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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6288
Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5


nanWoe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, And prudent in their own sight!,Then shall the lambs feed as in their pasture, And the waste places of the fat ones shall wanderers eat.,Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, That they may follow strong drink; That tarry late into the night, Till wine inflame them!,Let me sing of my well-beloved, A song of my beloved touching his vineyard. My well-beloved had a vineyard In a very fruitful hill;,Woe unto them that call evil good, And good evil; That change darkness into light, And light into darkness; That change bitter into sweet, And sweet into bitter!,And the harp and the psaltery, the tabret and the pipe, And wine, are in their feasts; But they regard not the work of the LORD, Neither have they considered the operation of His hands.,Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, And sin as it were with a cart rope,,None shall be weary nor stumble among them; None shall slumber nor sleep; Neither shall the girdle of their loins be loosed, Nor the latchet of their shoes be broken;,Therefore the nether-world hath enlarged her desire, And opened her mouth without measure; And down goeth their glory, and their tumult, and their uproar, And he that rejoiceth among them.,And man is bowed down, And man is humbled, And the eyes of the lofty are humbled; .,And now come, I will tell you What I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, And it shall be eaten up; I will break down the fence thereof, And it shall be trodden down;,Therefore My people are gone into captivity, For want of knowledge; And their honourable men are famished, And their multitude are parched with thirst.,Their roaring shall be like a lion, They shall roar like young lions, yea, they shall roar, And lay hold of the prey, and carry it away safe, And there shall be none to deliver.,And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, Judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard.,For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah the plant of His delight; And He looked for justice, but behold violence; For righteousness, but behold a cry.,Woe unto them that join house to house, That lay field to field, Till there be no room, and ye be made to dwell Alone in the midst of the land!,Therefore as the tongue of fire devoureth the stubble, And as the chaff is consumed in the flame, So their root shall be as rottenness, And their blossom shall go up as dust; Because they have rejected the law of the LORD of hosts, And contemned the word of the Holy One of Israel.,And he digged it, and cleared it of stones, And planted it with the choicest vine, And built a tower in the midst of it, And also hewed out a vat therein; And he looked that it should bring forth grapes, And it brought forth wild grapes. .,Woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine, And men of strength to mingle strong drink;,Whose arrows are sharp, And all their bows bent; Their horses’hoofs shall be counted like flint, And their wheels like a whirlwind;,And they shall roar against them in that day Like the roaring of the sea; And if one look unto the land, Behold darkness and distress, And the light is darkened in the skies thereof.,That justify the wicked for a reward, And take away the righteousness of the righteous from him!,For ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath, And the seed of a homer shall yield an ephah.,And I will lay it waste: It shall not be pruned nor hoed, But there shall come up briers and thorns; I will also command the clouds That they rain no rain upon it.,That say: ‘Let Him make speed, let Him hasten His work, That we may see it; And let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw nigh and come, That we may know it! ’,Therefore is the anger of the LORD kindled against His people, And He hath stretched forth His hand against them, and hath smitten them, And the hills did tremble, And their carcasses were as refuse in the midst of the streets. For all this His anger is not turned away, But His hand is stretched out still.,And He will lift up an ensign to the nations from far, And will hiss unto them from the end of the earth; And, behold, they shall come with speed swiftly;,In mine ears said the LORD of hosts: Of a truth many houses shall be desolate, Even great and fair, without inhabitant.,But the LORD of hosts is exalted through justice, And God the Holy One is sanctified through righteousness.,What could have been done more to my vineyard, That I have not done in it? Wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, Brought it forth wild grapes?


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

35 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.1-1.5, 1.14, 2.14, 4.12-4.16, 5.1-5.2, 5.13, 6.2, 6.9, 6.11, 7.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. נָאווּ לְחָיַיִךְ בַּתֹּרִים צַוָּארֵךְ בַּחֲרוּזִים׃ 1.1. שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים אֲשֶׁר לִשְׁלֹמֹה׃ 1.2. יִשָּׁקֵנִי מִנְּשִׁיקוֹת פִּיהוּ כִּי־טוֹבִים דֹּדֶיךָ מִיָּיִן׃ 1.3. לְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנֶיךָ טוֹבִים שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק שְׁמֶךָ עַל־כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.4. מָשְׁכֵנִי אַחֲרֶיךָ נָּרוּצָה הֱבִיאַנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ חֲדָרָיו נָגִילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָה בָּךְ נַזְכִּירָה דֹדֶיךָ מִיַּיִן מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.5. שְׁחוֹרָה אֲנִי וְנָאוָה בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם כְּאָהֳלֵי קֵדָר כִּירִיעוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 1.14. אֶשְׁכֹּל הַכֹּפֶר דּוֹדִי לִי בְּכַרְמֵי עֵין גֶּדִי׃ 2.14. יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגָה הַרְאִינִי אֶתּ־מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי אֶת־קוֹלֵךְ כִּי־קוֹלֵךְ עָרֵב וּמַרְאֵיךְ נָאוֶה׃ 4.12. גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה גַּל נָעוּל מַעְיָן חָתוּם׃ 4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.15. מַעְיַן גַּנִּים בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים וְנֹזְלִים מִן־לְבָנוֹן׃ 4.16. עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן הָפִיחִי גַנִּי יִזְּלוּ בְשָׂמָיו יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ וְיֹאכַל פְּרִי מְגָדָיו׃ 5.1. דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה׃ 5.1. בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם־בְּשָׂמִי אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם־דִּבְשִׁי שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם־חֲלָבִי אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים׃ 5.2. אֲנִי יְשֵׁנָה וְלִבִּי עֵר קוֹל דּוֹדִי דוֹפֵק פִּתְחִי־לִי אֲחֹתִי רַעְיָתִי יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי נִמְלָא־טָל קְוֻּצּוֹתַי רְסִיסֵי לָיְלָה׃ 5.13. לְחָיָו כַּעֲרוּגַת הַבֹּשֶׂם מִגְדְּלוֹת מֶרְקָחִים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו שׁוֹשַׁנִּים נֹטְפוֹת מוֹר עֹבֵר׃ 6.2. דּוֹדִי יָרַד לְגַנּוֹ לַעֲרוּגוֹת הַבֹּשֶׂם לִרְעוֹת בַּגַּנִּים וְלִלְקֹט שׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃ 6.9. אַחַת הִיא יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי אַחַת הִיא לְאִמָּהּ בָּרָה הִיא לְיוֹלַדְתָּהּ רָאוּהָ בָנוֹת וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ מְלָכוֹת וּפִילַגְשִׁים וַיְהַלְלוּהָ׃ 6.11. אֶל־גִּנַּת אֱגוֹז יָרַדְתִּי לִרְאוֹת בְּאִבֵּי הַנָּחַל לִרְאוֹת הֲפָרְחָה הַגֶּפֶן הֵנֵצוּ הָרִמֹּנִים׃ 7.5. צַוָּארֵךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַשֵּׁן עֵינַיִךְ בְּרֵכוֹת בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן עַל־שַׁעַר בַּת־רַבִּים אַפֵּךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַלְּבָנוֹן צוֹפֶה פְּנֵי דַמָּשֶׂק׃ 1.1. THE song of songs, which is Solomon’s. 1.2. Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth— For thy love is better than wine. 1.3. Thine ointments have a goodly fragrance; Thy name is as ointment poured forth; Therefore do the maidens love thee. 1.4. Draw me, we will run after thee; The king hath brought me into his chambers; We will be glad and rejoice in thee, We will find thy love more fragrant than wine! Sincerely do they love thee. 1.5. ’I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon. 1.14. My beloved is unto me as a cluster of henna In the vineyards of En-gedi. 2.14. O my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, in the covert of the cliff, Let me see thy countece, let me hear thy voice; For sweet is thy voice, and thy countece is comely.’ 4.12. A garden shut up is my sister, my bride; A spring shut up, a fountain sealed. 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices. 4.15. Thou art a fountain of gardens, A well of living waters, And flowing streams from Lebanon. 4.16. Awake, O north wind; And come, thou south; Blow upon my garden, That the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, And eat his precious fruits. 5.1. I am come into my garden, my sister, my bride; I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk. Eat, O friends; Drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved. 5.2. I sleep, but my heart waketh; Hark! my beloved knocketh: ‘Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled; For my head is filled with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’ 5.13. His cheeks are as a bed of spices, As banks of sweet herbs; His lips are as lilies, Dropping with flowing myrrh. 6.2. ’My beloved is gone down into his garden, To the beds of spices, To feed in the gardens, And to gather lilies. 6.9. My dove, my undefiled, is but one; She is the only one of her mother; She is the choice one of her that bore her. The daughters saw her, and called her happy; Yea, the queens and the concubines, and they praised her. 6.11. I went down into the garden of nuts, To look at the green plants of the valley, To see whether the vine budded, And the pomegranates were in flower. 7.5. Thy neck is as a tower of ivory; Thine eyes as the pools in Heshbon, By the gate of Bath-rabbim; Thy nose is like the tower of Lebanon Which looketh toward Damascus.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.10-8.20, 32.47 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.11. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם׃ 8.12. פֶּן־תֹּאכַל וְשָׂבָעְתָּ וּבָתִּים טוֹבִים תִּבְנֶה וְיָשָׁבְתָּ׃ 8.13. וּבְקָרְךָ וְצֹאנְךָ יִרְבְּיֻן וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב יִרְבֶּה־לָּךְ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ יִרְבֶּה׃ 8.14. וְרָם לְבָבֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הַמּוֹצִיאֲךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 8.15. הַמּוֹלִיכֲךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר הַגָּדֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא נָחָשׁ שָׂרָף וְעַקְרָב וְצִמָּאוֹן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־מָיִם הַמּוֹצִיא לְךָ מַיִם מִצּוּר הַחַלָּמִישׁ׃ 8.16. הַמַּאֲכִלְךָ מָן בַּמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּן אֲבֹתֶיךָ לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ וּלְמַעַן נַסֹּתֶךָ לְהֵיטִבְךָ בְּאַחֲרִיתֶךָ׃ 8.17. וְאָמַרְתָּ בִּלְבָבֶךָ כֹּחִי וְעֹצֶם יָדִי עָשָׂה לִי אֶת־הַחַיִל הַזֶּה׃ 8.18. וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי הוּא הַנֹּתֵן לְךָ כֹּחַ לַעֲשׂוֹת חָיִל לְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 8.19. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁכֹחַ תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַעֲבַדְתָּם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם הַעִדֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם כִּי אָבֹד תֹּאבֵדוּן׃ 32.47. כִּי לֹא־דָבָר רֵק הוּא מִכֶּם כִּי־הוּא חַיֵּיכֶם וּבַדָּבָר הַזֶּה תַּאֲרִיכוּ יָמִים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 8.10. And thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless the LORD thy God for the good land which He hath given thee." 8.11. Beware lest thou forget the LORD thy God, in not keeping His commandments, and His ordices, and His statutes, which I command thee this day;" 8.12. lest when thou hast eaten and art satisfied, and hast built goodly houses, and dwelt therein;" 8.13. and when thy herds and thy flocks multiply, and thy silver and thy gold is multiplied, and all that thou hast is multiplied;" 8.14. then thy heart be lifted up, and thou forget the LORD thy God, who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage;" 8.15. who led thee through the great and dreadful wilderness, wherein were serpents, fiery serpents, and scorpions, and thirsty ground where was no water; who brought thee forth water out of the rock of flint;" 8.16. who fed thee in the wilderness with manna, which thy fathers knew not, that He might afflict thee, and that He might prove thee, to do thee good at thy latter end;" 8.17. and thou say in thy heart: ‘My power and the might of my hand hath gotten me this wealth.’" 8.18. But thou shalt remember the LORD thy God, for it is He that giveth thee power to get wealth, that He may establish His covet which He swore unto thy fathers, as it is this day." 8.19. And it shall be, if thou shalt forget the LORD thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I forewarn you this day that ye shall surely perish." 8.20. As the nations that the LORD maketh to perish before you, so shall ye perish; because ye would not hearken unto the voice of the LORD your God." 32.47. For it is no vain thing for you; because it is your life, and through this thing ye shall prolong your days upon the land, whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.5, 4.9, 6.7, 14.31, 16.29, 19.9, 20.1, 20.8-20.9, 35.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.5. לְמַעַן יַאֲמִינוּ כִּי־נִרְאָה אֵלֶיךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתָם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב׃ 4.9. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא יַאֲמִינוּ גַּם לִשְׁנֵי הָאֹתוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּן לְקֹלֶךָ וְלָקַחְתָּ מִמֵּימֵי הַיְאֹר וְשָׁפַכְתָּ הַיַּבָּשָׁה וְהָיוּ הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר תִּקַּח מִן־הַיְאֹר וְהָיוּ לְדָם בַּיַּבָּשֶׁת׃ 6.7. וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם לִי לְעָם וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הַמּוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מִתַּחַת סִבְלוֹת מִצְרָיִם׃ 14.31. וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַיָּד הַגְּדֹלָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה בְּמִצְרַיִם וַיִּירְאוּ הָעָם אֶת־יְהוָה וַיַּאֲמִינוּ בַּיהוָה וּבְמֹשֶׁה עַבְדּוֹ׃ 16.29. רְאוּ כִּי־יְהוָה נָתַן לָכֶם הַשַּׁבָּת עַל־כֵּן הוּא נֹתֵן לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לֶחֶם יוֹמָיִם שְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו אַל־יֵצֵא אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 19.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי בָּא אֵלֶיךָ בְּעַב הֶעָנָן בַּעֲבוּר יִשְׁמַע הָעָם בְּדַבְּרִי עִמָּךְ וְגַם־בְּךָ יַאֲמִינוּ לְעוֹלָם וַיַּגֵּד מֹשֶׁה אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָעָם אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 20.1. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ 20.1. וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 35.2. וַיֵּצְאוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִלִּפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה׃ 35.2. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יִהְיֶה לָכֶם קֹדֶשׁ שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן לַיהוָה כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה בוֹ מְלָאכָה יוּמָת׃ 4.5. that they may believe that the LORD, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared unto thee.’" 4.9. And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe even these two signs, neither hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land; and the water which thou takest out of the river shall become blood upon the dry land.’" 6.7. and I will take you to Me for a people, and I will be to you a God; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God, who brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians." 14.31. And Israel saw the great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians, and the people feared the LORD; and they believed in the LORD, and in His servant Moses." 16.29. See that the LORD hath given you the sabbath; therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.’" 19.9. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and may also believe thee for ever.’ And Moses told the words of the people unto the LORD." 20.1. And God spoke all these words, saying:" 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 35.2. Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you a holy day, a sabbath of solemn rest to the LORD; whosoever doeth any work therein shall be put to death."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.1, 15.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה לָגוּר שָׁם כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם לֶךְ־לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 12.1. Now the LORD said unto Abram: ‘Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto the land that I will show thee." 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness."
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4, 3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.14. הֲמוֹנִים הֲמוֹנִים בְּעֵמֶק הֶחָרוּץ כִּי קָרוֹב יוֹם יְהוָה בְּעֵמֶק הֶחָרוּץ׃ 4.14. Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision."
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 6.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.8. הִגִּיד לְךָ אָדָם מַה־טּוֹב וּמָה־יְהוָה דּוֹרֵשׁ מִמְּךָ כִּי אִם־עֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְאַהֲבַת חֶסֶד וְהַצְנֵעַ לֶכֶת עִם־אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 6.8. It hath been told thee, O man, what is good, And what the LORD doth require of thee: Only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 31.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.13. דָּרְשָׁה צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים וַתַּעַשׂ בְּחֵפֶץ כַּפֶּיהָ׃ 31.13. She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 3.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.4. וְאַתָּה יְהוָה מָגֵן בַּעֲדִי כְּבוֹדִי וּמֵרִים רֹאשִׁי׃ 3.4. But thou, O LORD, art a shield about me; My glory, and the lifter up of my head."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 17.1, 20.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי מִתֹּשָׁבֵי גִלְעָד אֶל־אַחְאָב חַי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתִּי לְפָנָיו אִם־יִהְיֶה הַשָּׁנִים הָאֵלֶּה טַל וּמָטָר כִּי אִם־לְפִי דְבָרִי׃ 17.1. וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ צָרְפַתָה וַיָּבֹא אֶל־פֶּתַח הָעִיר וְהִנֵּה־שָׁם אִשָּׁה אַלְמָנָה מְקֹשֶׁשֶׁת עֵצִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמַר קְחִי־נָא לִי מְעַט־מַיִם בַּכְּלִי וְאֶשְׁתֶּה׃ 20.33. וְהָאֲנָשִׁים יְנַחֲשׁוּ וַיְמַהֲרוּ וַיַּחְלְטוּ הֲמִמֶּנּוּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ אָחִיךָ בֶן־הֲדַד וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּאוּ קָחֻהוּ וַיֵּצֵא אֵלָיו בֶּן־הֲדַד וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ עַל־הַמֶּרְכָּבָה׃ 17.1. And Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the settlers of Gilead, said unto Ahab: ‘As the LORD, the God of Israel, liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word.’" 20.33. Now the men took it for a sign, and hastened to catch it from him; and they said: ‘Thy brother Ben-hadad.’ Then he said: ‘Go ye, bring him.’ Then Ben-hadad came forth to him; and he caused him to come up into his chariot."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 21.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.6. וְהֶעֱבִיר אֶת־בְּנוֹ בָּאֵשׁ וְעוֹנֵן וְנִחֵשׁ וְעָשָׂה אוֹב וְיִדְּעֹנִים הִרְבָּה לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לְהַכְעִיס׃ 21.6. And he made his son to pass through the fire, and practised soothsaying, and used enchantments, and appointed them that divined by a ghost or a familiar spirit: he wrought much evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him."
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 14.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.13. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה וְלָמָּה חָשַׁבְתָּה כָּזֹאת עַל־עַם אֱלֹהִים וּמִדַּבֵּר הַמֶּלֶךְ הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה כְּאָשֵׁם לְבִלְתִּי הָשִׁיב הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־נִדְּחוֹ׃ 14.13. And the woman said, Why then hast thou continued such a thing against the people of God? the king speaks this thing as one that is guilty, in that the king does not fetch home again his banished one:"
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5.1-5.7, 33.20, 35.1-35.10, 42.21, 46.1, 55.7-55.8, 55.11, 58.13-58.14, 61.10, 62.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.1. אָשִׁירָה נָּא לִידִידִי שִׁירַת דּוֹדִי לְכַרְמוֹ כֶּרֶם הָיָה לִידִידִי בְּקֶרֶן בֶּן־שָׁמֶן׃ 5.1. כִּי עֲשֶׂרֶת צִמְדֵּי־כֶרֶם יַעֲשׂוּ בַּת אֶחָת וְזֶרַע חֹמֶר יַעֲשֶׂה אֵיפָה׃ 5.2. הוֹי הָאֹמְרִים לָרַע טוֹב וְלַטּוֹב רָע שָׂמִים חֹשֶׁךְ לְאוֹר וְאוֹר לְחֹשֶׁךְ שָׂמִים מַר לְמָתוֹק וּמָתוֹק לְמָר׃ 5.2. וַיְעַזְּקֵהוּ וַיְסַקְּלֵהוּ וַיִּטָּעֵהוּ שֹׂרֵק וַיִּבֶן מִגְדָּל בְּתוֹכוֹ וְגַם־יֶקֶב חָצֵב בּוֹ וַיְקַו לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 5.3. וְעַתָּה יוֹשֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה שִׁפְטוּ־נָא בֵּינִי וּבֵין כַּרְמִי׃ 5.3. וְיִנְהֹם עָלָיו בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כְּנַהֲמַת־יָם וְנִבַּט לָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה־חֹשֶׁךְ צַר וָאוֹר חָשַׁךְ בַּעֲרִיפֶיהָ׃ 5.4. מַה־לַּעֲשׂוֹת עוֹד לְכַרְמִי וְלֹא עָשִׂיתִי בּוֹ מַדּוּעַ קִוֵּיתִי לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 5.5. וְעַתָּה אוֹדִיעָה־נָּא אֶתְכֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה לְכַרְמִי הָסֵר מְשׂוּכָּתוֹ וְהָיָה לְבָעֵר פָּרֹץ גְּדֵרוֹ וְהָיָה לְמִרְמָס׃ 5.6. וַאֲשִׁיתֵהוּ בָתָה לֹא יִזָּמֵר וְלֹא יֵעָדֵר וְעָלָה שָׁמִיר וָשָׁיִת וְעַל הֶעָבִים אֲצַוֶּה מֵהַמְטִיר עָלָיו מָטָר׃ 5.7. כִּי כֶרֶם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה נְטַע שַׁעֲשׁוּעָיו וַיְקַו לְמִשְׁפָּט וְהִנֵּה מִשְׂפָּח לִצְדָקָה וְהִנֵּה צְעָקָה׃ 35.1. וּפְדוּיֵי יְהוָה יְשֻׁבוּן וּבָאוּ צִיּוֹן בְּרִנָּה וְשִׂמְחַת עוֹלָם עַל־רֹאשָׁם שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יַשִּׂיגוּ וְנָסוּ יָגוֹן וַאֲנָחָה׃ 35.1. יְשֻׂשׂוּם מִדְבָּר וְצִיָּה וְתָגֵל עֲרָבָה וְתִפְרַח כַּחֲבַצָּלֶת׃ 35.2. פָּרֹחַ תִּפְרַח וְתָגֵל אַף גִּילַת וְרַנֵּן כְּבוֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן נִתַּן־לָהּ הֲדַר הַכַּרְמֶל וְהַשָּׁרוֹן הֵמָּה יִרְאוּ כְבוֹד־יְהוָה הֲדַר אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃ 35.3. חַזְּקוּ יָדַיִם רָפוֹת וּבִרְכַּיִם כֹּשְׁלוֹת אַמֵּצוּ׃ 35.4. אִמְרוּ לְנִמְהֲרֵי־לֵב חִזְקוּ אַל־תִּירָאוּ הִנֵּה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם נָקָם יָבוֹא גְּמוּל אֱלֹהִים הוּא יָבוֹא וְיֹשַׁעֲכֶם׃ 35.5. אָז תִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי עִוְרִים וְאָזְנֵי חֵרְשִׁים תִּפָּתַחְנָה׃ 35.6. אָז יְדַלֵּג כָּאַיָּל פִּסֵּחַ וְתָרֹן לְשׁוֹן אִלֵּם כִּי־נִבְקְעוּ בַמִּדְבָּר מַיִם וּנְחָלִים בָּעֲרָבָה׃ 35.7. וְהָיָה הַשָּׁרָב לַאֲגַם וְצִמָּאוֹן לְמַבּוּעֵי מָיִם בִּנְוֵה תַנִּים רִבְצָהּ חָצִיר לְקָנֶה וָגֹמֶא׃ 35.8. וְהָיָה־שָׁם מַסְלוּל וָדֶרֶךְ וְדֶרֶךְ הַקֹּדֶשׁ יִקָּרֵא לָהּ לֹא־יַעַבְרֶנּוּ טָמֵא וְהוּא־לָמוֹ הֹלֵךְ דֶּרֶךְ וֶאֱוִילִים לֹא יִתְעוּ׃ 35.9. לֹא־יִהְיֶה שָׁם אַרְיֵה וּפְרִיץ חַיּוֹת בַּל־יַעֲלֶנָּה לֹא תִמָּצֵא שָׁם וְהָלְכוּ גְּאוּלִים׃ 42.21. יְהוָה חָפֵץ לְמַעַן צִדְקוֹ יַגְדִּיל תּוֹרָה וְיַאְדִּיר׃ 46.1. כָּרַע בֵּל קֹרֵס נְבוֹ הָיוּ עֲצַבֵּיהֶם לַחַיָּה וְלַבְּהֵמָה נְשֻׂאֹתֵיכֶם עֲמוּסוֹת מַשָּׂא לַעֲיֵפָה׃ 46.1. מַגִּיד מֵרֵאשִׁית אַחֲרִית וּמִקֶּדֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נַעֲשׂוּ אֹמֵר עֲצָתִי תָקוּם וְכָל־חֶפְצִי אֶעֱשֶׂה׃ 55.7. יַעֲזֹב רָשָׁע דַּרְכּוֹ וְאִישׁ אָוֶן מַחְשְׁבֹתָיו וְיָשֹׁב אֶל־יְהוָה וִירַחֲמֵהוּ וְאֶל־אֱלֹהֵינוּ כִּי־יַרְבֶּה לִסְלוֹחַ׃ 55.8. כִּי לֹא מַחְשְׁבוֹתַי מַחְשְׁבוֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא דַרְכֵיכֶם דְּרָכָי נְאֻם יְהוָה׃ 55.11. כֵּן יִהְיֶה דְבָרִי אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִפִּי לֹא־יָשׁוּב אֵלַי רֵיקָם כִּי אִם־עָשָׂה אֶת־אֲשֶׁר חָפַצְתִּי וְהִצְלִיחַ אֲשֶׁר שְׁלַחְתִּיו׃ 58.13. אִם־תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלֶךָ עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶיךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג לִקְדוֹשׁ יְהוָה מְכֻבָּד וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר׃ 58.14. אָז תִּתְעַנַּג עַל־יְהוָה וְהִרְכַּבְתִּיךָ עַל־בָּמֳותֵי אָרֶץ וְהַאֲכַלְתִּיךָ נַחֲלַת יַעֲקֹב אָבִיךָ כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 62.4. לֹא־יֵאָמֵר לָךְ עוֹד עֲזוּבָה וּלְאַרְצֵךְ לֹא־יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שְׁמָמָה כִּי לָךְ יִקָּרֵא חֶפְצִי־בָהּ וּלְאַרְצֵךְ בְּעוּלָה כִּי־חָפֵץ יְהוָה בָּךְ וְאַרְצֵךְ תִּבָּעֵל׃ 5.1. Let me sing of my well-beloved, A song of my beloved touching his vineyard. My well-beloved had a vineyard In a very fruitful hill;" 5.2. And he digged it, and cleared it of stones, And planted it with the choicest vine, And built a tower in the midst of it, And also hewed out a vat therein; And he looked that it should bring forth grapes, And it brought forth wild grapes. ." 5.3. And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, Judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard." 5.4. What could have been done more to my vineyard, That I have not done in it? Wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, Brought it forth wild grapes?" 5.5. And now come, I will tell you What I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, And it shall be eaten up; I will break down the fence thereof, And it shall be trodden down;" 5.6. And I will lay it waste: It shall not be pruned nor hoed, But there shall come up briers and thorns; I will also command the clouds That they rain no rain upon it." 5.7. For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah the plant of His delight; And He looked for justice, but behold violence; For righteousness, but behold a cry." 33.20. Look upon Zion, the city of our solemn gatherings; Thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a peaceful habitation, A tent that shall not be removed, The stakes whereof shall never be plucked up, Neither shall any of the cords thereof be broken." 35.1. The wilderness and the parched land shall be glad; And the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose." 35.2. It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice, Even with joy and singing; The glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, The excellency of Carmel and Sharon; They shall see the glory of the LORD, The excellency of our God." 35.3. Strengthen ye the weak hands, And make firm the tottering knees." 35.4. Say to them that are of a fearful heart: ‘Be strong, fear not’; Behold, your God will come with vengeance, With the recompense of God He will come and save you." 35.5. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, And the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped." 35.6. Then shall the lame man leap as a hart, And the tongue of the dumb shall sing; For in the wilderness shall waters break out, And streams in the desert." 35.7. And the parched land shall become a pool, And the thirsty ground springs of water; In the habitation of jackals herds shall lie down, It shall be an enclosure for reeds and rushes." 35.8. And a highway shall be there, and a way, And it shall be called The way of holiness; The unclean shall not pass over it; but it shall be for those; The wayfaring men, yea fools, shall not err therein." 35.9. No lion shall be there, Nor shall any ravenous beast go up thereon, They shall not be found there; But the redeemed shall walk there;" 35.10. And the ransomed of the LORD shall return, And come with singing unto Zion, And everlasting joy shall be upon their heads; They shall obtain gladness and joy, And sorrow and sighing shall flee away." 42.21. The LORD was pleased, for His righteousness’sake, To make the teaching great and glorious." 46.1. Bel boweth down, Nebo stoopeth; their idols are upon the beasts, and upon the cattle; the things that ye carried about are made a load, a burden to the weary beast." 55.7. Let the wicked forsake his way, And the man of iniquity his thoughts; And let him return unto the LORD, and He will have compassion upon him, And to our God, for He will abundantly pardon" 55.8. For My thoughts are not your thoughts, Neither are your ways My ways, saith the LORD." 55.11. So shall My word be that goeth forth out of My mouth: It shall not return unto Me void, Except it accomplish that which I please, And make the thing whereto I sent it prosper." 58.13. If thou turn away thy foot because of the sabbath, From pursuing thy business on My holy day; And call the sabbath a delight, And the holy of the LORD honourable; And shalt honour it, not doing thy wonted ways, Nor pursuing thy business, nor speaking thereof;" 58.14. Then shalt thou delight thyself in the LORD, And I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, And I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father; For the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it." 61.10. I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels." 62.4. Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken, Neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate; But thou shalt be called, My delight is in her, And thy land, Espoused; For the LORD delighteth in thee, And thy land shall be espoused."
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 30.22, 31.31, 33.11, 49.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

30.22. וִהְיִיתֶם לִי לְעָם וְאָנֹכִי אֶהְיֶה לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃ 31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 33.11. קוֹל שָׂשׂוֹן וְקוֹל שִׂמְחָה קוֹל חָתָן וְקוֹל כַּלָּה קוֹל אֹמְרִים הוֹדוּ אֶת־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת כִּי־טוֹב יְהוָה כִּי־לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ מְבִאִים תּוֹדָה בֵּית יְהוָה כִּי־אָשִׁיב אֶת־שְׁבוּת־הָאָרֶץ כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 49.22. הִנֵּה כַנֶּשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה וְיִדְאֶה וְיִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָיו עַל־בָּצְרָה וְהָיָה לֵב גִּבּוֹרֵי אֱדוֹם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כְּלֵב אִשָּׁה מְצֵרָה׃ 30.22. And ye shall be My people, and I will be your God." 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 33.11. the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that say: ‘Give thanks to the LORD of hosts, for the LORD is good, for His mercy endureth for ever’, even of them that bring offerings of thanksgiving into the house of the LORD. For I will cause the captivity of the land to return as at the first, saith the LORD." 49.22. Behold, he shall come up and swoop down as the vulture, And spread out his wings against Bozrah; And the heart of the mighty men of Edom at that day Shall be as the heart of a woman in her pangs."
15. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.15, 2.6, 5.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.15. סִלָּה כָל־אַבִּירַי אֲדֹנָי בְּקִרְבִּי קָרָא עָלַי מוֹעֵד לִשְׁבֹּר בַּחוּרָי גַּת דָּרַךְ אֲדֹנָי לִבְתוּלַת בַּת־יְהוּדָה׃ 2.6. וַיַּחְמֹס כַּגַּן שֻׂכּוֹ שִׁחֵת מוֹעֲדוֹ שִׁכַּח יְהוָה בְּצִיּוֹן מוֹעֵד וְשַׁבָּת וַיִּנְאַץ בְּזַעַם־אַפּוֹ מֶלֶךְ וְכֹהֵן׃ 5.18. עַל הַר־צִיּוֹן שֶׁשָּׁמֵם שׁוּעָלִים הִלְּכוּ־בוֹ׃ 1.15. The Lord has trampled all my mighty men in my midst, He summoned an assembly against me to crush my young men; the Lord has trodden as in a wine press the virgin daughter of Judah." 2.6. And He hath stripped His tabernacle, as if it were a garden, He hath destroyed His place of assembly; The LORD hath caused to be forgotten in Zion Appointed season and sabbath, And hath rejected in the indignation of His anger The king and the priest." 5.18. For the mountain of Zion, which is desolate, The foxes walk upon it."
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 17, 16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.1, 5.7 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. רָאִיתִי אֶת־הָעִנְיָן אֲשֶׁר נָתַן אֱלֹהִים לִבְנֵי הָאָדָם לַעֲנוֹת בּוֹ׃ 3.1. לַכֹּל זְמָן וְעֵת לְכָל־חֵפֶץ תַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 5.7. אִם־עֹשֶׁק רָשׁ וְגֵזֶל מִשְׁפָּט וָצֶדֶק תִּרְאֶה בַמְּדִינָה אַל־תִּתְמַהּ עַל־הַחֵפֶץ כִּי גָבֹהַּ מֵעַל גָּבֹהַ שֹׁמֵר וּגְבֹהִים עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 3.1. To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven:" 5.7. If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and the violent perverting of justice and righteousness in the state, marvel not at the matter; for one higher than the high watcheth, and there are higher than they."
18. Anon., 1 Enoch, 24.3 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.3. joined with any other. And the seventh mountain was in the midst of these, and it excelled them 18. I saw the treasuries of all the winds: I saw how He had furnished with them the whole creation",and the firm foundations of the earth. And I saw the corner-stone of the earth: I saw the four",winds which bear [the earth and] the firmament of the heaven. And I saw how the winds stretch out the vaults of heaven, and have their station between heaven and earth: these are the pillars,of the heaven. I saw the winds of heaven which turn and bring the circumference of the sun and",all the stars to their setting. I saw the winds on the earth carrying the clouds: I saw the paths",of the angels. I saw at the end of the earth the firmament of the heaven above. And I proceeded and saw a place which burns day and night, where there are seven mountains of magnificent stones,,three towards the east, and three towards the south. And as for those towards the east, was of coloured stone, and one of pearl, and one of jacinth, and those towards the south of red stone.,But the middle one reached to heaven like the throne of God, of alabaster, and the summit of the,throne was of sapphire. And I saw a flaming fire. And beyond these mountains Is a region the end of the great earth: there the heavens were completed. And I saw a deep abyss, with columns of heavenly fire, and among them I saw columns of fire fall, which were beyond measure alike towards,the height and towards the depth. And beyond that abyss I saw a place which had no firmament of the heaven above, and no firmly founded earth beneath it: there was no water upon it, and no,birds, but it was a waste and horrible place. I saw there seven stars like great burning mountains,,and to me, when I inquired regarding them, The angel said: 'This place is the end of heaven and earth: this has become a prison for the stars and the host of heaven. And the stars which roll over the fire are they which have transgressed the commandment of the Lord in the beginning of,their rising, because they did not come forth at their appointed times. And He was wroth with them, and bound them till the time when their guilt should be consummated (even) for ten thousand years.'
19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 10.17-10.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3, 1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.211-2.220 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.211. For this reason the all-great Moses thought fit that all who were enrolled in his sacred polity should follow the laws of nature and meet in a solemn assembly, passing the time in cheerful joy and relaxation, abstaining from all work, and from all arts which have a tendency to the production of anything; and from all business which is connected with the seeking of the means of living, and that they should keep a complete truce, abstaining from all laborious and fatiguing thought and care, and devoting their leisure, not as some persons scoffingly assert, to sports, or exhibitions of actors and dancers, for the sake of which those who run madly after theatrical amusements suffer disasters and even encounter miserable deaths, and for the sake of these the most domit and influential of the outward senses, sight and hearing, make the soul, which should be the heavenly nature, the slave of these senses. 2.212. But, giving up their time wholly to the study of philosophy, not of that sort of philosophy which wordcatchers and sophists, seek to reduce to a system, selling doctrines and reasonings as they would any other vendible thing in the market. Men who (O you earth and sun! 2.213. Now some one disregarding this injunction, even while he yet had the sacred words of God respecting the holy seventh day still ringing in his ears, which God had uttered without the intervention of the prophet, and, what is the most wonderful thing of all, by a visible voice which affected the eyes of those who were present even more than their ears, went forth through the middle of the camp to pick up sticks, well knowing that all the people in the camp were perfectly quiet and doing nothing, and even while he was committing the iniquity was seen and detected, all disguise being impossible; 2.214. for some persons, having gone forth out of the gates to some quiet spot, that they might pray in some retired and peaceful place, seeing a most unholy spectacle, namely this man carrying a faggot of sticks, and being very indigt, were about to put him to death; but reasoning with themselves they restrained the violence of their wrath, that they might not appear, as they were only private persons, to chastise any one rather than the magistrates, and that too uncondemned; though indeed in other respects the transgression was manifest and undeniable, wishing also that no pollution arising from an execution, even though most righteously inflicted, should defile the sacred day. But they apprehended him, and led him away to the magistrate, with whom the priests were sitting as assessors; and the whole multitude collected together to hear the trial; 2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing? 2.217. On this day, then, the man who had done this deed of impiety was led away to prison; and Moses being at a loss what ought to be done to the man (for he knew that he had committed a crime worthy of death, but did not know what was the most suitable manner for the punishment to be inflicted upon him 2.218. And that Judge delivered his sentence that the man ought to die, and in no other way than being stoned, since in his case, as in that of the criminal mentioned above, his mind had been changed to a dumb stone, and he had committed the most complete of offences, in which nearly every other sin is comprised which can be committed against the laws enacted respecting the reverence due to the seventh day. 2.219. Why so? Because, not only mere handicraft trades, but also nearly all other acts and businesses, and especially all such as have reference to any providing of or seeking for the means of life, are either carried on by means of fire themselves, or, at all events, not without those instruments which are made by fire. On which account Moses, in many places, forbids any one to handle a fire on the sabbath day, inasmuch as that is the most primary and efficient source of things and the most ancient and important work; and if that is reduced to a state of tranquillity, he thought that it would be probable that all particular works would be at a stand-still likewise. 2.220. And wood is the material of fire, so that a man who is picking up wood is committing a crime which is akin to and nearly connected with that of burning fire, doubling his transgression, in fact, partly in that he was collecting what it was commanded should remain unmoved, and partly that what he was collecting was that which is the material of fire, the beginning of all arts.
22. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.18, 11.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.18. For firstof all, when you come together in the assembly, I hear that divisionsexist among you, and I partly believe it. 11.26. For as often as you eat this breadand drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes.
23. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.22, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. New Testament, Acts, 8.30-8.35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.30. Philip ran to him, and heard him reading Isaiah the prophet, and said, "Do you understand what you are reading? 8.31. He said, "How can I, unless someone explains it to me?" He begged Philip to come up and sit with him. 8.32. Now the passage of the Scripture which he was reading was this, "He was led as a sheep to the slaughter. As a lamb before his shearer is silent, So he doesn't open his mouth. 8.33. In his humiliation, his judgment was taken away. Who will declare His generations? For his life is taken from the earth. 8.34. The eunuch answered Philip, "Please tell who the prophet is talking about: about himself, or about some other? 8.35. Philip opened his mouth, and beginning from this Scripture, preached to him Jesus.
25. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me.
26. New Testament, James, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. And the tongue is a fire. The world of iniquity among our members is the tongue, which defiles the whole body, and sets on fire the course of nature, and is set on fire by Gehenna.
27. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.12-2.13, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.12. that you were at that time separate from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covets of the promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 2.13. But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off are made near in the blood of Christ. 3.6. that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of his promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel
28. New Testament, Luke, 20.17, 20.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.17. But he looked at them, and said, "Then what is this that is written, 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the chief cornerstone?' 20.19. The chief priests and the scribes sought to lay hands on Him that very hour, but they feared the people -- for they knew He had spoken this parable against them.
29. New Testament, Mark, 12.1-12.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.1. He began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a pit for the winepress, built a tower, rented it out to a farmer, and went into another country. 12.2. When it was time, he sent a servant to the farmer to get from the farmer his share of the fruit of the vineyard. 12.3. They took him, beat him, and sent him away empty. 12.4. Again, he sent another servant to them; and they threw stones at him, wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully treated. 12.5. Again he sent another; and they killed him; and many others, beating some, and killing some. 12.6. Therefore still having one, his beloved son, he sent him last to them, saying, 'They will respect my son.' 12.7. But those farmers said among themselves, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.' 12.8. They took him, killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard. 12.9. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy the farmers, and will give the vineyard to others. 12.10. Haven't you even read this Scripture: 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the head of the corner. 12.11. This was from the Lord, It is marvelous in our eyes'?
30. New Testament, Matthew, 21.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.33. Hear another parable. There was a man who was a master of a household, who planted a vineyard, set a hedge about it, dug a winepress in it, built a tower, leased it out to farmers, and went into another country.
31. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

96b. ומי סליק נבוכד נצר לירושלים והכתיב (מלכים ב כה, ו) ויעלו אותו אל מלך בבל רבלתה ואמר ר' אבהו זו אנטוכיא רב חסדא ורב יצחק בר אבודימי חד אמר דמות דיוקנו היתה חקוקה לו על מרכבתו וחד אמר אימה יתירה היתה לו ממנו ודומה כמי שעומד לפניו,אמר רבא טעין תלת מאה כודנייתא נרגא דפרזלא דשליט בפרזלא שדר ליה נבוכדנצר לנבוזראדן כולהו בלעתינהו חד דשא דירושלם שנאמר (תהלים עד, ו) פתוחיה יחד בכשיל וכילפות יהלומון בעי למיהדר אמר מסתפינא דלא ליעבדו בי כי היכי דעבדו בסנחריב,נפקא קלא ואמר שוור בר שוור נבוזראדן שוור דמטא זימנא דמקדשא חריב והיכלא מיקלי פש ליה חד נרגא אתא מחייה בקופא ואיפתח שנאמר (תהלים עד, ה) יודע כמביא למעלה בסבך עץ קרדומות,הוה קטיל ואזל עד דמטא להיכלא אדליק ביה נורא גבה היכלא דרכו ביה מן שמיא שנאמר (איכה א, טו) גת דרך ה' לבתולת בת יהודה קא זיחא דעתיה נפקא בת קלא ואמרה ליה עמא קטילא קטלת היכלא קליא קלית קימחא טחינא טחינת שנאמר (ישעיהו מז, ב) קחי רחים וטחני קמח גלי צמתך חשפי שובל גלי שוק עברי נהרות חטים לא נאמר אלא קמח,חזא דמיה דזכריה דהוה קא רתח אמר להו מאי האי אמרו ליה דם זבחים הוא דאישתפיך אמר להו אייתי ואנסי אי מדמו כסי ולא אידמו אמר להו גלו לי ואי לא סריקנא לכו לבשרייכו במסריקא דפרזלא,אמרו ליה האי כהן ונביא הוא דאינבי להו לישראל בחורבנא דירושלם וקטלוהו אמר להו אנא מפייסנא ליה אייתי רבנן קטיל עילויה ולא נח אייתי דרדקי דבי רב קטיל עילויה ולא נח אייתי פרחי כהונה קטיל עילויה ולא נח עד די קטל עילויה תשעין וארבעה ריבוא ולא נח,קרב לגביה אמר זכריה זכריה טובים שבהן איבדתים ניחא לך דאיקטלינהו לכולהו מיד נח הרהר תשובה בדעתיה אמר מה הם שלא איבדו אלא נפש אחת כך ההוא גברא מה תיהוי עליה ערק שדר פורטיתא לביתיה ואיתגייר,תנו רבנן נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזר אדן גר צדק היה מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תורה בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב לימדו תורה ברבים ומאן נינהו שמעיה ואבטליון,מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק ואף מבני בניו של אותו רשע ביקש הקב"ה להכניסן תחת כנפי השכינה אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מי שהחריב את ביתך ושרף את היכלך תכניס תחת כנפי השכינה היינו דכתיב (ירמיהו נא, ט) רפינו את בבל ולא נרפתה עולא אמר זה נבוכדנצר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אלו נהרות בבל ותרגמה דצינייתא (צרידתא) דבבלאי,אמר עולא עמון ומואב שיבבי בישי דירושלם הוו כיון דשמעינהו לנביאי דקא מיתנבאי לחורבנא דירושלם שלחו לנבוכדנצר פוק ותא אמר מסתפינא דלא ליעבדו לי כדעבדו בקמאי,שלחו ליה (משלי ז, יט) כי אין האיש בביתו הלך בדרך מרחוק ואין איש אלא הקדוש ברוך הוא שנאמר (שמות טו, ג) ה' איש מלחמה שלח להו בקריבא הוא ואתי שלחו ליה הלך בדרך מרחוק שלח להו אית להו צדיקי דבעו רחמי ומייתו ליה,שלחו ליה (משלי ז, כ) צרור הכסף לקח בידו ואין כסף אלא צדיקים שנאמר (הושע ג, ב) ואכרה לי בחמשה עשר כסף וחומר שעורים ולתך שעורים,שלח להו הדרי רשיעי בתשובה ובעו רחמי ומייתו ליה שלחו ליה כבר קבע להן זמן שנאמר (משלי ז, כ) ליום הכסא יבא (לביתו אין כסא אלא זמן שנאמר (תהלים פא, ד) בכסה ליום חגנו שלח להו סיתווא הוא ולא מצינא דאתי מתלגא וממיטרא,שלחו ליה תא אשינא דטורא שנאמר (ישעיהו טז, א) שלחו כר מושל ארץ מסלע מדברה אל הר בת ציון שלח להו אי אתינא לית לי דוכתא דיתיבנא ביה שלחו ליה קברות שלהם מעולין מפלטירין שלך דכתיב (ירמיהו ח, א) בעת ההיא נאום ה' יוציאו את עצמות מלכי יהודה ואת עצמות שריו ואת עצמות הכהנים ואת עצמות הנביאים ואת עצמות יושבי ירושלים מקבריהם ושטחום לשמש ולירח ולכל צבא השמים אשר אהבום ואשר עבדום ואשר הלכו אחריהם,אמר ליה רב נחמן לרבי יצחק מי שמיע לך אימת אתי בר נפלי אמר ליה מאן בר נפלי א"ל משיח משיח בר נפלי קרית ליה א"ל אין דכתיב (עמוס ט, יא) ביום ההוא אקים 96b. The Gemara asks: bAnd did Nebuchadnezzar ascend to Jerusalem? But isn’t it writtenwith regard to Zedekiah: “And they took the king, band brought him up to the king of Babylonia, to Riblah”(II Kings 25:6), band Rabbi Abbahu says: Thisplace called Riblah is a reference to bAntioch.Apparently, Nebuchadnezzar was in Antioch, not in Jerusalem. bRav Ḥisda and Rav Yitzḥak bar Avudimiresolved this apparent contradiction. bOne says: An image ofNebuchadnezzar’s blikeness was engraved onNebuzaradan’s bchariot,and he regarded that image as though Nebuchadnezzar were actually there. bAnd one says:Nebuzaradan bwas in extreme fear ofNebuchadnezzar, band it was as thoughNebuzaradan bwasalways bstanding beforeNebuchadnezzar. That is an example of the honor of a servant to his master mentioned in the verse.,§ The Gemara proceeds to discuss the role of Nebuzaradan in the destruction of the Temple. bRava says: Nebuchadnezzar sent to Nebuzaradan three hundred mules laden with iron axes that cut iron. All of them were incapacitatedin the attempt to breach bone gate of Jerusalem, as it is stated: “And now they pound its carved work together with hatchet and with hammers”(Psalms 74:6). Nebuzaradan bsought to returnto Babylonia and bsaid: I am afraid.I want to ensure bthat they will not do to me just as they did to Sennacherib,whose downfall was in Jerusalem.,A Divine bVoice emerged and said: Leaper, son of a leaper; Nebuzaradan, takethe bleap, as the time has arrived for the Temple to be destroyed and the Sanctuary to burn. One ax remained for himto use. bHe went and struckthe gate bwith the dull endof the ax band it opened, as it is stated: “He became known as the wielder of axes upward in a thicket of trees”(Psalms 74:5). At the appropriate time the gate was breached as though the ax were cutting trees., bHe was proceeding and killing until he reached the Sanctuary.When he reached the Sanctuary, bhe ignited a fire in it. The Sanctuary rose,seeking to enter Heaven so that it would not burn. bThey trod upon it from Heavenand returned it to its place, bas it is stated: “The Lord has trodden the virgin, the daughter of Judah, as in a winepress”(Lamentations 1:15). Nebuzaradan bbecame haughty,taking pride in his conquest. bA Divine Voice emerged and said to him:Your haughtiness is unwarranted, as byou killed a nationthat was already bdead, you burned a Sanctuarythat was already bburned,and byou ground flourthat was already bground, as it is statedwith regard to Babylonia: b“Take millstones and grind flour; uncover your locks, tuck up the train, uncover the leg, pass over rivers”(Isaiah 47:2). bIt was not stated:Grind bwheat, but“grind bflour,”indicating that all the destruction had already been wrought by God, and the role played by the enemy was insignificant.,When he reached the Sanctuary, bhe saw the blood of Zechariahthe priest bboiling.It had not calmed since he was killed in the Temple (see II Chronicles 24:20–22). Nebuzaradan bsaid tothe priests there: bWhat is this? They said to him: It is the blood of offerings that was spilled.Nebuzaradan bsaid to them: Bringanimals band I will testto determine bifthe blood of the animals bis similarto the blood that is boiling. bHe slaughteredthe animals bandtheir blood bwas not similarto the boiling blood. Nebuzaradan bsaid tothe priests: bRevealthe source of that blood bto me, and if not I will comb your flesh with an iron comb. /b,The priests bsaid toNebuzaradan: bThisblood bisthe blood of ba priest and a prophet who prophesied for the Jewish people with regard to the destruction of Jerusalem and whom they killed. He said tothe priests: bI will pacifythe blood so the boiling will stop. bHe brought the Sagesand bkilled them overthe blood bandits boiling bdid not cease. He brought schoolchildrenand bkilled them overthe blood bandits boiling bdid not cease. He brought young priestsand bkilled them overthe blood bandits boiling bdid not cease.He continued killing buntil he killed 940,000people boverthe blood, bandits boiling bdid not cease. /b,Nebuzaradan bapproachedthe blood and bsaid: Zechariah, Zechariah, the worthy among them I killedon your behalf. bIs it satisfactory for you that I kill them all? Immediatelythe boiling bceased.Nebuzaradan bcontemplated repentance. He said: If they, who caused only one person to perish,gained atonement only after all bthiskilling, then with regard to bthat man,referring to himself, bwhat will berequired bfor himto gain atonement? bHe desertedhis army and bdispatcheda last bwill to his house and converted. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bNaamanthe Aramean (see II Kings, chapter 5) bwas a iger toshav /i,meaning that he accepted upon himself to refrain from idol worship but did not convert to Judaism. bNebuzaradan wasa completely brighteous convert. Among the descendants of Sisera(see Judges, chapter 4) were those who bstudied Torah in Jerusalem. Among the descendants of Sennacheribwere those who btaught Torah in public.The Gemara asks: bAnd who are they?The Gemara answers: They were bShemaya and Avtalyon. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bAmong the descendants of Hamanwere those who bstudied Torah in Bnei Brak. And even among the descendants of that wickedperson, Nebuchadnezzar, were those whom bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to bring beneath the wings of the Divine Presenceand have them convert. bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe:The bone who destroyed Your House and burned Your Sanctuary,will bYou introducehim bbeneath the wings of the Divine Presence?The Gemara explains: bThat isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “We have healed Babylonia, but she is not healed”(Jeremiah 51:9). bUlla says: Thisverse bisa reference to bNebuchadnezzar,none of whose children converted. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says:This is not a reference to a person; rather, bthese are the rivers of Babylonia, and interpret itas referring to bthe bitter saltwater rivers of Babylonia. /b,§ On a related note, the Gemara describes the events that led to the destruction of the Temple. bUlla says: Ammon and Moab were bad neighbors of Jerusalem. Once they heard the prophets who prophesied about the destruction of the Jerusalem, they sent to Nebuchadnezzar: Emergefrom your dwelling place band comeconquer them. Nebuchadnezzar bsaidto them: bI am afraid.I want to ensure bthat they will not do to me just as they did tomy bpredecessors. /b,Ammon and Moab bsent to himthat it is written: b“For the iishis not at home; he is gone on a long journey”(Proverbs 7:19), band iish /iis referring to bnoone bbut the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “The Lord is an iishof war”(Exodus 15:3). Nebuchadnezzar bsent to themis response: bHe is in a nearbylocation, band He will come.They bsent toNebuchadnezzar: b“He has gone on a journey from afar”(Proverbs 7:19). Nebuchadnezzar bsaid to them: They have righteousamong them bwho will pray for mercy and bring Himto return.,Ammon and Moab bsent toNebuchadnezzar: b“He has taken a bundle of ikesefwith him”(Proverbs 7:20), band ikesef /iis referring to bnothing other than the righteous, as it is stated: “So I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of ikesefand for a ikorof barley and a half- ikorof barley”(Hosea 3:2). The inference is that God acquired the congregation of Israel due to the presence of righteous people among them, and Ammon and Moab sent a message to Nebuchadnezzar that God had already taken the righteous and they no longer offered protection.,Nebuchadnezzar bsent to them:Perhaps bthe wicked will repentand become righteous band they will pray for mercy and they will bring Himto return. Ammon and Moab bsent toNebuchadnezzar: bGod already designated the time of theirredemption, bas it is stated: “On the day of the ikeseh /i, He will come home”(Proverbs 7:20), and ikeseh /iis referring to bnothing other thana designated btime, as it is stated:“Sound a ishofarat the New Moon, bat the ikesehon the day of our feast”(Psalms 81:4). Since there is a time designated for redemption, until then you can do as you please. Nebuchadnezzar bsent to them: It is winternow band I cannot comeand conquer Jerusalem bdue to the snow and the rain. /b,Ammon and Moab bsent to him: Come on the peaks of mountains,where the rain does not pool, bas it is stated: “Send the lamb to the ruler of the land from the peaks of the wilderness to the mount of the daughter of Zion”(Isaiah 16:1). Nebuchadnezzar bsent to them: If I cometo Jerusalem, bIwill bhave no place to dwellwhile laying siege to the city. Ammon and Moab bsent to him: Their burial caves are superior to your palaces,and you can clear the caves and dwell there, bas it is written: “At that time, says the Lord, they shall remove the bones of the kings of Judea, and the bones of his princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem from their graves; and they shall spread them before the sun and the moon and all of the hosts of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have walked”(Jeremiah 8:1–2). Ultimately Nebuchadnezzar came to conquer Judea and removed the corpses to make room for his army.,§ bRav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: Have you heard when the son of giants [ ibar niflei /i] will come?Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid to him: Whois bthe son of giants?Rav Naḥman bsaid to him:He is the bMessiah.Rabbi Yitzḥak asked him: Do byou call the Messiah son of giants?Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Yes, as it is written: “On that day I will establish /b
33. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

113b. שלא יהא דבורך של שבת כדבורך של חול דבור אסור הרהור מותר בשלמא כולהו לחיי אלא שלא יהא הילוכך של שבת כהילוכך של חול מאי היא כי הא דאמר רב הונא אמר רב ואמרי ליה אמר ר' אבא אמר רב הונא היה מהלך בשבת ופגע באמת המים אם יכול להניח את רגלו ראשונה קודם שתעקר שניה מותר ואם לאו אסור,מתקיף לה רבא היכי ליעביד ליקף קמפיש בהילוכא ליעבר זימנין דמיתווסן מאני מיא ואתי לידי סחיטה אלא בהא כיון דלא אפשר שפיר דמי אלא כדבעא מיניה ר' מר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי מהו לפסוע פסיעה גסה בשבת א"ל וכי בחול מי הותרה שאני אומר פסיעה גסה נוטלת אחד מחמש מאות ממאור עיניו של אדם ומהדר ליה בקידושא דבי שמשי,בעא מיניה ר' מר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי מהו לאכול אדמה בשבת א"ל וכי בחול מי הותרה שאני אומר אף בחול אסור מפני שהוא מלקה אמר ר' אמי כל האוכל מעפרה של בבל כאילו אוכל מבשר אבותיו וי"א כאילו אוכל שקצים ורמשים דכתיב (בראשית ז, כג) וימח את כל היקום וגו',אמר ריש לקיש למה נקרא שמה שנער שכל מתי מבול ננערו לשם א"ר יוחנן למה נקרא שמה מצולה שכל מתי מבול נצטללו לשם [וי"א כאילו אוכל] שקצים ורמשים והא ודאי איתמחויי איתמחו אמרי כיון דמלקי גזרו ביה רבנן דהא ההוא גברא דאכל גרגישתא ואכל תחלי וקדחו ליה תחליה בלביה ומית,(רות ג, ג) ורחצת וסכת ושמת שמלותיך א"ר אלעזר אלו בגדים של שבת (משלי ט, ט) תן לחכם ויחכם עוד אמר רבי אלעזר זו רות המואביה ושמואל הרמתי,רות דאילו נעמי קאמרה לה ורחצת וסכת ושמת שמלותיך עליך וירדת הגורן ואילו בדידה כתיב ותרד הגורן והדר ותעש ככל אשר צותה חמותה שמואל דאילו עלי קאמר ליה (שמואל א ג, ט) שכב והיה אם יקרא אליך ואמרת דבר ה' כי שומע עבדך ואילו בדידי' כתיב ביה ויבא ה' ויתיצב ויקרא כפעם בפעם שמואל שמואל ויאמר שמואל דבר כי שומע עבדך ולא אמר דבר ה',(רות ב, ג) ותלך ותבא ותלקט בשדה אמר רבי אלעזר שהלכה ובאת הלכה ובאת עד שמצאה בני אדם המהוגנין לילך עמהם (רות ב, ה) ויאמר בועז לנערו הנצב על הקוצרים למי הנערה הזאת וכי דרכו של בועז לשאול בנערה אמר ר' אלעזר דבר חכמה ראה בה שני שבלין לקטה שלשה שבלין אינה לקטה,במתניתא תנא דבר צניעות ראה בה עומדות מעומד נופלות מיושב (רות ב, ח) וכה תדבקין עם נערותי וכי דרכו של בועז לדבק עם הנשים א"ר אלעזר כיון דחזא (רות א, יד) ותשק ערפה לחמותה ורות דבקה בה אמר שרי לאידבוקי בה,(רות ב, יד) ויאמר לה בועז לעת האוכל גשי הלום א"ר אלעזר רמז רמז לה עתידה מלכות בית דוד לצאת ממך דכתיב ביה הלום שנאמר (שמואל ב ז, יח) ויבא המלך דוד וישב לפני ה' ויאמר מי אנכי אדני ה' ומי ביתי כי הביאתני עד הלום (רות ב, יד) וטבלת פתך בחומץ א"ר אלעזר מכאן שהחומץ יפה לשרב,ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר רמז רמז לה עתיד בן לצאת ממך שמעשיו קשין כחומץ ומנו מנשה (רות ב, יד) ותשב מצד הקוצרים א"ר אלעזר מצד הקוצרים ולא בתוך הקוצרים רמז רמז לה שעתידה מלכות בית דוד שתתחלק,(רות ב, יד) ויצבט לה קלי ותאכל אמר רבי אלעזר ותאכל בימי דוד ותשבע בימי שלמה ותותר בימי חזקיה ואיכא דאמרי ותאכל בימי דוד ובימי שלמה ותשבע בימי חזקיה ותותר בימי רבי דאמר מר אהוריריה דרבי הוה עתיר משבור מלכא במתניתא תנא ותאכל בעולם הזה ותשבע לימות המשיח ותותר לעתיד לבא:,(ישעיהו י, טז) ותחת כבודו יקד יקוד כיקוד אש א"ר יוחנן ותחת כבודו ולא כבודו ממש ר' יוחנן לטעמיה דר' יוחנן קרי למאניה מכבדותי,ר"א אומר ותחת כבודו תחת כבודו ממש ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר תחת כבודו כשריפת בני אהרן מה להלן שריפת נשמה וגוף קיים אף כאן שריפת נשמה וגוף קיים,א"ר אחא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן 113b. means bthat your speech on Shabbat should not be like your speech during the week,i.e., one should not discuss his weekday affairs on Shabbat. However, it is only bspeechthat they said is bprohibited,whereas merely bcontemplatingweekday affairs bis permitted.The Gemara asks: bGranted, all of thesedirectives, bfine,they are understood. bHowever, what isthe meaning of the following phrase: bThat your walking on Shabbat should not be like your walking during the week?The Gemara answers: bIt is in accordance with thatwhich bRav Huna saidthat bRav said, and some say that Rabbi Abba saidthat bRav Huna said:If bone were walking on Shabbat and came upon a stream of waterand had to cross it, bifthe stream is narrow and bone could place his first footdown on the other side bbefore raisingthe bsecond one, it is permittedto cross it; band ifit is bnotpossible and one must jump to cross it, bit is prohibited.That is the type of walking that is not permitted on Shabbat., bRava strongly objects to this:Since we have said that one’s walking on Shabbat should not be like his walking during the week, and jumping constitutes prohibited walking, if one encounters a stream on Shabbat, bwhat should he doto cross to the other side? If bhe circumventsthe stream, bhe is increasingthe distance that he is bwalkingand exerting extra effort on Shabbat. If bhe walks throughthe water, bsometimes his clothes will absorb water and he will come to wring them out.What then should he do? bRather, in thiscase, bsince it is not possibleto cross any other way, he may bwellcross it, i.e., it is permitted for him to jump over the stream. Therefore, brathersay that walking that is defined as characteristic of weekday walking involves taking large steps. bAs RabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: What isthe ruling with regard to btaking large steps on Shabbat?That is what the Gemara meant when it used the phrase: Your walking during the week. Rabbi Yishmael bsaid to him: And during the week arelarge steps bpermitted? As I say: A large step takesaway bone five-hundredth of a person’s eyesight.The Gemara comments: bAndhis eyesight bis restored to him during ikiddushonShabbat bevening. /b,And bRabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: What isthe ruling with regard to beating earthfor medicinal purposes bon Shabbat?Rabbi Yishmael bsaid to him: And during the week is it permittedto eat soil? bAs I say: Even during the week it is prohibited because it is harmful. Rabbi Ami said: Anyone who eats the dust of Babylonia, it is as if he is eating the flesh of his ancestorsburied there. bAnd some say: It is as if he eats abominations and creeping creatures, as it is written: “And He wiped out all that existedon the face of the earth, from humans to animals, to creeping creatures to the birds in the sky, and they were wiped off the land” (Genesis 7:23).,Apropos dead residue in the ground, bReish Lakish said: Why isBabylonia bcalled Shinar?It is bbecause all those who died inthe bFlood were deposited there [ ininaru lesham /i]. Rabbi Yoḥa said: Why isBabylonia bcalled Metzula?It is bbecause all those who died inthe bFlood sank there [ initztalelu lesham /i].The Gemara asks: We said that bsome saythat if one eats dirt from Babylonia, it is bas if he eats abominations and creeping creatures. However, certainly theirbodies bhaveputrefied and bdecomposed,and therefore they are no longer prohibited. Rather, bsincesoil bis harmful, the Sages issued a decreenot to eat it. The decree was not issued due to the prohibition of eating creeping creatures; rather, it was issued bbecause a certain person ate soilfor medicinal purposes bandalso bate cress.The cress took root in the soil that was inside him and began to grow. bAnd the cress punctured his heart and he died. /b,The Gemara continues to discuss Shabbat. Naomi advised Ruth: b“And you shall bathe, and anoint yourself, and put on your robes,and go down to the threshing floor. Do not make yourself known to the man until he has finished eating and drinking” (Ruth 3:3). bRabbi Elazar said: Theserobes bare Shabbat garmentsthat Naomi told her to wear in honor of the occasion. Apropos the book of Ruth, the Gemara cites additional statements of Rabbi Elazar with regard to Ruth: b“Give to the wise one and he will become wiser;let the righteous one know and he will learn more” (Proverbs 9:9). bRabbi Elazar said: Thisrefers to bRuth the Moabite and Samuel of Rama,who received advice and added to it with their wisdom.,The Gemara elaborates. bWhereas Naomi said to Ruth: “And you shall bathe, and anoint yourself, and put on your robes, and go down to the threshing floor,” but with regard toRuth bherself it is written, “And she went down to the threshing floor”(Ruth 3:6), bandonly bafterward does it say, “And she did according to all that her mother-in-law commanded her.”Ruth decided to anoint herself at the threshing floor and not on the road so that people would not meet her on the way there and suspect her of immorality. bWhereas Eli said to Samuel:“Go and blie down and if He calls you, you say: Speak, Lord, for Your servant is listening”(I Samuel 3:9), bbut with regard toSamuel bhimself it is written: “And the Lord came and stood, and He called like He did the other times: Samuel, Samuel. And Samuel said: Speak, for Your servant is listening”(I Samuel 3:10), band he did not say: Speak, Lord,since he would not assume it was God speaking to him until he was sure of it.,And the verse in Ruth states: b“And she went, and she came, and she collected in the fieldafter the harvesters” (Ruth 2:3). bRabbi Elazar said:This verse teaches bthat she went and came, went and came, until she found suitable people with whom to walk.It also says: b“And Boaz said to his youth who was standing over the harvesters: To whom does this young woman belong?”(Ruth 2:5). This is surprising: bAnd was it Boaz’s habit to inquire about a young woman? Rabbi Elazar said: He saw in her a matter of wisdomand Torah, and that is why he asked about her. What he saw was that bshe collected two stalks,but bshe did not collect three stalks.She thereby acted in accordance with the ihalakhathat three stalks lying together are not considered to be gleanings left for the poor; rather, they remain in the possession of the owner of the field., bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i: He saw a matter of modesty in herwhen she was collecting stalks. She picked stalks that were buprightwhile she was bstanding,and stalks that had bfallenshe picked while bsitting;due to her modesty she did not bend over to take them. It also says: “And Boaz said to Ruth: Do you hear, my daughter? Do not go to glean in another field and do not leave from here, bbut cling to my maidens”(Ruth 2:8). This is also surprising. bAnd was it Boaz’s habit to cling to women? Rabbi Elazar said: Since he saw “And Orpah kissed her mother-in-law and Ruth clung to her”(Ruth 1:14), bhe said: It is permitted to cling toa woman like this.,It also says: b“And Boaz said to her at mealtime: Come here [ ihalom /i]and eat from the bread and dip your bread in vinegar. And she sat beside the harvesters and he gave her roasted grain and she ate, and she was satiated, and she left some over” (Ruth 2:14). bRabbi Elazarinterpreted this and bsaidthat bhe hinted to herprophetically: bIn the future the kingdom of David will come from you, as it is written with regard to it,i.e., the kingdom of David: b“Here,” as it is stated: “And King David came and sat before God and said: Who am I, Lord, God, and who is my family that You have brought me to here [ ihalom /i]?”(II Samuel 7:18). With regard to his saying: b“And dip your bread in vinegar”(Ruth 2:14), bRabbi Elazar said: From herewe see bthat vinegaris bgoodto have bin hot weather. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bhe hinted to her: A son will come from you in the future whose actions will beas bsharp as vinegar, and who is he?King bManasseh. “And she sat beside the harvesters.” Rabbi Elazar said with regard to this: Beside the harvesters, and not among the harvesters. He hinted to her that the kingdom of David will be divided in the futureand her children will not always be in the center of Israel.,It also says in the verse: “And he gave her roasted grain and she ate, and she was satiated, and she left some over.” The Gemara explains: b“And he gave her roasted grain and she ate”;this is also interpreted as a prophetic message. bRabbi Elazar said: “And she ate”was fulfilled by her children’s children bin the days of David; “And she was satiated”was fulfilled bin the days of Solomon; “And she left some over”was fulfilled bin the days of Hezekiah. And some saythat there is a different interpretation: b“And she ate,”was fulfilled bin the days of David and Solomon; “And she was satiated,”was fulfilled bin the days of Hezekiah; “And she left some over”was fulfilled bin the days of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. bAs the Master said: RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhorsekeeper [ iahuriyarei /i] was richer than the kingof Persia. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i: “And she ate,” in this world; “and she was satiated,” in the days of the Messiah; “and she left some over,” in the future,at the end of days.,It was mentioned earlier that Rabbi Yoḥa called his clothing his honor. The Gemara cites the interpretation of the verse that speaks about the downfall of the king of Assyria: “Therefore, the Lord, the Lord of hosts, will send leanness to his fat ones band under his honor He will burn a burning like a burning fire”(Isaiah 10:16). br bRabbi Yoḥa said: “And under his honor,” but not his actual honor.The Gemara explains: bRabbi Yoḥafollows bhis own reasoning,for he bcalled his clothing my honor,which means that the bodies of the king of Assyria’s soldiers were burned. However, their garments were miraculously not burned., bRabbi Elazar said: “And under his honor”means bin place of his actual honor.That is to say, their bodies were burned. Since, in Rabbi Elazar’s opinion, the word under means in the place of, the verse accordingly means that in the place of his honor, i.e., the body, there remain ashes. br bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Under his honormeans beneath his flesh, bsimilar to the burning of the sons of Aaron. Just as there,i.e., the burning of Aaron’s sons, bthe soul burned whilethe bbodyremained bintact, so too here,i.e., the burning of Assyrian soldiers, bthe soul burned whilethe bbodyremained bintact. /b, bRabbi Aḥa bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: /b
34. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 7.36 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

35. Anon., 4 Ezra, 5.24, 5.26

5.24. and from all the lands of the world thou hast chosen for thyself one region, and from all the flowers of the world thou hast chosen for thyself one lily 5.26. and from all the birds that have been created thou hast named for thyself one dove, and from all the flocks that have been made thou hast provided for thyself one sheep


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, covenant with Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
abraham, trust of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
acrostics, partial Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 174
acrostics, signature, of yannai Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 174
adam and eve Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
allegory, in an aramaic piyyut for passover Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
allegory, in prophetic texts Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48
allegory, in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 350
allusions, dove (image) Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
apodictic law Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 75
aqiba (akiva), rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 247
aramaic piyyut for passover, an (anonymous), allegory minimal in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
aramaic piyyut for passover, an (anonymous) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
aramaic piyyut for passover, an (anonymous) narrative character of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
biblical referents, in philo Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 154
biblical referents, in rabbinic literature Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 128
biblical referents Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 70, 71, 72
book of isaiah/jesajabuch Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 83
brettler, marc Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48
bultmann, on tertullian Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
chorazin Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 46
contract, relation to trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
covenant and creation, as socio-legal instrument Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
covenant and creation, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
dante, realism of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
davis, ellen Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48
diversity, canonical and textual, eating and drinking on sabbath Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 77
dove (image) Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
eden, garden of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48
eden, in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 350
eden Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 171
ein gedi Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 51, 174
eros, garden imagery and Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 350
exile, planting imagery of Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
ezekiel Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 118
female lover, as a garden Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48, 350
female lover, as figure of israel Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
figural reading, pauline Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
figures, dantes use of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
figures, tertullians use of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
garden imagery, in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 350
garden imagery, in the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48
garden imagery female lover and Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 350
gentile christianity Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 283
gezera shawah Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 76
gnosticism Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
god, as male lover in the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
god, land of israel and Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 350
god–israel relationship, as gardener-plant relationship Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
god–israel relationship, eroticism in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
gog Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 118
golden calf Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 174
grace Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
grooms qedushta, the (qallir), allegorical and literal mingled in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 350
grooms qedushta, the (qallir), wedding imagery and themes in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 350
grooms qedushta, the (qallir) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 350
hermeneutical method, biblical referents Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 71
hermeneutical method, in dead dea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 128
hermeneutical method, in rabbinic literature Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 120, 128
hermeneutical method, inversion (literary) Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 158
hope Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
intertextuality, implicit vs. explicit Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 51
intertextuality, in shivata shir ha-shirim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 51
intertextuality Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 51
israel, as plant Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
israel, as the female lover in the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
israel, land of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 350
jerusalem, epithets for Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
jerusalem Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 171
jesajabuch/book of isaiah Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 83
jesus christ, blood of Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 283
josephus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 247; Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 29
kedushtot, dove imagery in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
kedushtot, meḥayeh to shabbat vatomar tzion Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
kedushtot, zion in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
knowledge, of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
love Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
lxx/septuagint/septuaginta Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 83
male lover, as figure of god Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
marriage metaphor, in prophetic literature Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 29
martyrdom Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 174
messiah, prefigurations of Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
messiah Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 174
meḥayeh to shabbat vatomar tzion Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
mountain Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 171
mystery of israel Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 283
oracle Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 118
people of israel Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 283
pesharim Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 76, 77
philip, the apostle Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
philo of alexandria Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 247
physical labor, prohibited on sabbath Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 143, 154, 158
piyyut, piyyutim, intertextuality and Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 51
prefiguration, of the messiah Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
promises of god Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
prooftexts, non-pentateuchal Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 158
qumran Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 83; Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 29
realism, dantes Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
reliability Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
saadia gaon Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 174
semantic reformulation Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 143
septuagint/septuaginta/lxx Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 83
septuagint Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 71, 72, 75, 77, 143
shivata shir ha-shirim (yannai), intertextuality in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 51
shivata shir ha-shirim (yannai) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 174
silluq, contains motif of restoration in the grooms qedushta Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 350
song of songs, allegorical interpretation of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 29, 48, 110
song of songs, as proto-piyyut Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48, 51
song of songs, biblical intertextuality and Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48
song of songs, canonicity of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 29
song of songs, christian reception of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 29
song of songs, dove (image) in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
song of songs, garden imagery in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48
song of songs, land of israel in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48
song of songs, marriage metaphor in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 29
song of songs, origins of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48
song of songs, rewritten in piyyutim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
song of songs piyyutim, as rewritings of the song Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 110
song of songs piyyutim, intertextuality in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 51
song of the vineyard (isa 5), as intertext for the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 51
song of the vineyard (isa 5) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 29, 110, 174, 350
spirit, relation to pistis Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
supersessionism, surpassed, of covenant and law Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 52
targum Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 143
temple, as garden Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48, 350
temple, destruction of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 48, 51
temple, incense offerings in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 174
temple Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 46
tertullian, auerbach on Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
tertullian, use of figura' Dawson, Christian Figural Reading and the Fashioning of Identity (2001) 107
thoughts, prohibition of, in dead dea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 143
thoughts, prohibition of, in philo Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 154
thoughts, prohibition of, in rabbinic literature Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 158
tisha bav lectionary cycle, planting imagery in Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
travel on sabbath Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 70
vineyard Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 46
yannai, acrostic signatures of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 174
zion, as garden Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140
zion, in kedushtot Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 140