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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6288
Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 27.1


כִּי עִיר בְּצוּרָה בָּדָד נָוֶה מְשֻׁלָּח וְנֶעֱזָב כַּמִּדְבָּר שָׁם יִרְעֶה עֵגֶל וְשָׁם יִרְבָּץ וְכִלָּה סְעִפֶיהָ׃In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword will punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent; and He will slay the dragon that is in the sea.


בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִפְקֹד יְהוָה בְּחַרְבוֹ הַקָּשָׁה וְהַגְּדוֹלָה וְהַחֲזָקָה עַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ בָּרִחַ וְעַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ עֲקַלָּתוֹן וְהָרַג אֶת־הַתַּנִּין אֲשֶׁר בַּיָּם׃In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword will punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent; and He will slay the dragon that is in the sea.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

36 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 3.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. עַמּוּדָיו עָשָׂה כֶסֶף רְפִידָתוֹ זָהָב מֶרְכָּבוֹ אַרְגָּמָן תּוֹכוֹ רָצוּף אַהֲבָה מִבְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 3.1. עַל־מִשְׁכָּבִי בַּלֵּילוֹת בִּקַּשְׁתִּי אֵת שֶׁאָהֲבָה נַפְשִׁי בִּקַּשְׁתִּיו וְלֹא מְצָאתִיו׃ 3.1. By night on my bed I sought him whom my soul loveth; I sought him, but I found him not.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.8, 32.11, 32.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.11. כְּנֶשֶׁר יָעִיר קִנּוֹ עַל־גּוֹזָלָיו יְרַחֵף יִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָיו יִקָּחֵהוּ יִשָּׂאֵהוּ עַל־אֶבְרָתוֹ׃ 32.43. הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃ 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.11. As an eagle that stirreth up her nest, Hovereth over her young, Spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, Beareth them on her pinions—" 32.43. Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 7.8-7.12, 20.5, 34.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 7.9. כִּי יְדַבֵּר אֲלֵכֶם פַּרְעֹה לֵאמֹר תְּנוּ לָכֶם מוֹפֵת וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־אַהֲרֹן קַח אֶת־מַטְּךָ וְהַשְׁלֵךְ לִפְנֵי־פַרְעֹה יְהִי לְתַנִּין׃ 7.11. וַיִּקְרָא גַּם־פַּרְעֹה לַחֲכָמִים וְלַמְכַשְּׁפִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ גַם־הֵם חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶם כֵּן׃ 7.12. וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אִישׁ מַטֵּהוּ וַיִּהְיוּ לְתַנִּינִם וַיִּבְלַע מַטֵּה־אַהֲרֹן אֶת־מַטֹּתָם׃ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 34.7. נֹצֵר חֶסֶד לָאֲלָפִים נֹשֵׂא עָוֺן וָפֶשַׁע וְחַטָּאָה וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־בְּנֵי בָנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים׃ 7.8. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying:" 7.9. ’When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying: Show a wonder for you; then thou shalt say unto Aaron: Take thy rod, and cast it down before Pharaoh, that it become a serpent.’" 7.10. And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so, as the LORD had commanded; and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a serpent." 7.11. Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did in like manner with their secret arts." 7.12. For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents; but Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods." 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 34.7. keeping mercy unto the thousandth generation, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin; and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and unto the fourth generation.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.9, 1.11, 1.14, 1.20-1.21, 3.14-3.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃ 1.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶל־מָקוֹם אֶחָד וְתֵרָאֶה הַיַּבָּשָׁה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃ 1.21. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת אֲשֶׁר שָׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם לְמִינֵהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף כָּנָף לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.15. וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃ 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." 1.6. And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’" 1.9. And God said: ‘Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear.’ And it was so." 1.11. And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so." 1.14. And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;" 1.20. And God said: ‘Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let fowl fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.’" 1.21. And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that creepeth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 3.14. And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life." 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 3.8, 7.12, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 26.5, 26.6, 26.7, 26.8, 26.9, 26.10, 26.11, 26.12, 26.13, 26.14, 38.8, 38.9, 38.10, 38.11, 40, 40.9, 40.16, 40.19, 40.23, 40.25, 40.25-41.26, 40.29, 40.31, 41, 41.7, 41.11, 41.12, 41.13, 41.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.10. He hath described a boundary upon the face of the waters, Unto the confines of light and darkness."
6. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 1.4, 1.10, 2.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. וַיהוָה הֵטִיל רוּחַ־גְּדוֹלָה אֶל־הַיָּם וַיְהִי סַעַר־גָּדוֹל בַּיָּם וְהָאֳנִיָּה חִשְּׁבָה לְהִשָּׁבֵר׃ 2.6. אֲפָפוּנִי מַיִם עַד־נֶפֶשׁ תְּהוֹם יְסֹבְבֵנִי סוּף חָבוּשׁ לְרֹאשִׁי׃ 1.4. But the LORD hurled a great wind into the sea, and there was a mighty tempest in the sea, so that the ship was like to be broken." 1.10. Then were the men exceedingly afraid, and said unto him: ‘What is this that thou hast done?’ For the men knew that he fled from the presence of the LORD, because he had told them." 2.6. The waters compassed me about, even to the soul; The deep was round about me; The weeds were wrapped about my head."
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.29. וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא בַּשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַחֹלֶד וְהָעַכְבָּר וְהַצָּב לְמִינֵהוּ׃ 11.29. And these are they which are unclean unto you among the swarming things that swarm upon the earth: the weasel, and the mouse, and the great lizard after its kinds,"
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 9.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.1. חָכְמוֹת בָּנְתָה בֵיתָהּ חָצְבָה עַמּוּדֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה׃ 9.1. תְּחִלַּת חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת קְדֹשִׁים בִּינָה׃ 9.1. Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars;"
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 18.14, 18.16, 24.2, 50.10, 65.7-65.8, 73.13-73.14, 74.12-74.17, 77.14-77.21, 89.10-89.15, 93.3-93.4, 103.26, 104.1-104.9, 104.25-104.26, 106.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.14. וַיַּרְעֵם בַּשָּׁמַיִם יְהוָה וְעֶלְיוֹן יִתֵּן קֹלוֹ בָּרָד וְגַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ׃ 18.16. וַיֵּרָאוּ אֲפִיקֵי מַיִם וַיִּגָּלוּ מוֹסְדוֹת תֵּבֵל מִגַּעֲרָתְךָ יְהוָה מִנִּשְׁמַת רוּחַ אַפֶּךָ׃ 24.2. כִּי־הוּא עַל־יַמִּים יְסָדָהּ וְעַל־נְהָרוֹת יְכוֹנְנֶהָ׃ 65.7. מֵכִין הָרִים בְּכֹחוֹ נֶאְזָר בִּגְבוּרָה׃ 65.8. מַשְׁבִּיחַ שְׁאוֹן יַמִּים שְׁאוֹן גַּלֵּיהֶם וַהֲמוֹן לְאֻמִּים׃ 73.13. אַךְ־רִיק זִכִּיתִי לְבָבִי וָאֶרְחַץ בְּנִקָּיוֹן כַּפָּי׃ 73.14. וָאֱהִי נָגוּעַ כָּל־הַיּוֹם וְתוֹכַחְתִּי לַבְּקָרִים׃ 74.12. וֵאלֹהִים מַלְכִּי מִקֶּדֶם פֹּעֵל יְשׁוּעוֹת בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃ 74.13. אַתָּה פוֹרַרְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ יָם שִׁבַּרְתָּ רָאשֵׁי תַנִּינִים עַל־הַמָּיִם׃ 74.14. אַתָּה רִצַּצְתָּ רָאשֵׁי לִוְיָתָן תִּתְּנֶנּוּ מַאֲכָל לְעָם לְצִיִּים׃ 74.15. אַתָּה בָקַעְתָּ מַעְיָן וָנָחַל אַתָּה הוֹבַשְׁתָּ נַהֲרוֹת אֵיתָן׃ 74.16. לְךָ יוֹם אַף־לְךָ לָיְלָה אַתָּה הֲכִינוֹתָ מָאוֹר וָשָׁמֶשׁ׃ 74.17. אַתָּה הִצַּבְתָּ כָּל־גְּבוּלוֹת אָרֶץ קַיִץ וָחֹרֶף אַתָּה יְצַרְתָּם׃ 77.14. אֱלֹהִים בַּקֹּדֶשׁ דַּרְכֶּךָ מִי־אֵל גָּדוֹל כֵּאלֹהִים׃ 77.15. אַתָּה הָאֵל עֹשֵׂה פֶלֶא הוֹדַעְתָּ בָעַמִּים עֻזֶּךָ׃ 77.16. גָּאַלְתָּ בִּזְרוֹעַ עַמֶּךָ בְּנֵי־יַעֲקֹב וְיוֹסֵף סֶלָה׃ 77.17. רָאוּךָ מַּיִם אֱ‍לֹהִים רָאוּךָ מַּיִם יָחִילוּ אַף יִרְגְּזוּ תְהֹמוֹת׃ 77.18. זֹרְמוּ מַיִם עָבוֹת קוֹל נָתְנוּ שְׁחָקִים אַף־חֲצָצֶיךָ יִתְהַלָּכוּ׃ 77.19. קוֹל רַעַמְךָ בַּגַּלְגַּל הֵאִירוּ בְרָקִים תֵּבֵל רָגְזָה וַתִּרְעַשׁ הָאָרֶץ׃ 77.21. נָחִיתָ כַצֹּאן עַמֶּךָ בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן׃ 89.11. אַתָּה דִכִּאתָ כֶחָלָל רָהַב בִּזְרוֹעַ עֻזְּךָ פִּזַּרְתָּ אוֹיְבֶיךָ׃ 89.12. לְךָ שָׁמַיִם אַף־לְךָ אָרֶץ תֵּבֵל וּמְלֹאָהּ אַתָּה יְסַדְתָּם׃ 89.13. צָפוֹן וְיָמִין אַתָּה בְרָאתָם תָּבוֹר וְחֶרְמוֹן בְּשִׁמְךָ יְרַנֵּנוּ׃ 89.14. לְךָ זְרוֹעַ עִם־גְּבוּרָה תָּעֹז יָדְךָ תָּרוּם יְמִינֶךָ׃ 89.15. צֶדֶק וּמִשְׁפָּט מְכוֹן כִּסְאֶךָ חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת יְקַדְּמוּ פָנֶיךָ׃ 93.3. נָשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת יְהוָה נָשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת קוֹלָם יִשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת דָּכְיָם׃ 93.4. מִקֹּלוֹת מַיִם רַבִּים אַדִּירִים מִשְׁבְּרֵי־יָם אַדִּיר בַּמָּרוֹם יְהוָה׃ 104.1. בָּרֲכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ׃ 104.1. הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעְיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים בֵּין הָרִים יְהַלֵּכוּן׃ 104.2. תָּשֶׁת־חֹשֶׁךְ וִיהִי לָיְלָה בּוֹ־תִרְמֹשׂ כָּל־חַיְתוֹ־יָעַר׃ 104.2. עֹטֶה־אוֹר כַּשַּׂלְמָה נוֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם כַּיְרִיעָה׃ 104.3. הַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲ‍לִיּוֹתָיו הַשָּׂם־עָבִים רְכוּבוֹ הַמְהַלֵּךְ עַל־כַּנְפֵי־רוּחַ׃ 104.3. תְּשַׁלַּח רוּחֲךָ יִבָּרֵאוּן וּתְחַדֵּשׁ פְּנֵי אֲדָמָה׃ 104.4. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃ 104.5. יָסַד־אֶרֶץ עַל־מְכוֹנֶיהָ בַּל־תִּמּוֹט עוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 104.6. תְּהוֹם כַּלְּבוּשׁ כִּסִּיתוֹ עַל־הָרִים יַעַמְדוּ־מָיִם׃ 104.7. מִן־גַּעֲרָתְךָ יְנוּסוּן מִן־קוֹל רַעַמְךָ יֵחָפֵזוּן׃ 104.8. יַעֲלוּ הָרִים יֵרְדוּ בְקָעוֹת אֶל־מְקוֹם זֶה יָסַדְתָּ לָהֶם׃ 104.9. גְּבוּל־שַׂמְתָּ בַּל־יַעֲבֹרוּן בַּל־יְשׁוּבוּן לְכַסּוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃ 104.25. זֶה הַיָּם גָּדוֹל וּרְחַב יָדָיִם שָׁם־רֶמֶשׂ וְאֵין מִסְפָּר חַיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת עִם־גְּדֹלוֹת׃ 104.26. שָׁם אֳנִיּוֹת יְהַלֵּכוּן לִוְיָתָן זֶה־יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק־בּוֹ׃ 106.9. וַיִּגְעַר בְּיַם־סוּף וַיֶּחֱרָב וַיּוֹלִיכֵם בַּתְּהֹמוֹת כַּמִּדְבָּר׃ 18.14. The LORD also thundered in the heavens, and the Most High gave forth His voice; hailstones and coals of fire." 18.16. And the channels of waters appeared, and the foundations of the world were laid bare, at Thy rebuke, O LORD, at the blast of the breath of Thy nostrils." 24.2. For He hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods." 50.10. For every beast of the forest is Mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills." 65.7. Who by Thy strength settest fast the mountains, who art girded about with might;" 65.8. Who stillest the roaring of the seas, the roaring of their waves, and the tumult of the peoples;" 73.13. Surely in vain have I cleansed my heart, And washed my hands in innocency;" 73.14. For all the day have I been plagued, And my chastisement came every morning." 74.12. Yet God is my King of old, Working salvation in the midst of the earth." 74.13. Thou didst break the sea in pieces by Thy strength; Thou didst shatter the heads of the sea-monsters in the waters." 74.14. Thou didst crush the heads of leviathan, Thou gavest him to be food to the folk inhabiting the wilderness." 74.15. Thou didst cleave fountain and brook; Thou driedst up ever-flowing rivers." 74.16. Thine is the day, Thine also the night; Thou hast established luminary and sun." 74.17. Thou hast set all the borders of the earth; Thou hast made summer and winter." 77.14. O God, Thy way is in holiness; Who is a great god like unto God?" 77.15. Thou art the God that doest wonders; Thou hast made known Thy strength among the peoples." 77.16. Thou hast with Thine arm redeemed Thy people, The sons of Jacob and Joseph. Selah" 77.17. The waters saw Thee, O God; The waters saw Thee, they were in pain; The depths also trembled." 77.18. The clouds flooded forth waters; The skies sent out a sound; Thine arrows also went abroad." 77.19. The voice of Thy thunder was in the whirlwind; The lightnings lighted up the world; The earth trembled and shook." 77.20. Thy way was in the sea, And Thy path in the great waters, And Thy footsteps were not known." 77.21. Thou didst lead Thy people like a flock, By the hand of Moses and Aaron." 89.10. Thou rulest the proud swelling of the sea; When the waves thereof arise, Thou stillest them." 89.11. Thou didst crush Rahab, as one that is slain; Thou didst scattered Thine enemies with the arm of Thy strength." 89.12. Thine are the heavens, Thine also the earth; The world and the fulness thereof, Thou hast founded them." 89.13. The north and the south, Thou hast created them; Tabor and Hermon rejoice in Thy name." 89.14. Thine is an arm with might; Strong is Thy hand, and exalted is Thy right hand." 89.15. Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Thy throne; Mercy and truth go before Thee." 93.3. The floods have lifted up, O LORD, The floods have lifted up their voice; The floods lift up their roaring." 93.4. Above the voices of many waters, The mighty breakers of the sea, The LORD on high is mighty." 104.1. Bless the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, Thou art very great; Thou art clothed with glory and majesty." 104.2. Who coverest Thyself with light as with a garment, who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain;" 104.3. Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters, who makest the clouds Thy chariot, who walkest upon the wings of the wind;" 104.4. Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers." 104.5. Who didst establish the earth upon its foundations, that it should not be moved for ever and ever;" 104.6. Thou didst cover it with the deep as with a vesture; the waters stood above the mountains." 104.7. At Thy rebuke they fled, at the voice of Thy thunder they hasted away—" 104.8. The mountains rose, the valleys sank down— Unto the place which Thou hadst founded for them;" 104.9. Thou didst set a bound which they should not pass over, That they might not return to cover the earth." 104.25. Yonder sea, great and wide, Therein are creeping things innumerable, Living creatures, both small and great." 104.26. There go the ships; There is leviathan, whom Thou hast formed to sport therein." 106.9. And He rebuked the Red Sea, and it was dried up; and He led them through the depths, as through a wilderness."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.23-6.29, 6.32, 6.35, 7.16, 7.22, 8.6-8.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.23. וַיַּעַשׂ בַּדְּבִיר שְׁנֵי כְרוּבִים עֲצֵי־שָׁמֶן עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת קוֹמָתוֹ׃ 6.24. וְחָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת כְּנַף הַכְּרוּב הָאֶחָת וְחָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת כְּנַף הַכְּרוּב הַשֵּׁנִית עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת מִקְצוֹת כְּנָפָיו וְעַד־קְצוֹת כְּנָפָיו׃ 6.25. וְעֶשֶׂר בָּאַמָּה הַכְּרוּב הַשֵּׁנִי מִדָּה אַחַת וְקֶצֶב אֶחָד לִשְׁנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים׃ 6.26. קוֹמַת הַכְּרוּב הָאֶחָד עֶשֶׂר בָּאַמָּה וְכֵן הַכְּרוּב הַשֵּׁנִי׃ 6.27. וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־הַכְּרוּבִים בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת הַפְּנִימִי וַיִּפְרְשׂוּ אֶת־כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרֻבִים וַתִּגַּע כְּנַף־הָאֶחָד בַּקִּיר וּכְנַף הַכְּרוּב הַשֵּׁנִי נֹגַעַת בַּקִּיר הַשֵּׁנִי וְכַנְפֵיהֶם אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַבַּיִת נֹגְעֹת כָּנָף אֶל־כָּנָף׃ 6.28. וַיְצַף אֶת־הַכְּרוּבִים זָהָב׃ 6.29. וְאֵת כָּל־קִירוֹת הַבַּיִת מֵסַב קָלַע פִּתּוּחֵי מִקְלְעוֹת כְּרוּבִים וְתִמֹרֹת וּפְטוּרֵי צִצִּים מִלִּפְנִים וְלַחִיצוֹן׃ 6.32. וּשְׁתֵּי דַּלְתוֹת עֲצֵי־שֶׁמֶן וְקָלַע עֲלֵיהֶם מִקְלְעוֹת כְּרוּבִים וְתִמֹרוֹת וּפְטוּרֵי צִצִּים וְצִפָּה זָהָב וַיָּרֶד עַל־הַכְּרוּבִים וְעַל־הַתִּמֹרוֹת אֶת־הַזָּהָב׃ 6.35. וְקָלַע כְּרוּבִים וְתִמֹרוֹת וּפְטֻרֵי צִצִּים וְצִפָּה זָהָב מְיֻשָּׁר עַל־הַמְּחֻקֶּה׃ 7.16. וּשְׁתֵּי כֹתָרֹת עָשָׂה לָתֵת עַל־רָאשֵׁי הָעַמּוּדִים מֻצַק נְחֹשֶׁת חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת קוֹמַת הַכֹּתֶרֶת הָאֶחָת וְחָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת קוֹמַת הַכֹּתֶרֶת הַשֵּׁנִית׃ 7.22. וְעַל רֹאשׁ הָעַמּוּדִים מַעֲשֵׂה שׁוֹשָׁן וַתִּתֹּם מְלֶאכֶת הָעַמּוּדִים׃ 8.6. וַיָּבִאוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה אֶל־מְקוֹמוֹ אֶל־דְּבִיר הַבַּיִת אֶל־קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֶל־תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים׃ 8.6. לְמַעַן דַּעַת כָּל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ כִּי יְהוָה הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים אֵין עוֹד׃ 8.7. כִּי הַכְּרוּבִים פֹּרְשִׂים כְּנָפַיִם אֶל־מְקוֹם הָאָרוֹן וַיָּסֹכּוּ הַכְּרֻבִים עַל־הָאָרוֹן וְעַל־בַּדָּיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 6.23. And in the Sanctuary he made two cherubim of olive-wood, each ten cubits high." 6.24. And five cubits was the one wing of the cherub, and five cubits the other wing of the cherub; from the uttermost part of the one wing unto the uttermost part of the other were ten cubits." 6.25. And the other cherub was ten cubits; both the cherubim were of one measure and one form." 6.26. The height of the one cherub was ten cubits, and so was it of the other cherub." 6.27. And he set the cherubim within the inner house; and the wings of the cherubim were stretched forth, so that the wing of the one touched the one wall, and the wing of the other cherub touched the other wall; and their wings touched one another in the midst of the house." 6.28. And he overlaid the cherubim with gold." 6.29. And he carved all the walls of the house round about with carved figures of cherubim and palm-trees and open flowers, within and without." 6.32. And as for the two doors of olive-wood, he carved upon them carvings of cherubim and palm-trees and open flowers, and overlaid them with gold; and he spread the gold upon the cherubim, and upon the palm-trees." 6.35. And he carved thereon cherubim and palm-trees and open flowers; and he overlaid them with gold fitted upon the graven work." 7.16. And he made two capitals of molten brass, to set upon the tops of the pillars; the height of the one capital was five cubits, and the height of the other capital was five cubits." 7.22. And upon the top of the pillars was lily-work; so was the work of the pillars finished." 8.6. And the priests brought in the ark of the covet of the LORD unto its place, into the Sanctuary of the house, to the most holy place, even under the wings of the cherubim." 8.7. For the cherubim spread forth their wings over the place of the ark, and the cherubim covered the ark and the staves thereof above."
11. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 3.3-3.13 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.3. אֱלוֹהַ מִתֵּימָן יָבוֹא וְקָדוֹשׁ מֵהַר־פָּארָן סֶלָה כִּסָּה שָׁמַיִם הוֹדוֹ וּתְהִלָּתוֹ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.4. וְנֹגַהּ כָּאוֹר תִּהְיֶה קַרְנַיִם מִיָּדוֹ לוֹ וְשָׁם חֶבְיוֹן עֻזֹּה׃ 3.5. לְפָנָיו יֵלֶךְ דָּבֶר וְיֵצֵא רֶשֶׁף לְרַגְלָיו׃ 3.6. עָמַד וַיְמֹדֶד אֶרֶץ רָאָה וַיַּתֵּר גּוֹיִם וַיִּתְפֹּצְצוּ הַרְרֵי־עַד שַׁחוּ גִּבְעוֹת עוֹלָם הֲלִיכוֹת עוֹלָם לוֹ׃ 3.7. תַּחַת אָוֶן רָאִיתִי אָהֳלֵי כוּשָׁן יִרְגְּזוּן יְרִיעוֹת אֶרֶץ מִדְיָן׃ 3.8. הֲבִנְהָרִים חָרָה יְהוָה אִם בַּנְּהָרִים אַפֶּךָ אִם־בַּיָּם עֶבְרָתֶךָ כִּי תִרְכַּב עַל־סוּסֶיךָ מַרְכְּבֹתֶיךָ יְשׁוּעָה׃ 3.9. עֶרְיָה תֵעוֹר קַשְׁתֶּךָ שְׁבֻעוֹת מַטּוֹת אֹמֶר סֶלָה נְהָרוֹת תְּבַקַּע־אָרֶץ׃ 3.11. שֶׁמֶשׁ יָרֵחַ עָמַד זְבֻלָה לְאוֹר חִצֶּיךָ יְהַלֵּכוּ לְנֹגַהּ בְּרַק חֲנִיתֶךָ׃ 3.12. בְּזַעַם תִּצְעַד־אָרֶץ בְּאַף תָּדוּשׁ גּוֹיִם׃ 3.13. יָצָאתָ לְיֵשַׁע עַמֶּךָ לְיֵשַׁע אֶת־מְשִׁיחֶךָ מָחַצְתָּ רֹּאשׁ מִבֵּית רָשָׁע עָרוֹת יְסוֹד עַד־צַוָּאר סֶלָה׃ 3.3. God cometh from Teman, And the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah His glory covereth the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise." 3.4. And a brightness appeareth as the light; rays hath He at His side; and there is the hiding of His power. 3.5. Before him goeth the pestilence, and fiery bolts go forth at His feet." 3.6. He standeth, and shaketh the earth, He beholdeth, and maketh the nations to tremble; And the everlasting mountains are dashed in pieces, The ancient hills do bow; His goings are as of old." 3.7. I see the tents of Cushan in affliction; The curtains of the land of Midian do tremble." 3.8. Is it, O LORD, that against the rivers, is it that Thine anger is kindled against the rivers, or Thy wrath against the sea? That Thou dost ride upon Thy horses, upon Thy chariots of victory?" 3.9. Thy bow is made quite bare; Sworn are the rods of the word. Selah. Thou dost cleave the earth with rivers." 3.10. The mountains have seen Thee, and they tremble; the tempest of waters floweth over; the deep uttereth its voice, And lifteth up its hands on high." 3.11. The sun and moon stand still in their habitation; at the light of Thine arrows as they go, At the shining of Thy glittering spear." 3.12. Thou marchest through the earth in indignation, Thou threshest the nations in anger." 3.13. Thou art come forth for the deliverance of Thy people, for the deliverance of Thine anointed; Thou woundest the head out of the house of the wicked, uncovering the foundation even unto the neck. Selah"
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 11.9, 11.11-11.16, 14.12-14.15, 26.21, 30.27, 30.29-30.30, 44.27, 50.2, 51.9-51.11, 63.10-63.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.9. לֹא־יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא־יַשְׁחִיתוּ בְּכָל־הַר קָדְשִׁי כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ דֵּעָה אֶת־יְהוָה כַּמַּיִם לַיָּם מְכַסִּים׃ 11.11. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יוֹסִיף אֲדֹנָי שֵׁנִית יָדוֹ לִקְנוֹת אֶת־שְׁאָר עַמּוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁאֵר מֵאַשּׁוּר וּמִמִּצְרַיִם וּמִפַּתְרוֹס וּמִכּוּשׁ וּמֵעֵילָם וּמִשִּׁנְעָר וּמֵחֲמָת וּמֵאִיֵּי הַיָּם׃ 11.12. וְנָשָׂא נֵס לַגּוֹיִם וְאָסַף נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּנְפֻצוֹת יְהוּדָה יְקַבֵּץ מֵאַרְבַּע כַּנְפוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.13. וְסָרָה קִנְאַת אֶפְרַיִם וְצֹרְרֵי יְהוּדָה יִכָּרֵתוּ אֶפְרַיִם לֹא־יְקַנֵּא אֶת־יְהוּדָה וִיהוּדָה לֹא־יָצֹר אֶת־אֶפְרָיִם׃ 11.14. וְעָפוּ בְכָתֵף פְּלִשְׁתִּים יָמָּה יַחְדָּו יָבֹזּוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי־קֶדֶם אֱדוֹם וּמוֹאָב מִשְׁלוֹח יָדָם וּבְנֵי עַמּוֹן מִשְׁמַעְתָּם׃ 11.15. וְהֶחֱרִים יְהוָה אֵת לְשׁוֹן יָם־מִצְרַיִם וְהֵנִיף יָדוֹ עַל־הַנָּהָר בַּעְיָם רוּחוֹ וְהִכָּהוּ לְשִׁבְעָה נְחָלִים וְהִדְרִיךְ בַּנְּעָלִים׃ 11.16. וְהָיְתָה מְסִלָּה לִשְׁאָר עַמּוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁאֵר מֵאַשּׁוּר כַּאֲשֶׁר הָיְתָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיוֹם עֲלֹתוֹ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 14.12. אֵיךְ נָפַלְתָּ מִשָּׁמַיִם הֵילֵל בֶּן־שָׁחַר נִגְדַּעְתָּ לָאָרֶץ חוֹלֵשׁ עַל־גּוֹיִם׃ 14.13. וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃ 14.14. אֶעֱלֶה עַל־בָּמֳתֵי עָב אֶדַּמֶּה לְעֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.15. אַךְ אֶל־שְׁאוֹל תּוּרָד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי־בוֹר׃ 26.21. כִּי־הִנֵּה יְהוָה יֹצֵא מִמְּקוֹמוֹ לִפְקֹד עֲוֺן יֹשֵׁב־הָאָרֶץ עָלָיו וְגִלְּתָה הָאָרֶץ אֶת־דָּמֶיהָ וְלֹא־תְכַסֶּה עוֹד עַל־הֲרוּגֶיהָ׃ 30.27. הִנֵּה שֵׁם־יְהוָה בָּא מִמֶּרְחָק בֹּעֵר אַפּוֹ וְכֹבֶד מַשָּׂאָה שְׂפָתָיו מָלְאוּ זַעַם וּלְשׁוֹנוֹ כְּאֵשׁ אֹכָלֶת׃ 30.29. הַשִּׁיר יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כְּלֵיל הִתְקַדֶּשׁ־חָג וְשִׂמְחַת לֵבָב כַּהוֹלֵךְ בֶּחָלִיל לָבוֹא בְהַר־יְהוָה אֶל־צוּר יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 44.27. הָאֹמֵר לַצּוּלָה חֳרָבִי וְנַהֲרֹתַיִךְ אוֹבִישׁ׃ 50.2. מַדּוּעַ בָּאתִי וְאֵין אִישׁ קָרָאתִי וְאֵין עוֹנֶה הֲקָצוֹר קָצְרָה יָדִי מִפְּדוּת וְאִם־אֵין־בִּי כֹחַ לְהַצִּיל הֵן בְּגַעֲרָתִי אַחֲרִיב יָם אָשִׂים נְהָרוֹת מִדְבָּר תִּבְאַשׁ דְּגָתָם מֵאֵין מַיִם וְתָמֹת בַּצָּמָא׃ 51.9. עוּרִי עוּרִי לִבְשִׁי־עֹז זְרוֹעַ יְהוָה עוּרִי כִּימֵי קֶדֶם דֹּרוֹת עוֹלָמִים הֲלוֹא אַתְּ־הִיא הַמַּחְצֶבֶת רַהַב מְחוֹלֶלֶת תַּנִּין׃ 51.11. וּפְדוּיֵי יְהוָה יְשׁוּבוּן וּבָאוּ צִיּוֹן בְּרִנָּה וְשִׂמְחַת עוֹלָם עַל־רֹאשָׁם שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יַשִּׂיגוּן נָסוּ יָגוֹן וַאֲנָחָה׃ 63.11. וַיִּזְכֹּר יְמֵי־עוֹלָם מֹשֶׁה עַמּוֹ אַיֵּה הַמַּעֲלֵם מִיָּם אֵת רֹעֵי צֹאנוֹ אַיֵּה הַשָּׂם בְּקִרְבּוֹ אֶת־רוּחַ קָדְשׁוֹ׃ 63.12. מוֹלִיךְ לִימִין מֹשֶׁה זְרוֹעַ תִּפְאַרְתּוֹ בּוֹקֵעַ מַיִם מִפְּנֵיהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ שֵׁם עוֹלָם׃ 63.13. מוֹלִיכָם בַּתְּהֹמוֹת כַּסּוּס בַּמִּדְבָּר לֹא יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 11.9. They shall not hurt nor destroy In all My holy mountain; For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, As the waters cover the sea." 11.11. And it shall come to pass in that day, That the Lord will set His hand again the second time To recover the remt of His people, That shall remain from Assyria, and from Egypt, And from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, And from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea." 11.12. And He will set up an ensign for the nations, And will assemble the dispersed of Israel, And gather together the scattered of Judah From the four corners of the earth." 11.13. The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, And they that harass Judah shall be cut off; Ephraim shall not envy Judah, And Judah shall not vex Ephraim." 11.14. And they shall fly down upon the shoulder of the Philistines on the west; Together shall they spoil the children of the east; They shall put forth their hand upon Edom and Moab; And the children of Ammon shall obey them." 11.15. And the LORD will utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; And with His scorching wind will He shake His hand over the River, And will smite it into seven streams, And cause men to march over dry-shod." 11.16. And there shall be a highway for the remt of His people, That shall remain from Assyria, Like as there was for Israel In the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt." 14.12. How art thou fallen from heaven, O day-star, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, That didst cast lots over the nations!" 14.13. And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north;" 14.14. I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High.’" 14.15. Yet thou shalt be brought down to the nether-world, To the uttermost parts of the pit." 26.21. For, behold, the LORD cometh forth out of His place To visit upon the inhabitants of the earth their iniquity; The earth also shall disclose her blood, And shall no more cover her slain." 30.27. Behold, the name of the LORD cometh from far, With His anger burning, and in thick uplifting of smoke; His lips are full of indignation, And His tongue is as a devouring fire;" 30.29. Ye shall have a song As in the night when a feast is hallowed; And gladness of heart, as when one goeth with the pipe To come into the mountain of the LORD, to the Rock of Israel." 30.30. And the LORD will cause His glorious voice to be heard, And will show the lighting down of His arm, With furious anger, and the flame of a devouring fire, With a bursting of clouds, and a storm of rain, and hailstones." 44.27. That saith to the deep: ‘Be dry, and I will dry up thy rivers’;" 50.2. Wherefore, when I came, was there no man? When I called, was there none to answer? Is My hand shortened at all, that it cannot redeem? Or have I no power to deliver? Behold, at My rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness; Their fish become foul, because there is no water, And die for thirst." 51.9. Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD; Awake, as in the days of old, The generations of ancient times. Art thou not it that hewed Rahab in pieces, That pierced the dragon?" 51.10. Art thou not it that dried up the sea, The waters of the great deep; That made the depths of the sea a way For the redeemed to pass over?" 51.11. And the ransomed of the LORD shall return, And come with singing unto Zion, And everlasting joy shall be upon their heads; They shall obtain gladness and joy, And sorrow and sighing shall flee away." 63.10. But they rebelled, and grieved His holy spirit; therefore He was turned to be their enemy, Himself fought against them." 63.11. Then His people remembered the days of old, the days of Moses: ‘Where is He that brought them up out of the sea With the shepherds of His flock? Where is He that put His holy spirit In the midst of them?" 63.12. That caused His glorious arm to go at the right hand of Moses? That divided the water before them, To make Himself an everlasting name?" 63.13. That led them through the deep, as a horse in the wilderness, without stumbling?"
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 25.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.30. Therefore prophesy thou against them all these words, and say unto them: The LORD doth roar from on high, And utter His voice from His holy habitation; He doth mightily roar because of His fold; He giveth a shout, as they that tread the grapes, Against all the inhabitants of the earth."
14. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 10.1-10.9, 10.14-10.16, 10.18-10.22, 11.22, 28.12-28.17, 29.3, 32.2-32.8 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.1. וּמַרְאֵיהֶם דְּמוּת אֶחָד לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם כַּאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הָאוֹפַן בְּתוֹךְ הָאוֹפָן׃ 10.1. וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה אֶל־הָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ הַכְּרֻבִים כְּאֶבֶן סַפִּיר כְּמַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא נִרְאָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 10.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִישׁ לְבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּא אֶל־בֵּינוֹת לַגַּלְגַּל אֶל־תַּחַת לַכְּרוּב וּמַלֵּא חָפְנֶיךָ גַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרֻבִים וּזְרֹק עַל־הָעִיר וַיָּבֹא לְעֵינָי׃ 10.2. הִיא הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי תַּחַת אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּנְהַר־כְּבָר וָאֵדַע כִּי כְרוּבִים הֵמָּה׃ 10.3. וְהַכְּרֻבִים עֹמְדִים מִימִין לַבַּיִת בְּבֹאוֹ הָאִישׁ וְהֶעָנָן מָלֵא אֶת־הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית׃ 10.4. וַיָּרָם כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מֵעַל הַכְּרוּב עַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיִּמָּלֵא הַבַּיִת אֶת־הֶעָנָן וְהֶחָצֵר מָלְאָה אֶת־נֹגַהּ כְּבוֹד יְהוָה׃ 10.5. וְקוֹל כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים נִשְׁמַע עַד־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה כְּקוֹל אֵל־שַׁדַּי בְּדַבְּרוֹ׃ 10.6. וַיְהִי בְּצַוֺּתוֹ אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבֻשׁ־הַבַּדִּים לֵאמֹר קַח אֵשׁ מִבֵּינוֹת לַגַּלְגַּל מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרוּבִים וַיָּבֹא וַיַּעֲמֹד אֵצֶל הָאוֹפָן׃ 10.7. וַיִּשְׁלַח הַכְּרוּב אֶת־יָדוֹ מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרוּבִים אֶל־הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר בֵּינוֹת הַכְּרֻבִים וַיִּשָּׂא וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־חָפְנֵי לְבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיִּקַּח וַיֵּצֵא׃ 10.8. וַיֵּרָא לַכְּרֻבִים תַּבְנִית יַד־אָדָם תַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם׃ 10.9. וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה אַרְבָּעָה אוֹפַנִּים אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּבִים אוֹפַן אֶחָד אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּב אֶחָד וְאוֹפַן אֶחָד אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּב אֶחָד וּמַרְאֵה הָאוֹפַנִּים כְּעֵין אֶבֶן תַּרְשִׁישׁ׃ 10.14. וְאַרְבָּעָה פָנִים לְאֶחָד פְּנֵי הָאֶחָד פְּנֵי הַכְּרוּב וּפְנֵי הַשֵּׁנִי פְּנֵי אָדָם וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי פְּנֵי אַרְיֵה וְהָרְבִיעִי פְּנֵי־נָשֶׁר׃ 10.15. וַיֵּרֹמּוּ הַכְּרוּבִים הִיא הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בִּנְהַר־כְּבָר׃ 10.16. וּבְלֶכֶת הַכְּרוּבִים יֵלְכוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים אֶצְלָם וּבִשְׂאֵת הַכְּרוּבִים אֶת־כַּנְפֵיהֶם לָרוּם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ לֹא־יִסַּבּוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים גַּם־הֵם מֵאֶצְלָם׃ 10.18. וַיֵּצֵא כְּבוֹד יְהוָה מֵעַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיַּעֲמֹד עַל־הַכְּרוּבִים׃ 10.19. וַיִּשְׂאוּ הַכְּרוּבִים אֶת־כַּנְפֵיהֶם וַיֵּרוֹמּוּ מִן־הָאָרֶץ לְעֵינַי בְּצֵאתָם וְהָאוֹפַנִּים לְעֻמָּתָם וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח שַׁעַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַקַּדְמוֹנִי וּכְבוֹד אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲלֵיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 10.21. אַרְבָּעָה אַרְבָּעָה פָנִים לְאֶחָד וְאַרְבַּע כְּנָפַיִם לְאֶחָד וּדְמוּת יְדֵי אָדָם תַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם׃ 10.22. וּדְמוּת פְּנֵיהֶם הֵמָּה הַפָּנִים אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי עַל־נְהַר־כְּבָר מַרְאֵיהֶם וְאוֹתָם אִישׁ אֶל־עֵבֶר פָּנָיו יֵלֵכוּ׃ 11.22. וַיִּשְׂאוּ הַכְּרוּבִים אֶת־כַּנְפֵיהֶם וְהָאוֹפַנִּים לְעֻמָּתָם וּכְבוֹד אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲלֵיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 28.12. בֶּן־אָדָם שָׂא קִינָה עַל־מֶלֶךְ צוֹר וְאָמַרְתָּ לּוֹ כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה חוֹתֵם תָּכְנִית מָלֵא חָכְמָה וּכְלִיל יֹפִי׃ 28.13. בְּעֵדֶן גַּן־אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ כָּל־אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וְיָהֲלֹם תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֵה סַפִּיר נֹפֶךְ וּבָרְקַת וְזָהָב מְלֶאכֶת תֻּפֶּיךָ וּנְקָבֶיךָ בָּךְ בְּיוֹם הִבָּרַאֲךָ כּוֹנָנוּ׃ 28.14. אַתְּ־כְּרוּב מִמְשַׁח הַסּוֹכֵךְ וּנְתַתִּיךָ בְּהַר קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ בְּתוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ הִתְהַלָּכְתָּ׃ 28.15. תָּמִים אַתָּה בִּדְרָכֶיךָ מִיּוֹם הִבָּרְאָךְ עַד־נִמְצָא עַוְלָתָה בָּךְ׃ 28.16. בְּרֹב רְכֻלָּתְךָ מָלוּ תוֹכְךָ חָמָס וַתֶּחֱטָא וָאֶחַלֶּלְךָ מֵהַר אֱלֹהִים וָאַבֶּדְךָ כְּרוּב הַסֹּכֵךְ מִתּוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ׃ 28.17. גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ בְּיָפְיֶךָ שִׁחַתָּ חָכְמָתְךָ עַל־יִפְעָתֶךָ עַל־אֶרֶץ הִשְׁלַכְתִּיךָ לִפְנֵי מְלָכִים נְתַתִּיךָ לְרַאֲוָה בָךְ׃ 29.3. דַּבֵּר וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי עָלֶיךָ פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם הַתַּנִּים הַגָּדוֹל הָרֹבֵץ בְּתוֹךְ יְאֹרָיו אֲשֶׁר אָמַר לִי יְאֹרִי וַאֲנִי עֲשִׂיתִנִי׃ 32.2. בְּתוֹךְ חַלְלֵי־חֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ חֶרֶב נִתָּנָה מָשְׁכוּ אוֹתָהּ וְכָל־הֲמוֹנֶיהָ׃ 32.2. בֶּן־אָדָם שָׂא קִינָה עַל־פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו כְּפִיר גּוֹיִם נִדְמֵיתָ וְאַתָּה כַּתַּנִּים בַּיַּמִּים וַתָּגַח בְּנַהֲרוֹתֶיךָ וַתִּדְלַח־מַיִם בְּרַגְלֶיךָ וַתִּרְפֹּס נַהֲרוֹתָם׃ 32.3. שָׁמָּה נְסִיכֵי צָפוֹן כֻּלָּם וְכָל־צִדֹנִי אֲשֶׁר־יָרְדוּ אֶת־חֲלָלִים בְּחִתִּיתָם מִגְבוּרָתָם בּוֹשִׁים וַיִּשְׁכְּבוּ עֲרֵלִים אֶת־חַלְלֵי־חֶרֶב וַיִּשְׂאוּ כְלִמָּתָם אֶת־יוֹרְדֵי בוֹר׃ 32.3. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וּפָרַשְׂתִּי עָלֶיךָ אֶת־רִשְׁתִּי בִּקְהַל עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהֶעֱלוּךָ בְּחֶרְמִי׃ 32.4. וּנְטַשְׁתִּיךָ בָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה אֲטִילֶךָ וְהִשְׁכַּנְתִּי עָלֶיךָ כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהִשְׂבַּעְתִּי מִמְּךָ חַיַּת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 32.5. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־בְּשָׂרְךָ עַל־הֶהָרִים וּמִלֵּאתִי הַגֵּאָיוֹת רָמוּתֶךָ׃ 32.6. וְהִשְׁקֵיתִי אֶרֶץ צָפָתְךָ מִדָּמְךָ אֶל־הֶהָרִים וַאֲפִקִים יִמָּלְאוּן מִמֶּךָּ׃ 32.7. וְכִסֵּיתִי בְכַבּוֹתְךָ שָׁמַיִם וְהִקְדַּרְתִּי אֶת־כֹּכְבֵיהֶם שֶׁמֶשׁ בֶּעָנָן אֲכַסֶּנּוּ וְיָרֵחַ לֹא־יָאִיר אוֹרוֹ׃ 32.8. כָּל־מְאוֹרֵי אוֹר בַּשָּׁמַיִם אַקְדִּירֵם עָלֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי חֹשֶׁךְ עַל־אַרְצְךָ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 10.1. Then I looked, and, behold, upon the firmament that was over the head of the cherubim, there appeared above them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne." 10.2. And He spoke unto the man clothed in linen, and said: ‘Go in between the wheelwork, even under the cherub, and fill both thy hands with coals of fire from between the cherubim, and dash them against the city.’ And he went in in my sight." 10.3. Now the cherubim stood on the right side of the house, when the man went in; and the cloud filled the inner court." 10.4. And the glory of the LORD mounted up from the cherub to the threshold of the house; and the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the LORD’S glory." 10.5. And the sound of the wings of the cherubim was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of God Almighty when He speaketh." 10.6. And it came to pass, when He commanded the man clothed in linen, saying: ‘Take fire from between the wheelwork, from between the cherubim’, that he went in, and stood beside a wheel." 10.7. And the cherub stretched forth his hand from between the cherubim unto the fire that was between the cherubim, and took thereof, and put it into the hands of him that was clothed in linen, who took it and went out." 10.8. And there appeared in the cherubim the form of a man’s hand under their wings." 10.9. And I looked, and behold four wheels beside the cherubim, one wheel beside one cherub, and another wheel beside another cherub; and the appearance of the wheels was as the colour of a beryl stone." 10.14. And every one had four faces: the first face was the face of the cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle." 10.15. And the cherubim mounted up—this is the living creature that I saw by the river Chebar." 10.16. And when the cherubim went, the wheels went beside them; and when the cherubim lifted up their wings to mount up from the earth, the same wheels also turned not from beside them." 10.18. And the glory of the LORD went forth from off the threshold of the house, and stood over the cherubim." 10.19. And the cherubim lifted up their wings, and mounted up from the earth in my sight when they went forth, and the wheels beside them; and they stood at the door of the east gate of the LORD’S house; and the glory of the God of Israel was over them above." 10.20. This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river Chebar; and I knew that they were cherubim." 10.21. Every one had four faces apiece, and every one four wings; and the likeness of the hands of a man was under their wings." 10.22. And as for the likeness of their faces, they were the faces which I saw by the river Chebar, their appearances and themselves; they went every one straight forward." 11.22. Then did the cherubim lift up their wings, and the wheels were beside them; and the glory of the God of Israel was over them above." 28.12. ’Son of man, take up a lamentation for the king of Tyre, and say unto him: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Thou seal most accurate, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty," 28.13. thou wast in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared." 28.14. Thou wast the far-covering cherub; and I set thee, so that thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of stones of fire." 28.15. Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till unrighteousness was found in thee." 28.16. By the multitude of thy traffic they filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned; therefore have I cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God; and I have destroyed thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire." 28.17. Thy heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness; I have cast thee to the ground, I have laid thee before kings, that they may gaze upon thee." 29.3. speak, and say: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh King of Egypt, The great dragon that lieth In the midst of his rivers, That hath said: My river is mine own, And I have made it for myself." 32.2. ’Son of man, take up a lamentation for Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say unto him: Thou didst liken thyself unto a young lion of the nations; Whereas thou art as a dragon in the seas; And thou didst gush forth with thy rivers, And didst trouble the waters with thy feet, And foul their rivers." 32.3. Thus saith the Lord GOD: I will therefore spread out My net over thee With a company of many peoples; And they shall bring thee up in My net." 32.4. And I will cast thee upon the land, I will hurl thee upon the open field, And will cause all the fowls of the heaven to settle upon thee, And I will fill the beasts of the whole earth with thee." 32.5. And I will lay thy flesh upon the mountains, And fill the valleys with thy foulness." 32.6. I will also water with thy blood the land wherein thou swimmest, even to the mountains; And the channels shall be full of thee." 32.7. And when I shall extinguish thee, I will cover the heaven, And make the stars thereof black; I will cover the sun with a cloud, And the moon shall not give her light." 32.8. All the bright lights of heaven Will I make black over thee, And set darkness upon thy land, Saith the Lord GOD."
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 3.7, 3.12, 5.7-5.8 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.7. וַיְחַף אֶת־הַבַּיִת הַקֹּרוֹת הַסִּפִּים וְקִירוֹתָיו וְדַלְתוֹתָיו זָהָב וּפִתַּח כְּרוּבִים עַל־הַקִּירוֹת׃ 3.12. וּכְנַף הַכְּרוּב הָאֶחָד אַמּוֹת חָמֵשׁ מַגִּיעַ לְקִיר הַבָּיִת וְהַכָּנָף הָאַחֶרֶת אַמּוֹת חָמֵשׁ דְּבֵקָה לִכְנַף הַכְּרוּב הָאַחֵר׃ 5.7. וַיָּבִיאוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה אֶל־מְקוֹמוֹ אֶל־דְּבִיר הַבַּיִת אֶל־קֹדֶשׁ הַקְּדָשִׁים אֶל־תַּחַת כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים׃ 5.8. וַיִּהְיוּ הַכְּרוּבִים פֹּרְשִׂים כְּנָפַיִם עַל־מְקוֹם הָאָרוֹן וַיְכַסּוּ הַכְּרוּבִים עַל־הָאָרוֹן וְעַל־בַּדָּיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 3.7. He overlaid also the house, the beams, the thresholds, and the walls thereof, and the doors thereof, with gold; and graved cherubim on the walls." 3.12. And the wing of the other cherub was five cubits, reaching to the wall of the house; and the other wing was five cubits also, joining to the wing of the other cherub." 5.7. And the priests brought in the ark of the covet of the LORD unto its place, into the Sanctuary of the house, to the most holy place, even under the wings of the cherubim." 5.8. For the cherubim spread forth their wings over the place of the ark, and the cherubim covered the ark and the staves thereof above."
16. Herodotus, Histories, 4.8 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.8. This is what the Scythians say about themselves and the country north of them. But the story told by the Greeks who live in Pontus is as follows. Heracles, driving the cattle of Geryones, came to this land, which was then desolate, but is now inhabited by the Scythians. ,Geryones lived west of the Pontus, settled in the island called by the Greeks Erythea, on the shore of Ocean near Gadira, outside the pillars of Heracles. As for Ocean, the Greeks say that it flows around the whole world from where the sun rises, but they cannot prove that this is so. ,Heracles came from there to the country now called Scythia, where, encountering wintry and frosty weather, he drew his lion's skin over him and fell asleep, and while he slept his mares, which were grazing yoked to the chariot, were spirited away by divine fortune.
17. Anon., 1 Enoch, 60.7-60.10 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

60.7. And on that day were two monsters parted, a female monster named Leviathan, to dwell in the 60.8. abysses of the ocean over the fountains of the waters. But the male is named Behemoth, who occupied with his breast a waste wilderness named Duidain, on the east of the garden where the elect and righteous dwell, where my grandfather was taken up, the seventh from Adam, the first 60.9. man whom the Lord of Spirits created. And I besought the other angel that he should show me the might of those monsters, how they were parted on one day and cast, the one into the abysse
18. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.23, 12.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.23. כֵּן אֲמַר חֵיוְתָא רְבִיעָיְתָא מַלְכוּ רביעיא [רְבִיעָאָה] תֶּהֱוֵא בְאַרְעָא דִּי תִשְׁנֵא מִן־כָּל־מַלְכְוָתָא וְתֵאכֻל כָּל־אַרְעָא וּתְדוּשִׁנַּהּ וְתַדְּקִנַּהּ׃ 12.7. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים אֲשֶׁר מִמַּעַל לְמֵימֵי הַיְאֹר וַיָּרֶם יְמִינוֹ וּשְׂמֹאלוֹ אֶל־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיִּשָּׁבַע בְּחֵי הָעוֹלָם כִּי לְמוֹעֵד מוֹעֲדִים וָחֵצִי וּכְכַלּוֹת נַפֵּץ יַד־עַם־קֹדֶשׁ תִּכְלֶינָה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃ 7.23. Thus he said: ‘The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces." 12.7. And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he lifted up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and swore by Him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when they have made an end of breaking in pieces the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished."
19. Anon., 2 Baruch, 29.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 22.3, 23.5, 28.2, 29.3, 37.5 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

21. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.18, 9.1, 12.3-12.4, 12.6-12.14, 12.16-12.18, 13.2, 13.4, 13.11, 16.13, 17.3, 20.1-20.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. and the Living one. I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. I have the keys of Death and of Hades. 9.1. The fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star from the sky fallen to the earth. The key to the pit of the abyss was given to him. 12.3. Another sign was seen in heaven. Behold, a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and on his heads seven crowns. 12.4. His tail drew one third of the stars of the sky, and threw them to the earth. The dragon stood before the woman who was about to give birth, so that when she gave birth he might devour her child. 12.6. The woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by God, that there they may nourish her one thousand two hundred sixty days. 12.7. There was war in the sky. Michael and his angels made war on the dragon. The dragon and his angels made war. 12.8. They didn't prevail, neither was a place found for him any more in heaven. 12.9. The great dragon was thrown down, the old serpent, he who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world. He was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. 12.10. I heard a loud voice in heaven, saying, "Now is come the salvation, the power, and the Kingdom of our God, and the authority of his Christ; for the accuser of our brothers has been thrown down, who accuses them before our God day and night. 12.11. They overcame him because of the Lamb's blood, and because of the word of their testimony. They didn't love their life, even to death. 12.12. Therefore rejoice, heavens, and you who dwell in them. Woe to the earth and to the sea, because the devil has gone down to you, having great wrath, knowing that he has but a short time. 12.13. When the dragon saw that he was thrown down to the earth, he persecuted the woman who gave birth to the male child. 12.14. Two wings of the great eagle were given to the woman, that she might fly into the wilderness to her place, so that she might be nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent. 12.16. The earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the river which the dragon spewed out of his mouth. 12.17. The dragon grew angry with the woman, and went away to make war with the rest of her seed, who keep God's commandments and hold Jesus' testimony. 13.2. The beast which I saw was like a leopard, and his feet were like those of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion. The dragon gave him his power, his throne, and great authority. 13.4. They worshiped the dragon, because he gave his authority to the beast, and they worshiped the beast, saying, "Who is like the beast? Who is able to make war with him? 13.11. I saw another beast coming up out of the earth. He had two horns like a lamb, and he spoke like a dragon. 16.13. I saw coming out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits, something like frogs; 17.3. He carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness. I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet-colored animal, full of blasphemous names, having seven heads and ten horns. 20.1. I saw an angel coming down out of heaven, having the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand. 20.2. He seized the dragon, the old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole inhabited earth, and bound him for a thousand years 20.3. and cast him into the abyss, and shut it, and sealed it over him, that he should deceive the nations no more, until the thousand years were finished. After this, he must be freed for a short time. 20.4. I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and such as didn't worship the beast nor his image, and didn't receive the mark on their forehead and on their hand. They lived, and reigned with Christ for the thousand years. 20.5. The rest of the dead didn't live until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. 20.6. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over these, the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with him one thousand years. 20.7. And after the thousand years, Satan will be released from his prison 20.8. and he will come out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to the war; the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. 20.9. They went up over the breadth of the earth, and surrounded the camp of the saints, and the beloved city. Fire came down out of heaven from God, and devoured them. 20.10. The devil who deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet are also. They will be tormented day and night forever and ever.
22. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.4. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'. 1.4. \"In the beginning of God's creating...\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way.\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old etc.\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \"May his name exist forever etc. [his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun].\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \"Before the mountains were birthed,\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \"You turned man to contrition etc.\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old.\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \"Take this ink and pen for my son.\" They said: \"He does not have a son.\" He replied: \"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \"Command the children of Israel\" or \"Speak to the children of Israel.\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \"He saw a first part for himself.\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \"In the beginning God created\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \"The beginning of your doughs.\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \"The beginning of your grains.\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\""
23. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 22.10 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

24. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 43 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

25. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.26.11-5.26.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

26. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.30.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

27. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, 10.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

28. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

74b. בר אמוראי לאתויה ורגש ובעי לשמטיה לאטמיה ושדא זיקא דחלא ונחת נפק בת קלא אמר לן מאי אית לכו בהדי קרטליתא דדביתהו דר"ח בן דוסא דעתידה דשדיא תכלתא בה לצדיקי לעלמא דאתי,רב יהודה הינדוא משתעי זימנא חדא הוה אזלינן בספינתא וחזינן ההוא אבן טבא דהוה הדיר לה תנינא נחית בר אמוראי לאתויה אתא תנינא קא בעי למבלע לה לספינתא אתא פישקנצא פסקיה לרישיה אתהפיכו מיא והוו דמא אתא תנינא חבריה שקליה ותליה ליה וחיה הדר אתא קא בעי בלעא לספינתא הדר אתא ציפרא פסקיה לרישיה שקלוה לההיא אבן טבא שדיוה לספינתא הוה הני ציפרי מליחי בהדן אותבינהו עלייהו שקלוה ופרחו להו בהדה,תנו רבנן מעשה ברבי אליעזר ורבי יהושע שהיו באין בספינה והיה ר"א ישן ור' יהושע נעור נזדעזע ר' יהושע וננער ר"א אמר לו מה זה יהושע מפני מה נזדעזעת אמר לו מאור גדול ראיתי בים אמר לו שמא עיניו של לויתן ראית דכתיב (איוב מא, י) עיניו כעפעפי שחר,אמר רב אשי אמר לי הונא בר נתן זימנא חדא הוה קא אזלינן במדברא והואי אטמא דבשרא בהדן פתחנא ונקרינא ואנחנא אעשבי אדמייתינן ציבי חלם אטמא וטוינן כי הדרן לבתר תריסר ירחי שתא חזינהו להנהו גומרי דהוו קא מלחשי כי אתאי לקמיה דאמימר אמר לי ההוא עישבא סמתרי הוה הנהו גומרי דריתמא הוו,(בראשית א, כא) ויברא אלהים את התנינים הגדולים הכא תרגימו ארזילי דימא ר' יוחנן אמר זה לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) ביום ההוא יפקוד ה' בחרבו הקשה וגו':,(סימן כל שעה ירדן): אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל מה שברא הקב"ה בעולמו זכר ונקבה בראם אף לויתן נחש בריח ולויתן נחש עקלתון זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס את הזכר והרג הנקבה ומלחה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, א) והרג את התנין אשר בים,ואף בהמות בהררי אלף זכר ונקבה בראם ואלמלי נזקקין זה לזה מחריבין כל העולם כולו מה עשה הקב"ה סירס הזכר וצינן הנקבה ושמרה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר (איוב מ, טז) הנה נא כחו במתניו זה זכר ואונו בשרירי בטנו זו נקבה,התם נמי ליסרסיה לזכר וליצננה לנקבה דגים פריצי וליעביד איפכא איבעית אימא נקבה מליחא מעלי איבעית אימא כיון דכתיב (תהלים קד, כו) לויתן זה יצרת לשחק בו בהדי נקבה לאו אורח ארעא הכא נמי לימלחה לנקבה כוורא מליחא מעלי בשרא מליחא לא מעלי,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שביקש הקב"ה לבראות את העולם אמר לו לשר של ים פתח פיך ובלע כל מימות שבעולם אמר לפניו רבש"ע די שאעמוד בשלי מיד בעט בו והרגו שנאמר (איוב כו, יב) בכחו רגע הים ובתבונתו מחץ רהב,אמר ר' יצחק ש"מ שרו של ים רהב שמו ואלמלא מים מכסין אותו אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (ישעיהו יא, ט) לא ירעו ולא ישחיתו בכל הר קדשי וגו' כמים לים מכסים אל תקרי לים מכסים אלא לשרה של ים מכסים,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס תניא נמי הכי ירדן יוצא ממערת פמייס ומהלך בימה של סיבכי ובימה של טבריא ומתגלגל ויורד לים הגדול ומתגלגל ויורד עד שמגיע לפיו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כג) יבטח כי יגיח ירדן אל פיהו מתקיף לה רבא בר עולא האי בבהמות בהררי אלף כתיב אלא אמר רבא בר עולא אימתי בהמות בהררי אלף בטוחות בזמן שמגיח ירדן בפיו של לויתן,(סימן ימים גבריאל רעב) כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יוחנן מאי דכתיב (תהלים כד, ב) כי הוא על ימים יסדה ועל נהרות יכוננה אלו שבעה ימים וארבעה נהרות שמקיפין את ארץ ישראל ואלו הן שבעה ימים ימה של טבריא וימה של סדום וימה של חילת וימה של חילתא וימה של סיבכי וים אספמיא וים הגדול ואלו הן ארבעה נהרות ירדן וירמוך וקירומיון ופיגה,כי אתא רב דימי א"ר יונתן עתיד גבריאל לעשות 74b. i.e., ba diver [ ibar amoraei /i]went into the water bto bringup this chest, bandthe fish bbecame angry and sought to sever his thigh, butthe diver bthrewupon it ba flask of vinegar and they descendedand swam away. bA Divine Voice emergedand bsaid to us: Whatright bdo you have totouch bthe crate of the wife of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, as she is destined to insert sky-bluewool bin it tobe used in the ritual fringes of bthe righteous in the World-to-Come? /b, bRav Yehuda from India relates: Once we were traveling in a ship and we saw a certain precious stone that was encircled by a snake. A diver descended to bring itup, and the bsnake came and sought to swallow the ship. A raven cameand bcut off its head,and bthe water turned into blooddue to the enormousness of the snake. bAnother snake came, tookthe precious stone, band hung iton the dead snake, band it recovered. It returnedand again bsought to swallow the ship,and yet again ba bird came and cut off its head, took that precious stone,and bthrew it onto the ship. We had with us these salted birds; we placedthe stone bon them,and bthey tookthe stone band flew away with it. /b,§ Apropos the stories of large sea creatures, the Gemara discusses the large sea creatures mentioned in the Bible. bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua, who were traveling on a ship, and Rabbi Eliezer was sleeping and Rabbi Yehoshua was awake. Rabbi Yehoshua trembled, and Rabbi Eliezer awoke.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: What is this, Yehoshua; for whatreason bdid you tremble?Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: I saw a great light in the sea.Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: Perhaps you saw the eyes of the leviathan, as it is written: “And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning”(Job 41:10)., bRav Ashi said: Huna bar Natan said to me: Once we were traveling in the desert, and we had a thigh of meat with us. We cut openthe thigh band toreoff the sciatic nerve and the forbidden fat band put it on the grass. Bythe time bthat we brought wood, the thigh had repaireditself, band we roasted it. When we returnedto that place bafter twelve monthsof bthe yearhad passed, bwe saw that those coals were still glowing. When I came before Ameimar, he said to me: That grass was a drug of life [ isamterei /i],while bthose coals were of broom. /b,The verse states: b“And God created the great sea monsters”(Genesis 1:21). bHere,in Babylonia, bthey interpretedthis as a reference to the bsea oryx. Rabbi Yoḥa says: This is leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent, as it is stated: “In that day the Lord with His soreand great and strong bswordwill punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent” (Isaiah 27:1).,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the following statements of Rav Yehuda citing Rav: bEverything; time; Jordan. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Everything that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created in His world, He created male and female. Even leviathan the slant serpent and leviathan the tortuous serpent He created male and female. And if they would have coupledand produced offspring, they would have bdestroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and killed the female, and saltedthe female to preserve it for the banquet bfor the righteous in the future. As it is stated: “And He will slay the serpent that is in the sea”(Isaiah 27:1)., bAnd He created even the beasts on the thousand hills(see Psalms 50:10) bmale and female. Andthey were so enormous that bif they would have coupledand produced offspring, bthey would have destroyed the entire world. What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do? He castrated the male and cooledthe sexual desire of bthe female and preserved it for the righteous in the future. As it is statedabout the beasts: b“Lo now, his strength is in his loins”(Job 40:16); bthisis referring to the bmale.The continuation of the verse: b“And his force is in the stays of his body”; thisis the bfemale,alluding to the idea that they did not use their genitals for the purpose of procreation.,The Gemara asks: bThere too,with regard to the leviathan, blet Him castrate the male and cool the female;why was it necessary to kill the female? The Gemara answers: bFish are unrestrained,and therefore even if the female was cooled, the female would still procreate. The Gemara suggests: bAnd let Him do the opposite,and kill and preserve the male leviathan. The Gemara responds: bIf you wish, saythat the bsalted female is better; if you wish, sayinstead bthatsince bit is written: “There is leviathan, whom You have formed to sport with”(Psalms 104:26), the male must be left alive for sport, because it is bnot proper conductto sport bwith a female.The Gemara asks: bHere too,with regard to the beasts, blet Himpreserve the bfemale in salt,instead of cooling it. The Gemara answers: bSalted fish is good,but bsalted meat is not good. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create the world, He said to the minister of the sea: Open your mouth and swallow all the waters of the world,so that there will be room for land. The minister of the sea bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,it is benough that I will stay within my ownwaters. God bimmediately struck him and killed him; as it is stated: “He stirs up the sea with His power, and by His understanding He smites through Rahab”(Job 26:12)., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Conclude from herethat bthe name of the minister of the sea is Rahab, and were it not for watersof the sea that bcover him, no creature could withstand his smell,as his corpse emits a terrible stench. bAs it is stated: “They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain;for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, bas the waters cover the sea”(Isaiah 11:9). bDo not readthis phrase as b“cover the sea”; ratherread it as: bCover the minister of the sea,i.e., the term sea is referring to the minister of the sea, not to the sea itself., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas. That is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Jordan issues forth from the cave of Pamyas, and travels in the Sea of Sivkhi,i.e., the Hula Lake, band in the Sea of Tiberias,the Sea of Galilee, band rolls down to the Great Sea, and rolls down until it reaches the mouth of the leviathan. As it is stated: “He is confident, though the Jordan rush forth to his mouth”(Job 40:23). bRava bar Ulla strongly objects to thisexplanation of the verse, stating: But bthisverse bis written about the beasts on the thousand hills. Rather, Rava bar Ulla saidthat this is the meaning of the verse: bWhen are the beasts on the thousand hills confident? When the Jordan rushes forth into the mouth of the leviathan. /b,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the upcoming statements of Rav Dimi: bSeas; Gabriel; hungry. When Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For He has founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods”(Psalms 24:2)? bThese arethe bseven seas and four rivers that surround Eretz Yisrael. And these arethe bseven seas: The Sea of Tiberias, the Sea of Sodom,i.e., the Dead Sea, bthe Sea of Ḥeilat, the Sea of Ḥeilata, the Sea of Sivkhi, the Sea of Aspamya, and the Great Sea,i.e., the Mediterranean. bAnd these are the four rivers: The Jordan, the Jarmuth, and the Keiromyon, and the Piga,which are the rivers of Damascus., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that bRabbi Yonatan says: In the future, Gabriel will perform /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3a. קשיא דרבי מאיר אדרבי מאיר תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי מאיר,קשיא דרבי אליעזר אדרבי אליעזר,תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי אליעזר ואיבעית אימא רישא לאו רבי אליעזר היא:,עד סוף האשמורה:,מאי קסבר רבי אליעזר אי קסבר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה לימא עד ארבע שעות ואי קסבר ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה לימא עד שלש שעות,לעולם קסבר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה והא קא משמע לן דאיכא משמרות ברקיע ואיכא משמרות בארעא דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה ועל כל משמר ומשמר יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ושואג כארי שנאמר ה' ממרום ישאג וממעון קדשו יתן קולו שאוג ישאג על נוהו,וסימן לדבר משמרה ראשונה חמור נוער שניה כלבים צועקים שלישית תינוק יונק משדי אמו ואשה מספרת עם בעלה.,מאי קא חשיב רבי אליעזר אי תחלת משמרות קא חשיב תחלת משמרה ראשונה סימנא למה לי אורתא הוא אי סוף משמרות קא חשיב סוף משמרה אחרונה למה לי סימנא יממא הוא,אלא חשיב סוף משמרה ראשונה ותחלת משמרה אחרונה ואמצעית דאמצעיתא ואיבעית אימא כולהו סוף משמרות קא חשיב וכי תימא אחרונה לא צריך,למאי נפקא מינה למיקרי קריאת שמע למאן דגני בבית אפל ולא ידע זמן קריאת שמע אימת כיון דאשה מספרת עם בעלה ותינוק יונק משדי אמו ליקום וליקרי.,אמר רב יצחק בר שמואל משמיה דרב ג' משמרות הוי הלילה ועל כל משמר ומשמר יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ושואג כארי ואומר אוי לבנים שבעונותיהם החרבתי את ביתי ושרפתי את היכלי והגליתים לבין אומות העולם:,תניא אמר רבי יוסי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך ונכנסתי לחורבה אחת מחורבות ירושלים להתפלל בא אליהו זכור לטוב ושמר לי על הפתח (והמתין לי) עד שסיימתי תפלתי לאחר שסיימתי תפלתי אמר לי שלום עליך רבי ואמרתי לו שלום עליך רבי ומורי ואמר לי בני מפני מה נכנסת לחורבה זו אמרתי לו להתפלל ואמר לי היה לך להתפלל בדרך ואמרתי לו מתיירא הייתי שמא יפסיקו בי עוברי דרכים ואמר לי היה לך להתפלל תפלה קצרה,באותה שעה למדתי ממנו שלשה דברים למדתי שאין נכנסין לחורבה ולמדתי שמתפללין בדרך ולמדתי שהמתפלל בדרך מתפלל תפלה קצרה,ואמר לי בני מה קול שמעת בחורבה זו ואמרתי לו שמעתי בת קול שמנהמת כיונה ואומרת אוי לבנים שבעונותיהם החרבתי את ביתי ושרפתי את היכלי והגליתים לבין האומות ואמר לי חייך וחיי ראשך לא שעה זו בלבד אומרת כך אלא בכל יום ויום שלש פעמים אומרת כך ולא זו בלבד אלא בשעה שישראל נכנסין לבתי כנסיות ולבתי מדרשות ועונין יהא שמיה הגדול מבורך הקדוש ברוך הוא מנענע ראשו ואומר אשרי המלך שמקלסין אותו בביתו כך מה לו לאב שהגלה את בניו ואוי להם לבנים שגלו מעל שולחן אביהם:,תנו רבנן מפני שלשה דברים אין נכנסין לחורבה מפני חשד מפני המפולת ומפני המזיקין. מפני חשד ותיפוק ליה משום מפולת 3a. The previous baraita cited Rabbi Meir’s opinion that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins when the priests immerse before partaking of their iteruma /i. In the iTosefta /i, it was taught that Rabbi Meir holds that one begins to recite iShemafrom when people enter to eat their meal on Shabbat eve. One opinion of bRabbi Meirseems to bcontradictanother opinion of bRabbi Meir /b. The Gemara responds: bTwo itanna’im /i,students of Rabbi Meir, expressed different opinions bin accordance with Rabbi Meir’sopinion.,So too, the opinion bof Rabbi Eliezercited in the mishna bcontradictsthe opinion bof Rabbi Eliezercited in the ibaraita /i. In the mishna, Rabbi Eliezer holds that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins with the emergence of the stars: From the time when the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i, while in the ibaraita /i, he states that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins when the day becomes sanctified on the eve of Shabbat.,The Gemara responds: There are two possible resolutions to the apparent contradiction in Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion. Either btwo itanna’imexpressed different opinions bin accordance with Rabbi Eliezer’sopinion, bor if you wish, sayinstead that bthe first clauseof the mishna, according to which we begin to recite iShemawhen the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i, bis notactually bRabbi Eliezer’sopinion. Only the second half of the statement: Until the end of the first watch, was stated by Rabbi Eliezer.,In the mishna, we learned that Rabbi Eliezer establishes that one may recite the evening iShema buntil the end of the first watch.These watches are mentioned in the Bible as segments of the night, but it must be established: Into precisely how many segments is the night divided, three or four? Moreover, why does Rabbi Eliezer employ such inexact parameters rather than a more precise definition of time ( iTosefot HaRosh /i)?, bWhat does Rabbi Eliezeractually bhold? If he holds that the night consists of three watches, let him sayexplicitly that one recites the evening iShema buntil the fourth hour. If he holds that the night consists of four watches, let him sayexplicitly buntil the third hour. /b,The Gemara responds: bActually,Rabbi Eliezer bholds that the night consists of three watches,and he employs this particular language of watches bin order to teach us: There are watches in heaven and there are watches on earth;just as our night is divided into watches, so too is the night in the upper worlds. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and roars like a lionin pain over the destruction of the Temple. This imagery is derived from a reference in the Bible, bas it is stated: “The Lord roars [ iyishag /i] from on high, from His holy dwelling He makes His voice heard. He roars mightily[ishaog yishag/b] bover His dwelling place,He cries out like those who tread grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth” (Jeremiah 25:30). The three instances of the root ishin-alef-gimmelin this verse correspond to the three watches of the night., bAnd signs ofthe transition between each of bthesewatches in the upper world can be sensed in this world: In bthe first watch, the donkey brays;in bthe second, dogs bark;and in bthe thirdpeople begin to rise, ba baby nurses from its mother’s breast and a wife converses with her husband. /b,With regard to these earthly manifestations of the three heavenly watches as established in the ibaraita /i, the Gemara asks: bWhat did Rabbi Eliezer enumerate? Ifhe benumerated the beginning of the watch, why do I need a sign for the beginning of the first watch? It iswhen beveningbegins; an additional sign is superfluous. bIf he enumerated the end of the watches, why do I need a sign for the end of the last watch? It iswhen bdaybegins; an additional sign is similarly superfluous.,The Gemara answers: bRather, he enumeratedthe signs for bthe end of the first watch and the beginning of the last watch,both of which require a sign, as well as bthe middle of the middlewatch. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: bHe enumerated the ends of allof the watches. bAnd if you saythat a sign indicating the end of the bfinalwatch bis unnecessarybecause it is day, nevertheless, that sign is useful., bWhat is the practical ramificationof this sign? It is relevant bto one who recites iShema bwhile lying in a dark house,who cannot see the dawn and bwho does not know when the time for reciting iShema /iarrives. That person is provided with a sign that bwhen a woman speaks with her husband and a baby nurses from its mother’s breast,the final watch of the night has ended and bhe must rise and recite iShema /i., bRav Yitzḥak bar Shmuel said in the name of Rav: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch the Holy One, Blessed be He sits and roars like a lion,because the Temple service was connected to the changing of these watches ( iTosefot HaRosh /i), band says: “Woe to Me, that due to their sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple and exiled them among the nations of the world.” /b,Incidental to the mention of the elevated significance of the night watches, the Gemara cites a related story: bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei said: I was once walking along the road when I enteredthe bruinsof an old, abandoned building bamong the ruins of Jerusalemin order bto pray.I noticed that bElijah, of blessed memory, came and guarded the entrance for me and waited at the entrance until I finished my prayer. When I finished prayingand exited the ruin, Elijah bsaid to me,deferentially as one would address a Rabbi: bGreetings to you, my Rabbi. I answered him: Greetings to you, my Rabbi, my teacher. AndElijah bsaid to me: My son, why did you enter this ruin? I said to him:In order bto pray. AndElijah bsaid to me: You should have prayed on the road. And I said to him:I was unable to pray along the road, because bI was afraid that I might be interrupted by travelersand would be unable to focus. Elijah bsaid to me: You should have recited the abbreviated prayerinstituted for just such circumstances.,Rabbi Yosei concluded: bAt that time,from that brief exchange, bI learned from him, three things: I learned that one may not enter a ruin; and I learnedthat one need not enter a building to pray, but bhe may pray along the road; and I learned that one who prays along the road recites an abbreviated prayerso that he may maintain his focus., bAndafter this introduction, Elijah bsaid to me: What voice did you hear in that ruin? br bI responded: I heard a Heavenly voice,like an echo of that roar of the Holy One, Blessed be He (Maharsha), bcooing like a dove and saying: Woe to the children, due to whose sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple, and exiled them among the nations.br bAndElijah bsaid to me:By byour life and by your head, not onlydid that voice bcry out in that moment, but it cries out three times each and every day. Moreover,any time that God’s greatness is evoked, such as bwhen Israel enters synagogues and study halls and answersin the ikaddishprayer, bMay His great name be blessed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, shakes His head and says: Happy is the king who is thus praised in his house.When the Temple stood, this praise was recited there, but now: bHowgreat is the pain of bthe father who exiled his children, and woe to the children who were exiled from their father’s table,as their pain only adds to that of their father (Rabbi Shem Tov ibn Shaprut)., bThe Sages taught, for three reasons one may not enter a ruin: Because of suspicionof prostitution, bbecausethe ruin is liable to bcollapse,and bbecause of demons.Three separate reasons seem extraneous, so the Gemara asks: Why was the reason bbecause of suspicionnecessary? bLet this ihalakha bbe derived because of collapse. /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

41b. יחקה את הצדוקים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אין שוחטין לא לתוך וכו': מאי שנא לתוך ימים דלא דאמרי לשרא דימא קא שחיט לתוך עוגה של מים נמי אמרי לבבואה קא שחיט אמר רבא בעכורים שנו:,אין שוחטין לגומא וכו': והא אמרת אין שוחטין לגומא כלל אמר אביי רישא בגומא שבשוק,אמר ליה רבא והא מדקתני סיפא ובשוק לא יעשה כן מכלל דרישא לאו בשוק עסקינן,אלא אמר רבא הכי קאמר אין שוחטין לגומא כל עיקר והרוצה לנקר חצרו כיצד הוא עושה עושה מקום חוץ לגומא ושוחט ודם שותת ויורד לגומא ובשוק לא יעשה כן שלא יחקה את הצדוקים,תניא כוותיה דרבא היה מהלך בספינה ואין לו מקום בספינה לשחוט מוציא ידו חוץ לספינה ושוחט ודם שותת ויורד על דופני הספינה ואין שוחט לגומא כל עיקר,והרוצה לנקר חצרו כיצד הוא עושה עושה מקום חוץ לגומא ושוחט ודם שותת ויורד לגומא ובשוק לא יעשה כן משום שנאמר (ויקרא יח, ג) ובחוקותיהם לא תלכו ואם עשה כן צריך בדיקה אחריו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big השוחט לשם עולה לשם זבחים לשם אשם תלוי לשם פסח לשם תודה שחיטתו פסולה ור"ש מכשיר,שנים אוחזין בסכין ושוחטין אחד לשום אחד מכל אלו ואחד לשום דבר כשר שחיטתו פסולה השוחט לשם חטאת לשם אשם ודאי לשם בכור לשם מעשר לשם תמורה שחיטתו כשרה,זה הכלל כל דבר שנידר ונידב השוחט לשמו אסור ושאינו נידר ונידב השוחט לשמו כשר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big השוחט לשם עולה אשם תלוי בר נידר ונידב הוא אמר ר' יוחנן הא מני רבי אלעזר היא דאמר מתנדב אדם אשם תלוי בכל יום,פסח בר נידב ונידר הוא זמנא קביעא ליה אמר ר' אושעיא שאני פסח הואיל והפרשתו כל השנה כולה,א"ר ינאי לא שנו אלא תמימים אבל בעלי מומין מידע ידיע ור' יוחנן אמר אפי' בעלי מומין נמי זימנין דרמי ליה מידי אמומא ולא ידיע:,השוחט לשם חטאת: א"ר יוחנן לא שנו אלא שאינו מחוייב חטאת אבל מחוייב חטאת אימא לשום חטאתו הוא עושה והא לא קאמר לשם חטאתי אמר ר' אבהו באומר לשם חטאתי:,לשם תמורה: אמר ר"א לא שנו אלא שאין לו זבח בתוך ביתו אבל יש לו זבח בתוך ביתו אימא אמורי אמיר ביה והא לא קאמר לשם תמורת זבחי א"ר אבהו באומר לשם תמורת זבחי:,זה הכלל: לאתויי מאי לאתויי עולת נזיר דמהו דתימא הא לא נדר אימר נדר בצינעא,ושאינו נידר ונידב לאתויי עולת יולדת,א"ר אלעזר לא שנו אלא שאין לו אשה אבל יש לו אשה אימר לשמה הוא עושה והא לא קאמר לשם עולת אשתי א"ר אבהו באומר לשם עולת אשתי,פשיטא 41b. appear to bemulate [ iyeḥakkeh /i] the heretics. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches: bOne may not slaughteran animal and have its blood flow, bneither intoseas, nor into rivers, nor into vessels, but one may slaughter an animal and have its blood flow into a round excavation containing water. The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout slaughter binto seas?Is it bthatone may bnotperform it, basonlookers will bsay: He is slaughtering to the angel of the sea?If so, slaughter binto a round excavationcontaining bwatershould balsobe prohibited, as onlookers will bsay: He is slaughtering tohis breflection [ ibavua /i],which is also similar to idolatry. bRava said:The itanna’im btaughtthat ihalakha binthe case of bmurkywater, in which no reflection can be seen.,§ The mishna states: bOnemay bnot slaughteran animal and have its blood flow binto a small holein the ground at all, but one may fashion a small hole inside his house so that the blood will enter into it. The Gemara asks: How is it permitted to slaughter and have the blood flow into a hole inside his house? bBut didn’t youinitially bsaythat bone may not slaughteran animal and have its blood flow binto a small holein the ground bat all? Abaye said: The first clauseof the mishna, where there is a blanket prohibition against having the blood flow into a small hole, is referring bto a small hole that is in the marketplace. /b, bRava said to him: Butisn’t it so that bfromthe fact bthat the latter clause teaches: And in the marketplace one may not do so, it may be inferred thatin bthe first clause we are not dealing with the marketplace? /b, bRather, Rava saidthat bthisis what the mishna bis saying: One may not slaughteran animal and have its blood flow binto a small holein the ground bat all. And one who wishes to clean his courtyardand ensure that it will not be sullied in blood, bhow does he doso? bHe fashions a placewith an incline or a furrow boutside the small hole, and slaughtersthe animal there, band the blood flows and descends into the hole. And in the marketplace one may not do so,so bthathe will bnotappear to bemulate the heretics. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rava:If one bwas traveling on a ship and he has no place on the ship to slaughteran animal, bhe extends his handwith a knife, holds the head of the animal boutsidethe walls of bthe ship, and slaughtersthe animal there; band the blood flows and descendsdown bthe sides of the ship.He may not slaughter an animal and have its blood flow directly into the sea. bAnd one may not slaughteran animal and have its blood flow binto a small holein the ground bat all. /b, bAnd one who wishes to clean his courtyardand ensure that it will not be sullied with blood, bhow does he doso? bHe fashions a placewith an incline or a furrow boutside the small hole, and slaughtersthe animal there, band the blood flows and descends into the hole. And in the marketplace, one may not do so, as it is stated: “Neither shall you follow their statutes”(Leviticus 18:3). bAnd if he did so, he requires examination after hisactions to ascertain whether he is a heretic., strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of bone who slaughtersan animal and asserts that he is slaughtering it bfor the sake of a burnt offering, for the sake of a peace offering, for the sake of a provisional guilt offering, for the sake of a Paschal offering,or bfor the sake of a thanks offering, his slaughter is not valid,as it appears that he is consecrating animals and slaughtering sacrificial animals outside the Temple. bAnd Rabbi Shimon deemshis slaughter bvalid. /b,If there were btwopeople bgrasping a knifetogether band slaughteringan animal, boneslaughtering bfor the sake of one of all thoseenumerated in the first clause of the mishna band oneslaughtering bfor the sake of a legitimate matter,their bslaughter is not valid.With regard to bone who slaughtersan animal bfor the sake of a sin offering, for the sake of a guilt offeringfor ba definitetransgression, bfor the sake ofthe offering of ba firstborn, for the sake ofthe offering of animal btithe,or bfor the sake of a substitutefor a sacrificial animal, bhis slaughter is valid.All of these offerings may be brought only as obligations and not as gifts. Therefore, there is no concern that he consecrated the animals., bThis is the principle:For bany item,i.e., offering, bwhichis consecrated as a voluntary bvow or gift,in the case of bone who slaughters for its sakethe animal is bforbidden. Andfor any offering bthat is notconsecrated as a voluntary bvow or giftbut is an obligation that is incumbent upon him, in the case of bone who slaughters for its sakethe animal is bpermitted. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches: In the case of bone who slaughtersan animal and asserts that he is slaughtering it bfor the sake of a burnt offering,for the sake of a peace offering, for the sake of a provisional guilt offering, for the sake of a Paschal offering, or for the sake of a thanks offering, the slaughter is not valid. This is because one who slaughters for the sake of any type of offering that is consecrated as a vow or as a gift renders the animal forbidden. The Gemara asks: bIs a provisional guilt offering fitto be consecrated as ba vow oras ba gift?A provisional guilt offering is brought only when one is obligated to do so due to uncertainty whether or not he is liable to bring a sin offering. bRabbi Yoḥa said:In accordance with bwhoseopinion bis this ihalakhain the mishna? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Elazar, who saysin a mishna ( iKaretot25a): bA person donates a provisional guilt offering every dayif he chooses, due to concern that perhaps he violated a prohibition.,The Gemara asks: bIs a Paschal offering fitto be consecrated as ba vow oras ba gift? The time is fixed for itsoffering on Passover eve, when bringing it is an obligation, and it may not be brought on any other day. bRabbi Oshaya said: The Paschal offering is different, sincealthough the date for bringing and slaughtering it is the fourteenth of Nisan, bits designationcan be performed bthroughout the entire year. /b, bRabbi Yannai says:The Sages btaughtthat slaughter of an animal for the sake of an offering is not valid bonlyif the animals were bunblemished. Butwith regard to animals with bblemishes,the slaughterer bknowsthat they are blemished and disqualified from sacrifice. Therefore, despite his declaration, there is no concern that his actual intent was to slaughter the animal for that purpose. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says:Slaughter of an animal for the sake of an offering is not valid bevenif the animals were bblemished as well,as there are btimes that an item is cast over the blemishand covers it, band he does not knowthat the animal is blemished.,The mishna teaches: With regard to bone who slaughtersan animal bfor the sake of a sin offering,his slaughter is valid, as, since one cannot voluntarily contribute a sin offering, there is no concern that the onlookers will draw the wrong conclusion. bRabbi Yoḥa says:The Sages btaughtthat slaughter of an animal for the sake of a sin offering is valid bonlywith regard to a slaughterer bwho is not liableto bring ba sin offering. Buta slaughterer who knows that he is bliableto bring ba sin offering,his slaughter is not valid. bSaythat bhe is performingconsecration and slaughter bfor the sake of his sin offering.The Gemara asks: bButdidn’t he say before the slaughter: For the sake of a sin offering, and bhe did not say: For the sake of my sin offering?Why, then, is that a concern? bRabbi Abbahu said:Indeed, the reference is to a case bwhere he says:I am slaughtering this animal bfor the sake of my sin offering. /b,The mishna teaches: With regard to one who slaughters bfor the sake of a substitutefor a sacrificial animal, his slaughter is valid. bRabbi Elazar says:The Sages btaughtthat the slaughter is valid bonlyin a case bwhere he does not havean animal consecrated as ban offering inside his housefor which it can be the substitute, bbutif bhe hasan animal consecrated as ban offering in his house, saythat he is bsubstitutingthis animal bfor it,and the slaughter is not valid. The Gemara asks: bButdidn’t he say before the slaughter: For the sake of a substitute for a sacrificial animal, and bhe did not say: For the sake of a substitute for myanimal consecrated as an boffering?Why, then, is that a concern? bRabbi Abbahu said:Indeed, the reference is to a case bwhere he says:I am slaughtering this animal bfor the sake of a substitute for myanimal consecrated as an boffering. /b,The mishna states that bthis is the principle:For any offering that is consecrated as a voluntary vow or gift, in the case of one who slaughters for its sake, the animal is forbidden. The Gemara asks: bWhatcase does this clause badd?The list in the mishna appears to be comprehensive. The Gemara answers: The clause serves bto addthe bburnt offering of a nazirite. As, lest you saythere is no concern in that case, bas thatperson did bnot vowto become a nazirite and could not possibly be obligated to bring that offering, therefore, the itannateaches that there is a concern if he said he was slaughtering for the sake of the burnt offering of a nazirite. bSaythat perhaps bhe vowedto become a nazirite bin private,and no one else was aware of it.,The Gemara asks: What is added by the second half of the principle: bAndfor any offering bthat is not consecratedas a voluntary bvow oras ba gift,in the case of one who slaughters for its sake the animal is permitted? The Gemara answers: It serves bto add the burnt offering of a woman after childbirth.If one slaughters an animal for the sake of a burnt offering of a woman after childbirth, the slaughter is valid, as it is an obligation., bRabbi Elazar says:The Sages btaughtthat the slaughter is valid bonlyin a case bwhere he does not have a wife. Butif bhe has a wife, say that he performsconsecration and slaughter of the animal bfor her sakeand therefore the slaughter is not valid. The Gemara asks: bButdidn’t he say before the slaughter: For the sake of the burnt offering of a woman after childbirth, and bhe did not say: For the sake of the burnt offering of my wifeafter childbirth? Why, then, is that a concern? bRabbi Abbahu said:Indeed, the reference is to a case bwhere he says:I am slaughtering this animal bfor the sake of the burnt offering of my wifeafter childbirth.,The Gemara objects: This is bobvious.Clearly, if he explicitly declared that the slaughter is for the sake of the burnt offering of his wife after childbirth the slaughter is not valid.
31. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. כל היכא דליכא אלא חמש סלעים הוא קודם לבנו מאי טעמא מצוה דגופיה עדיפא כי פליגי היכא דאיכא חמש משועבדים וחמש בני חורין,ר' יהודה סבר מלוה דכתיב בתורה ככתובה בשטר דמיא בהני חמש פריק לבריה ואזיל כהן וטריף ליה לחמש משועבדים לדידיה,ורבנן סברי מלוה דכתיב באורייתא לאו ככתובה בשטר דמיא והילכך מצוה דגופיה עדיף,ת"ר לפדות את בנו ולעלות לרגל פודה את בנו ואחר כך עולה לרגל ר' יהודה אומר עולה לרגל ואח"כ פודה את בנו שזו מצוה עוברת וזו מצוה שאינה עוברת,בשלמא לר' יהודה כדקאמר טעמא אלא רבנן מאי טעמייהו דאמר קרא (שמות לד, כ) כל בכור בניך תפדה והדר לא יראו פני ריקם,ת"ר מנין שאם היו לו חמשה בנים מחמש נשים שחייב לפדות כולן ת"ל כל בכור בניך תפדה פשיטא בפטר רחם תלא רחמנא,מהו דתימא נילף בכור בכור מנחלה מה להלן ראשית אונו אף כאן ראשית אונו קמ"ל:,ללמדו תורה: מנלן דכתיב (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם והיכא דלא אגמריה אבוה מיחייב איהו למיגמר נפשיה דכתיב ולמדתם,איהי מנלן דלא מיחייבא דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שמצווה ללמוד מצווה ללמד וכל שאינו מצווה ללמוד אינו מצווה ללמד,ואיהי מנלן דלא מיחייבה למילף נפשה דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שאחרים מצווין ללמדו מצווה ללמד את עצמו וכל שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדו אין מצווה ללמד את עצמו ומנין שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדה דאמר קרא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בנותיכם,ת"ר הוא ללמוד ובנו ללמוד הוא קודם לבנו ר' יהודה אומר אם בנו זריז וממולח ותלמודו מתקיים בידו בנו קודמו כי הא דרב יעקב בריה דרב אחא בר יעקב שדריה אבוה לקמיה דאביי כי אתא חזייה דלא הוה מיחדדין שמעתיה א"ל אנא עדיפא מינך תוב את דאיזיל אנא,שמע אביי דקא הוה אתי הוה ההוא מזיק בי רבנן דאביי דכי הוו עיילי בתרין אפי' ביממא הוו מיתזקי אמר להו לא ליתיב ליה אינש אושפיזא אפשר דמתרחיש ניסא,על בת בההוא בי רבנן אידמי ליה כתנינא דשבעה רישוותיה כל כריעה דכרע נתר חד רישיה אמר להו למחר אי לא איתרחיש ניסא סכינתין,ת"ר ללמוד תורה ולישא אשה ילמוד תורה ואח"כ ישא אשה ואם א"א לו בלא אשה ישא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה נושא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה,ר' יוחנן אמר ריחיים בצוארו ויעסוק בתורה ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו:,משתבח ליה רב חסדא לרב הונא בדרב המנונא דאדם גדול הוא א"ל כשיבא לידך הביאהו לידי כי אתא חזייה דלא פריס סודרא א"ל מאי טעמא לא פריסת סודרא א"ל דלא נסיבנא אהדרינהו לאפיה מיניה א"ל חזי דלא חזית להו לאפי עד דנסבת,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר בן עשרים שנה ולא נשא אשה כל ימיו בעבירה בעבירה סלקא דעתך אלא אימא כל ימיו בהרהור עבירה,אמר רבא וכן תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל עד כ' שנה יושב הקב"ה ומצפה לאדם מתי ישא אשה כיון שהגיע כ' ולא נשא אומר תיפח עצמותיו,אמר רב חסדא האי דעדיפנא מחבראי דנסיבנא בשיתסר ואי הוה נסיבנא בארביסר 29b. that banywhere that there are only five isela /iavailable, i.e., enough to redeem only one man, and one is obligated to redeem both himself and his son, bhe,the father, btakes precedence over his son. What is the reason?It is that bhis own mitzva is preferableto one that he performs on behalf of others. bWhen they disagreeis in a case bwhere there island worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty that has been sold, i.e., he sold this land to other people but it can be reclaimed by his prior creditor, band five iselawhich is entirely bunsoldproperty.,And the reasoning behind the dispute is as follows: bRabbi Yehuda maintainsthat ba loan that is written in the Torah,i.e., any ficial obligation that applies by Torah law, is bconsidered as though it is written in a document,and therefore it can be collected from liened property, like any loan recorded in a document. This means that the liened property worth five iselais available for one’s own redemption, but not for that of his son, as the sale of the property occurred before the birth of his firstborn. Consequently, bwith these five iselaupon which there is no lien bhe redeems his son, andthe bpriest goes and repossessesthe land worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty bfor hisown redemption. In this manner one can fulfill both mitzvot., bAnd the Rabbis maintain: A loan that is written in the Torah is not considered as though it is written in a document,since buyers will not be aware of this obligation, so that they should be aware that the land may be repossessed. bAnd thereforethere is no advantage for this man to redeem his son with the five iselaupon which there is no lien, and bhis own mitzva is preferable,which means he redeems himself with the free land. With the liened property that is left he cannot redeem his son, as the land was sold before the birth of his firstborn., bThe Sages taught:If one has money bto redeem his son and to ascend toJerusalem on bthe pilgrimage Festival, he redeems his son and then ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: He ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival and then redeems his son.His reasoning is bthat thistrip to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival is ba mitzvawhose time soon bpasses, and this,the redemption of the firstborn son, is ba mitzvawhose time does bnotsoon bpass,as it can be fulfilled later.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bas he statedin bhis reasoning,i.e., Rabbi Yehuda provided the rationale for his opinion. bBut what is the reasoning of the Rabbis,who say that he should first redeem his son? The Gemara answers that the reason is bthat the verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), bandit bthenstates, in the same verse: b“And none shall appear before me empty,”referring to the pilgrimage Festival in Jerusalem. The order of the verse indicates that one should redeem his firstborn son before traveling to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival., bThe Sages taught: From whereis it derived bthat if one had fivefirstborn bsons, from fivedifferent bwomen, he is obligated to redeem them all? The verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), and the emphasis of “all” includes any of one’s firstborn sons. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tit bobviousthis is the case? After all, bthe Merciful One madethis mitzva bdependent upon the opening of the womb,as it states: “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, whoever opens the womb” (Exodus 13:2). Since each of these sons is the firstborn of his mother, it is clear that the father is required to redeem each of them.,The Gemara answers that this ruling is necessary blest you saythat bwe should derivea verbal analogy between b“firstborn”stated here and b“firstborn” fromthe verses dealing with binheritance: Just as there,the verse describes a firstborn who receives a double portion of the inheritance as: b“The first fruit of his strength”(Deuteronomy 21:17), i.e., he is the firstborn son to his father, and not the first child born to his mother; bso too here,with regard to the redemption of the firstborn son, it is referring to the bfirst fruit of his strength,which would mean that the father need redeem only his oldest child. Therefore, this ibaraita bteaches usthat this is not the case. Rather, every firstborn son to his mother must be redeemed.,§ The ibaraitateaches that a father is obligated bto teachhis son bTorah.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this requirement? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach them [ ivelimadtem /i] to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19). bAndin a case bwhere his father did not teach him he is obligated to teach himself, as it is written,i.e., the verse can be read with a different vocalization: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i]. /b, bFrom where do wederive bthata woman bis not obligatedto teach her son Torah? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i].This indicates that bwhoever is commanded to studyTorah bis commanded to teach, and whoever is not commanded to study is not commanded to teach.Since a woman is not obligated to learn Torah, she is likewise not obligated to teach it.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat she is not obligated to teach herself?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i],which indicates that bwhoever others are commanded to teach is commanded to teach himself, and whoever others are not commanded to teach is not commanded to teach himself. And from whereis it derived bthat others are not commanded to teacha woman? bAs the verse states: “And you shall teach them to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), which emphasizes: bYour sons and not your daughters. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bonewishes bto studyTorah himself band his sonalso wants bto study, he takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: If his son is diligent and sharp, and his study will endure, his son takes precedence over him.This is blike thatanecdote bwhichis told about bRav Ya’akov, son of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, whose father sent him to Abayeto study Torah. bWhenthe son bcamehome, his father bsaw that his studies were not sharp,as he was insufficiently bright. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bsaid tohis son: bI am preferable to you,and it is better that I go and study. Therefore, byou sitand handle the affairs of the house bso that I can goand study., bAbaye heardthat Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bwas coming. There was a certain demon in the study hall of Abaye,which was so powerful bthat when twopeople would benter they would be harmed, even during the day.Abaye bsaid tothe people of the town: bDo not giveRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov blodging [ iushpiza /i]so that he will be forced to spend the night in the study hall. Since Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov is a righteous man, bperhaps a miracle will occuron his behalf and he will kill the demon.,Rav Aḥa found no place to spend the night, and bhe entered and spent the night in that study hallof bthe Sages.The demon bappeared to him like a serpentwith bseven heads.Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov began to pray, and with bevery bowthat bhe bowed oneof the demon’s bheads fell off,until it eventually died. The bnext dayRav Aḥa bsaid tothe townspeople: bIf a miracle had not occurred, you would have placed me in danger. /b, bThe Sages taught:If one has to decide whether bto study Torah or to marry a woman,which should he do first? bHe should study Torah and afterward marry a woman. And if it is impossible for himto be bwithout a wife, he should marry a woman and then study Torah. Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis that one should bmarry a woman and afterward study Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says:How can one do this? With ba millstonehanging bfrom his neck,i.e., with the responsibility of providing for his family weighing upon him, can bhe engage in Torahstudy? The Gemara comments: bAndthe iamora’im bdo not disagree; this is for us and that is for them.In other words, one statement applies to the residents of Babylonia, whereas the other is referring to those living in Eretz Yisrael.,§ With regard to marriage, the Gemara relates: bRav Ḥisda would praise Rav Hamnuna to Rav Hunaby saying bthat he is a great man.Rav Huna bsaid to him: When he comes to you, send him to me. WhenRav Hamnuna bcamebefore him, Rav Huna bsaw that he did not coverhis head with ba cloth,as Torah scholars did. Rav Huna bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat byou do not coveryour head bwith a cloth?Rav Hamnuna bsaid to him:The reason is bthat I am not married,and it was not customary for unmarried men to cover their heads with a cloth. Rav Huna bturned his face away from himin rebuke, and bhe said to him: Seeto it bthat you do not see my face until you marry. /b,The Gemara notes: bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as he says:If one is btwenty years old and has notyet bmarried a woman, all of his dayswill be bina state of bsinconcerning sexual matters. The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he will be bina state of bsinall of his days? bRather, saythat this means the following: bAll of his dayswill be bina state of bthoughts of sin,i.e., sexual thoughts. One who does not marry in his youth will become accustomed to thoughts of sexual matters, and the habit will remain with him the rest of his life., bRava said, and similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Untilone reaches the age of btwenty years the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and waits for a man,saying: bWhen will he marry a woman? Once he reachesthe age of btwenty and has not married, He says: Let his bones swell,i.e., he is cursed and God is no longer concerned about him., bRav Ḥisda said:The fact bthat I am superior to my colleaguesis bbecause I marriedat the age of bsixteen, and if I would have married atthe age of bfourteen, /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

49a. שמבזבזין דין אביהם לעתיד לבוא אומרים לפניו רבונו של עולם מאחר שאתה עתיד ליפרע מהן למה הקהיתה שיניהם בם,אמר ר' אילעא בר יברכיה אלמלא תפלתו של דוד היו כל ישראל מוכרי רבב שנאמר (תהלים ט, כא) שיתה ה' מורה להם וא"ר אילעא בר יברכיה אלמלא תפלתו של חבקוק היו ב' תלמידי חכמים מתכסים בטלית אחת ועוסקין בתורה שנאמר (חבקוק ג, ב) ה' שמעתי שמעך יראתי ה' פעלך בקרב שנים חייהו אל תקרא בקרב שנים אלא בקרוב שנים,ואמר ר' אילעא בר יברכיה שני תלמידי חכמים המהלכין בדרך ואין ביניהן דברי תורה ראוין לישרף באש שנאמר (מלכים ב ב, יא) ויהי המה הולכים הלוך ודבר והנה רכב אש וגו' טעמא דאיכא דיבור הא ליכא דיבור ראוין לישרף,וא"ר אילעא בר יברכיה שני ת"ח הדרין בעיר אחת ואין נוחין זה לזה בהלכה אחד מת ואחד גולה שנאמר (דברים ד, מב) לנוס שמה רוצח אשר ירצח את רעהו בבלי דעת ואין דעת אלא תורה שנאמר (הושע ד, ו) נדמו עמי מבלי הדעת,אמר ר' יהודה בריה דר' חייא כל ת"ח העוסק בתורה מתוך הדחק תפלתו נשמעת שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, יט) כי עם בציון ישב בירושלים בכה לא תבכה חנון יחנך לקול זעקך כשמעתו ענך וכתיב בתריה (ישעיהו ל, כ) ונתן ה' לכם לחם צר ומים לחץ,ר' אבהו אומר משביעין אותו מזיו שכינה שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, כ) והיו עיניך רואות את מוריך ר' אחא בר חנינא אמר אף אין הפרגוד ננעל בפניו. שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, כ) ולא יכנף עוד מוריך,רשב"ג אומר משום ר' יהושע מיום שחרב בהמ"ק אין וכו' אמר רבא בכל יום ויום מרובה קללתו משל חבירו שנאמר (דברים כח, סז) בבקר תאמר מי יתן ערב ובערב תאמר מי יתן בקר הי בקר אילימא בקר דלמחר מי ידע מאי הוי אלא דחליף,ואלא עלמא אמאי קא מקיים אקדושה דסידרא ואיהא שמיה רבא דאגדתא שנא' (איוב י, כב) ארץ עפתה כמו אופל צלמות ולא סדרים הא יש סדרים תופיע מאופל,ולא ירד טל לברכה וניטל טעם פירות וכו' תניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר טהרה בטלה טעם וריח מעשר ביטל שומן דגן,רב הונא אשכח תומרתא דחינוניתא שקלה כרכה בסודריה אתא רבה בריה א"ל מורחינא ריחא דחינוניתא א"ל בני טהרה יש בך יהבה ניהליה אדהכי אתא אבא בריה שקלה יהבה ניהליה א"ל בני שמחת את לבי והקהיתה את שיני היינו דאמרי אינשי רחמי דאבא אבני רחמי דבני אבני דהוו ליה,רב אחא בר יעקב איטפל ביה ברב יעקב בר ברתיה כי גדל א"ל אשקיין מיא אמר לו לאו בריך אנא והיינו דאמרי אינשי רבי רבי בר ברתך אנא, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בפולמוס של אספסיינוס גזרו על עטרות חתנים ועל האירוס,בפולמוס של טיטוס גזרו על עטרות כלות ושלא ילמד אדם את בנו יוונית,בפולמוס האחרון גזרו שלא תצא הכלה באפריון בתוך העיר ורבותינו התירו שתצא הכלה באפריון בתוך העיר,משמת ר"מ בטלו מושלי משלים משמת בן עזאי בטלו השקדנים משמת בן זומא בטלו הדרשנים משמת ר"ע בטל כבוד התורה משמת ר' חנינא בן דוסא בטלו אנשי מעשה משמת ר' יוסי קטנתא פסקו חסידים ולמה נקרא שמו קטנתא שהיה קטנתא של חסידים,משמת רבי יוחנן בן זכאי בטל זיו החכמה משמת ר"ג הזקן בטל כבוד התורה ומתה טהרה ופרישות משמת רבי ישמעאל בן פאבי בטלה זיו הכהונה משמת רבי בטל ענוה ויראת חטא,[ big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר] ר' פנחס בן יאיר אומר משחרב בהמ"ק בושו חברים ובני חורין וחפו ראשם ונדלדלו אנשי מעשה וגברו בעלי זרוע ובעלי לשון ואין דורש ואין מבקש ואין שואל,על מי לנו להשען על אבינו שבשמים,ר"א הגדול אומר מיום שחרב בית המקדש שרו חכימיא למהוי כספריא וספריא כחזניא וחזניא כעמא דארעא ועמא דארעא 49a. bwho plunder,i.e., destroy, btheir fathers’ future judgment.When God sits in judgment of their parents, these children bsay before Him: Master of the Universe, because You were destined to exact punishment fromour fathers in the World-to-Come for their wickedness, bwhy did You blunt their teeth withthe death of their children in their lifetimes? In this way, the death of their children atones for the fathers.,§ bRabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhya says: If it were not for the prayer of Davidfor Israel to have sustece, ball Israel would be sellers of fat [ irevav /i],i.e., involved in debased occupations, bas it is stated: “Place for them mastery, O Lord”(Psalms 9:21), that is, may God grant them dignity. bAnd Rabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhyaalso bsays: If it were not for the prayer of Habakkuk, two Torah scholars would have to cover themselves with a single cloakdue to poverty band engage in Torah studydressed that way, bas it is stated: “Lord, I heard Your report and was afraid; O Lord, revive Your work in the midst of the years”(Habakkuk 3:2). bDo not read: “In the midst [ ibekerev /i] of the years [ ishanim /i],” but in the closeness [ ibikrov /i] of two [ ishenayim /i].In other words, Habakkuk prayed that God would nullify His decree of two Torah scholars having to share a single cloak., bAnd Rabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhya says:In the case of btwo Torah scholars who are walking along the way and there are no words of Torah between them,but they are conversing about other matters, bthey are deserving of being burned in fire. As it is statedwith regard to Elijah and his disciple Elisha: b“And it was as they walked along, talking, that behold, there appeared a chariot of fireand horses of fire, which parted them both asunder” (II Kings 2:11). bThe reasonthey were not burned by the chariot of fire is bthat there was speechexchanged between them, which presumably was words of Torah, bbut if there had been no speech, theywould have been bdeserving of being burnedby the chariot., bAnd Rabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhya says:If there are btwo Torah scholars who reside in the same city and they are not pleasant to each other with regard to ihalakha /i,but are constantly fighting, boneof them will bdie andthe other bonewill be bexiled. Asit bis stated: “That the manslayer might flee there, who slays his neighbor without knowledge”(Deuteronomy 4:42), band “knowledge”means bnothing otherthan bTorah, as it is stated: “My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge”(Hosea 4:6)., bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, says:With regard to bany Torah scholar who engages in Torahstudy bwhile experiencing the pressureof poverty, bhis prayer is listened to, as it is stated: “For, O people that dwells in Zion at Jerusalem, you shall weep no more; He will surely be gracious to you at the voice of your cry. When He shall hear, He will answer you”(Isaiah 30:19), band after it is written: “And the Lord shall give you sparse bread and scant water”(Isaiah 30:20). This verse indicates that those who sit and study Torah, that is, the people who dwell in Zion, and eat bread sparingly, will have their prayers answered by God., bRabbi Abbahu says:A Torah scholar who engages in Torah study despite economic pressures bis satiated with the glory of the Divine Presence, as it is statedin the same verse, above: b“And your eyes shall behold your Teacher.” Rabbi Aḥa, son of Ḥanina, said: Even theconcealing bpartition[ipargod/b] before the Divine Presence bis not locked before him, as it is stated: “And your Teacher shall not hide Himself anymore”(Isaiah 30:20).,§ The mishna states that bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua: From the day that the Temple was destroyed, there is noday that does not include some form of curse. bRava says: Each and every day is more cursed than the previous one, as it is statedin the chapter detailing the curses in the book of Deuteronomy: b“In the morning you will say, would that it were evening, and in the evening you will say, would that it were morning”(Deuteronomy 28:67). It is unclear bwhich morningthe verse means. bIf we saythat in the evening he will wish it would be bthe following morning, does he know what will bethe outcome of the next morning, which would cause him to yearn for its arrival? bRather,it must mean the morning bthat has passed;that is, in the evening they will pine for the previous morning, because their situation is continuously worsening.,The Gemara poses a question: bButif everything is deteriorating, bwhy does the worldcontinue to bexist?The Gemara answers: bBy the sanctification thatis said in the borderof prayers, after the passage that begins: And a redeemer shall come to Israel, which includes the recitation and translation of the sanctification said by the angels, bandby the response: bLet His great namebe blessed, etc., which is recited after the study bof iaggada /i. As it is stated: “A land of thick darkness, as darkness itself; a land of the shadow of death, without any order”(Job 10:22). bTherefore,it can be inferred from this verse that if bthere are ordersof prayer and study, the land bshall appear fromamidst bthe darkness. /b,§ The mishna taught that since the destruction of the Temple, bdew has not descended for a blessing, and the taste has been removed from fruit. It is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says:The lost bpurity has removed the taste and the aroma;the btithesthat were not separated bhave removed the fat of grain. /b,The Gemara relates that bRav Huna found a fragrant date. He took it and wrapped it in his shawl. Rabba, his son, cameand bsaid to him: I smell the aroma of a fragrantdate. Rav Huna bsaid to him: My son, there isclearly bpurity in you,as you were able to notice the fragrance. bHe gave it to him. Meanwhile, Abba,Rabba’s bson, arrived.Rabba btookthe date and bgave it tohim. Rav Huna bsaid toRabba: bMy son, you have made my heart rejoicewith your purity, band you have blunted my teeth,by showing your preference for your own son. The Gemara comments: bThisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: The love of a father is for the sons; the love of the sons is for their own sons,more than for their father.,The Gemara relates another incident: bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov took care of Rav Ya’akov, the son of his daughter,who was an orphan. bWhenthe grandchild bgrew up,his grandfather once bsaid to him: Give me water to drink. He said to him: I am not your son,and I am not obligated in your honor as a son must honor his father. The Gemara again comments: bAnd thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: Raise, raiseyour grandchild, but in the end he will retort: bI am the son of your daughter,and I do not have to take care of you., strongMISHNA: /strong bIn the war [ ipulemus /i] of Vespasianthe Sages bdecreed upon the crowns of bridegrooms,i.e., that bridegrooms may no longer wear crowns, band upon the drums,meaning they also banned the playing of drums., bIn the war of Titus theyalso bdecreed upon the crowns of brides, andthey decreed bthat a person should not teach his son Greek. /b, bIn the last war,meaning the bar Kokheva revolt, bthey decreed that a bride may not go out in a palanquin inside the city, but our Sages permitted a bride to go out in a palanquin inside the city,as this helps the bride maintain her modesty.,The mishna lists more things that ceased: bFromthe time bwhen Rabbi Meir died, those who relate parables ceased; fromthe time bwhen ben Azzai died, the diligent ceased; fromthe time bwhen ben Zoma died, the exegetists ceased; fromthe time bwhen Rabbi Akiva died, the honor of the Torah ceased; fromthe time bwhen Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa died, the men ofwondrous baction ceased; fromthe time bwhen Rabbi Yosei the Small died, the pious were no more. And why was he called the Small? Because he was the smallest of the pious,meaning he was one of the least important of the pious men., bFromthe time bwhen Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai died, the glory of wisdom ceased; fromthe time bwhen Rabban Gamliel the Elder died, the honor of the Torah ceased, and purity and asceticism died. Fromthe time bwhen Rabbi Yishmael ben Pavi died, the glory of the priesthood ceased; fromthe time bwhen RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdied, humility and fear of sin ceased. /b,gemara bThe Sages taught: Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir says: Fromthe time bwhen theSecond bTemple was destroyed, the iḥaverimand free menof noble lineage bwere ashamed, and their heads were coveredin shame, band men of action dwindled, and violent and smooth-talking men gained the upper hand, and none seek, and none ask, and none inquireof the fear of Heaven., bUpon whomis there bfor us to rely?Only bupon our Father in Heaven. /b, bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: From the day theSecond bTemple was destroyed,the generations have deteriorated: bScholars have begun to become like scribesthat teach children, band scribes have become like beadles, and beadles have become like ignoramuses, and ignoramuses /b
33. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53a. אשה היתה בוררת חטים לאור של בית השואבה:,חסידים ואנשי מעשה כו': ת"ר יש מהן אומרים אשרי ילדותנו שלא ביישה את זקנותנו אלו חסידים ואנשי מעשה ויש מהן אומרים אשרי זקנותנו שכפרה את ילדותנו אלו בעלי תשובה אלו ואלו אומרים אשרי מי שלא חטא ומי שחטא ישוב וימחול לו,תניא אמרו עליו על הלל הזקן כשהיה שמח בשמחת בית השואבה אמר כן אם אני כאן הכל כאן ואם איני כאן מי כאן הוא היה אומר כן למקום שאני אוהב שם רגלי מוליכות אותי אם תבא אל ביתי אני אבא אל ביתך אם אתה לא תבא אל ביתי אני לא אבא אל ביתך שנאמר (שמות כ, כד) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבא אליך וברכתיך,אף הוא ראה גלגולת אחת שצפה על פני המים אמר לה על דאטפת אטפוך ומטיפיך יטופון אמר רבי יוחנן רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,הנהו תרתי כושאי דהוו קיימי קמי שלמה (מלכים א ד, ג) אליחרף ואחיה בני שישא סופרים דשלמה הוו יומא חד חזייה למלאך המות דהוה קא עציב א"ל אמאי עציבת א"ל דקא בעו מינאי הני תרתי כושאי דיתבי הכא מסרינהו לשעירים שדרינהו למחוזא דלוז כי מטו למחוזא דלוז שכיבו,למחר חזיא מלאך המות דהוה קבדח א"ל אמאי בדיחת א"ל באתר דבעו מינאי תמן שדרתינהו מיד פתח שלמה ואמר רגלוהי דבר איניש אינון ערבין ביה לאתר דמיתבעי תמן מובילין יתיה,תניא אמרו עליו על רבן שמעון בן גמליאל כשהיה שמח שמחת בית השואבה היה נוטל שמנה אבוקות של אור וזורק אחת ונוטל אחת ואין נוגעות זו בזו וכשהוא משתחוה נועץ שני גודליו בארץ ושוחה ונושק את הרצפה וזוקף ואין כל בריה יכולה לעשות כן וזו היא קידה,לוי אחוי קידה קמיה דרבי ואיטלע והא גרמא ליה והאמר רבי אלעזר לעולם אל יטיח אדם דברים כלפי מעלה שהרי אדם גדול הטיח דברים כלפי מעלה ואיטלע ומנו לוי הא והא גרמא ליה,לוי הוה מטייל קמיה דרבי בתמני סכיני שמואל קמיה שבור מלכא בתמניא מזגי חמרא אביי קמיה (דרבא) בתמניא ביעי ואמרי לה בארבעה ביעי,תניא אמר ר' יהושע בן חנניה כשהיינו שמחים שמחת בית השואבה לא ראינו שינה בעינינו כיצד שעה ראשונה תמיד של שחר משם לתפלה משם לקרבן מוסף משם לתפלת המוספין משם לבית המדרש משם לאכילה ושתיה משם לתפלת המנחה משם לתמיד של בין הערבים מכאן ואילך לשמחת בית השואבה,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן שבועה שלא אישן שלשה ימים מלקין אותו וישן לאלתר אלא הכי קאמר לא טעמנו טעם שינה דהוו מנמנמי אכתפא דהדדי:,חמש עשרה מעלות: אמר ליה רב חסדא לההוא מדרבנן דהוי קמסדר אגדתא קמיה א"ל שמיע לך הני חמש עשרה מעלות כנגד מי אמרם דוד א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעי למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד חמש עשרה מעלות והורידן אי הכי חמש עשרה מעלות יורדות מיבעי ליה,אמר ליה הואיל ואדכרתן (מלתא) הכי אתמר בשעה שכרה דוד שיתין קפא תהומא ובעא למשטפא עלמא אמר דוד מי איכא דידע אי שרי למכתב שם 53a. It was so bright that ba woman wouldbe able to bsort wheat by the light of theCelebration of the bPlace of the Drawingof the Water.,§ The mishna continues: bThe pious and the men of actionwould dance before the people who attended the celebration. bThe Sages taughtin the iToseftathat bsome of them would sayin their song praising God: bHappy is our youth,as we did not sin then, bthat did not embarrass our old age. These are the pious and the men of action,who spent all their lives engaged in Torah and mitzvot. bAnd some would say: Happy is our old age, that atoned for our youthwhen we sinned. bThese are the penitents.Both bthese and those say: Happy is he who did not sin; and he who sinned should repent andGod bwill absolve him. /b, bIt is taughtin the iTosefta /i: bThey said about Hillel the Elder that when he was rejoicing at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water bhe said this: If I am here, everyone is here; and if I am not here, who is here?In other words, one must consider himself as the one upon whom it is incumbent to fulfill obligations, and he must not rely on others to do so. bHe wouldalso bsay this: To the place that I love, there my feet take me,and therefore, I come to the Temple. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: bIf you come to My house, I will come to your house; if you do not come to My house, I will not come to your house, as it is stated: “In every place that I cause My name to be mentioned, I will come to you and bless you”(Exodus 20:21).,The Gemara cites another statement of Hillel the Elder. bAdditionally, he saw one skull that was floating on the waterand bhe said to it: Because you drownedothers, bthey drowned you, and those that drowned you will be drowned.That is the way of the world; everyone is punished measure for measure. Apropos following one’s feet, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b,The Gemara relates with regard to bthese two Cushites who would stand before Solomon: “Elihoreph and Ahijah, the sons of Shisha”(I Kings 4:3), and bthey were scribes of Solomon. One daySolomon bsaw that the Angel of Death was sad. He said to him: Why are you sad? He said to him: They are asking meto take the lives of bthese two Cushites who are sitting here.Solomon bhanded them to the demonsin his service, band sent them to the district of Luz,where the Angel of Death has no dominion. bWhen they arrived at the district of Luz, they died. /b, bThe following day,Solomon bsaw that the Angel of Death was happy. He said to him: Why are you happy? He replied: In the place that they asked meto take them, bthere you sent them.The Angel of Death was instructed to take their lives in the district of Luz. Since they resided in Solomon’s palace and never went to Luz, he was unable to complete his mission. That saddened him. Ultimately, Solomon dispatched them to Luz, enabling the angel to accomplish his mission. That pleased him. bImmediately, Solomon beganto speak band said: The feet of a person are responsible for him; to the place where he is in demand, there they lead him. /b,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel that when he would rejoice at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bhe would take eight flaming torches and toss one and catch another,juggling them, band,though all were in the air at the same time, bthey would not touch each other. And when he would prostrate himself, he would insert his two thumbs into the ground, and bow, and kiss the floorof the courtyard band straighten, andthere was bnot anyother bcreaturethat bcould do thatdue to the extreme difficulty involved. bAnd this was theform of bowing called ikidda /iperformed by the High Priest.,The Gemara relates: bLevi demonstrated a ikiddabefore RabbiYehuda HaNasi and strained his thigh band came up lame.The Gemara asks: bAnd is that what caused himto be lame? bBut didn’t Rabbi Elazar say: One should never speak impertinently towardGod babove; as a great persononce bspoke impertinently towardGod babove,and even though his prayers were answered, he was still punished band came up lame. And whowas this great person? It was bLevi.Apparently his condition was not caused by his bow. The Gemara answers: There is no contradiction. Both bthis and that caused himto come up lame; because he spoke impertinently toward God, he therefore was injured when exerting himself in demonstrating ikidda /i.,Apropos the rejoicing of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel at the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, the Gemara recounts: bLevi would walk before RabbiYehuda HaNasi juggling bwith eight knives. Shmuelwould juggle bbefore King Shapur with eight glasses of winewithout spilling. bAbayewould juggle bbefore Rabba with eight eggs. Some sayhe did so bwith four eggs.All these were cited., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya said: When we would rejoicein bthe Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bwe did not see sleep in our eyesthe entire Festival. bHow so?In the bfirst hourof the day, bthe daily morning offeringwas sacrificed and everyone came to watch. bFrom therethey proceeded btoengage in bprayerin the synagogue; bfrom there, towatch the sacrifice of bthe additional offerings; from there,to the synagogue btorecite bthe additional prayer. From therethey would proceed bto the study hallto study Torah; bfrom there to the eating and drinkingin the isukka /i; bfrom there to the afternoon prayer. From therethey would proceed bto the daily afternoon offeringin the Temple. bFrom thispoint bforward,they proceeded bto the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water.,The Gemara wonders: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say:One who took ban oath that I will not sleep three days, one flogs himimmediately for taking an oath in vain, band hemay bsleep immediatelybecause it is impossible to stay awake for three days uninterrupted. bRather, this is whatRabbi Yehoshua bis saying: We did not experience the sense ofactual bsleep, because they wouldmerely bdoze on each other’s shoulders.In any case, they were not actually awake for the entire week.,§ The mishna continues: The musicians would stand on the bfifteen stairsthat descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen Songs of the Ascents in Psalms. bRav Ḥisda said to one of the Sages who was organizing iaggadabefore him: Did you hearwith regard to bthese fifteenSongs of bAscentsin Psalms, bcorresponding to what did David say them? He said to himthat bthisis what bRabbi Yoḥa said: At the time that David dug the drainpipesin the foundation of the Temple, the waters of bthe depths rose and sought to inundate the world.Immediately, bDavid recited the fifteenSongs of the bAscents and caused them to subside.Rav Ḥisda asked: bIf so,should they be called bfifteenSongs of the bAscents? They should have beencalled Songs of the bDescents. /b,Rav Ḥisda continued and bsaid to him: Since you reminded meof this bmatter, this iswhat bwasoriginally bstated: At the time that David dug the drainpipes,the waters of bthe depths rose and sought to inundate the world. David said: Is there anyone who knows whether it is permitted to write thesacred bname /b
34. Origen, Against Celsus, 6.25, 6.38 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.25. In this diagram were described ten circles, distinct from each other, but united by one circle, which was said to be the soul of all things, and was called Leviathan. This Leviathan, the Jewish Scriptures say, whatever they mean by the expression, was created by God for a plaything; for we find in the Psalms: In wisdom have You made all things: the earth is full of Your creatures; so is this great and wide sea. There go the ships; small animals with great; there is this dragon, which You have formed to play therein. Instead of the word dragon, the term leviathan is in the Hebrew. This impious diagram, then, said of this leviathan, which is so clearly depreciated by the Psalmist, that it was the soul which had travelled through all things! We observed, also, in the diagram, the being named Behemoth, placed as it were under the lowest circle. The inventor of this accursed diagram had inscribed this leviathan at its circumference and centre, thus placing its name in two separate places. Moreover, Celsus says that the diagram was divided by a thick black line, and this line he asserted was called Gehenna, which is Tartarus. Now as we found that Gehenna was mentioned in the Gospel as a place of punishment, we searched to see whether it is mentioned anywhere in the ancient Scriptures, and especially because the Jews too use the word. And we ascertained that where the valley of the son of Ennom was named in Scripture in the Hebrew, instead of valley, with fundamentally the same meaning, it was termed both the valley of Ennom and also Geenna. And continuing our researches, we find that what was termed Geenna, or the valley of Ennom, was included in the lot of the tribe of Benjamin, in which Jerusalem also was situated. And seeking to ascertain what might be the inference from the heavenly Jerusalem belonging to the lot of Benjamin and the valley of Ennom, we find a certain confirmation of what is said regarding the place of punishment, intended for the purification of such souls as are to be purified by torments, agreeably to the saying: The Lord comes like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap: and He shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver and of gold. 6.38. Our noble (friend), moreover, not satisfied with the objections which he has drawn from the diagram, desires, in order to strengthen his accusations against us, who have nothing in common with it, to introduce certain other charges, which he adduces from the same (heretics), but yet as if they were from a different source. His words are: And that is not the least of their marvels, for there are between the upper circles - those that are above the heavens - certain inscriptions of which they give the interpretation, and among others two words especially, 'a greater and a less,' which they refer to Father and Son. Now, in the diagram referred to, we found the greater and the lesser circle, upon the diameter of which was inscribed Father and Son; and between the greater circle (in which the lesser was contained) and another composed of two circles - the outer one of which was yellow, and the inner blue - a barrier inscribed in the shape of a hatchet. And above it, a short circle, close to the greater of the two former, having the inscription Love; and lower down, one touching the same circle, with the word Life. And on the second circle, which was intertwined with and included two other circles, another figure, like a rhomboid, (entitled) The foresight of wisdom. And within their point of common section was The nature of wisdom. And above their point of common section was a circle, on which was inscribed Knowledge; and lower down another, on which was the inscription, Understanding. We have introduced these matters into our reply to Celsus, to show to our readers that we know better than he, and not by mere report, those things, even although we also disapprove of them. Moreover, if those who pride themselves upon such matters profess also a kind of magic and sorcery - which, in their opinion, is the summit of wisdom - we, on the other hand, make no affirmation about it, seeing we never have discovered anything of the kind. Let Celsus, however, who has been already often convicted of false witness and irrational accusations, see whether he is not guilty of falsehood in these also, or whether he has not extracted and introduced into his treatise, statements taken from the writings of those who are foreigners and strangers to our Christian faith.
35. Anon., 4 Ezra, 6.49-6.52

36. Assyrian, Cta, 5.1.1-5.1.5



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698
adam, condition of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
adam Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
adam (human), and parahumans Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
adne ha-sadeh (field humans), corpses of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
angel Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
angels Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 321
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
animals, exotic, vs. prosaic Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
animals, exotic Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
anthropomorphism, sorrow Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 321
anthropomorphism, sympathy/engagement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 321
anthropomorphism, tears/weeping Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 321
anthropomorphism, wrath Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65, 115
apophis Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 66
arm/hand, right Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
arm/hand Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 65, 99
art Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 930
ascent, elohim Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
attributes, divine, and divine names Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 99
azriel (r.), ba͑al Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 39
baal Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 125
ballentine, debra Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 66, 135
battle Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
beast, attacking seth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 699
beasts, the, as castrated Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 142
beasts, the, as food Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135, 142
beasts, the, as kosher Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 142
beasts, the, as not peripheral Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 61
beasts, the, with mates Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 142
behemoth, and his sword Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 102
behemoth, as an ox Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135
behemoth Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 121; Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17
berekhia (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 207
beth-el, imagery in Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 65
beth-el, language of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 65, 207
beth shean house of kyrios leontis Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135
blandina, depiction of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
blood, of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
bodies, classifying Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
body, constructions of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
by, and satan Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
by, per for mance of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
by, triumph of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
by Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
calendar Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 41
canaan Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64
careless, heart, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
celebrate Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
celsus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17
chaos Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 57, 115
chaoskampf, deity needs assistance Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 67
chaoskampf, history Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 19
chaoskampf, its legitimacy Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 19, 61
chariot, cherubim, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698
children Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
christ, identity of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
church fathers Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 290, 291
church of qasr-el-lebia Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135
church of santa maria aniqua, rome Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 146
classification, by identification and resemblance Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
confessors (μάρτυρες, confessor) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
conquest Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64
corpses, impurity caused by Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
corpses, of adne ha-sadeh (field humans) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
cosmic battle Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 92
covenant Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698
creation, agon model Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64
creation, devil, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
creator archons, elohim Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
crown, martyrs Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 92
crucifixion Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
curse, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
cyrene cathedral Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135
darkness Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 115, 277, 320
day, cosmic ordering, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
day, john Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 61, 66, 146
de moor, johannes Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 49, 149
death, of christ, as salvific Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
death, second Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
death Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 291
deceit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
deception Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
demon Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 41
demonic forces Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
demons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17
descent, heaven to earth, from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
devil, battle with Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
devil, the Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
devil Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
devil fishhook metaphor Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 92
devil greek martyr acts Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 92
divine/god, as storm god Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 65
divine/god, as warrior Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
divine/god, command Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 206, 207
divine/god, garment Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
divine/god, glory Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
divine/god, hypostases Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
divine/god, judgement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 120
divine/god, providence Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 99
divine/god, roar Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 115, 207, 321
divine/god, transcendent/hidden Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
dragon, etymology Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 49
dragon, red Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 95
drama Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
drewer, lois Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135
ea Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135
edem/eden Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
egypt, in exodus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
eliade, mircea Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 149
elohim Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
eros Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 115, 207, 291
eschatology Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 206, 290, 291
eve Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
evil, destruction of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
evil, forces and powers Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
evil Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 57, 320, 321
exegesis, and mythmaking Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 277
exegesis, and nonscriptural myth Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 99, 115
exegesis, and orthography Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 290, 291
expulsion, satan from heaven, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
fair Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698
faithful Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
fantastic creatures, vs. real, Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
fear of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
fire Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698
fishhook Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 92
foot/feet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698, 699
forsyth, neil Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135
gabriel Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 121
gate, gehenna Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17
genesis Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
gnosticism Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 290, 291
god, anger of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
god, fear of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
god, promise of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
godhead; see also attributes, defilement/obstruction Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 290, 291, 320, 321
godhead; see also attributes, left side Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 291, 320
godhead; see also attributes, negative gradations Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 277
godhead; see also attributes, unity Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 290, 291
gunkel, hermann Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 19, 66
hades Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
hands, cherubim, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698
hands, dragon, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698, 699
hands, serpent, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698
handy, lowell Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 146
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 699
heart, careless of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
heaven, descending from Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
hobbes, thomas Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 49
holed Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
humans, and parahumans Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
humans, uniqueness of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
ialdabaoth Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 291; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17
identity, likeness and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
idolatry, in illo tempore Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504, 945
imagery, exodus-related Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
impurity, corpses causing Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
insects Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
isis Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
israel, land of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 121
israel, suffering of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 321
jerome, st. Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 49
jesus, see also christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
job Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
john, author of revelation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
jonah, swallowed by ketos Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 146
jordan (river) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 315
judgment, eschatological Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
judgment Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698, 699
keel, othmar Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 149
ketos Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 146
king, anthology Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 121
king, epic Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
king, narrative Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 65
king, pedagogy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 277
king, personification Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 39, 206
king, rhetoric Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
kingu Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 61
knowledge, tree of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
korpel, marjo Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 49, 149
lamb, of god Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
language, exodus-related Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
letter of the churches of vienne and lyons, content Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
leviathan, and dualistic theodicy Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 61
leviathan, and exodus Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 66
leviathan, as a huge fish Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135
leviathan, as enemy metaphor Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 61, 67
leviathan, as eschatological Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 66
leviathan, as ketos Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 146
leviathan, as red dragon Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 95
leviathan, as tanninim Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 165
leviathan, eros of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 115, 121, 207, 277, 315
leviathan, etymology Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 49, 66
leviathan, feast of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 121
leviathan, fins Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 99, 290, 291
leviathan, odor Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 121, 315
leviathan Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 124; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 39, 65; Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114; Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17, 87
life, tree of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
light Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 115, 277, 291, 320; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
likeness, and identity Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
likeness, identity and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
linen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698
lizard/turtle (tsav) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
lotan, and lodan Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 149
lotan Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 39; Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 49
marduk Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 39, 115
martyr crown of Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 92
martyrdom cosmic battle' Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 92
martyrs Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
medusa Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 930
menorah Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 930
michael, devil Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
millennium, and exodus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
millennium Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
miller iii, robert d. Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135, 149
monotheism, religious revolution of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 206
moses Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 277; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
mountain Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 315
multiplicity and multiformity within, ancient near east Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 39
multiplicity and multiformity within, christian Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 290, 291
multiplicity and multiformity within, gnostic Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 290, 291
multiplicity and multiformity within, myth, comparison of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 290, 291
multiplicity and multiformity within, representation/imagination Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
multiplicity and multiformity within Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 206
myth, and literary considerations Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 65
myth, concrete Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 57, 64
myth, esoteric Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 277
mythmaking, and narrative Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 65
mythmaking, as divine evocation Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 65
mythmaking, centrality of scriptural anchor Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 99
mythmaking, historical actualization Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 65
mythology Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504, 698, 945
naas Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
name (divine), change in Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 99
narrative, composition Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
nations Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
natural and meteorological phenomena, rain Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 290
natural and meteorological phenomena, tremors Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 65
natural and meteorological phenomena Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 99
naḥash Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 57
near eastern parallels, canaanite Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 39
near eastern parallels, mesopotamian Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 39, 115
nebuchadnezzar, dream of Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 124
ninurta Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135
noegel, scott Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 146
ophites, the diagram Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17, 87
paneas Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 121
paradise Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17, 87
parahumans Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
patriarchs Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 290
paul, as source of imagery Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 114
paul Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 125
petition Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 65
pharaoh Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
planets Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17
porcupines/hedgehogs (kipod) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
prayer Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64, 65
priest Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 698
primordial, battle Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 64
primordial, time Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 57, 121
prophets Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
protection Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
pseudognostic Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
python Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 95
rab (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 115, 315
rabba bar bar ḥama (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 120
rahab Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 124; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 39, 315
red sea Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
redemption Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 206
restoration, dominion, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
resurrection Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
ritual/law Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 321
rule/ruler, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
rule/ruler, beasts, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
rule/ruler, satan, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
salamanders Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 69
salvation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143
samael Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17
satan, fall of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504
satan, rule of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 945
satan Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 504, 699; Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 92
sea, boundaries Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 120, 121, 207
sea, divine strife with Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 57, 64, 65, 115, 206
sea, great sea Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 121
sea, prince of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 120, 121, 315
seow, c. l. Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 135
serpent, crooked Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 61, 66
serpent, devil/in paradise Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17, 87
serpent, fleeing Sneed, Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan (2022) 49, 61, 66, 165
serpent, leviathan Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17
serpent, other Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 87
serpent, world soul Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17
sethians, sethianism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 17, 87
setting, interpretive Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 143