condition of all things, so it must necessarily take precedence in the treatment of them, if a clear knowledge is to be arrived at concerning their condition; for you could not find the means of examining even the quality of anything, unless you were certain of its existence, and that after discovering its origin. Since therefore I am brought, in the course of my little work, to this point, I require to know of Marcion the origin of his apostle even - I, who am to some degree a new disciple, the follower of no other master; who at the same time can believe nothing, except that nothing ought to be believed hastily (and that I may further say is hastily believed, which is believed without any examination of its beginning); in short, I who have the best reason possible for bringing this inquiry to a most careful solution, since a man is affirmed to me to be an apostle whom I do not find mentioned in the Gospel in the catalogue of the apostles. Indeed, when I hear that this man was chosen by the Lord after He had attained His rest in heaven, I feel that a kind of improvidence is imputable to Christ, for not knowing before that this man was necessary to Him; and because He thought that he must be added to the apostolic body in the way of a fortuitous encounter rather than a deliberate selection; by necessity (so to speak), and not voluntary choice, although the members of the apostolate had been duly ordained, and were now dismissed to their several missions. Wherefore, O shipmaster of Pontus, if you have never taken on board your small craft any contraband goods or smuggler's cargo, if you have never thrown overboard or tampered with a freight, you are still more careful and conscientious, I doubt not, in divine things; and so I should be glad if you would inform us under what bill of lading you admitted the Apostle Paul on board, who ticketed him, what owner forwarded him, who handed him to you, that so you may land him without any misgiving, lest he should turn out to belong to him, who can substantiate his claim to him by producing all his apostolic writings. He professes himself to be an apostle - to use his own, words - not of men, nor by man, but by Jesus Christ. Galatians 1:1 of course, any one may make a profession concerning himself; but his profession is only rendered valid by the authority of a second person. One man signs, another countersigns; one man appends his seal, another registers in the public records. No one is at once a proposer and a seconder to himself. Besides, you have read, no doubt, that many shall come, saying, I am Christ. Luke 21:8 Now if any one can pretend that he is Christ, how much more might a man profess to be an apostle of Christ! But still, for my own part, I appear in the character of a disciple and an inquirer; that so I may even thus both refute your belief, who have nothing to support it, and confound your shamelessness, who make claims without possessing the means of establishing them. Let there be a Christ, let there be an apostle, although of another god; but what matter? since they are only to draw their proofs out of the Testament of the Creator. Because even the book of Genesis so long ago promised me the Apostle Paul. For among the types and prophetic blessings which he pronounced over his sons, Jacob, when he turned his attention to Benjamin, exclaimed, Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf; in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall impart nourishment. He foresaw that Paul would arise out of the tribe of Benjamin, a voracious wolf, devouring his prey in the morning: in order words, in the early period of his life he would devastate the Lord's sheep, as a persecutor of the churches; but in the evening he would give them nourishment, which means that in his declining years he would educate the fold of Christ, as the teacher of the Gentiles. Then, again, in Saul's conduct towards David, exhibited first in violent persecution of him, and then in remorse and reparation, on his receiving from him good for evil, we have nothing else than an anticipation of Paul in Saul - belonging, too, as they did, to the same tribe - and of Jesus in David, from whom He descended according to the Virgin's genealogy. Should you, however, disapprove of these types, the Acts of the Apostles, at all events, have handed down to me this career of Paul, which you must not refuse to accept. Thence I demonstrate that from a persecutor he became an apostle, not of men, neither by man; Galatians 1:1 thence am I led to believe the Apostle himself; thence do I find reason for rejecting your defense of him, and for bearing fearlessly your taunt. Then you deny the Apostle Paul. I do not calumniate him whom I defend. I deny him, to compel you to the proof of him. I deny him, to convince you that he is mine. If you have regard to our belief you should admit the particulars which comprise it. If you challenge us to your belief, (pray) tell us what things constitute its basis. Either prove the truth of what you believe, or failing in your proof, (tell us) how you believe. Else what conduct is yours, believing in opposition to Him from whom alone comes the proof of that which you believe? Take now from my point of view the apostle, in the same manner as you have received the Christ - the apostle shown to be as much mine as the Christ is. And here, too, we will fight within the same lines, and challenge our adversary on the mere ground of a simple rule, that even an apostle who is said not to belong to the Creator - nay, is displayed as in actual hostility to the Creator - can be fairly regarded as teaching nothing, knowing nothing, wishing nothing in favour of the Creator while it would be a first principle with him to set forth another god with as much eagerness as he would use in withdrawing us from the law of the Creator. It is not at all likely that he would call men away from Judaism without showing them at the same time what was the god in whom he invited them to believe; because nobody could possibly pass from allegiance to the Creator without knowing to whom he had to cross over. For either Christ had already revealed another god - in which case the apostle's testimony would also follow to the same effect, for fear of his not being else regarded as an apostle of the god whom Christ had revealed, and because of the impropriety of his being concealed by the apostle who had been already revealed by Christ - or Christ had made no such revelation concerning God; then there was all the greater need why the apostle should reveal a God who could now be made known by no one else, and who would undoubtedly be left without any belief at all, if he were revealed not even by an apostle. We have laid down this as our first principle, because we wish at once to profess that we shall pursue the same method here in the apostle's case as we adopted before in Christ's case, to prove that he proclaimed no new god; that is, we shall draw our evidence from the epistles of St. Paul himself. Now, the garbled form in which we have found the heretic's Gospel will have already prepared us to expect to find the epistles also mutilated by him with like perverseness - and that even as respects their number.
57. Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

58. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. אם תלמיד חכם הוא אין צריך אמר אביי אף תלמיד חכם מיבעי ליה למימר חד פסוקא דרחמי כגון (תהלים לא, ו) בידך אפקיד רוחי פדיתה אותי ה' אל אמת:,א"ר לוי בר חמא אמר ר"ש בן לקיש לעולם ירגיז אדם יצר טוב על יצר הרע שנא' (תהלים ד, ה) רגזו ואל תחטאו. אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר אמרו בלבבכם אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יקרא קריאת שמע שנאמר על משכבכם אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יזכור לו יום המיתה שנאמר ודומו סלה.,וא"ר לוי בר חמא אמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (שמות כד, יב) ואתנה לך את לוחות האבן והתורה והמצוה אשר כתבתי להורותם לוחות אלו עשרת הדברות תורה זה מקרא והמצוה זו משנה אשר כתבתי אלו נביאים וכתובים להורותם זה גמרא מלמד שכולם נתנו למשה מסיני:,א"ר יצחק כל הקורא ק"ש על מטתו כאלו אוחז חרב של שתי פיות בידו שנאמר (תהלים קמט, ו) רוממות אל בגרונם וחרב פיפיות בידם מאי משמע אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אשי מרישא דענינא דכתיב (תהלים קמט, ה) יעלזו חסידים בכבוד ירננו על משכבותם וכתיב בתריה רוממות אל בגרונם וחרב פיפיות בידם.,ואמר רבי יצחק כל הקורא קריאת שמע על מטתו מזיקין בדילין הימנו שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) ובני רשף יגביהו עוף ואין עוף אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי כג, ה) התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו ואין רשף אלא מזיקין שנאמר (דברים לב, כד) מזי רעב ולחומי רשף וקטב מרירי.,אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש כל העוסק בתורה יסורין בדילין הימנו שנאמר ובני רשף יגביהו עוף ואין עוף אלא תורה שנאמר התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו ואין רשף אלא יסורין שנאמר מזי רעב ולחומי רשף,אמר ליה רבי יוחנן הא אפילו תינוקות של בית רבן יודעין אותו שנאמר (שמות טו, כו) ויאמר אם שמוע תשמע לקול ה' אלהיך והישר בעיניו תעשה והאזנת למצותיו ושמרת כל חקיו כל המחלה אשר שמתי במצרים לא אשים עליך כי אני ה' רופאך אלא כל שאפשר לו לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק הקב"ה מביא עליו יסורין מכוערין ועוכרין אותו שנא' (תהלים לט, ג) נאלמתי דומיה החשיתי מטוב וכאבי נעכר ואין טוב אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ד, ב) כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו.,אמר רבי זירא ואיתימא רבי חנינא בר פפא בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם מוכר חפץ לחבירו מוכר עצב ולוקח שמח אבל הקב"ה אינו כן נתן להם תורה לישראל ושמח שנא' כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו.,אמר רבא ואיתימא רב חסדא אם רואה אדם שיסורין באין עליו יפשפש במעשיו שנא' (איכה ג, מ) נחפשה דרכינו ונחקורה ונשובה עד ה' פשפש ולא מצא יתלה בבטול תורה שנאמר (תהלים צד, יב) אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,ואם תלה ולא מצא בידוע שיסורין של אהבה הם שנאמר (משלי ג, יב) כי את אשר יאהב ה' יוכיח.,אמר רבא אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא כל שהקב"ה חפץ בו מדכאו ביסורין שנאמר (ישעיהו נג, י) וה' חפץ דכאו החלי,יכול אפילו לא קבלם מאהבה תלמוד לומר (ישעיהו נג, י) אם תשים אשם נפשו מה אשם לדעת אף יסורין לדעת,ואם קבלם מה שכרו (ישעיהו נג, י) יראה זרע יאריך ימים ולא עוד אלא שתלמודו מתקיים בידו שנא' (ישעיהו נג, י) וחפץ ה' בידו יצלח,פליגי בה רבי יעקב בר אידי ורבי אחא בר חנינא חד אמר אלו הם יסורין של אהבה כל שאין בהן בטול תורה שנאמר (תהלים צד, יב) אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,וחד אמר אלו הם יסורין של אהבה כל שאין בהן בטול תפלה שנאמר (תהלים סו, כ) ברוך אלהים אשר לא הסיר תפלתי וחסדו מאתי,אמר להו רבי אבא בריה דר' חייא בר אבא הכי אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אלו ואלו יסורין של אהבה הן שנאמר כי את אשר יאהב ה' יוכיח,אלא מה ת"ל (תהלים צד, יב) ומתורתך תלמדנו אל תקרי תלמדנו אלא תלמדנו דבר זה מתורתך תלמדנו,ק"ו משן ועין מה שן ועין שהן אחד מאבריו של אדם עבד יוצא בהן לחרות יסורין שממרקין כל גופו של אדם על אחת כמה וכמה,והיינו דרבי שמעון בן לקיש דאמר רשב"ל נאמר ברית במלח ונאמר ברית ביסורין נאמר ברית במלח דכתיב (ויקרא ב, יג) ולא תשבית מלח ברית ונאמר ברית ביסורין דכתיב (דברים כח, סט) אלה דברי הברית מה ברית האמור במלח מלח ממתקת את הבשר אף ברית האמור ביסורין יסורין ממרקין כל עונותיו של אדם:,תניא רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אומר שלש מתנות טובות נתן הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל וכולן לא נתנן אלא ע"י יסורין אלו הן תורה וארץ ישראל והעולם הבא,תורה מנין שנאמר אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,ארץ ישראל דכתיב (דברים ח, ה) כי כאשר ייסר איש את בנו ה' אלהיך מיסרך וכתיב בתריה כי ה' אלהיך מביאך אל ארץ טובה,העולם הבא דכתיב (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור ודרך חיים תוכחות מוסר.,תני תנא קמיה דר' יוחנן כל העוסק בתורה ובגמילות חסדים 5a. bIf one is a Torah scholar, he need notrecite iShemaon his bed since he is always engaged in the study of Torah and will likely fall asleep engrossed in matters of Torah. bAbaye said: Even a Torah scholar must recite at least one verse of prayer, such as: “Into Your hand I trust my spirit; You have redeemed me, Lord, God of truth”(Psalms 31:6).,Incidental to the verse, “Tremble, and do not sin,” the Gemara mentions that bRabbi Levi bar Ḥama saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: One should always incite his good inclination against his evil inclination,i.e., that one must constantly struggle so that his evil inclination does not lead him to transgression, bas it is stated: "Tremble, and do not sin."br bIfone succeeds and bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent,but bifhe does bnotsucceed in subduing it, he should bstudy Torah,as alluded to in bthe verse: “Say to your heart.” br bIfhe bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent; if not, he should recite iShema /i,which contains the acceptance of the yoke of God, and the concept of reward and punishment, bas it is statedin the verse: b“Upon your bed,”which alludes to iShema /i, where it says: “When you lie down.” br bIfhe bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent; if not, he should remind himself of the day of death,whose silence is alluded to in the continuation of bthe verse: “And be still, Selah.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:God said to Moses, “Ascend to me on the mountain and be there, band I will give you the stone tablets and the Torah and the mitzva that I have written that you may teach them”(Exodus 24:12), meaning that God revealed to Moses not only the Written Torah, but all of Torah, as it would be transmitted through the generations. br bThe “tablets” are the ten commandmentsthat were written on the tablets of the Covet, br bthe “Torah” is the five books of Moses. br bThe “mitzva” is the Mishna,which includes explanations for the mitzvot and how they are to be performed. br b“That I have written” refers to the Prophets and Writings,written with divine inspiration. br b“That you may teach them” refers to the Talmud,which explains the Mishna. brThese explanations are the foundation for the rulings of practical ihalakha /i. This verse bteachesthat ballaspects of Torah bwere given toMoses bfrom Sinai. /b,The Gemara continues its treatment of the recitation of iShemaupon one’s bed. bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who recites iShemaon his bed, it is as if he holds a double-edged sword,guarding him from all evil, bas it is stated: “High praises of God in their mouths, and a double-edged sword in their hands”(Psalms 149:6). The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat this verse from Psalms refers to the recitation of iShema /i? bMar Zutra, and some say Rav Ashi, said:We derive it bfrom the precedingverse, bas it is written: “Let the pious exult in glory; let them joyously sing upon their beds.”The praise of God from one’s bed is the recitation of iShema /i. bAnd it is written thereafter: “High praises of God in their mouths, and a double-edged sword in their hands.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who recites iShemaupon his bed, demons stay away from him.This is alluded to, bas it is stated:“But man is born into trouble, band the sparks [ ireshef] fly [ iuf] upward”(Job 5:7). The verse is explained: The word bfly [ iuf]means bnothing other than Torah,as Torah is difficult to grasp and easy to lose, like something that floats away, bas it is stated: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone;for riches certainly make themselves wings, like an eagle that flies into the heavens” (Proverbs 23:5). The word b“sparks”means bnothing other than demons, as it is stated: “Wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the sparks [ ireshef /i] and bitter destruction [ iketev meriri /i],and the teeth of beasts I will send upon them, with the venom of crawling things of the dust” (Deuteronomy 32:24). Here we see iresheflisted along with iketev meriri /i, both of which are understood by the Sages to be names of demons.,Regarding this unclear verse, bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: If one engages in Torahstudy, bsuffering stays away from him, as it is stated: “And the sparks fly upward.”And bflymeans bnothing other than Torah, bas it is stated: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone;and sparksmeans bnothing other than suffering, as it is stated: “Wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the sparks,”equating devouring sparks with wasting hunger, as both are types of suffering. From here, we derive that through Torah, fly, one is able to distance himself, upward, from suffering, sparks., bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: Even schoolchildren,who learn only the Written Torah, bknow thisconcept bas it is stated: “And He said you shall surely hear the voice of the Lord your God, and what is upright in His eyes you shall do and you shall listen to His mitzvot and guard His statutes; any disease that I have placed upon Egypt I will not place upon you for I am the Lord your healer”(Exodus 15:26). bRather,one must interpret the verse: bAnyone who is able to engage in Torahstudy byet does not engagein that study, not only does bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,fail to protect him, but He bbrings upon him hideous afflictions,that embarrass him band trouble him, as it is stated: “I was mute with silence; I was silent from good, and my pain was strong”(Psalms 39:3). The word bgoodmeans bnothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “For I have given you a good portion, My Torah, do not abandon it”(Proverbs 4:2). The verse should be understood: “I have been silent from the study of Torah, and my pain was strong.”,With regard to the verse: “For I have given you a good portion,” bRabbi Zeira, and some say Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa, said: Come and see how the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, are unlike the characteristics of flesh and blood. It is characteristic of flesh and blood that when one sells an object to anotherperson, bthe seller grievesthe loss of his possession band the buyer rejoices. With regard to the Holy One, Blessed be He,however, bthis is not so. He gave the Torah to Israel and rejoiced, as it is stated: “For I have given you a good portion, My Torah, do not abandon it.”A good portion is understood as a good purchase; although God sold Torah to Israel, He rejoices in the sale and praises the object before its new owner (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto).,Previously, the Gemara discussed suffering that results from one’s transgressions. The Gemara shifts the focus and discusses suffering that does not result from one’s transgressions and the suffering of the righteous. bRava, and some say Rav Ḥisda, said: If a person sees that suffering has befallen him, he should examine his actions.Generally, suffering comes about as punishment for one’s transgressions, bas it is stated: “We will search and examine our ways, and return to God”(Lamentations 3:40). bIf he examinedhis ways and bfound notransgression for which that suffering is appropriate, bhe may attributehis suffering bto derelictionin the study bof Torah.God punishes an individual for dereliction in the study of Torah in order to emphasize the gravity of the issue, bas it is stated: “Happy is the man whom You punish, Lord, and teach out of Your law”(Psalms 94:12). This verse teaches us that his suffering will cause him to return to Your law., bAnd if he did attributehis suffering to dereliction in the study of Torah, band did not findthis to be so, bhe may be confident that these are afflictions of love, as it is stated: “For whom the Lord loves, He rebukes,as does a father the son in whom he delights” (Proverbs 3:12).,So too, bRava saidthat bRav Seḥora saidthat bRav Huna said: Anyone in whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, delights, He oppresses him with suffering, as it is stated: “Yet in whom the Lord delights, He oppresses him with disease;to see if his soul would offer itself in guilt, that he might see his children, lengthen his days, and that the desire of the Lord might prosper by his hand” (Isaiah 53:10). This verse illustrates that in whomever God delights, he afflicts with illness.,I bmighthave thought that God delights in him even bif he does not accepthis suffering bwith love. Therefore the verse teaches: “If his soul would offer itself in guilt.” Just as a guilt-offering is brought knowingly,as it is one of the sacrifices offered willingly, without coercion, bso toohis bsufferingmust be accepted bknowingly. /b, bAnd if one acceptsthat suffering with love, bwhat is his reward?As the second part of the verse states: b“That he might see his children, lengthen his days.” Moreover,in addition to these earthly rewards, bhisTorah bstudy will endureand his Torah study will be successful, bas it is stated: “The purpose of the Lord,”the Torah, the revelation of God’s will, b“might prosper by his hand.” /b,With regard to the acceptance of affliction with love and what exactly this entails, bRabbi Ya’akov bar Idi and Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina disagree. Oneof them bsaid: Afflictions of love are any that do not cause derelictionin the study bof Torah,i.e., any which do not afflict his body to the extent that he is unable to study Torah, bas it is stated: “Happy is the man whom You afflict, Lord, and teach from Your Torah.”Afflictions of love are when You “teach from Your Torah.”, bAnd one said: Afflictions of love are any that do not cause derelictionin the recitation bof prayer, as it is stated: “Blessed is God Who did not turn away my prayer”(Psalms 66:20). Despite his suffering, the afflicted is still capable of praying to God., bRabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said:My father, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: Both,even afflictions that cause dereliction in the study of Torah and those that cause dereliction in the recitation of prayer, bare afflictions of love,as with regard to one who suffers without transgression bit is stated: “For whom He loves, He rebukes,”and inability to study Torah and to pray are among his afflictions., bWhat then,is the meaning when bthe verse states: “And teach him from Your Torah”? Do not read and teachto mean and bteach him /b, brather, and teach us /b. bYou teach usthe value of bthisaffliction bfrom Your Torah. /b,This is taught through ban ia fortioriinference fromthe law concerning bthe tooth and eyeof a slave: bThe tooth and eye areeach ba single limb of a personand if his master damages either, bthe slave thereby obtains his freedom; suffering that cleanses a person’s entire body all the more sothat one attains freedom, atonement, from his sins., bAnd that isthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish, as Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:The word bcovet is used with regard to salt, andthe word bcovet is used with regard to afflictions.The word bcovet is used with regard to salt, as it is written: “The salt of the covetwith your God bshould not be excludedfrom your meal-offering; with all your sacrifices you must offer salt” (Leviticus 2:13). bAndthe word bcovet is used with regard to afflictions, as it is written: “These are the words of the covet”(Deuteronomy 28:69). bJust as,in bthe covet mentioned with regard to salt, the salt sweetensthe taste of bthe meatand renders it edible, bso tooin bthe covet mentioned with regard to suffering, the suffering cleanses a person’s transgressions,purifying him for a more sublime existence.,Additionally, bit was taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to affliction: bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Israel three precious gifts, all of which were given only by means of suffering,which purified Israel so that they may merit to receive them. These gifts are: bTorah, Eretz Yisrael, and the World-to-Come. /b, bFrom whereis it derived that bTorahis only acquired by means of suffering? bAs it is said: “Happy is the man whom You afflict, Lord,”after which it is said: b“And teach from Your Torah.” /b, bEretz Yisrael, as it is written: “As a man rebukes his son, so the Lord your God rebukes you”(Deuteronomy 8:5), band it is written thereafter: “For the Lord your God will bring you to a good land.” /b, bThe World-to-Come, as it is written: “For the mitzva is a lamp, the Torah is light, and the reproofs of instruction are the way of life”(Proverbs 6:23). One may arrive at the lamp of mitzva and the light of Torah that exists in the World-to-Come only by means of the reproofs of instruction in this world., bA itannataughtthe following ibaraita bbefore Rabbi Yoḥa: If one engages in Torah and acts of charity /b
59. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. במזומנין לה מעשה ברבן גמליאל שאמר השכימו לי שבעה לעלייה השכים ומצא שמונה אמר מי הוא שעלה שלא ברשות ירד,עמד שמואל הקטן ואמר אני הוא שעליתי שלא ברשות ולא לעבר השנה עליתי אלא ללמוד הלכה למעשה הוצרכתי אמר לו שב בני שב ראויות כל השנים כולן להתעבר על ידך אלא אמרו חכמים אין מעברין את השנה אלא במזומנין לה ולא שמואל הקטן הוה אלא איניש אחרינא ומחמת כיסופא הוא דעבד,כי הא דיתיב רבי וקא דריש והריח ריח שום אמר מי שאכל שום יצא עמד רבי חייא ויצא עמדו כולן ויצאו בשחר מצאו רבי שמעון בר' לרבי חייא אמר ליה אתה הוא שציערת לאבא אמר לו לא תהא כזאת בישראל,ורבי חייא מהיכא גמיר לה מרבי מאיר דתניא מעשה באשה אחת שבאתה לבית מדרשו של ר"מ אמרה לו רבי אחד מכם קדשני בביאה עמד רבי מאיר וכתב לה גט כריתות ונתן לה עמדו כתבו כולם ונתנו לה,ור"מ מהיכא גמיר לה משמואל הקטן ושמואל הקטן מהיכא גמיר לה משכניה בן יחיאל דכתיב (עזרא י, ב) ויען שכניה בן יחיאל מבני עילם ויאמר לעזרא אנחנו מעלנו באלהינו ונושב נשים נכריות מעמי הארץ ועתה יש מקוה לישראל על זאת,ושכניה בן יחיאל מהיכא גמר לה מיהושע דכתיב (יהושע ז, י) ויאמר ה' אל יהושע קום לך למה זה אתה נופל על פניך חטא ישראל אמר לפניו רבש"ע מי חטא אמר לו וכי דילטור אני לך הטל גורלות ואיבעית אימא ממשה דכתיב (שמות טז, כח) עד אנה מאנתם,ת"ר משמתו נביאים האחרונים חגי זכריה ומלאכי נסתלקה רוח הקודש מישראל ואף על פי כן היו משתמשין בבת קול פעם אחת היו מסובין בעליית בית גוריה ביריחו ונתנה עליהם בת קול מן השמים יש כאן אחד שראוי שתשרה עליו שכינה (כמשה רבינו) אלא שאין דורו זכאי לכך נתנו חכמים את עיניהם בהלל הזקן וכשמת אמרו עליו הי חסיד הי עניו תלמידו של עזרא,שוב פעם אחת היו מסובין בעליה ביבנה ונתנה עליהם בת קול מן השמים יש כאן אחד שראוי שתשרה עליו שכינה אלא שאין דורו זכאי לכך נתנו חכמים את עיניהם בשמואל הקטן וכשמת אמרו עליו הי חסיד הי עניו תלמידו של הלל אף הוא אמר בשעת מיתתו שמעון וישמעאל לחרבא וחברוהי לקטלא ושאר עמא לביזא ועקן סגיאן עתידן למיתי על עלמא,ועל יהודה בן בבא בקשו לומר כן אלא שנטרפה שעה שאין מספידין על הרוגי מלכות,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה אלא אם כן ירצה נשיא ומעשה ברבן גמליאל שהלך ליטול רשות אצל שלטון אחד שבסוריא ושהה לבא ועיברו את השנה על מנת שירצה רבן גמליאל וכשבא ר"ג ואמר רוצה אני נמצאת שנה מעוברת,תנו רבנן אין מעברין את השנה אלא אם כן היתה צריכה מפני הדרכים ומפני הגשרים ומפני תנורי פסחים ומפני גליות ישראל שנעקרו ממקומן ועדיין לא הגיעו אבל לא מפני השלג ולא מפני הצינה ולא מפני גליות ישראל שלא עקרו ממקומן,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה לא מפני הגדיים ולא מפני הטלאים ולא מפני הגוזלות שלא פירחו אבל עושין אותן סעד לשנה כיצד רבי ינאי אומר משום רבן שמעון בן גמליאל מהודעין אנחנא לכון דגוזליא רכיכין ואימריא דערקין וזימנא דאביבא לא מטא ושפרת מילתא באנפאי ואוסיפית על שתא דא תלתין יומין,מיתיבי כמה עיבור השנה שלשים יום רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר חדש אמר רב פפא רצו חדש רצו שלשים יום,תא חזי מאי איכא בין 11a. bbythose bwho were invitedby the iNasi /i, the president of the Great Sanhedrin, bfor thatpurpose. There was ban incident involving Rabban Gamliel, who saidto the Sages: bBring me sevenof the Sages bearlytomorrow morning bto the loftdesignated for convening a court to intercalate the year. He bwentto the loft bearlythe next morning band found eightSages there. Rabban Gamliel bsaid: Who is it who ascendedto the loft bwithout permission? He must descendimmediately., bShmuel HaKatan stoodup band said: I am he who ascended without permission; and I did not ascend toparticipate and be one of those to bintercalate the year, butrather bI neededto observe in order bto learn the practical ihalakha /i.Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Sit, my son, sit. It would be fitting for all of the years to be intercalated by you,as you are truly worthy. bBut the Sages said: The yearmay be bintercalated only bythose bwho were invited for thatpurpose. The Gemara notes: bAnd it was notactually bShmuel HaKatanwho had come uninvited, bbut another person. And due to the embarrassmentof the other, Shmuel HaKatan bdidthis, so that no one would know who had come uninvited.,The Gemara relates that the story about Shmuel HaKatan is bsimilarto an incident that occurred bwhen RabbiYehuda HaNasi was bsitting and teaching, andhe bsmelled the odor of garlic.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was very sensitive and could not tolerate this odor. He bsaid: Whoever ate garlicshould bleave. Rabbi Ḥiyya stood up and left.Out of respect for Rabbi Ḥiyya, ball of thosein attendance bstood up and left.The next day, bin the morning, Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bfound Rabbi Ḥiyya,and he bsaid to him:Are byou the one who disturbed my fatherby coming to the lecture with the foul smell of garlic? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: There should not be suchbehavior bamong the Jewish people.I would not do such a thing, but I assumed the blame and left so that the one who did so would not be embarrassed., bAnd from where did Rabbi Ḥiyya learn thatcharacteristic of being willing to implicate himself in order to save someone else from being embarrassed? He learned it bfrom Rabbi Meir, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: There was ban incident involvinga certain bwoman who came to the study hall of Rabbi Meir. She said to him: My teacher, one of you,i.e., one of the men studying in this study hall, bbetrothed me through intercourse.The woman came to Rabbi Meir to appeal for help in identifying the man, so that he would either marry her or grant her a divorce. As he himself was also among those who studied in the study hall, bRabbi Meir arose and wrote her a bill of divorce, andhe bgave it to her.Following his example, ball thosein the study hall baroseand bwrotebills of divorce band gavethem bto her.In this manner, the right man also gave her a divorce, freeing her to marry someone else., bAnd from where did Rabbi Meir learn thatcharacteristic? bFrom Shmuel HaKatan,in the incident outlined above. bAnd from where did Shmuel HaKatan learn it? From Shecaniah ben Jehiel, as it is written: “And Shecaniah, the son of Jehiel, one of the sons of Elam, answered and said to Ezra: We have broken faith with our God, and have married foreign women of the peoples of the land; yet now there is hope for Israel concerning this”(Ezra 10:2). And although he confessed, Shecaniah is not listed among those who took foreign wives (Ezra 10:18–44). Evidently, he confessed only to spare the others from public embarrassment.,The Gemara continues: bAnd from where did Shecaniah ben Jehiel learn it? Froman incident involving bJoshua, as it is written: “And the Lord said to Joshua: Get yourself up; why do you fall upon your face? Israel has sinned”(Joshua 7:10–11). Joshua bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, who sinned?God bsaid to him: And am I your informer?Rather, bcast lotsto determine who is guilty. In this way, God did not directly disclose the identity of the sinner to Joshua. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that Shecaniah ben Jehiel learned this bfroman incident involving bMoses, as it is written:“And the Lord said to Moses: bHow long do you refuseto keep My mitzvot and My laws?” (Exodus 16:28). Although only a small number of people attempted to collect the manna on Shabbat, God spoke as though the entire nation were guilty, so as not to directly expose the guilty.,§ Since Shmuel HaKatan and his great piety were mentioned, the Gemara now relates several incidents that shed additional light on his personality. bThe Sages taught: After the last of the prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, died, the Divine Spiritof prophetic revelation bdeparted from the Jewish people. But nevertheless, they werestill butilizing a Divine Voice,which they heard as a kind of echo of prophecy. bOne time,a group of Sages bwere reclining in the loft of the house of Gurya in Jericho, and a Divine Voice was bestowed upon them from Heaven,saying: bThere is one here who is fit for the Divine Presence to rest upon him asit rested upon bMoses our teacher, but his generation is not deserving of thisdistinction. bThe Sages set their eyes upon Hillel the Elder,trusting that he was the one indicated by the Divine Voice. bAnd when he died,the Sages bsaid about him: Alas,the bpiousman, balas,the bhumbleman, ba disciple of Ezra. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnother time,a group of Sages bwere reclining in the loft in Yavne, and a Divine Voice was bestowed upon them from Heaven,saying: bThere is one here who is fit for the Divine Presence to rest upon himin prophecy, bbut his generation is not deserving of thisdistinction. bThe Sages set their eyes upon Shmuel HaKatan. And whenhe bdied,the Sages bsaid about him: Alas,the bpiousman, balas,the bhumbleman, ba disciple of Hillel. Additionally, he said at the time of his death,under the influence of the Divine Spirit: Rabban bShimonben Gamliel, the iNasiof the Great Sanhedrin, bandRabbi bYishmael,the High Priest, will die bby the sword, and their friendswill die bbyother bexecutions, and the rest of the nationwill be bdespoiled, and great troubles will ultimately come upon the world. /b, bAndthey also bwished to say thus:Alas, the pious man, alas, the humble man, babout Yehuda ben Bava,in their eulogy for him, bbut the hour was torn,i.e., the opportunity was lost, basone bdoes not eulogize those executed by the government.As will be explained (14a), Yehuda ben Bava was executed by the government.,§ The Gemara returns to the discussion about intercalation of the year. bThe Sages taught: The yearmay be bintercalated only if the iNasi /iof the Sanhedrin bwantsto intercalate it. bAndthere was once ban incident involving Rabban Gamliel, who went to ask permissionfor some communal matter bfrom an officer [ ihegmon /i] in Syria, andhe btarried in returninguntil after it was too late to intercalate the year. bAndbecause they did not know what his opinion on the matter was, they bintercalated the year on the condition that Rabban Gamliel would wantto do so. bAnd when Rabban Gamliel cameback band said: I wantto intercalate the year, bthe year was foundto be retroactively bintercalated. /b, bThe Sages taught: The yearmay be bintercalated only if it is necessary due todamage to bthe roads,if the rain has damaged them in such a way that they are inaccessible for those ascending to Jerusalem for Passover; bor due to the bridgesthat are likewise in disrepair; bor due to the ovensfor the bPaschal offeringsthat are damaged and unfit for roasting the offerings; bor due to the Diaspora Jews who have left their homes and still have not arriveddue to delays in travel. bButthe year may bnotbe intercalated bdue to the snow, and not due to the cold, and not due to the Diaspora Jews who have notyet bleft from their homes,even if they no longer have enough time to reach Jerusalem for the Festival., bThe Sages taught: The year may notbe bintercalated due to the young goats and not due to the lambs,to allow them to grow larger before they are to be sacrificed as Paschal offerings; band not due to the fledglingdoves bwho have notyet developed sufficiently to bfly,so that there won’t be enough of them to supply all those who wish to bring bird offerings at the Festival. bButall btheseconsiderations may be bmade supportingfactors in the decision btointercalate bthe year.The Gemara asks: bHowso? bRabbi Yannai says in the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel,i.e., this is the language Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel used in his declaration of the intercalation: bWe are notifying you that the fledglings are tender, and that the lambs are thin [ ide’arkin /i], and time for the spring has notyet barrived. Andconsequently, bthe matter is good in my eyes, and I havetherefore badded thirty days onto this year. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionto the report that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds the intercalated month is thirty days long. It is taught in a ibaraita /i: bHow long isthe additional month in ban intercalatedleap byear?The Rabbis say: bThirty days. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:A standard bmonth,which is twenty-nine days long. What, then, does Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel hold? bRav Pappa said:Rabban Gamliel holds that if the court bwants,it may add a standard bmonth,and if it bwants,it may add a month of bthirty days. /b,Concerning the declaration of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, the Gemara observes: bComeand bsee whatdifference bthere is between /b
60. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

48b. הרחיבה שאול נפשה ופערה פיה לבלי חק וירד הדרה והמונה ושאונה ועלז בה,משמתו נביאים הראשונים מאן נביאים הראשונים אמר רב הונא זה דוד ושמואל ושלמה רב נחמן אמר בימי דוד זימנין סליק וזימנין לא סליק שהרי שאל צדוק ועלתה לו שאל אביתר ולא עלתה לו שנאמר (שמואל ב טו, כד) ויעל אביתר,מתיב רבה בר שמואל (דברי הימים ב כו, ה) ויהי לדרוש אלהים כל ימי זכריה המבין בראות אלהים מאי לאו באורים ותומים לא בנביאים,ת"ש משחרב בהמ"ק ראשון בטלו ערי מגרש ופסקו אורים ותומים ופסק מלך מבית דוד,ואם לחשך אדם לומר (עזרא ב, סג) ויאמר התרשתא להם אשר לא יאכלו מקדש הקדשים עד עמוד כהן לאורים ותומים [אמור לו] כאדם שאומר לחבירו עד שיחיו מתים ויבא משיח בן דוד,אלא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מאן נביאים הראשונים לאפוקי מחגי זכריה ומלאכי דאחרונים נינהו דת"ר משמתו חגי זכריה ומלאכי נסתלקה רוח הקודש מישראל ואע"פ כן היו משתמשים בבת קול,שפעם אחת היו מסובין בעליית בית גוריא ביריחו נתנה עליהן בת קול מן השמים ואמרה יש בכם אדם אחד שראוי שתשרה שכינה עליו אלא שאין דורו ראוי לכך נתנו עיניהם בהלל הזקן וכשמת הספידוהו הי חסיד הי עניו תלמידו של עזרא,ושוב פעם אחרת היו מסובין בעלייה ביבנה נתנה להן בת קול מן השמים ואמרה להן יש בכם אדם א' שראוי שתשרה שכינה עליו אלא שאין דורו זכאין לכך נתנו עיניהם בשמואל הקטן וכשמת הספידוהו הי עניו הי חסיד תלמידו של הלל,ואף הוא אמר בשעת מיתתו שמעון וישמעאל לחרבא וחברוהי לקטלא ושאר עמא לביזא ועקן סגיאין עתידין למיתי על עמא ואף על ר' יהודה בן בבא בקשו לומר הי חסיד הי עניו אלא שנטרפה שעה שאין מספידין על הרוגי מלכות,משחרב בהמ"ק בטל השמיר כו' ת"ר שמיר שבו בנה שלמה את בהמ"ק שנא' (מלכים א ו, ז) והבית בהבנותו אבן שלמה מסע נבנה הדברים ככתבן דברי ר' יהודה,אמר לו ר' נחמיה וכי אפשר לומר כן והלא כבר נאמר (מלכים א ז, ט) כל אלה אבנים יקרות וגו' מגוררות במגרה אם כן מה ת"ל לא נשמע בבית בהבנותו שהיה מתקין מבחוץ ומכניס מבפנים אמר רבי נראין דברי רבי יהודה באבני מקדש ודברי ר' נחמיה באבני ביתו,ור' נחמיה שמיר למאי אתא מיבעי ליה לכדתניא אבנים הללו אין כותבין אותן בדיו משום שנאמר (שמות כח, יא) פתוחי חותם ואין מסרטין עליהם באיזמל משום שנאמר במלואותם,אלא כותב עליהם בדיו ומראה להן שמיר מבחוץ והן נבקעות מאליהן כתאינה זו שנבקעת בימות החמה ואינה חסירה כלום וכבקעה זו שנבקעת בימות הגשמים ואינה חסירה כלום,ת"ר שמיר זה ברייתו כשעורה ומששת ימי בראשית נברא ואין כל דבר קשה יכול לעמוד בפניו במה משמרין אותו כורכין אותו בספוגין של צמר ומניחין אותו באיטני של אבר מליאה סובי שעורין,אמר רבי אמי משחרב מקדש ראשון בטלה שירא פרנדא וזכוכית לבנה תניא נמי הכי משחרב מקדש ראשון בטלה שירא פרנדא וזכוכית לבנה ורכב ברזל וי"א אף יין קרוש הבא משניר הדומה כעיגולי דבילה,ונופת צופים מאי נופת צופים אמר רב סולת שצפה על גבי נפה ודומה לעיסה שנילושה בדבש ושמן ולוי אמר שתי ככרות הנדבקות בתנור ותופחות ובאות עד שמגיעות זו לזו ורבי יהושע בן לוי אמר זה דבש הבא מן הציפיא מאי משמע כדמתרגם רב ששת כמא דנתזן דבריאתה ושייטן ברומי עלמא ומתיין דובשא מעישבי טורא,תנן התם כל הנצוק טהור חוץ מדבש זיפים והצפיחים מאי זיפים אמר רבי יוחנן דבש שמזייפין בו וריש לקיש אמר על שם מקומו כדכתיב (יהושע טו, כד) זיף וטלם ובעלות,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (תהלים נד, ב) בבא הזיפים ויאמרו לשאול הלא דוד וגו' מאי זיפים אמר רבי יוחנן בני אדם המזייפין דבריהם ורבי אלעזר אומר על שם מקומן כדכתיב זיף וטלם ובעלות,ופסקו אנשי אמנה אמר רבי יצחק אלו בני אדם שהן מאמינין בהקב"ה דתניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר כל מי שיש לו פת בסלו ואומר מה אוכל למחר אינו אלא מקטני אמנה,והיינו דאמר ר' אלעזר מאי דכתיב (זכריה ד, י) כי מי בז ליום קטנות מי גרם לצדיקים שיתבזבז שולחנן לעתיד לבא קטנות שהיה בהן שלא האמינו בהקב"ה רבא אמר אלו קטני בני רשעי ישראל 48b. bthe netherworld has enlarged her desire, and opened her mouth without measure, and down goes their glory and their tumult and their uproar, and he who rejoices among them”(Isaiah 5:14). Their punishment is that they shall descend into the netherworld.,§ The mishna taught: bFromthe time bwhen the early prophets died,the iUrim VeTummimwas nullified. The Gemara poses a question: bWhoare bthe early prophets? Rav Huna says: This isreferring to bDavid, and Samuel, and Solomon,and after their death the iUrim VeTummimwas no longer used. bRav Naḥman said: In the days of Davidthere were btimesan answer brose upfor them from the iUrim VeTummim bandthere were btimesan answer bdid not rise up,i.e., they did not receive an answer. The proof for this is bthat Tzadok,the High Priest in David’s time, baskedthe iUrim VeTummim bandan answer brose up for him,whereas bAbiathar asked andan answer bdid not rise up for him, asit bis stated: “And Abiathar went up”(II Samuel 15:24), and he was removed from serving as the High Priest as a result., bRabba bar Shmuel raises an objection:The verse states concerning Uzziah: b“And he set himself to seek God in the days of Zechariah, who had an understanding of the vision of God”(II Chronicles 26:5). bWhat, isthe verse bnotstating that Uzziah would seek God by asking questions bofthe iUrim VeTummim /i,despite the fact that he lived after the time of Solomon? The Gemara rejects this claim: bNo,he would seek God by asking questions bofthe bprophets,but not of the iUrim VeTummim /i.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita( iTosefta13:2) with regard to when the iUrim VeTummimceased: bFromthe time bwhen the First Temple was destroyed, the cities with fieldsthat were allocated to the Levites bwere nullified, and the iUrim VeTummimceased, and the monarchy ceased from the house of David. /b, bAnd if a person would whisper to you sayingthat the iUrim VeTummimwas still extant, as it states with regard to when the Second Temple first stood: b“And the Tirshatha said to them that they should not eat of the most sacred things, until there stood a priest with the iUrim VeTummim /i”(Ezra 2:63), which seems to indicate that they merely had to wait until the Second Temple was built for the reappearance of the iUrim VeTummim /i; you should bsay to himthat this is not referring to an expectation of a short-term development, but it is blike a person who says to his friend,with regard to something that will occur in the distant future: bUntil the dead live and the Messiah,the bson of David, comes.In any case, the ibaraitaindicates that the iUrim VeTummimceased only from the time when the First Temple was destroyed, and not in the time of Solomon., bRather, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Whoare bthe early prophets,with regard to whom it states that use of the iUrim VeTummimceased immediately after their death? This term early prophets serves bto exclude Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi,who barethe blatter prophets.The iUrim VeTummimwas used throughout the First Temple period, up to, but not including, their time. bAs the Sages taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta13:3): bFromthe time bwhen Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi died the Divine Spirit departed from the Jewish people,as these three were considered to be the last prophets. bAndeven after the Urim VeTummim ceased to exist, they would bneverthelessstill bmake use of a Divine Voiceto receive instructions from Above, even after this time., bFor on one occasionthe Sages bwere reclining in the upper story of the house of Gurya in Jericho. A Divine Voice from Heaven was issued to them, and it said: There is one person among youfor bwhom it is fitting that the Divine Presence should rest upon himas a prophet, bbut his generation is not fit for it;they do not deserve to have a prophet among them. The Sages present bdirected their gaze to Hillel the Elder. And when he died, they eulogized himin the following manner: bAlas pious one, alas humble one, student of Ezra. /b, bAnd again, on another occasionseveral generations later, the Sages bwere reclining in an upper storyof a house bin Yavne,and ba Divine Voice from Heaven was issued to them, and said: There is one person among youfor bwhom it is fitting that the Divine Presence should rest upon him, but his generation is not fit for it.The Sages present bdirected their gaze to Shmuel HaKatan. And when he died, they eulogized himin the following manner: bAlas humble one, alas pious one, student of Hillel. /b, bAnd he too,Shmuel HaKatan, bsaidthe following statement of divinely inspired prediction bat the time of his death: Shimon,i.e., Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, band Yishmael,i.e., Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha the High Priest, are slated bfor the sword, and their colleagues for killing, and the rest of the people for plunder, and great troubles are destined to befall the people.The Gemara relates: bAnd they also sought to say about Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava,when eulogizing him: bAlas pious one, alas humble one, but the moment was disturbedand they could not do so. That is because beulogies are not given for those killed by the monarchy,which was Rabbi Yehuda ben Baba’s fate, in order not to arouse the monarchy’s wrath.,§ The mishna taught: bFromthe time bwhen theFirst bTemple was destroyed the ishamirceasedto exist. bThe Sages taught:This ishamir /iis the creature bwith which Solomon built the Temple, as it is stated: “For the house, when it was built, was built of whole stone from the quarry”(I Kings 6:7). Now bthese wordsshould be understood exactly bas they are written,that King Solomon took whole stones and shaped them by having the ishamirdo the cutting. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. /b, bRabbi Neḥemya said to him: And is it possible to say so? But isn’t it already stated: “All these were costly stones,according to the measures of hewn stones, bsawed with saws”(II Kings 7:9), which indicates that saws, which are iron implements, were used to shape the stones? bIf so, whatis the meaning when bthe verse states:“And hammer, ax, and any tool of iron bwere not heard in the house when it was being built”(I Kings 6:7)? It means bthat he would preparethe stones boutsidethe Temple Mount using tools, band bringthem binsidealready cut, so that no iron tools were used inside the Temple itself. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: The statement of Rabbi Yehudathat no iron tools were used bappearsto be correct bwith regard to the Temple stones, and the statement of Rabbi Neḥemyathat tools were used appears to be correct bwith regard to the stones of theking’s own bhouse. /b,The Gemara poses a question: bAndaccording to bRabbi Neḥemya,who maintains that they used iron tools even in the cutting of the stones for the Temple, bfor whatpurpose bdid the ishamircome?The Gemara answers: bItwas bnecessary for that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThese stonesin the breastplate and ephod, upon which were inscribed the names of the tribes, bthey may not be written on with ink, because it is stated: “Like the engravings of a signet”(Exodus 28:21), which means the names must be engraved onto the stones. bAnd they may not be scratched on with a scalpel [ iizemel /i], because it is stated: “In their full settings”(Exodus 28:20), indicating that the stones must be complete and not missing any of their mass.,The ibaraitacontinues: bRather,one bwritesthe letters bon them in ink, and shows them,i.e., he places the ishamir /iclose to the ink markings bfrom outside,without having it touch the stones, band they splitopen along the lines of the ink bof their own accord, like this fig that splits in the summer without losing anythingof its mass, band like thisfield in ba valley that cracks in the rainy season without losing anythingof its mass. The ishamirwas used in this way for these engravings., bThe Sages taught: This ishamir /i, its size is that of a barleycorn, and it was created in the six days of creation, and nothing hard can withstand it. In what is it kept,so that it will not break everything in the vicinity? bThey wrap it in tufts [ isefogin /i] of wool and place it in a leaden vessel [ iitenei /i], full of barley bran,which is soft and will not be broken by the ishamir /i.,§ bRabbi Ami says: Fromthe time bwhen the First Temple was destroyed, shiny [ iperanda /i] silk [ ishira /i] and white glass ceasedto exist. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFromthe time bwhen the First Temple was destroyed, shiny silk, white glass, and iron chariots ceased; and some saythat beven congealed wine that comes from Senir,the Hermon, bwhich is similar to round fig cakesafter it congeals, ceased to exist as well.,The mishna taught: bAndthe bsweetness of the honeycomb [ inofet tzufim /i]also ceased when the First Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: bWhatis inofet tzufim /i? Rav says: Fine flour that floatsup and remains bon the top of the sieve [ inafa /i], which is similarin taste bto dough kneaded with honey and oil. And Levi saysthat inofet tzufimis the term for btwo loaves stuck together in an oven, which keep swelling until they reach each other. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: This is honey that comes from elevated areas [ itzipiyya /i].The Gemara explains: bFrom where mayit bbe inferredthat this is what inofet tzufimis? bAs Rav Sheshet would translatethe words: “As the bees do” (Deuteronomy 1:44): bLike the bees spread out and fly all over the world and bring honey from mountainous plants.Similarly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi states that honey comes from elevated areas., bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iMakhshirin5:9): bAnything that is pouredremains britually pure.In other words, even if a liquid is poured into a ritually impure utensil, the stream of the liquid does not defile the contents that remain in the ritually pure utensil from which they were poured, bapart from izifimhoney and waferbatter. These substances are too viscous to be considered liquids. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of izifim /i? Rabbi Yoḥa says: Honeyof such rare quality that btheycould bfalsify [ imezayyefin /i] it,by diluting it with other substances, and it would not be noticed. bAnd Reish Lakish says:It is named bafter its place, as it is written: “Ziph and Telem and Bealoth”(Joshua 15:24)., bSimilarly, youcan bsaywith regard to the verse: b“When the izifimcame and said to Saul, does not Davidhide himself with us” (Psalms 54:2). bWhat isthe meaning of izifim /i,mentioned in this verse? bRabbi Yoḥa says:It means bpeople whowould bfalsify [ ihamzayyefin /i] their words. And Rabbi Elazar says:They are called bafter their place, as it is written: “Ziph and Telem and Bealoth.” /b,§ The mishna states that from the time when the Second Temple was destroyed bmen of faith ceased. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: These are people who believe in the Holy One, Blessed be He,and place their trust in Him in all their ways. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer the Great saysthat bwhoever has bread in his basketto eat today band says: What shall I eat tomorrow,meaning he does not know how he will acquire bread for tomorrow, bhe is nothing otherthan bfrom those of little faith.One must trust in God to provide him with his sustece., bAnd this is what Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For who plunders the day of small things”(Zechariah 4:10)? bWhat caused the table,i.e., the reward, bof the righteous to be plundered,meaning wasted, bin the future?It was bthesmall-mindedness bthey possessed.And what is this small-mindedness? bThat they did not believe in the Holy One, Blessed be He,with a complete faith. bRava said:Who plunders the day of small things? bThese are the small children of the wicked ones of the Jewish people,who die young
61. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. רבא אמר כיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק וכן אמר רב ששת כיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק,ואף רב הדר ביה דאמר רב חננאל אמר רב מונה עשרים ואחד יום כדרך שמונה עשרה ימים מר"ה עד יוה"כ ומתחיל וכיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק והלכתא כיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big עד מתי שואלין את הגשמים ר' יהודה אומר עד שיעבור הפסח ר' מאיר אומר עד שיצא ניסן שנאמר (יואל ב, כג) ויורד לכם גשם יורה ומלקוש בראשון:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק יורה בניסן יורה במרחשון הוא (דתנן) יורה במרחשון ומלקוש בניסן א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן בימי יואל בן פתואל נתקיים מקרא זה דכתיב ביה (יואל א, ד) יתר הגזם אכל הארבה וגו' אותה שנה יצא אדר ולא ירדו גשמים ירדה להם רביעה ראשונה באחד בניסן,אמר להם נביא לישראל צאו וזרעו אמרו לו מי שיש לו קב חטים או קבים שעורין יאכלנו ויחיה או יזרענו וימות אמר להם אעפ"כ צאו וזרעו נעשה להם נס ונתגלה להם מה שבכתלין ומה שבחורי נמלים,יצאו וזרעו שני ושלישי ורביעי וירדה להם רביעה שניה בחמשה בניסן הקריבו עומר בששה עשר בניסן נמצאת תבואה הגדילה בששה חדשים גדילה באחד עשר יום נמצא עומר הקרב מתבואה של ששה חדשים קרב מתבואה של אחד עשר יום,ועל אותו הדור הוא אומר (תהלים קכו, ה) הזורעים בדמעה ברנה יקצרו הלך ילך ובכה נושא משך הזרע וגו' מאי הלך ילך ובכה נושא משך וגו' א"ר יהודה שור כשהוא חורש הולך ובוכה ובחזירתו אוכל חזיז מן התלם וזהו בא יבא ברנה,מאי נושא אלומותיו א"ר חסדא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא קנה זרת שיבולת זרתים,א"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מאי דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגם בא אל הארץ שבע שנים בהנך שבע שנים מאי אכול,א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן שנה ראשונה אכלו מה שבבתים שניה אכלו מה שבשדות שלישית בשר בהמה טהורה רביעית בשר בהמה טמאה חמישית בשר שקצים ורמשים ששית בשר בניהם ובנותיהם שביעית בשר זרועותיהם לקיים מה שנאמר (ישעיהו ט, יט) איש בשר זרועו יאכלו,וא"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מאי דכתיב (הושע יא, ט) בקרבך קדוש ולא אבוא בעיר משום דבקרבך קדוש לא אבוא בעיר א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אמר הקב"ה לא אבוא בירושלים של מעלה עד שאבוא לירושלים של מטה,ומי איכא ירושלים למעלה אין דכתיב (תהלים קכב, ג) ירושלם הבנויה כעיר שחוברה לה יחדיו,וא"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו י, ח) ובאחת יבערו ויכסלו מוסר הבלים עץ הוא א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אחת היא שמבערת רשעים בגיהנם מאי היא ע"ז כתיב הכא מוסר הבלים עץ הוא וכתיב התם (ירמיהו י, טו) הבל המה מעשה תעתועים,וא"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מ"ד (ירמיהו ב, יג) כי שתים רעות עשה עמי תרתין הוא דהוו עשרין וארבע שביקא להו א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אחת שהיא 5a. bRava saidan alternative suggestion: bOnce one has startedto mention rain, bhe no longer stops,i.e., he continues the mention of rain consistently until the summer. bAnd, so too, Rav Sheshet said: Once one has startedto mention rain, bhe no longer stops.In other words, once one has begun to mention rain in his prayers in the additional prayer on the Eighth Day of Assembly, he continues to do so uninterrupted, even in the Diaspora.,The Gemara adds: bAnd even Rav retractedhis previously stated opinion, bas Rav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: One counts twenty-one daysfrom Rosh HaShana, just bas one counts ten days from Rosh HaShana until Yom Kippur. Andafter the twenty-one days, bone startsto mention rain, band once one has started, he no longer stops.The Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion that bonce one has startedto mention rain, bhe no longer stops. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bUntil when does one request rain? Rabbi Yehuda says:We request rain buntil Passover has passed. Rabbi Meir says: Untilthe month of bNisan has ended, as it is stated: “And He causes to come down for you the rain,the bfirst rain andthe blast rain, in the firstmonth” (Joel 2:23). Since the verse states that it rains in Nisan, the first month, this indicates that the entire month is considered part of the rainy season., strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak:Is the bfirst rain in Nisan?The bfirst rain is in Marḥeshvan, as we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe first rainis bin Marḥeshvan and the last rainis bin Nisan.Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRav Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: This verse was fulfilled in the days ofthe prophet bJoel, son of Pethuel,in a year bconcerningwhich bit is written: “That which the palmer-worm has left, the locust has eatenand that which the locust has left, the canker-worm has eaten; and that which the canker-worm has left, the caterpillar has eaten” (Joel 1:4), when no crops remained. In bthat year,the month of bAdar ended andstill bno rain had fallen.The rain of the bfirst rainy season fell for them on the first of Nisan. /b,After the first rain fell, bthe prophet said to the Jews: Go out and sow. They said to him: One who hasone ikavof wheat or two ikavof barleyleft, bshould he eat them and liveoff them for a while bor sow them and die?Given the improbability of the crops’ growth under these circumstances, it appears wasteful to plant them rather than consume that which remains. The prophet bsaid to them: Nevertheless, go out and sow. A miracle occurred for them and they discoveredwheat and barley seeds bthatwere hidden bin the walls and thatwere concealed bin ant holes. /b, bThey went out and sowed on the second, third, and fourthdays of Nisan, bandthe rain of the bsecond rainy season fell for them on the fifth of Nisan.The crops grew so quickly that btheywere able to bsacrificethe iomer /ioffering in its proper time, bon the sixteenth of Nisan. Consequently, grain thatnormally bgrows in six months grew in eleven days, and consequently,the iomerthat isgenerally bsacrificed from grainthat grows bin six months was sacrificedthat year bfrom grainthat grew bin eleven days. /b, bAnd with regard to that generationthe verse bsays: “They who sow in tears shall reap withsongs of bjoy. Though he goes on his way weeping, who bears the measure of seed,he shall come home with joy, bearing his sheaves” (Psalms 126:6). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression: b“Though he goes on his way weeping, who bearsthe measure of seed”? bRabbi Yehuda said: An ox, when it plowedat that time, bit wenton its way bweepingand lamenting its labor; bandyet bupon its return,through the same furrow, bitwas able to beat the young shoots [ iḥaziz /i]of crops that had already sprouted bfrom the furrow. And this isthe meaning of the phrase: b“He shall come home withsongs of bjoy.” /b,The Gemara further asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression: b“Bearing his sheaves”? Rav Ḥisda said, and some say this was taught in a ibaraita /i:The bstalkof that crop was one bspan,i.e., the distance between the thumb and the little finger, while the bearitself was btwo spans,i.e., the ears were twice as long as the stalk, whereas usually the stalk is three or four times longer than the ear.,§ Incidental to the interpretation of these verses, the Gemara cites a series of verses, starting with the topic of hunger, that also involve questions that Rav Naḥman posed to Rabbi Yitzḥak. bRav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For the Lord has called upon a famine and it shall also come upon the land seven years”(II Kings 8:1)? Specifically, bin those seven years, whatdid they beat? /b,Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRabbi Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows:In bthe first year they atethat bwhich was in their houses;in bthe secondyear bthey atethat bwhich was in their fields;in bthe thirdyear they ate the bmeat oftheir remaining bkosher animals;in bthe fourthyear they ate the bmeat oftheir remaining bnon-kosher animals;in bthe fifthyear they ate the bmeat of repugt creatures and creeping animals,i.e., any insects they found; in bthe sixthyear they ate the bflesh of their sons and their daughters;and in bthe seventhyear they ate the bflesh of theirown barms, to fulfill that which is stated: “Each man shall eat the flesh of his own arm”(Isaiah 9:19)., bAnd Rav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “It is sacred in your midst, and I will not enter the city”(Hosea 11:9)? This verse is puzzling: bBecause it is sacred in your midst, willGod bnot enter the city?Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRav Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa saidthe verse should be understood bas follows: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I shall not enter Jerusalem above,in heaven, buntil I enter Jerusalemon earth down bbelowat the time of the redemption, when it will be sacred in your midst.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is theresuch a place as bJerusalem above?The Gemara answers: bYes, as it is written: “Jerusalem built up, a city unified together”(Psalms 122:3). The term unified indicates that there are two cities of Jerusalem, a heavenly one and an earthly one, which are bound together.,§ bAnd Rav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “And with one they are brutish and foolish, the teaching of their vanity is a stock”(Jeremiah 10:8)? Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRabbi Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: There is onetransgression bthat causes the wicked to burn in Gehenna. What is thistransgression? bIdol worship.This can be proven by a verbal analogy. bIt is written here: “The teaching of their vanity [ ihevel /i] is a stock,” and it is written there,with regard to idols: b“They are vanity [ ihevel /i], a work of delusion”(Jeremiah 10:15)., bAnd Rav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For my people have committed two evils”(Jeremiah 2:13)? bWere thereonly btwoevils they performed? Were, then, the btwenty-fourviolations listed in the book of Ezekiel babandoned,i.e., pardoned? Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRav Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows:They have violated bonetransgression bthat is /b
62. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

9b. ששהו את קיניהן מיהא מעלה עליהן הכתוב כאילו שכבום,בזיון קדשים דכתיב (שמואל א ב, טו) גם בטרם יקטירון את החלב ובא נער הכהן ואמר לאיש הזובח תנה בשר לצלות לכהן ולא יקח ממך בשר מבושל כי אם חי ויאמר אליו האיש קטר יקטירון כיום החלב וקח לך כאשר תאוה נפשך ואמר לו כי עתה תתן ואם לא לקחתי בחזקה ותהי חטאת הנערים גדולה מאד את פני ה' כי נאצו האנשים את מנחת ה',מקדש ראשון מפני מה חרב מפני ג' דברים שהיו בו ע"ז וגלוי עריות ושפיכות דמים ע"ז דכתיב (ישעיהו כח, כ) כי קצר המצע מהשתרע,מאי קצר המצע מהשתרע א"ר יונתן קצר מצע זה מהשתרר עליו שני רעים כאחד,(ישעיהו כח, כ) והמסכה צרה כהתכנס א"ר שמואל בר נחמני כי מטי רבי יונתן להאי קרא בכי אמר מאן דכתיב ביה (תהלים לג, ז) כונס כנד מי הים נעשית לו מסכה צרה,גלוי עריות דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, טז) ויאמר ה' יען כי גבהו בנות ציון ותלכנה נטויות גרון ומשקרות עינים הלוך וטפוף תלכנה וברגליהן תעכסנה יען כי גבהו בנות ציון שהיו מהלכות ארוכה בצד קצרה ותלכנה נטויות גרון שהיו מהלכות בקומה זקופה ומשקרות עינים דהוו מליין כוחלא עיניהן הלוך וטפוף תלכנה שהיו מהלכות עקב בצד גודל וברגליהן תעכסנה א"ר יצחק שהיו מביאות מור ואפרסמון ומניחות במנעליהן וכשמגיעות אצל בחורי ישראל בועטות ומתיזות עליהן ומכניסין בהן יצה"ר כארס בכעוס,שפיכות דמים דכתיב (מלכים ב כא, טז) וגם דם נקי שפך מנשה [הרבה מאד] עד אשר מלא את ירושלם פה לפה,אבל מקדש שני שהיו עוסקין בתורה ובמצות וגמילות חסדים מפני מה חרב מפני שהיתה בו שנאת חנם ללמדך ששקולה שנאת חנם כנגד שלש עבירות ע"ז גלוי עריות ושפיכות דמים,רשעים היו אלא שתלו בטחונם בהקב"ה אתאן למקדש ראשון דכתיב (מיכה ג, יא) ראשיה בשוחד ישפוטו וכהניה במחיר יורו ונביאיה בכסף יקסומו ועל ה' ישענו לאמר הלא ה' בקרבנו לא תבוא עלינו רעה לפיכך הביא עליהן הקב"ה ג' גזרות כנגד ג' עבירות שבידם שנאמר (מיכה ג, יב) לכן בגללכם ציון שדה תחרש וירושלים עיין תהיה והר הבית לבמות יער,ובמקדש ראשון לא הוה ביה שנאת חנם והכתיב (יחזקאל כא, יז) מגורי אל חרב היו את עמי לכן ספוק אל ירך וא"ר (אליעזר) אלו בני אדם שאוכלין ושותין זה עם זה ודוקרין זה את זה בחרבות שבלשונם,ההיא בנשיאי ישראל הואי דכתיב (יחזקאל כא, יז) זעק והילל בן אדם כי היא היתה בעמי ותניא זעק והילל בן אדם יכול לכל תלמוד לומר היא בכל נשיאי ישראל,ר' יוחנן ור"א דאמרי תרווייהו ראשונים שנתגלה עונם נתגלה קצם אחרונים שלא נתגלה עונם לא נתגלה קצם,אמר רבי יוחנן טובה צפורנן של ראשונים מכריסו של אחרונים א"ל ריש לקיש אדרבה אחרונים עדיפי אף על גב דאיכא שעבוד מלכיות קא עסקי בתורה אמר ליה בירה תוכיח שחזרה לראשונים ולא חזרה לאחרונים,שאלו את רבי אלעזר ראשונים גדולים או אחרונים גדולים אמר להם תנו עיניכם בבירה איכא דאמרי אמר להם עידיכם בירה,ריש לקיש הוי סחי בירדנא אתא רבה בר בר חנה יהב ליה ידא א"ל אלהא סנינא לכו דכתיב (שיר השירים ח, ט) אם חומה היא נבנה עליה טירת כסף ואם דלת היא נצור עליה לוח ארז אם עשיתם עצמכם כחומה ועליתם כולכם בימי עזרא נמשלתם ככסף שאין רקב שולט בו עכשיו שעליתם כדלתות נמשלתם כארז שהרקב שולט בו,מאי ארז אמר עולא ססמגור מאי ססמגור אמר רבי אבא בת קול כדתניא משמתו נביאים האחרונים חגי זכריה ומלאכי נסתלקה רוח הקדש מישראל ועדיין היו משתמשין בבת קול,וריש לקיש מי משתעי בהדי רבה בר בר חנה ומה רבי (אליעזר) דמרא דארעא דישראל הוה ולא הוה משתעי ר"ל בהדיה דמאן דמשתעי ר"ל בהדיה בשוק יהבו ליה עיסקא בלא סהדי בהדי רבב"ח משתעי,אמר רב פפא שדי גברא בינייהו או ריש לקיש הוה וזעירי או רבה בר בר חנה הוה ור"א כי אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן א"ל לאו היינו טעמא א"נ סליקו כולהו בימי עזרא לא הוה שריא שכינה במקדש שני דכתיב (בראשית ט, כז) יפת אלהים ליפת וישכן באהלי שם 9b. bthat they deferredthe sacrifice of btheirbird-offerings by women after childbirth; bnevertheless, the verse ascribes to them as if they laywith bthem.These women came to the Tabernacle to sacrifice doves or pigeons as bird-offerings as part of their purification process, which would permit them to engage in sexual relations with their husbands. Eli’s sons delayed the sacrifice of these offerings and thereby delayed the return of these women to their husbands and their fulfillment of the mitzva of procreation. Even though, according to this opinion, Eli’s sons did not actually engage in sexual relations with these women, the verse attributes that degree of severity to their conduct.,Eli’s sons also sinned in the bdegradation of consecrated items, as it is written: “Before the fat was made burned, the priest’s servant came and said to the man who sacrificed: Hand over some flesh to roast for the priest, for he will not take cooked flesh from you, but raw. And if the man said to him: Let the fat be burnt first and then take as much as you want, then he would say: No, hand it over right now, or I will take it by force. The sin of the young men against the Lord was very great, for the men treated the Lord’s offerings with contempt”(I Samuel 2:15–17).,§ The iToseftacontinues with a discussion of the sins of the Jewish people over the generations: bDue to whatreason bwasthe bFirst Temple destroyed?It was destroyed bdue tothe fact bthat there were three mattersthat existed binthe First Temple: bIdol worship, forbidden sexual relations, and bloodshed. Idol worship, as it is written: “The bed is too short for stretching [ imehistare’a /i],and the cover is too narrow for gathering” (Isaiah 28:20)., bWhat isthe meaning of: b“The bed is too short for stretching?” Rabbi Yonatan said: This bed is too short for two counterparts [ ire’im /i] to dominate [ imehistarer /i]. iMehistare’ais a contraction of imehistarer re’im /i. It is inconceivable that there would be in one Temple both service of God and worship of the idol placed there by King Manasseh., bWhatis the meaning of: bAnd the cover [ ivehamasseikha /i] is too narrow [ itzara /i] for gathering [ ikehitkannes /i]? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bwhen Rabbi Yonatan reached this verse, he weptand bsaid: For He about Whom it is written: “He gathers [ ikones /i] waters of the sea together as a heap”(Psalms 33:7), bthe idol [ imasseikha /i] became a rival [ itzara /i]?In the homiletic interpretation, imasseikhais interpreted as idol and itzarais interpreted as rival, as in the term used to describe the relationship between two women married to the same husband, iisha tzara /i.,With regard to bforbidden sexual relations, it is written: “The Lord says because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go and making a tinkling with their feet”(Isaiah 3:16). br bBecause the daughters of Zion are haughty,indicates a btallwoman walking balongsidea bshortone so that the tall woman would stand out. br bAnd walk with outstretched necks,indicates bthat they would walk with upright statureand carry themselves in an immodest way. br bAnd wanton eyes,indicates bthat they would fill their eyes with blue eye shadowin order to draw attention to their eyes. br bWalking and mincing as they go,indicates bthat they would walkin small steps, bheel to toe,so onlookers would notice them. br bMaking a tinkling [ ite’akasna /i] with their feet, Rabbi Yitzḥak said:This teaches bthat they would bring myrrh and balsam and placethem bin their shoesand would walk in the marketplaces of Jerusalem. bAnd once they approacheda place where byoung Jewish menwere congregated, bthey would stamptheir feet on the ground band splashthe perfume btoward them and instill the evil inclination into them like venom of a viper [ ike’eres bikhos /i]. /b,With regard to bbloodshed it is written: “Moreover, Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, until he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another”(II Kings 21:16)., bHowever,considering that the people during bthe Second Templeperiod bwere engaged in Torahstudy, observance of bmitzvot, and acts of kindness,and that they did not perform the sinful acts that were performed in the First Temple, bwhy wasthe Second Temple bdestroyed?It was destroyed bdue tothe fact bthat there was wanton hatredduring that period. This comes bto teach you thatthe sin of bwanton hatred is equivalent to the threesevere btransgressions: Idol worship, forbidden sexual relations and bloodshed. /b,The Gemara continues: bThey were wicked; however, they put their faith in the Holy One, Blessed be He.With that statement bwe have come tothe bFirst Templeera, about bwhich it is written: “Her chiefs judge for bribes, her priests give rulings for a fee, and her prophets divine for pay; yet they rely on the Lord, saying: The Lord is in our midst, no tragedy will overtake us”(Micah 3:11). At least the final portion of the verse was to their credit. bTherefore, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brought upon them three decrees corresponding to their three wicked sins, as it is stated: “Therefore, due to you Zion will be plowed as a field, Jerusalem will become heaps of ruins, and the Temple Mount will be a like a shrine in the woods”(Micah 3:12).,The Gemara asks: bAnd in the First Templeera bwas therereally bno baseless hatred? Isn’t it written:“Cry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people, this will befall all the princes of Israel: bThey will be cast before the sword together with my people, therefore strike the thigh”(Ezekiel 21:17)? bRabbi Eliezerinterpreted this verse and bsaid: These are people who eat and drink with each other, and stab each other with verbal barbs.Apparently, even those who were close were filled with hatred toward one another.,The Gemara answers: bThatbehavior bwasfound only among bthe princes of Israel, as it is written: “Cry and wail, son of man, for this will befall my people”; and it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Cry and wail, son of man,for this will befall my people”; one bmighthave thought that this unsavory trait was common bto all.Therefore, bthe verse states: “This will befall all the princes of Israel.”It was only the leaders of the nation who harbored baseless hatred for each other; the people of the nation as a whole did not hate one another.,§ It was bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar who both said:In the case of bthe former,the people in the First Temple era, bwhose sin was exposedand no attempt was made to disguise their conduct, the bendof btheirpunishment bwas exposed,and the prophet informed them that they would return to their land in seventy years. In the case of bthe latter,the people in the Second Temple era, bwhose sin was not exposed;rather, they attempted to disguise their conduct, the bendof btheirpunishment bwas not exposed. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The fingernails of the former are preferable to the belly of the latter. Reish Lakish said to him: On the contrary, the latter were superior; even though there is subjugation by the kingdoms, they are engaged in Torah study.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid toReish Lakish: bThe Temple will provethat the former were superior, bas itwas brestored to the former.The Second Temple was constructed after the destruction of the first. However, after the destruction of the Second Temple, bitwas bnot restored to the latter.Apparently, the former were superior to the latter.,Similarly, the Sages basked Rabbi Elazar: Are the former greater or are the latter greater? He said to them: Look to the Templeand see if it has been restored, as it was to our predecessors. bSome saythe exchange was slightly different: bHe said to them: The Temple is your witness.The restoration of the Temple after the destruction of the First Temple, attests to the fact that the former generation was greater., bReish Lakish was swimming in the Jordan Riverwhen bRabba bar bar Ḥana came and gave him a handto help him out. Reish Lakish bsaid to him: My God! I hate youBabylonians, bas it is written: “If she be a wall we will build a silver turret upon her, if she be a door we will cover her with boards of cedar”(Song of Songs 8:9). This is the meaning of the verse as it applies to the Jewish people: bHad you rendered yourselvesa solid bloc blike a wall and all ascendedto Eretz Yisrael bin the days of Ezra, you would have been likened to silver, which rot does not infest,in the sense that you would have merited experiencing the Divine Presence in all its glory. bNow that you ascended like doors,and only some of you came to Eretz Yisrael, byou are likened to cedar, which rot infests,and you merit experiencing only partial revelation of the Divine Presence.,The Gemara asks: bWhatrot infests bcedar? Ulla said: It is isasmagor /i,a type of worm. The Gemara asks: bWhatdoes isasmagor /ihave to do with the Divine Presence during the Second Temple era? bRabbi Abba said:Just as little remains from a cedar tree infested by this worm, similarly, all that remained from the Divine Presence during the Second Temple period was a bDivine Voice, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAfter the last prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi died, the Divine Spiritof prophetic revelation bdeparted from the Jewish people, and they were still utilizing a Divine Voice,which they heard as an echo of prophecy.,The Gemara asks: bAnd would Reish Lakish speak with Rabba bar bar Ḥanain public? bJust as Rabbi Elazar, who was the master of Eretz Yisraelin wisdom and character, bandnevertheless, bReish Lakish would not speak with himin public, as Reish Lakish was sparing in his speech and extended friendship to only a select few prominent, righteous people, to the extent that ba person to whom Reish Lakishwas seen bspeaking in the marketplace, one would give hima loan and bdo businesswith him bwithout witnesses;would he bhave spoken with Rabba bar bar Ḥana? /b, bRav Pappa said: Cast a man between them,and say that the incident did not involve Reish Lakish and Rabba bar bar Ḥana. It bwas either Reish Lakishbathing in the river band Ze’iri,the prominent Babylonian Sage, who extended him a hand, borit was bRabba bar bar Ḥanawho was in the river band Rabbi Elazarextended a hand to him. In any event, bwhenthe Sage who heard what Reish Lakish said bcame before Rabbi Yoḥaand related it, Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: That is not the reason; even had they all ascended in the days of Ezra, the Divine Presence would not have rested in the Second Temple, as it is written: “God will enlarge Japheth, and dwell in the tents of Shem”(Genesis 9:27).
63. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3, 2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

64. Origen, Homilies On Luke, 1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

65. Anon., 2 Enoch, 31.4-31.6

66. Anon., Leges Publicae, 1.16



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
3 baruch Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 483
abandonment trope Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 163
abudarham Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 59
achilles Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
adam McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 21; Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 217
adonis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 10
aeneas Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
agency, of christ McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 74
akedah Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 303
alexander jannaeus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 127
allusions, biblical Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 138
allusions, lamentations in second isaiah Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 52
allusions Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
andromache Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
angel Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 10, 11, 12
angels Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 97
anointing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
anthropomorphisms Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 163
antithesis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 4, 5
antoninus pius Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 10
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 287
apocalyptic Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 115
apolinarius of laodicea Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 2
apostasy Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 192
apostle Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
apostles Edelmann-Singer et al., Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions (2020) 193; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 2, 12
apostleship Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 2, 4
apostolic tradition Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 27
appearance Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 8, 10
aquila Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 400
aram Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 30
aramaic, targum, targumic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61, 208
asceticism Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 98
assyria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29, 33
assyrian Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 115
athanasius of alexandria Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 2, 5
athenagoras Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 217
atonement, as bearing others sins nan nan nan nan
atonement, as slaughter of the sacrificial victim nan nan nan nan
atonement, as substance of his heavenly offering nan nan nan nan
atonement, in the levitical cult nan nan nan
atonement Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133; Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 198
authority Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 2, 6, 48
babylon (mesopotamia/iraq) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29, 33
babylonian Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 138
babylonian exile (golah) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29
babylonian rite Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 442
baptism, baptismal formula Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 255
baptism Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 48
bible, texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29, 30, 31, 33
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
binding of isaac, salvific significance Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 402
binding of isaac, treated as a martyrdom in rabbinic literature Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 402
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 48, 98
blood, of animal sacrifices Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
blood, of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 48, 98
book of biblical antiquities (liber antiquitatum biblicarum or lab, pseudo-philo) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 483
book of isaiah/jesajabuch Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 83, 86
book of jeremiah/jeremiabuch Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 119
book of the twelve Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 115
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 9, 10, 11, 12, 48, 98
canon of hebrew bible/old testament, for new testament writers Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 483
canon within the canon Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 442
celebration Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 5
charismatic endowment Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
children Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 81; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 5
christian, conception of the spirit Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
christian, early christian, anti-christian, christianity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61, 208
christian myth, nascent christian, community, outlook of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 231
christianity, rabbinic exegesis, early christians trained in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 483
christianity Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 81
christology, based on ot typology Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 442
christology, johannine Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
chronicles, books of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 31
clothing Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 192
common meals Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
community, consolation, haftarot of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 52
community, dialogic arrangement of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 59
community, gods coming and going in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 163
community, reliability of divine word Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 49
community, second isaiah Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 64, 67
community, voice in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 59
community Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 1, 48
covenant, people of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 48, 98
creation, conflict motif in McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 74
creation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 5, 6, 7, 8, 98
creation and ownership, related to redemption McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 50
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 48, 98
creed Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 1
cross Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 48, 98
crucifixion, jesus death Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208, 231
current, formulas Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
current, interpretation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 442
cyrus (ii) Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 97
cyrus the persian Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29
darkness Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 4, 7, 8, 9
david, the king, as prophet Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
david/davidic king Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 255
dawn Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 10, 11
day of atonement Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 198
death, of christ, as salvific Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
death of jesus Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 93
debates Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 4
demetrius iii of syria Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 127
desire Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 192
desires Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 187
deutero-zechariah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 119
devekut Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 302
dialogue Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 59
didache Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 138; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 255
diogenes laertius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
disciples Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 138
divine beings, enemies of god Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 97
divine beings, in dead sea scrolls Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 97
divine beings, in ps Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 97
dominion McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 21
double treatise Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
education, of early christians in rabbinic exegesis Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 483
empty tomb Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 3, 10, 11, 12
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 9, 10, 11, 12, 48, 98
ephraim (biblical) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 30, 31
epictetus Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 255
eschatological Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 138
eschatological failure Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 231
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 231
eschatology Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 8
esra/ezra Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 97
ethiopia Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29
eucharist, eucharist prayers Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 255
euryalus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
evangelists Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 93
evil Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, messianic/eschatological interpretation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
exodus McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 21, 23, 50; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 187; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29, 33; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 7
ezekiel Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 115, 118, 119; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
ezra/esra Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 97
faith Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 93
faith (belief, fidelity, trust), human Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 192
family Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 192
feast, days Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 442
first day of the week Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 10, 11, 12, 98
first isaiah, reliability of divine word in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 49
flesh Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 93
forgiveness nan
fortschreibung Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 86
freedom Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 187
galilee, galilean Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
gentiles, nations of Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 81
george syncellus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
glory McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 50
god, anthropomorphisms Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 163
god, as creator McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 50
god, consolation Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 59
god, divine movement Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 163
god, justice of Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 81
god, love for us by Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 81
god, nature and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 64
god, people of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
god, suffering and Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 81
god, zion and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 67
god–israel relationship, abandonment trope in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 163
god–israel relationship, love in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 163
god–israel relationship, romance in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 163
gog Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 115, 118, 119
gospels Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 27; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 21, 23
gottwald, norman Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 52
gratitude Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 192
greek/barbarian division Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 217
greek Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 27
greek versions Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 138
greetings Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
ground Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
großjesajabuch Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 86
guards Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 10, 11
guide of the perplexed (maimonides) Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 81
haftarah Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 442
hays, richard Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 52
healing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
hebrew, language Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 30
hebrew Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 114, 119
hector Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
heilswende Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 86
heresy Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 1, 5
hermeneutics, hermeneutical key Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208, 231
herod Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
herod agrippa i Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
herod antipas Jensen, Herod Antipas in Galilee: The Literary and Archaeological Sources on the Reign of Herod Antipas and Its Socio-Economic Impact on Galilee (2010) 119
heschel, avraham yoshua Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 390
holocaust Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 302, 303
hope Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 231; Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 3, 10, 48
hosea Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
humankind, unity of Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 217
huna, rav Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 81
hymn Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 9
identity, exodus-related Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
identity Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 114; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 255
image, imagery Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 187
imagery, danielic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
incarnation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 2, 3, 5
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
intermediary period Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 231
intertextuality vii Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 187
irenaeus Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 217
isaiah, book of, isaiah, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29, 30, 31, 33
isaiah Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 127, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404; Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 93
israel, biblical, kingdom of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 30
israel, biblical, people Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29
israel, biblical Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29
israel, female personification of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 163
israel, reconciliation with god Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 64
israel, rejoicing of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 67
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 138
james Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
jeremiabuch/book of jeremiah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 119
jeremiah, book of, reliability of divine word in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 49
jeremiah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 119
jerusalem Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 86; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 33
jesajabuch/book of isaiah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 83, 86
jesus, disciples, early followers, messianic movement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61, 231
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
jesus, failure of his messianic enterprise vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 231
jesus, son of god Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 255
jesus, suffering Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208
jesus, vicarious death of Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 198
jesus-centered tradition Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 231
jesus Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 81
jew(ish), pharisees Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 192
jew(ish), sabbateans Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 192
jew(ish) Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 192
jew/s Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 255
jewish other, ritual Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61
jewish prayers/ prayer-practice Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 255
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208, 231
john, author of revelation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
john the baptist McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 23; Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 97
josephus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 127
josiah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 97
judah, kingdom/province of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 30
judah, return to Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29
judah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 97, 114, 115; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 30, 31
judaism Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 192
judean, judeans Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 29
judgment, last supper nan
julius africanus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 48, 98
justice Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44; Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 81
justin martyr Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 489; Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 217
kaufmann, yehezkel Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 52
kiddush hashem" Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 303
kingdom Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 8
kingdom (βασιλεία) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
kingdom of god, proclamation of McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 23
kingdom of god Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 8
ktuvim Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 442
kyrios Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 255
lab (liber antiquitatum biblicarum or book of biblical antiquities, pseudo-philo) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 483
lamb, of god Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
lamb, paschal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
lamb Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 4
lamentations, second isaiah and Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 52
lamentations, tisha bav lectionary cycle Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 52
language Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 6
law, mosaic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 442
law, torah Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 48, 98
liber antiquitatum biblicarum or lab (book of biblical antiquities, pseudo-philo) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 483
liberation Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 187
life, israelite/jewish Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
light McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 50
literati Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 114
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 44
liturgy, byzantine Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 442
liturgy, jewish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 442
livy Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
lord, priests of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
lords prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 255
love, of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 133
love Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 4
luke, gospel of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
lxx/septuagint/septuaginta Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 83
maimonides, moses Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 81
malachi Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 114
manger Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 4
marcionites Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 4
martyr Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 3
martyr and martyrdom, cry of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
martyr and martyrdom, maccabean Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
martyr and martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 48, 98
mary magdalene Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 10, 11, 12
masoretic text (mt) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 138
melito of sardes Roukema, Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma (2010) 90
message Roskovec and Hušek, Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts (2021) 93
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic, davidic, kingly Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 231
messiah, gods anointed, messiahship, messianic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 61, 208, 231
messiah, gods anointed, suffering, death of the messiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 208, 231
messiah Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 8, 9