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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6287
Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 11.9


לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה חֲרוֹן אַפִּי לֹא אָשׁוּב לְשַׁחֵת אֶפְרָיִם כִּי אֵל אָנֹכִי וְלֹא־אִישׁ בְּקִרְבְּךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹא אָבוֹא בְּעִיר׃I will not execute the fierceness of Mine anger, I will not return to destroy Ephraim; For I am God, and not man, The Holy One in the midst of thee; And I will not come in fury.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 22.22, 24.1-24.4, 31.16, 32.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.22. כִּי־יִמָּצֵא אִישׁ שֹׁכֵב עִם־אִשָּׁה בְעֻלַת־בַּעַל וּמֵתוּ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶם הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִם־הָאִשָּׁה וְהָאִשָּׁה וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 24.2. וְיָצְאָה מִבֵּיתוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר׃ 24.2. כִּי תַחְבֹּט זֵיתְךָ לֹא תְפָאֵר אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃ 24.3. וּשְׂנֵאָהּ הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ אוֹ כִי יָמוּת הָאִישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן אֲשֶׁר־לְקָחָהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 24.4. לֹא־יוּכַל בַּעְלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר־שִׁלְּחָהּ לָשׁוּב לְקַחְתָּהּ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר הֻטַּמָּאָה כִּי־תוֹעֵבָה הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא תַחֲטִיא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 31.16. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנְּךָ שֹׁכֵב עִם־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וְקָם הָעָם הַזֶּה וְזָנָה אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהֵי נֵכַר־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הוּא בָא־שָׁמָּה בְּקִרְבּוֹ וַעֲזָבַנִי וְהֵפֵר אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אִתּוֹ׃ 32.15. וַיִּשְׁמַן יְשֻׁרוּן וַיִּבְעָט שָׁמַנְתָּ עָבִיתָ כָּשִׂיתָ וַיִּטֹּשׁ אֱלוֹהַ עָשָׂהוּ וַיְנַבֵּל צוּר יְשֻׁעָתוֹ׃ 22.22. If a man be found lying with a woman married to a husband, then they shall both of them die, the man that lay with the woman, and the woman; so shalt thou put away the evil from Israel." 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house," 24.2. and she departeth out of his house, and goeth and becometh another man’s wife," 24.3. and the latter husband hateth her, and writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house; or if the latter husband die, who took her to be his wife;" 24.4. her former husband, who sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is abomination before the LORD; and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance." 31.16. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Behold, thou art about to sleep with thy fathers; and this people will rise up, and go astray after the foreign gods of the land, whither they go to be among them, and will forsake Me, and break My covet which I have made with them." 32.15. But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked— Thou didst wax fat, thou didst grow thick, thou didst become gross— And he forsook God who made him, And contemned the Rock of his salvation."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.4, 5.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.4. רִיבוּ בְאִמְּכֶם רִיבוּ כִּי־הִיא לֹא אִשְׁתִּי וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אִישָׁהּ וְתָסֵר זְנוּנֶיהָ מִפָּנֶיה וְנַאֲפוּפֶיהָ מִבֵּין שָׁדֶיהָ׃ 5.7. בַּיהוָה בָּגָדוּ כִּי־בָנִים זָרִים יָלָדוּ עַתָּה יֹאכְלֵם חֹדֶשׁ אֶת־חֶלְקֵיהֶם׃ 2.4. Plead with your mother, plead; For she is not My wife, neither am I her husband; And let her put away her harlotries from her face, And her adulteries from between her breasts;" 5.7. They have dealt treacherously against the LORD, For they have begotten strange children; Now shall the new moon devour them with their portions."
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 6.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.10. Then should I yet have comfort; yea, I would exult in pain, though He spare not; For I have not denied the words of the Holy One."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 26.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.43. וְהָאָרֶץ תֵּעָזֵב מֵהֶם וְתִרֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ בָּהְשַׁמָּה מֵהֶם וְהֵם יִרְצוּ אֶת־עֲוֺנָם יַעַן וּבְיַעַן בְּמִשְׁפָּטַי מָאָסוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַי גָּעֲלָה נַפְשָׁם׃ 26.43. For the land shall lie forsaken without them, and shall be paid her sabbaths, while she lieth desolate without them; and they shall be paid the punishment of their iniquity; because, even because they rejected Mine ordices, and their soul abhorred My statutes."
6. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.14, 2.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.14. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם עַל־מָה עַל כִּי־יְהוָה הֵעִיד בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין אֵשֶׁת נְעוּרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָּגַדְתָּה בָּהּ וְהִיא חֲבֶרְתְּךָ וְאֵשֶׁת בְּרִיתֶךָ׃ 2.16. כִּי־שָׂנֵא שַׁלַּח אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִסָּה חָמָס עַל־לְבוּשׁוֹ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם בְּרוּחֲכֶם וְלֹא תִבְגֹּדוּ׃ 2.14. Yet ye say: ‘Wherefore?’ Because the LORD hath been witness Between thee and the wife of thy youth, Against whom thou hast dealt treacherously, Though she is thy companion, And the wife of thy covet." 2.16. For I hate putting away, Saith the LORD, the God of Israel, And him that covereth his garment with violence, Saith the LORD of hosts; Therefore take heed to your spirit, That ye deal not treacherously."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.13. וְשָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְנֶעְלַם מֵעֵינֵי אִישָׁהּ וְנִסְתְּרָה וְהִיא נִטְמָאָה וְעֵד אֵין בָּהּ וְהִוא לֹא נִתְפָּשָׂה׃ 5.13. and a man lie with her carnally, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, and there be no witness against her, neither she be taken in the act;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 89.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

89.18. כִּי־תִפְאֶרֶת עֻזָּמוֹ אָתָּה וּבִרְצֹנְךָ תרים [תָּרוּם] קַרְנֵנוּ׃ 89.18. For Thou art the glory of their strength; And in Thy favour our horn is exalted."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 19.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.22. אֶת־מִי חֵרַפְתָּ וְגִדַּפְתָּ וְעַל־מִי הֲרִימוֹתָ קּוֹל וַתִּשָּׂא מָרוֹם עֵינֶיךָ עַל־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.22. Whom hast thou taunted and Blasphemed? And against whom hast thou exalted thy voice? Yea, thou hast lifted up thine eyes on high, Even against the Holy One of Israel!"
10. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.12, 3.3 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

1.12. הֲלוֹא אַתָּה מִקֶּדֶם יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי קְדֹשִׁי לֹא נָמוּת יְהוָה לְמִשְׁפָּט שַׂמְתּוֹ וְצוּר לְהוֹכִיחַ יְסַדְתּוֹ׃ 3.3. אֱלוֹהַ מִתֵּימָן יָבוֹא וְקָדוֹשׁ מֵהַר־פָּארָן סֶלָה כִּסָּה שָׁמַיִם הוֹדוֹ וּתְהִלָּתוֹ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.12. Art not Thou from everlasting, O LORD my God, my Holy One? We shall not die. O LORD, Thou hast ordained them for judgment, And Thou, O Rock, hast established them for correction. ." 3.3. God cometh from Teman, And the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah His glory covereth the heavens, And the earth is full of His praise."
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.4, 5.24, 10.20, 12.6, 29.19, 30.15, 31.1, 37.23, 40.25, 41.14, 41.20, 43.3, 43.14-43.15, 45.11, 47.4, 49.7, 50.1, 54.5, 55.5, 58.2, 60.9, 60.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.4. הוֹי גּוֹי חֹטֵא עַם כֶּבֶד עָוֺן זֶרַע מְרֵעִים בָּנִים מַשְׁחִיתִים עָזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה נִאֲצוּ אֶת־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נָזֹרוּ אָחוֹר׃ 5.24. לָכֵן כֶּאֱכֹל קַשׁ לְשׁוֹן אֵשׁ וַחֲשַׁשׁ לֶהָבָה יִרְפֶּה שָׁרְשָׁם כַּמָּק יִהְיֶה וּפִרְחָם כָּאָבָק יַעֲלֶה כִּי מָאֲסוּ אֵת תּוֹרַת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְאֵת אִמְרַת קְדוֹשׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל נִאֵצוּ׃ 12.6. צַהֲלִי וָרֹנִּי יוֹשֶׁבֶת צִיּוֹן כִּי־גָדוֹל בְּקִרְבֵּךְ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 29.19. וְיָסְפוּ עֲנָוִים בַּיהוָה שִׂמְחָה וְאֶבְיוֹנֵי אָדָם בִּקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל יָגִילוּ׃ 30.15. כִּי כֹה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּשׁוּבָה וָנַחַת תִּוָּשֵׁעוּן בְּהַשְׁקֵט וּבְבִטְחָה תִּהְיֶה גְּבוּרַתְכֶם וְלֹא אֲבִיתֶם׃ 31.1. הוֹי הַיֹּרְדִים מִצְרַיִם לְעֶזְרָה עַל־סוּסִים יִשָּׁעֵנוּ וַיִּבְטְחוּ עַל־רֶכֶב כִּי רָב וְעַל פָּרָשִׁים כִּי־עָצְמוּ מְאֹד וְלֹא שָׁעוּ עַל־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־יְהוָה לֹא דָרָשׁוּ׃ 37.23. אֶת־מִי חֵרַפְתָּ וְגִדַּפְתָּ וְעַל־מִי הֲרִימוֹתָה קּוֹל וַתִּשָּׂא מָרוֹם עֵינֶיךָ אֶל־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 40.25. וְאֶל־מִי תְדַמְּיוּנִי וְאֶשְׁוֶה יֹאמַר קָדוֹשׁ׃ 41.14. אַל־תִּירְאִי תּוֹלַעַת יַעֲקֹב מְתֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲנִי עֲזַרְתִּיךְ נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְגֹאֲלֵךְ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 43.3. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל מוֹשִׁיעֶךָ נָתַתִּי כָפְרְךָ מִצְרַיִם כּוּשׁ וּסְבָא תַּחְתֶּיךָ׃ 43.14. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה גֹּאַלְכֶם קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַעַנְכֶם שִׁלַּחְתִּי בָבֶלָה וְהוֹרַדְתִּי בָרִיחִים כֻּלָּם וְכַשְׂדִּים בָּאֳנִיּוֹת רִנָּתָם׃ 43.15. אֲנִי יְהוָה קְדוֹשְׁכֶם בּוֹרֵא יִשְׂרָאֵל מַלְכְּכֶם׃ 45.11. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיֹצְרוֹ הָאֹתִיּוֹת שְׁאָלוּנִי עַל־בָּנַי וְעַל־פֹּעַל יָדַי תְּצַוֻּנִי׃ 47.4. גֹּאֲלֵנוּ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 49.7. כֹּה אָמַר־יְהוָה גֹּאֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל קְדוֹשׁוֹ לִבְזֹה־נֶפֶשׁ לִמְתָעֵב גּוֹי לְעֶבֶד מֹשְׁלִים מְלָכִים יִרְאוּ וָקָמוּ שָׂרִים וְיִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְמַעַן יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נֶאֱמָן קְדֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּבְחָרֶךָּ׃ 50.1. מִי בָכֶם יְרֵא יְהוָה שֹׁמֵעַ בְּקוֹל עַבְדּוֹ אֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ חֲשֵׁכִים וְאֵין נֹגַהּ לוֹ יִבְטַח בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וְיִשָּׁעֵן בֵּאלֹהָיו׃ 50.1. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אֵי זֶה סֵפֶר כְּרִיתוּת אִמְּכֶם אֲשֶׁר שִׁלַּחְתִּיהָ אוֹ מִי מִנּוֹשַׁי אֲשֶׁר־מָכַרְתִּי אֶתְכֶם לוֹ הֵן בַּעֲוֺנֹתֵיכֶם נִמְכַּרְתֶּם וּבְפִשְׁעֵיכֶם שֻׁלְּחָה אִמְּכֶם׃ 54.5. כִּי בֹעֲלַיִךְ עֹשַׂיִךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ וְגֹאֲלֵךְ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹהֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ יִקָּרֵא׃ 55.5. הֵן גּוֹי לֹא־תֵדַע תִּקְרָא וְגוֹי לֹא־יְדָעוּךָ אֵלֶיךָ יָרוּצוּ לְמַעַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְלִקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי פֵאֲרָךְ׃ 58.2. וְאוֹתִי יוֹם יוֹם יִדְרֹשׁוּן וְדַעַת דְּרָכַי יֶחְפָּצוּן כְּגוֹי אֲשֶׁר־צְדָקָה עָשָׂה וּמִשְׁפַּט אֱלֹהָיו לֹא עָזָב יִשְׁאָלוּנִי מִשְׁפְּטֵי־צֶדֶק קִרְבַת אֱלֹהִים יֶחְפָּצוּן׃ 60.9. כִּי־לִי אִיִּים יְקַוּוּ וָאֳנִיּוֹת תַּרְשִׁישׁ בָּרִאשֹׁנָה לְהָבִיא בָנַיִךְ מֵרָחוֹק כַּסְפָּם וּזְהָבָם אִתָּם לְשֵׁם יְהוָה אֱלֹהַיִךְ וְלִקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי פֵאֲרָךְ׃ 60.14. וְהָלְכוּ אֵלַיִךְ שְׁחוֹחַ בְּנֵי מְעַנַּיִךְ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ עַל־כַּפּוֹת רַגְלַיִךְ כָּל־מְנַאֲצָיִךְ וְקָרְאוּ לָךְ עִיר יְהוָה צִיּוֹן קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.4. Ah sinful nation, A people laden with iniquity, A seed of evil-doers, Children that deal corruptly; They have forsaken the LORD, They have contemned the Holy One of Israel, They are turned away backward." 5.24. Therefore as the tongue of fire devoureth the stubble, And as the chaff is consumed in the flame, So their root shall be as rottenness, And their blossom shall go up as dust; Because they have rejected the law of the LORD of hosts, And contemned the word of the Holy One of Israel." 10.20. And it shall come to pass in that day, That the remt of Israel, And they that are escaped of the house of Jacob, Shall no more again stay upon him that smote them; But shall stay upon the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, in truth." 12.6. Cry aloud and shout, thou inhabitant of Zion, For great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee.’" 29.19. The humble also shall increase their joy in the LORD, and the neediest among men shall exult in the Holy One of Israel." 30.15. For thus said the Lord GOD, the Holy One of Israel: In sitting still and rest shall ye be saved, in quietness and in confidence shall be your strength; And ye would not." 31.1. Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help, And rely on horses, And trust in chariots, because they are many, And in horsemen, because they are exceeding mighty; But they look not unto the Holy One of Israel, Neither seek the LORD!" 37.23. Whom hast thou taunted and blasphemed? And against whom hast thou exalted thy voice? Yea, thou hast lifted up thine eyes on high, Even against the Holy One of Israel!" 40.25. To whom then will ye liken Me, that I should be equal? Saith the Holy One." 41.14. Fear not, thou worm Jacob, And ye men of Israel; I help thee, saith the LORD, And thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel." 41.20. That they may see, and know, And consider, and understand together, That the hand of the LORD hath done this, And the Holy One of Israel hath created it." 43.3. For I am the LORD thy God, The Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour; I have given Egypt as thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee." 43.14. Thus saith the LORD, your Redeemer, The Holy One of Israel: For your sake I have sent to Babylon, And I will bring down all of them as fugitives, even the Chaldeans, in the ships of their shouting." 43.15. I am the LORD, your Holy One, The Creator of Israel, your King." 45.11. Thus saith the LORD, The Holy One of Israel, and his Maker: Ask Me of the things that are to come; Concerning My sons, and concerning the work of My hands, command ye Me." 47.4. Our Redeemer, the LORD of hosts is His name, The Holy One of Israel." 49.7. Thus saith the LORD, The Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One, To him who is despised of men, To him who is abhorred of nations, To a servant of rulers: Kings shall see and arise, Princes, and they shall prostrate themselves; Because of the LORD that is faithful, Even the Holy One of Israel, who hath chosen thee." 50.1. Thus saith the LORD: Where is the bill of your mother’s divorcement, Wherewith I have put her away? Or which of My creditors is it To whom I have sold you? Behold, for your iniquities were ye sold, And for your transgressions was your mother put away." 54.5. For thy Maker is thy husband, The LORD of hosts is His name; And the Holy One of Israel is thy Redeemer, The God of the whole earth shall He be called." 55.5. Behold, thou shalt call a nation that thou knowest not, And a nation that knew not thee shall run unto thee; Because of the LORD thy God, And for the Holy One of Israel, for He hath glorified thee." 58.2. Yet they seek Me daily, And delight to know My ways; As a nation that did righteousness, And forsook not the ordice of their God, They ask of Me righteous ordices, They delight to draw near unto God." 60.9. Surely the isles shall wait for Me, And the ships of Tarshish first, To bring thy sons from far, Their silver and their gold with them, For the name of the LORD thy God, And for the Holy One of Israel, because He hath glorified thee." 60.14. And the sons of them that afflicted thee Shall come bending unto thee, And all they that despised thee shall bow down At the soles of thy feet; And they shall call thee The city of the LORD, The Zion of the Holy One of Israel."
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.13, 3.1, 3.8, 50.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.13. כִּי־שְׁתַּיִם רָעוֹת עָשָׂה עַמִּי אֹתִי עָזְבוּ מְקוֹר מַיִם חַיִּים לַחְצֹב לָהֶם בֹּארוֹת בֹּארֹת נִשְׁבָּרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָכִלוּ הַמָּיִם׃ 3.1. וְגַם־בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־שָׁבָה אֵלַי בָּגוֹדָה אֲחוֹתָהּ יְהוּדָה בְּכָל־לִבָּהּ כִּי אִם־בְּשֶׁקֶר נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 3.1. לֵאמֹר הֵן יְשַׁלַּח אִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָלְכָה מֵאִתּוֹ וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר הֲיָשׁוּב אֵלֶיהָ עוֹד הֲלוֹא חָנוֹף תֶּחֱנַף הָאָרֶץ הַהִיא וְאַתְּ זָנִית רֵעִים רַבִּים וְשׁוֹב אֵלַי נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה׃ 3.8. וָאֵרֶא כִּי עַל־כָּל־אֹדוֹת אֲשֶׁר נִאֲפָה מְשֻׁבָה יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁלַּחְתִּיהָ וָאֶתֵּן אֶת־סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻתֶיהָ אֵלֶיהָ וְלֹא יָרְאָה בֹּגֵדָה יְהוּדָה אֲחוֹתָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתִּזֶן גַּם־הִיא׃ 50.29. הַשְׁמִיעוּ אֶל־בָּבֶל רַבִּים כָּל־דֹּרְכֵי קֶשֶׁת חֲנוּ עָלֶיהָ סָבִיב אַל־יְהִי־[לָהּ] פְּלֵטָה שַׁלְּמוּ־לָהּ כְּפָעֳלָהּ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר עָשְׂתָה עֲשׂוּ־לָהּ כִּי אֶל־יְהוָה זָדָה אֶל־קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 2.13. For My people have committed two evils: They have forsaken Me, the fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, That can hold no water." 3.1. . . . saying: If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another man’s, may he return unto her again? Will not that land be greatly polluted? But thou hast played the harlot with many lovers; and wouldest thou yet return to Me? Saith the LORD." 3.8. And I saw, when, forasmuch as backsliding Israel had committed adultery, I had put her away and given her a bill of divorcement, that yet treacherous Judah her sister feared not; but she also went and played the harlot;" 50.29. Call together the archers against Babylon, All them that bend the bow; Encamp against her round about, Let none thereof escape; Recompense her according to her work, According to all that she hath done, do unto her: For she hath been arrogant against the LORD, Against the Holy One of Israel. ."
13. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 14.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.36. And in his days things prospered in his hands, so that the Gentiles were put out of the country, as were also the men in the city of David in Jerusalem, who had built themselves a citadel from which they used to sally forth and defile the environs of the sanctuary and do great damage to its purity.
14. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 4.14, 23.9, 43.10, 47.8, 48.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.14. Those who serve her will minister to the Holy One;the Lord loves those who love her. 47.8. In all that he did he gave thanks to the Holy One, the Most High, with ascriptions of glory;he sang praise with all his heart,and he loved his Maker.
15. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 4.14, 47.8, 48.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.14. for his soul was pleasing to the Lord,therefore he took him quickly from the midst of wickedness.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 197 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

197. We must now speak also concerning that highest and most excellent of fountains which the Father of the universe spake of by the mouths of the prophets; for he has said somewhere, "They have left me, the fountain of life, and they have digged for themselves cisterns already worn out, which will not be able to hold Water;
17. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 29.4 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18. Mishnah, Nedarim, 11.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11.12. At first they would say that three women must be divorced and receive their ketubah: She who says: “I am defiled to you”; “Heaven is between me and you”; “I have been removed from the Jews.” But subsequently they changed the ruling to prevent her from setting her eye on another and spoiling herself to her husband: She who said, “I am defiled unto you” must bring proof. “Heaven is between me and you” they [shall appease them] by a request. “I have been removed from the Jews” he [the husband] must annul his portion, and she may have relations with him, and she shall be removed from other Jews."
19. Mishnah, Sotah, 5.1, 9.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. Just as the water checks her so the water checks him, as it is said, “And shall enter”, “And shall enter” (Numbers 5:22,. Just as she is prohibited to the husband so is she prohibited to the lover, as it is said, “defiled … and is defiled” (Numbers 5:27,, the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Joshua said: thus Zechariah ben Hakatzav used to expound. Rabbi says: twice in the portion, “If she is defiled…defiled”--one referring [to her being prohibited] to the husband and the other to the paramour." 9.9. When murderers multiplied, the [ceremony of] breaking a heifer’s neck ceased. That was from the time of Eliezer ben Dinai, and he was also called Tehinah ben Perisha and he was afterwards renamed “son of the murderer”. When adulterers multiplied, the ceremony of the bitter waters ceased and it was Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai who discontinued it, as it is said, “I will not punish their daughters for fornicating, nor their daughters-in-law for committing adultery, for they themselves [turn aside with whores and sacrifice with prostitutes]” (Hosea 4:14). When Yose ben Yoezer of Zeredah and Yose ben Yoha of Jerusalem died, the grape-clusters ceased, as it is said, “There is not a cluster [of grapes] to eat; not a ripe fig I could desire [The pious are vanished from the land, none upright are left among men” (Micah 7:1-2)."
20. New Testament, John, 8.2-8.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.2. At early dawn, he came again into the temple, and all the people came to him. He sat down, and taught them. 8.3. The scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman taken in adultery. Having set her in the midst 8.4. they told him, "Teacher, we found this woman in adultery, in the very act. 8.5. Now in our law, Moses commanded us to stone such. What then do you say about her? 8.6. They said this testing him, that they might have something to accuse him of. But Jesus stooped down, and wrote on the ground with his finger. 8.7. But when they continued asking him, he looked up and said to them, "He who is without sin among you, let him throw the first stone at her. 8.8. Again he stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground. 8.9. They, when they heard it, being convicted by their conscience, went out one by one, beginning from the oldest, even to the last. Jesus was left alone with the woman where she was, in the middle. 8.10. Jesus, standing up, saw her and said, "Woman, where are your accusers? Did no one condemn you? 8.11. She said, "No one, Lord."Jesus said, "Neither do I condemn you. Go your way. From now on, sin no more.
21. Tosefta, Sotah, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 34.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְכִי יָמוּךְ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ אָמַר לָהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי מַה מִּצְוָה זוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶן לִרְחֹץ בְּבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי זוֹ מִצְוָה הִיא, אָמַר לָהֶם, הֵן. מָה אִם אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל מְלָכִים שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִים אוֹתָן בְּבָתֵּי טַרְטִיאוֹת וּבְבָתֵּי קִרְקָסִיאוֹת, מִי שֶׁנִּתְמַנֶּה עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא מוֹרְקָן וְשׁוֹטְפָן וְהֵן מַעֲלִין לוֹ מְזוֹנוֹת, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא מִתְגַּדֵּל עִם גְּדוֹלֵי מַלְכוּת, אֲנִי שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית ט, ו): כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם לִגְמֹל חֶסֶד עִם הָדֵין אַכְסַנְיָא בְּגוֹ בֵּיתָא. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, כָּל יוֹם אִית לָךְ אַכְסַנְיָא, אָמַר לָהֶם, וְהָדֵין נַפְשָׁא עֲלוּבְתָּא לָאו אַכְסַנְיָא הוּא בְּגוֹ גוּפָא, יוֹמָא דֵין הִיא הָכָא לְמָחָר לֵית הִיא הָכָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד וְעֹכֵר שְׁאֵרוֹ אַכְזָרִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי זֶה שֶׁמַּגַעַת לוֹ שִׂמְחָה וְאֵינוֹ מַדְבִּיק אֶת קְרוֹבָיו עִמּוֹ מִשּׁוּם עֲנִיּוּת. אָמַר רַבִּי נַחְמָן כְּתִיב (דברים טו, י): כִּי בִּגְלַל הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, גַּלְגַּל הוּא שֶׁחוֹזֵר בָּעוֹלָם, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ. 34.3. Another Thing: 'But if he is impoverished', here it is written, \"The merciful man does good to his own soul (Proverbs 11:17),\" this [refers to] Hillel the Elder, who, at the time that he was departing from his students, would walk with them. They said to him, \"Rabbi, where are you walking to?\" He said to them, \"To fulfill a commandment!\" They said to him, \"And what commandment is this?\" He said to them, \"To bathe in the bathhouse.\" They said to him: \"But is this really a commandment?\" He said to them: \"Yes. Just like regarding the statues (lit. icons) of kings, that are set up in the theaters and the circuses, the one who is appointed over them bathes them and scrubs them, and they give him sustece, and furthermore, he attains status with the leaders of the kingdom; I, who was created in the [Divine] Image and Form, as it is written, \"For in the Image of G-d He made Man (Genesis 9:6),\" even more so!..."
23. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 352 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

24. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

90a. והלכתא מותרת לשניהם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בית שמאי אומרים לא יגרש אדם את אשתו אלא אם כן מצא בה דבר ערוה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ובית הלל אומרים אפילו הקדיחה תבשילו שנאמר כי מצא בה ערות דבר,ר' עקיבא אומר אפי' מצא אחרת נאה הימנה שנאמר (דברים כד, א) והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא אמרו בית הלל לבית שמאי והלא כבר נאמר דבר אמרו להם ב"ש והלא כבר נאמר ערות,אמרו להם ב"ה אם נאמר ערות ולא נאמר דבר הייתי אומר משום ערוה תצא משום דבר לא תצא לכך נאמר דבר ואילו נאמר דבר ולא נאמר ערות הייתי אומר משום דבר תנשא לאחר ומשום ערוה לא תנשא לאחר לכך נאמר ערות,וב"ש האי דבר מאי עבדי ליה נאמר כאן דבר ונאמר להלן דבר (דברים יט, טו) על פי שני עדים או על פי שלשה עדים יקום דבר מה להלן בשני עדים אף כאן בשני עדים,וב"ה מי כתיב ערוה בדבר וב"ש מי כתיב או ערוה או דבר,וב"ה להכי כתיב ערות דבר דמשמע הכי ומשמע הכי:,ר"ע אומר אפי' מצא אחרת: במאי קא מיפלגי בדר"ל דאמר ריש לקיש כי משמש בד' לשונות אי דלמא אלא דהא,ב"ש סברי [והיה אם לא תמצא חן בעיניו] כי מצא בה ערות דבר דהא מצא בה ערות דבר ור"ע סבר כי מצא בה ערות דבר אי נמי מצא בה ערות דבר,אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא לא מצא בה לא ערוה ולא דבר מהו,א"ל מדגלי רחמנא גבי אונס (דברים כב, יט) לא יוכל לשלחה כל ימיו כל ימיו בעמוד והחזיר קאי התם הוא דגלי רחמנא אבל הכא מאי דעבד עבד,א"ל רב משרשיא לרבא אם לבו לגרשה והיא יושבת תחתיו ומשמשתו מהו קרי עליה (משלי ג, כט) אל תחרש על רעך רעה והוא יושב לבטח אתך,תניא היה רבי מאיר אומר כשם שהדעות במאכל כך דעות בנשים יש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ואינו שותהו וזו היא מדת פפוס בן יהודה שהיה נועל בפני אשתו ויוצא,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך כוסו וזורקו ושותהו וזו היא מדת כל אדם שמדברת עם אחיה וקרוביה ומניחה,ויש לך אדם שזבוב נופל לתוך תמחוי מוצצו ואוכלו זו היא מדת אדם רע שרואה את אשתו יוצאה וראשה פרוע וטווה בשוק 90a. bAnd the ihalakha /iis that bshe is permitted to both of them. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bBeit Shammai say: A man may not divorce his wife unless he findsout babout herhaving engaged in ba matter of forbidden sexual intercourse [ idevar erva /i],i.e., she committed adultery or is suspected of doing so, bas it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i] in her,and he writes her a scroll of severance” (Deuteronomy 24:1)., bAnd Beit Hillel say:He may divorce her bevendue to a minor issue, e.g., because bshe burnedor over-salted bhis dish, as it is stated: “Because he has found some unseemly matter in her,”meaning that he found any type of shortcoming in her., bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is bbetter looking than herand wishes to marry her, bas it is statedin that verse: b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes”(Deuteronomy 24:1)., strongGEMARA: /strong It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bBeit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: But isn’tthe word b“matter” already statedin the verse, indicating that any disadvantageous matter is a legitimate reason for divorce? bBeit Shammai said to them: But isn’tthe word b“unseemly [ iervat /i]” already stated? /b, bBeit Hillel said to them: Ifthe word b“unseemly” had been stated andthe word b“matter” had not been stated, I would have saidthat a wife bshould leaveher husband bdue to forbidden sexual intercourse,but bshe should nothave to bleavehim bdue toany other bmatter. Therefore,the word b“matter” is stated. And ifthe word b“matter” had been stated andthe word b“unseemly” had not been stated, I would have saidthat if he divorced her merely bdue toa disadvantageous bmatter she may marry anotherman, as the Torah continues: “And she departs out of his house, and goes and becomes another man’s wife” (Deuteronomy 24:2). bButif she was divorced bdue toher engaging in bforbidden sexual intercourse, she may not marry anotherman, as she is prohibited from remarrying. bTherefore,the word b“unseemly” is stated,indicating that even a wife who is divorced due to adultery is permitted to remarry.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what do Beit Shammai do with thisword b“matter”?How do they interpret it? It seems superfluous, as in their opinion the verse refers specifically to a wife who engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse. The Gemara answers: The word b“matter” is stated here,with regard to divorce, bandthe word b“matter” is stated there,with regard to testimony: b“At the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, a matter shall be established”(Deuteronomy 19:15). bJust as there,it is stated that a matter is established only bthrough two witnesses, so too here,a matter of forbidden sexual intercourse justifies divorce only if it is established bthrough two witnesses. /b, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond to this analogy in the following manner: bIs it written:Because he has found something bunseemly in a matter [ ierva bedavar /i],indicating that it was established through the testimony of two witnesses that she engaged in adultery? bAnd Beit Shammaiwould respond to Beit Hillel’s interpretation as follows: bIs it written:Because he has found beithersomething bunseemly oranother bmatter i[o erva o davar /i],in accordance with Beit Hillel’s understanding?, bAnd Beit Hillelwould respond that bfor thisreason the expression b“some unseemly matter [ iervat davar /i]” is written, as it indicates thatinterpretation, i.e., that a husband is not obligated to divorce his wife unless there are two witnesses to her having engaged in forbidden sexual intercourse, band italso bindicates thisinterpretation, i.e., that he may divorce her due to any deficiency, be it adultery or any other shortcoming.,§ It is stated in the mishna that bRabbi Akiva says:He may divorce her bevenif bhe found another womanwho is better looking than her. bWith regard to what do they disagree?They disagree bwith regard tothe application of bReish Lakish’sstatement, bas Reish Lakish saidthat the term iki /iactually bhasat least bfourdistinct bmeanings: If, perhaps, rather,and bbecause. /b, bBeit Shammai holdthat the verse b“And it comes to pass, if she finds no favor in his eyes, because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means that she did not find favor in his eyes bdue tothe fact that bhe has found some unseemly matter in her. And Rabbi Akiva holdsthat the phrase b“because [ iki /i] he has found some unseemly matter in her”means: bOr if he has found some unseemly matter in her. /b,§ bRav Pappa said to Rava:According to Beit Hillel, if the husband bfound about her neither forbidden sexual intercourse norany other bmatter,but divorced her anyway, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? Is the divorce valid?,Rava bsaid to himthat the answer can be derived bfrom what the Merciful One revealsin the Torah bwith regard to a rapist: “He may not send her away all his days”(Deuteronomy 22:29), indicating that even if he divorces the woman whom he raped and was subsequently commanded to marry, ball his days he standscommanded bto arise and remarryher as his wife. Evidently, bspecifically therethe husband is obligated to remarry his divorcée, bas the Merciful One revealsas much. bBut here, what he did, he did. /b, bRav Mesharshiyya said to Rava: If he intends to divorce her and she is living with him and serving him, what isthe ihalakha /i? Rava breadthe following verse baboutsuch a person: b“Devise not evil against your neighbor, seeing he dwells securely by you”(Proverbs 3:29).,§ It bis taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iSota5:9) that bRabbi Meir would say: Just as there aredifferent battitudes with regard to food, so too, there aredifferent battitudes with regard to women.With regard to food, byou have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe wine with the fly band does not drink it. And this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of Pappos ben Yehudawith regard to his wife, bas he would lockthe door bbefore his wife and leaveso that she would not see any other man., bAnd you have a person who,when ba fly falls into his cup, he throws outthe fly band drinksthe wine. bAnd this iscomparable to bthe demeanor of anycommon bman, whosewife bspeaks with her siblings and relatives, and he lets herdo so., bAnd you have a man who,when ba fly falls intohis bserving bowl, he sucksthe fly band eatsthe food. bThis is the demeanor of a bad man, who sees his wife going outinto the street bwith her head uncovered, and spinning in the marketplaceimmodestly
25. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12b. את הארץ למה לי להקדים שמים לארץ והארץ היתה תהו ובהו מכדי בשמים אתחיל ברישא מאי שנא דקא חשיב מעשה ארץ תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל משל למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו השכימו לפתחי השכים ומצא נשים ואנשים למי משבח למי שאין דרכו להשכים והשכים,תניא ר' יוסי אומר אוי להם לבריות שרואות ואינן יודעות מה רואות עומדות ואין יודעות על מה הן עומדות הארץ על מה עומדת על העמודים שנאמר (איוב ט, ו) המרגיז ארץ ממקומה ועמודיה יתפלצון עמודים על המים שנאמר (תהלים קלו, ו) לרוקע הארץ על המים מים על ההרים שנאמר על הרים יעמדו מים הרים ברוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח רוח בסערה שנאמר (תהלים קמח, ח) רוח סערה עושה דברו סערה תלויה בזרועו של הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לג, כז) ומתחת זרועות עולם,וחכ"א על י"ב עמודים עומדת שנאמר (דברים לב, ח) יצב גבולות עמים למספר בני ישראל וי"א ז' עמודים שנאמר (משלי ט, א) חצבה עמודיה שבעה ר"א בן שמוע אומר על עמוד אחד וצדיק שמו שנאמר (משלי י, כה) וצדיק יסוד עולם,א"ר יהודה שני רקיעים הן שנאמר (דברים י, יד) הן לה' אלהיך השמים ושמי השמים,ר"ל אמר שבעה ואלו הן וילון רקיע שחקים זבול מעון מכון ערבות וילון אינו משמש כלום אלא נכנס שחרית ויוצא ערבית ומחדש בכל יום מעשה בראשית שנאמר (ישעיהו מ, כב) הנוטה כדוק שמים וימתחם כאהל לשבת רקיע שבו חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות קבועין שנאמר (בראשית א, יז) ויתן אותם אלהים ברקיע השמים שחקים שבו רחיים עומדות וטוחנות מן לצדיקים שנאמר (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול וגו',זבול שבו ירושלים ובית המקדש ומזבח בנוי ומיכאל השר הגדול עומד ומקריב עליו קרבן שנאמר (מלכים א ח, יג) בנה בניתי בית זבול לך מכון לשבתך עולמים ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (ישעיהו סג, טו) הבט משמים וראה מזבול קדשך ותפארתך,מעון שבו כיתות של מלאכי השרת שאומרות שירה בלילה וחשות ביום מפני כבודן של ישראל שנאמר (תהלים מב, ט) יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בלילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד ביום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ומה טעם יומם יצוה ה' חסדו משום ובלילה שירה עמי ואיכא דאמרי אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בעוה"ז שהוא דומה ללילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד לעוה"ב שהוא דומה ליום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,א"ר לוי כל הפוסק מדברי תורה ועוסק בדברי שיחה מאכילין אותו גחלי רתמים שנאמר (איוב ל, ד) הקוטפים מלוח עלי שיח ושרש רתמים לחמם ומנלן דאיקרי שמים שנאמר (דברים כו, טו) השקיפה ממעון קדשך מן השמים,מכון שבו אוצרות שלג ואוצרות ברד ועליית טללים רעים ועליית אגלים וחדרה של סופה [וסערה] ומערה של קיטור ודלתותיהן אש שנאמר (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב,הני ברקיעא איתנהו הני בארעא איתנהו דכתיב (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות אש וברד שלג וקיטור רוח סערה עושה דברו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דוד ביקש עליהם רחמים והורידן לארץ אמר לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ה, ה) לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך (במגורך) רע צדיק אתה ה' לא יגור במגורך רע ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (מלכים א ח, לט) ואתה תשמע השמים מכון שבתך,ערבות שבו צדק משפט וצדקה גנזי חיים וגנזי שלום וגנזי ברכה ונשמתן של צדיקים ורוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים צדק ומשפט דכתיב (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך צדקה דכתיב (ישעיהו נט, יז) וילבש צדקה כשרין גנזי חיים דכתיב (תהלים לו, י) כי עמך מקור חיים וגנזי שלום דכתיב (שופטים ו, כד) ויקרא לו ה' שלום וגנזי ברכה דכתיב (תהלים כד, ה) ישא ברכה מאת ה',נשמתן של צדיקים דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים את ה' אלהיך רוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות דכתיב (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים דכתיב (תהלים סח, י) גשם נדבות תניף אלהים נחלתך ונלאה אתה כוננתה,שם אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת וכסא הכבוד מלך אל חי רם ונשא שוכן עליהם בערבות שנאמר (תהלים סח, ה) סולו לרוכב בערבות ביה שמו ומנלן דאיקרי שמים אתיא רכיבה רכיבה כתיב הכא סולו לרוכב בערבות וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כו) רוכב שמים בעזרך,וחשך וענן וערפל מקיפין אותו שנאמר (תהלים יח, יב) ישת חשך סתרו סביבותיו סוכתו חשכת מים עבי שחקים ומי איכא חשוכא קמי שמיא והכתיב [דניאל ב, כב] הוא (גלי) עמיקתא ומסתרתא ידע מה בחשוכא ונהורא עמיה שרי לא קשיא הא 12b. bWhy do Ineed b“and the earth” [ iet ha’aretz /i]? Toteach that bheaven preceded earthin the order of Creation. The next verse states: b“And the earth was unformed and void”(Genesis 1:2). The Gemara asks: bAfter all,the Bible bbegan with heaven first; what is differentabout the second verse? Why does the Bible brecount the creation of earthfirst in the second verse? bThe Sage of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:This can be explained by ba parable of a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Rise earlyand come bto my entrance. He arose and found women and menwaiting for him. bWhom does he praise? Those who are unaccustomed to rising early butyet brose early,the women. The same applies to the earth: Since it is a lowly, physical sphere, we would not have expected it to be created together with heaven. Therefore, it is fitting to discuss it at greater length.,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Woe to them, the creations, who see and know not what they see;who bstand and know not upon what they stand.He clarifies: bUpon what does the earth stand? Upon pillars, as it is stated: “Who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble”(Job 9:6). These bpillarsare positioned bupon water, as it is stated: “To Him Who spread forth the earth over the waters”(Psalms 136:6). These bwatersstand bupon mountains, as it is stated: “The waters stood above the mountains”(Psalms 104:6). The bmountainsare upon the bwind, as it is stated: “For behold He forms the mountains and creates the wind”(Amos 4:13). The bwindis bupon a storm, as it is stated: “Stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:8). The bstorm hangs upon the arm of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “And underneath are the everlasting arms”(Deuteronomy 33:27), which demonstrates that the entire world rests upon the arms of the Holy One, Blessed be He.,And the Rabbis say: The earth bstands on twelve pillars, as it is stated: “He set the borders of the nations according to the number of the children of Israel”(Deuteronomy 32:8). Just as the children of Israel, i.e., the sons of Jacob, are twelve in number, so does the world rest on twelve pillars. bAnd some say:There are bseven pillars, as it is stated: “She has hewn out her seven pillars”(Proverbs 9:1). bRabbi Elazar ben Shammua says:The earth rests bon one pillar and a righteous person is its name, as it is stated: “But a righteous person is the foundation of the world”(Proverbs 10:25).,§ bRabbi Yehuda said: There are two firmaments, as it is stated: “Behold, to the Lord your God belongs the heaven and the heaven of heavens”(Deuteronomy 10:14), indicating that there is a heaven above our heaven., bReish Lakish said:There are bsevenfirmaments, band they are as follows: iVilon /i, iRakia /i, iSheḥakim /i, iZevul /i, iMa’on /i, iMakhon /i,and iAravot /i.The Gemara proceeds to explain the role of each firmament: iVilon /i,curtain, is the firmament that bdoes not contain anything, but enters at morning and departsin the bevening, and renews the act of Creation daily, as it is stated: “Who stretches out the heavens as a curtain [ iVilon /i], and spreads them out as a tent to dwell in”(Isaiah 40:22). iRakia /i,firmament, is the one bin whichthe bsun, moon, stars, and zodiac signs are fixed, as it is stated: “And God set them in the firmament [ iRakia /i] of the heaven”(Genesis 1:17). iSheḥakim /i,heights, is the one bin which mills stand and grind manna for the righteous, as it is stated: “And He commanded the heights [ iShehakim /i] above, and opened the doors of heaven; and He caused manna to rain upon them for food,and gave them of the corn of heaven” (Psalms 78:23–24).,iZevul /i,abode, bisthe location bofthe heavenly bJerusalem andthe heavenly bTemple, andthere the heavenly baltar is built, andthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it, as it is stated: “I have surely built a house of iZevulfor You, a place for You to dwell forever”(I Kings 8:13). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iZevul bis called heaven? As it is written: “Look down from heaven and see, from Your holy and glorious abode [ iZevul /i]”(Isaiah 63:15).,iMa’on /i,habitation, bis wherethere are bgroups of ministering angels who recite song at night and are silent during the day out of respect for Israel,in order not to compete with their songs, bas it is stated: “By day the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me”(Psalms 42:9), indicating that the song of the angels is with God only at night.,With regard to the aforementioned verse, bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupieshimself bwith Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness,” and what is the reasonthat b“by day, the Lord will command His kindness”? Because “and in the night His song,”i.e., the song of Torah, b“is with me.” And some saythat bReish Lakish said: Whoever occupies himself with Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me.” /b,With regard to the same matter, bRabbi Levi said: Anyone who pauses from words of Torah to occupy himself with mundane conversation will be fed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: “They pluck saltwort [ imaluaḥ /i] with wormwood [ ialei siaḥ /i], and the roots of the broom tree [ iretamim /i] are their food”(Job 30:4). The exposition is as follows: Those who pluck, i.e., pause, from learning Torah, which was given upon two tablets, iluḥot /i, which sounds similar to imaluaḥ /i, for the purpose of isiaḥ /i, idle chatter, are punished by having to eat coals made from “the roots of the broom tree.” bAnd from where do wederive bthat iMa’on bis called heaven? As it is stated: “Look forth from Your holy iMa’on /i, from heaven”(Deuteronomy 26:15).,iMakhon /i,dwelling place, bis where there are storehouses of snow and storehouses of hail, and the upper chamber of harmful dews, and the upper chamber of drops, and the room of tempests and storms, and the cave of mist. And the doorsof all these are made of bfire.How do we know that there are storehouses for evil things? bFor it is stated: “The Lord will open for you His good storehouse,the heavens” (Deuteronomy 28:12), which indicates the existence of a storehouse that contains the opposite of good.,The Gemara asks a question: With regard to bthesethings listed above, are they blocated in heaven?It is obvious that btheyare blocated on the earth. As it is written: “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths, fire and hail, snow and mist, stormy wind, fulfilling His word”(Psalms 148:7–8). The verse seems to indicate that all these things are found on the earth. bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: David requested mercy with regard to them,that they should not remain in heaven, band He brought them down to earth. He said before Him: Master of the Universe, “You are not a God that has pleasure in wickedness, evil shall not sojourn with You”(Psalms 5:5). In other words, bYou are righteous, O Lord.Nothing bevil should sojourn in Your vicinity.Rather, it is better that they remain close to us. bAnd from where do wederive bthatthis place bis called “heaven”? As it is written: “And You shall hearin bheaven, the iMakhonof Your dwelling”(I Kings 8:39).,iAravot /i,skies, is the firmament bthat contains righteousness; justice; righteousness,i.e., charity; bthe treasuries of life; the treasuries of peace; the treasuries of blessing; the souls of the righteous; the spirits and souls that are to be created; and the dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the dead.The Gemara proves this statement: bRighteousness and justiceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne”(Psalms 89:15); brighteousness, as it is written: “And He donned righteousness as armor”(Isaiah 59:17); bthe treasuries of life, as it is written: “For with You is the source of life”(Psalms 36:10). bAnd the treasuries of peaceare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And he called Him the Lord of peace”(Judges 6:24), implying that peace is God’s name and is therefore found close to Him. bAnd the treasuries of blessing, as it is written: “He shall receive a blessing from the Lord”(Psalms 24:5)., bThe souls of the righteousare found in heaven, bas it is written: “And the soul of my master shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord, your God”(I Samuel 25:29). bSpirits and souls that are to be createdare found there, bas it is written: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16), which indicates that the spirit to be released into the world, wrapped around a body, is located close to God. bThe dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the deadis found in heaven, bas it is written: “A bountiful rain You will pour down, God; when Your inheritance was weary, You confirmed it”(Psalms 68:10)., bThere,in the firmaments, are the iofanim /i,the bseraphim,the bholy divine creatures, and the ministering angels, and the Throne of Glory. The King, God,the bliving, lofty, exalted One dwells above them in iAravot /i, as it is stated: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i], Whose name is God”(Psalms 68:5). bAnd from where do wederive bthat iAravot bis called “heaven”?This is blearnedby using a verbal analogy between two instances of b“rides”and b“rides”: Here, it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ iAravot /i],” and there, it is written: “Who rides upon the heaven as your help”(Deuteronomy 33:26)., bAnd darkness and clouds and fog surround Him, as it is stated: “He made darkness His hiding place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies”(Psalms 18:12). The Gemara asks: bAnd is there darkness before Heaven,i.e., before God? bBut isn’t it written: “He reveals deep and secret things, He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him”(Daniel 2:22), demonstrating that only light, not darkness, is found with God? The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisverse, which states that only light dwells with Him, is referring
26. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. bandthe beighteen of thesix bbranches; thisequals btwenty-twogoblets. Concerning the bknobs as well,it is clear how the number belevenwas reached. The Candelabrum contains the btwo knobs of itsmain shaft, as the verse states: “Its knobs” (Exodus 25:34), with the plural “knobs” indicating that there were two, bandthe bsix ofthe six bbranches,as it is written: “In one branch, a knob and a flower” (Exodus 25:33). In addition to these eight knobs, the verse states: b“And a knobunder two branches of one piece with it, band a knobunder two branches of one piece with it, band a knobunder two branches of one piece with it” (Exodus 25:35); bthisequals belevenknobs., bBut from where do wederive that the Candelabrum contained bnine flowers?According to the verse there are the btwo flowers of itsmain shaft, as it is written: “And its flowers” (Exodus 25:34), band the six ofthe six bbranches,as it is written: “In one branch, a knob and a flower” (Exodus 25:33), meaning that bthere are eight,not nine, flowers on the Candelabrum. bRav Shalman saidin response: bIt is written: “It was a beaten work, from the base to the flower”(Numbers 8:4), which teaches that there was a ninth flower near the base., bRav says: The height ofthe bCandelabrumis bnine handbreadths. Rav Shimi bar Ḥiyya raised an objection tothe statement of bRav:We learned in a mishna ( iTamid30b): bThere was a stone beforethe bCandelabrum and it had three steps, upon which the priestwould bstand and prepare the lampsfor kindling. If the Candelabrum was only nine handbreadths high, why would it be necessary for the priest to stand on an elevated surface to reach the lamps?,Rav bsaid to him: Shimi,is it byouwho is asking me such a question? bWhen I saidthat the height of the Candelabrum is nine handbreadths, I was referring not to the total height, which is eighteen handbreadths; rather, I meant that the Candelabrum is nine handbreadths bfrom the pointat which the bbranchesextend from the main shaft band above. /b,§ bIt is written: “And the flowers, and the lamps, and the tongs, of gold, and that perfect gold [ imikhlot zahav /i]”(II Chronicles 4:21). The Gemara asks: bWhatis meant by imikhlot zahav /i? Rav Ami says:It is a reference to the fact bthatthe Candelabrum and its vessels bexhausted [ ikilattu /i] all of Solomon’s pure [ isagur /i] gold [ izahav /i],which was used in its fashioning in such great quantities. bAs Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav said: Solomon made ten Candelabrums, and for each and every one he brought one thousand talents of gold, and they placedthe gold bin the furnaceto refine it bone thousand times, until they reducedthe gold btoone btalentfor each Candelabrum, as it is stated: “of a talent of pure gold shall it be made” (Exodus 25:39).,The Gemara asks: bIs that sothat all of Solomon’s gold was exhausted for the fashioning of the Candelabrum and its vessels? bBut isn’t it written: “And all King Solomon’s drinking vessels were of gold, and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon were of pure gold;silver was nothing accounted of in the days of Solomon”(II Chronicles 9:20)? The Gemara answers: bWe are sayingthat Solomon’s bpure goldwas exhausted for the fashioning of the Candelabrum, but not all of his gold.,The Gemara asks: bAnd wouldrefining the gold breduceit bto this extent,that one thousand talents of gold would be reduced to one talent? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: An incidentoccurred where the weight of bthe Candelabrum of the Temple wasfound to be bgreater thanthe weight of the Candelabrum bof Moses byone iKordikinigold dinar, and they placed it in the furnace eighty times untilthe weight of the Candelabrum bstood atprecisely one btalent.Evidently, putting the Candelabrum into a furnace reduces its weight by very little. The Gemara answers: bOnce it is standing, it is standing,i.e., since the gold was refined to such a degree in the time of Solomon, later when it was refined eighty times it was reduced by the weight of only one dinar.,§ bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Upon the pure Candelabrum”(Leviticus 24:4)? It teaches bthatthe procedure for bfashioning it descended,i.e., was shown to Moses, bfrom the place of purity,i.e., by God, who showed Moses a model of the Candelabrum. The Gemara asks: bIf that is so,is that to say that phrase b“upon the pure Table”(Leviticus 24:6) also teaches bthatthe procedure for bfashioning itwas shown to Moses bfrom the place of purity? Rather,the expression “the bpureTable” teaches, bby inference, that it issusceptible to becoming britually impure. Here too,the expression “the bpureCandelabrum” teaches, bby inference, that it issusceptible to becoming britually impure. /b,The Gemara rejects this: bGranted,the inference drawn btherewith regard to the Table is bin accordance withthat bwhich Reish Lakishsays; bas Reish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Upon the pure Table”(Leviticus 24:6)? The expression “pure Table” teaches, bby inference, that it issusceptible to becoming britually impure,but why? Isn’t the Table ba wooden vessel designated to restin a fixed place, band any wooden vessel that is designated to restin a fixed place bis not susceptible tobecoming britually impure? Rather,this bteaches thatthe Table was not always left in a fixed place; the priests would bliftthe Table with its shewbread bto display the shewbread to the pilgrimsstanding in the Temple courtyard, banda priest would bsay to them: See your affection before the Omnipresent.For this reason, the Table is susceptible to becoming ritually impure.,Parenthetically, the Gemara asks: bWhatis meant by: See byour affectionbefore God? It is bin accordance withthat bwhich Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levisays, bas Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: A great miracle was performed with the shewbread:Its condition at the time of bits removalfrom the Table, after having been left there for a week, was blikeits condition at the time of bits arrangementon the Table, bas it is stated: “To place hot bread on the day when it was taken away”(I Samuel 21:7), indicating that it was as hot on the day of its removal as it was on the day when it was placed on the Table.,The Gemara resumes stating its objection: bBut here,with regard to the Candelabrum, there is no reason to explain that the expression “the bpureCandelabrum” teaches, bby inference, that it issusceptible to becoming britually impure;this is bobvious,as the Candelabrums bare metal vessels, and metal vessels are susceptible tobecoming britually impurewhether or not they remain in a fixed location. bRather,it must be that the expression “the pure Candelabrum” teaches bthatthe procedure for bfashioning it descended,i.e., was shown to Moses, bfrom the place of purity. /b,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: An Ark of fire and a Table of fire and a Candelabrum of fire descended from the Heavens, and Moses sawtheir format band fashionedthe vessels for the Tabernacle bin their likeness. As it is statedafter the command to fashion these items: b“And see that you make them after their pattern, which is being shown to you in the mount”(Exodus 25:40).,The Gemara asks: bIf that is so,is that to say that the verse: b“And you shall set up the Tabernacle according to its fashion which has been shown to you in the mount”(Exodus 26:30), balsoindicates that God showed Moses a Tabernacle of fire? The Gemara answers: bHere,with regard to the Tabernacle, bit is written: “According to its fashion,”meaning that it should be built according to the instructions given to Moses, whereas bthere,with regard to the Ark, Table, and Candelabrum, bit is written: “After their pattern,”indicating that an actual model of the items was shown to Moses.,Apropos this discussion the Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:The angel bGabrielwas bgirded with a type ofwide bbelt [ ipesikiyya /i]in the manner of artisans who tie up their clothes to prevent these clothes from hindering them in their work. bAnd he showedthe precise bway to fashion the Candelabrum to Moses, as it is written: “And this is the work of the Candelabrum”(Numbers 8:4), and the term “this” indicates that an exact replica was shown to him., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Three matters were difficult for Mosesto comprehend precisely, buntil the Holy One, Blessed be He, showedthem to bhim with His finger, and these arethe three matters: The form of the bCandelabrum, andthe exact size of the bnew moon, andthe impure bcreeping animals.The bCandelabrumwas shown to him, bas it is written: “And this is the work of the Candelabrum”(Numbers 8:4). The bnew moonwas shown to him, bas it is written: “This month shall be for you the beginning of months”(Exodus 12:2). The bcreeping animalswere shown to him, bas it is written: “And these are they which are unclean for youamong the swarming things” (Leviticus 11:29). bAnd there arethose bwho saythat God balsoshowed Moses bthe ihalakhotof slaughtering, as it is stated: “Now this is that which you shall sacrifice upon the altar”(Exodus 29:38), and slaughtering is the first ritual of sacrifice.,§ The mishna teaches: With regard to the btwo passages that are in the imezuza /i,the absence of beach prevents fulfillment of the mitzva with the others. Andfurthermore, the absence of beven one letter prevents fulfillment of the mitzva withthe rest of bthem.The Gemara asks: Isn’t it bobviousthat the absence of even one letter prevents fulfillment of the mitzva, since it is written: “And you shall write them [ iukhtavtam /i]” (Deuteronomy 6:9), which teaches that the writing [ iketav /i] must be complete [ itam /i]?, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:It bwas necessaryto state that bonlyto teach that even the absence of bthe thorn,i.e., the small stroke, bofa letter iyod /iprevents fulfillment of the mitzva. The Gemara asks: bButisn’t bthis also obvious,since the letter is not formed properly? bRather,it is necessary baccording to anotherstatement bthat Rav Yehuda saysthat bRavsays, bas Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Any letter that is not encircled withblank bparchment onall bfour of its sides,i.e., where its ink connects to the letter above it, below it, preceding it, or succeeding it, is bunfit.When the mishna makes reference to one letter preventing fulfillment of the mitzva, it is referring to a letter that touches an adjacent letter., bAshiyan bar Nadbakh says in the name of Rav Yehuda:If bthe innerpart bofthe letter ihehwas perforatedit is bfit,but if the perforation was in bthe leg ofthe letter ihehit is bunfit. Rabbi Zeira says:This matter was bexplained to me by Rav Huna, and Rabbi Ya’akov says:This matter was bexplained to me by Rav Yehuda:If bthe innerpart bofthe letter ihehwas perforatedit is bfit.In a case where the perforation was in bthe leg ofthe letter iheh /i, then bif there remained inthe leg that is attached to the roof of the letter bthe equivalent of the measure of a small letter,i.e., the letter iyod /i, then it is bfit. But if not,it is bunfit. /b,The Gemara relates: bAgra, the father-in-law of Rabbi Abba, /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. רבא אמר כיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק וכן אמר רב ששת כיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק,ואף רב הדר ביה דאמר רב חננאל אמר רב מונה עשרים ואחד יום כדרך שמונה עשרה ימים מר"ה עד יוה"כ ומתחיל וכיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק והלכתא כיון שהתחיל שוב אינו פוסק:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big עד מתי שואלין את הגשמים ר' יהודה אומר עד שיעבור הפסח ר' מאיר אומר עד שיצא ניסן שנאמר (יואל ב, כג) ויורד לכם גשם יורה ומלקוש בראשון:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק יורה בניסן יורה במרחשון הוא (דתנן) יורה במרחשון ומלקוש בניסן א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן בימי יואל בן פתואל נתקיים מקרא זה דכתיב ביה (יואל א, ד) יתר הגזם אכל הארבה וגו' אותה שנה יצא אדר ולא ירדו גשמים ירדה להם רביעה ראשונה באחד בניסן,אמר להם נביא לישראל צאו וזרעו אמרו לו מי שיש לו קב חטים או קבים שעורין יאכלנו ויחיה או יזרענו וימות אמר להם אעפ"כ צאו וזרעו נעשה להם נס ונתגלה להם מה שבכתלין ומה שבחורי נמלים,יצאו וזרעו שני ושלישי ורביעי וירדה להם רביעה שניה בחמשה בניסן הקריבו עומר בששה עשר בניסן נמצאת תבואה הגדילה בששה חדשים גדילה באחד עשר יום נמצא עומר הקרב מתבואה של ששה חדשים קרב מתבואה של אחד עשר יום,ועל אותו הדור הוא אומר (תהלים קכו, ה) הזורעים בדמעה ברנה יקצרו הלך ילך ובכה נושא משך הזרע וגו' מאי הלך ילך ובכה נושא משך וגו' א"ר יהודה שור כשהוא חורש הולך ובוכה ובחזירתו אוכל חזיז מן התלם וזהו בא יבא ברנה,מאי נושא אלומותיו א"ר חסדא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא קנה זרת שיבולת זרתים,א"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מאי דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגם בא אל הארץ שבע שנים בהנך שבע שנים מאי אכול,א"ל הכי אמר רבי יוחנן שנה ראשונה אכלו מה שבבתים שניה אכלו מה שבשדות שלישית בשר בהמה טהורה רביעית בשר בהמה טמאה חמישית בשר שקצים ורמשים ששית בשר בניהם ובנותיהם שביעית בשר זרועותיהם לקיים מה שנאמר (ישעיהו ט, יט) איש בשר זרועו יאכלו,וא"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מאי דכתיב (הושע יא, ט) בקרבך קדוש ולא אבוא בעיר משום דבקרבך קדוש לא אבוא בעיר א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אמר הקב"ה לא אבוא בירושלים של מעלה עד שאבוא לירושלים של מטה,ומי איכא ירושלים למעלה אין דכתיב (תהלים קכב, ג) ירושלם הבנויה כעיר שחוברה לה יחדיו,וא"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו י, ח) ובאחת יבערו ויכסלו מוסר הבלים עץ הוא א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אחת היא שמבערת רשעים בגיהנם מאי היא ע"ז כתיב הכא מוסר הבלים עץ הוא וכתיב התם (ירמיהו י, טו) הבל המה מעשה תעתועים,וא"ל רב נחמן לר' יצחק מ"ד (ירמיהו ב, יג) כי שתים רעות עשה עמי תרתין הוא דהוו עשרין וארבע שביקא להו א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אחת שהיא 5a. bRava saidan alternative suggestion: bOnce one has startedto mention rain, bhe no longer stops,i.e., he continues the mention of rain consistently until the summer. bAnd, so too, Rav Sheshet said: Once one has startedto mention rain, bhe no longer stops.In other words, once one has begun to mention rain in his prayers in the additional prayer on the Eighth Day of Assembly, he continues to do so uninterrupted, even in the Diaspora.,The Gemara adds: bAnd even Rav retractedhis previously stated opinion, bas Rav Ḥael saidthat bRav said: One counts twenty-one daysfrom Rosh HaShana, just bas one counts ten days from Rosh HaShana until Yom Kippur. Andafter the twenty-one days, bone startsto mention rain, band once one has started, he no longer stops.The Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion that bonce one has startedto mention rain, bhe no longer stops. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bUntil when does one request rain? Rabbi Yehuda says:We request rain buntil Passover has passed. Rabbi Meir says: Untilthe month of bNisan has ended, as it is stated: “And He causes to come down for you the rain,the bfirst rain andthe blast rain, in the firstmonth” (Joel 2:23). Since the verse states that it rains in Nisan, the first month, this indicates that the entire month is considered part of the rainy season., strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak:Is the bfirst rain in Nisan?The bfirst rain is in Marḥeshvan, as we learnedin a ibaraita /i: bThe first rainis bin Marḥeshvan and the last rainis bin Nisan.Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRav Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: This verse was fulfilled in the days ofthe prophet bJoel, son of Pethuel,in a year bconcerningwhich bit is written: “That which the palmer-worm has left, the locust has eatenand that which the locust has left, the canker-worm has eaten; and that which the canker-worm has left, the caterpillar has eaten” (Joel 1:4), when no crops remained. In bthat year,the month of bAdar ended andstill bno rain had fallen.The rain of the bfirst rainy season fell for them on the first of Nisan. /b,After the first rain fell, bthe prophet said to the Jews: Go out and sow. They said to him: One who hasone ikavof wheat or two ikavof barleyleft, bshould he eat them and liveoff them for a while bor sow them and die?Given the improbability of the crops’ growth under these circumstances, it appears wasteful to plant them rather than consume that which remains. The prophet bsaid to them: Nevertheless, go out and sow. A miracle occurred for them and they discoveredwheat and barley seeds bthatwere hidden bin the walls and thatwere concealed bin ant holes. /b, bThey went out and sowed on the second, third, and fourthdays of Nisan, bandthe rain of the bsecond rainy season fell for them on the fifth of Nisan.The crops grew so quickly that btheywere able to bsacrificethe iomer /ioffering in its proper time, bon the sixteenth of Nisan. Consequently, grain thatnormally bgrows in six months grew in eleven days, and consequently,the iomerthat isgenerally bsacrificed from grainthat grows bin six months was sacrificedthat year bfrom grainthat grew bin eleven days. /b, bAnd with regard to that generationthe verse bsays: “They who sow in tears shall reap withsongs of bjoy. Though he goes on his way weeping, who bears the measure of seed,he shall come home with joy, bearing his sheaves” (Psalms 126:6). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression: b“Though he goes on his way weeping, who bearsthe measure of seed”? bRabbi Yehuda said: An ox, when it plowedat that time, bit wenton its way bweepingand lamenting its labor; bandyet bupon its return,through the same furrow, bitwas able to beat the young shoots [ iḥaziz /i]of crops that had already sprouted bfrom the furrow. And this isthe meaning of the phrase: b“He shall come home withsongs of bjoy.” /b,The Gemara further asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression: b“Bearing his sheaves”? Rav Ḥisda said, and some say this was taught in a ibaraita /i:The bstalkof that crop was one bspan,i.e., the distance between the thumb and the little finger, while the bearitself was btwo spans,i.e., the ears were twice as long as the stalk, whereas usually the stalk is three or four times longer than the ear.,§ Incidental to the interpretation of these verses, the Gemara cites a series of verses, starting with the topic of hunger, that also involve questions that Rav Naḥman posed to Rabbi Yitzḥak. bRav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For the Lord has called upon a famine and it shall also come upon the land seven years”(II Kings 8:1)? Specifically, bin those seven years, whatdid they beat? /b,Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRabbi Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows:In bthe first year they atethat bwhich was in their houses;in bthe secondyear bthey atethat bwhich was in their fields;in bthe thirdyear they ate the bmeat oftheir remaining bkosher animals;in bthe fourthyear they ate the bmeat oftheir remaining bnon-kosher animals;in bthe fifthyear they ate the bmeat of repugt creatures and creeping animals,i.e., any insects they found; in bthe sixthyear they ate the bflesh of their sons and their daughters;and in bthe seventhyear they ate the bflesh of theirown barms, to fulfill that which is stated: “Each man shall eat the flesh of his own arm”(Isaiah 9:19)., bAnd Rav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “It is sacred in your midst, and I will not enter the city”(Hosea 11:9)? This verse is puzzling: bBecause it is sacred in your midst, willGod bnot enter the city?Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRav Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa saidthe verse should be understood bas follows: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I shall not enter Jerusalem above,in heaven, buntil I enter Jerusalemon earth down bbelowat the time of the redemption, when it will be sacred in your midst.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is theresuch a place as bJerusalem above?The Gemara answers: bYes, as it is written: “Jerusalem built up, a city unified together”(Psalms 122:3). The term unified indicates that there are two cities of Jerusalem, a heavenly one and an earthly one, which are bound together.,§ bAnd Rav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “And with one they are brutish and foolish, the teaching of their vanity is a stock”(Jeremiah 10:8)? Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRabbi Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: There is onetransgression bthat causes the wicked to burn in Gehenna. What is thistransgression? bIdol worship.This can be proven by a verbal analogy. bIt is written here: “The teaching of their vanity [ ihevel /i] is a stock,” and it is written there,with regard to idols: b“They are vanity [ ihevel /i], a work of delusion”(Jeremiah 10:15)., bAnd Rav Naḥman said to Rabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For my people have committed two evils”(Jeremiah 2:13)? bWere thereonly btwoevils they performed? Were, then, the btwenty-fourviolations listed in the book of Ezekiel babandoned,i.e., pardoned? Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid toRav Naḥman that bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows:They have violated bonetransgression bthat is /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam, gods handiwork, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
adultery Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
akiva, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
allelujah Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
anderson, gary a. Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 139
angels Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 139
archangel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
autobiography, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 350
blow, seventy Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 350
body Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 350
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 350
compassionate Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 350
covenant, disobedience to Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 350
death penalty Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
divine presence Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 139
divorce, law/halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
fair, sentence Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
forgiveness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
fountain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 350
fragrances, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
glory, lord, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
god, father of the whole creation, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
god, handiwork of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
god, hands of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
god, holy one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
god, jael, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
grounds for divorce Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
hillel the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
holiness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 350, 835
judgment, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 350
judgment Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 350
man (humanity), the body as gods image Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 178
marriage Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 178
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
meir, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
pharisaic-rabbinic (tradition) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
philo Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
prayers, angelic Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 835
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
shammai Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 178
shammai (see also subject index) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
tabernacle, model of, shown to moses Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 139
tabernacle Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 139
temple, in heaven, in rabbinic literature Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 139
temple, third/new temple, ready to descend from heaven' Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 139
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
women, position of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88
yohanan (ben nappaha), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 88