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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6286
Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 1.1


עַל־כֵּן עֲלֵיכֶם כָּלְאוּ שָמַיִם מִטָּל וְהָאָרֶץ כָּלְאָה יְבוּלָהּ׃In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, in the first day of the month, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet unto Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, saying:


בִּשְׁנַת שְׁתַּיִם לְדָרְיָוֶשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשִּׁשִּׁי בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה בְּיַד־חַגַּי הַנָּבִיא אֶל־זְרֻבָּבֶל בֶּן־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל פַּחַת יְהוּדָה וְאֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן־יְהוֹצָדָק הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל לֵאמֹר׃In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, in the first day of the month, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet unto Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, saying:


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

25 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 28.48 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.48. וְעָבַדְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ יְהוָה בָּךְ בְּרָעָב וּבְצָמָא וּבְעֵירֹם וּבְחֹסֶר כֹּל וְנָתַן עֹל בַּרְזֶל עַל־צַוָּארֶךָ עַד הִשְׁמִידוֹ אֹתָךְ׃ 28.48. therefore shalt thou serve thine enemy whom the LORD shall send against thee, in hunger, and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things; and he shall put a yoke of iron upon thy neck, until he have destroyed thee."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.1, 40.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.1. בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְצֵאת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה בָּאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינָי׃ 19.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵךְ אֶל־הָעָם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּם הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר וְכִבְּסוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם׃ 40.17. וַיְהִי בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 19.1. In the third month after the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai." 40.17. And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the tabernacle was reared up."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 7.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.11. בִּשְׁנַת שֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה לְחַיֵּי־נֹחַ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּשִׁבְעָה־עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִבְקְעוּ כָּל־מַעְיְנֹת תְּהוֹם רַבָּה וַאֲרֻבֹּת הַשָּׁמַיִם נִפְתָּחוּ׃ 7.11. In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.5, 23.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.5. וּמֵאֵת עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יִקַּח שְׁנֵי־שְׂעִירֵי עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל אֶחָד לְעֹלָה׃ 23.28. וְכָל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי יוֹם כִּפֻּרִים הוּא לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 16.5. And he shall take of the congregation of the children of Israel two he-goats for a sin-offering, and one ram for a burnt-offering." 23.28. And ye shall do no manner of work in that same day; for it is a day of atonement, to make atonement for you before the LORD your God."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 3.15, 5.18, 9.1, 18.23, 29.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.15. פְּקֹד אֶת־בְּנֵי לֵוִי לְבֵית אֲבֹתָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם כָּל־זָכָר מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ וָמַעְלָה תִּפְקְדֵם׃ 5.18. וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּפָרַע אֶת־רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן עַל־כַּפֶּיהָ אֵת מִנְחַת הַזִּכָּרוֹן מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הִוא וּבְיַד הַכֹּהֵן יִהְיוּ מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים׃ 9.1. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־יִהְיֶה־טָמֵא לָנֶפֶשׁ אוֹ בְדֶרֶךְ רְחֹקָה לָכֶם אוֹ לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וְעָשָׂה פֶסַח לַיהוָה׃ 9.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְמִדְבַּר־סִינַי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 18.23. וְעָבַד הַלֵּוִי הוּא אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהֵם יִשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וּבְתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃ 29.7. וּבֶעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הַזֶּה מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כָּל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ׃ 3.15. ’Number the children of Levi by their fathers’houses, by their families; every male from a month old and upward shalt thou number them.’" 5.18. And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and put the meal-offering of memorial in her hands, which is the meal-offering of jealousy; and the priest shall have in his hand the water of bitterness that causeth the curse." 9.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, saying:" 18.23. But the Levites alone shall do the service of the tent of meeting, and they shall bear their iniquity; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, and among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance." 29.7. And on the tenth day of this seventh month ye shall have a holy convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls; ye shall do no manner of work;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 110.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

110.4. נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה־כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל־דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק׃ 110.4. The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent: 'Thou art a priest for ever After the manner of Melchizedek.'"
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.1. וַיְהִי בִשְׁמוֹנִים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה לְצֵאת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם בַּשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִית בְּחֹדֶשׁ זִו הוּא הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי לִמְלֹךְ שְׁלֹמֹה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּבֶן הַבַּיִת לַיהוָה׃ 6.1. וַיִּבֶן אֶת־היצוע [הַיָּצִיעַ] עַל־כָּל־הַבַּיִת חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת קוֹמָתוֹ וַיֶּאֱחֹז אֶת־הַבַּיִת בַּעֲצֵי אֲרָזִים׃ 6.1. And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month Ziv, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 25.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.8. וּבַחֹדֶשׁ הַחֲמִישִׁי בְּשִׁבְעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ הִיא שְׁנַת תְּשַׁע־עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה לַמֶּלֶךְ נְבֻכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל בָּא נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן רַב־טַבָּחִים עֶבֶד מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 25.8. Now in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of king Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, came Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, unto Jerusalem."
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 22.29, 23.5, 32.1, 52.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.29. אֶרֶץ אֶרֶץ אָרֶץ שִׁמְעִי דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃ 23.5. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וַהֲקִמֹתִי לְדָוִד צֶמַח צַדִּיק וּמָלַךְ מֶלֶךְ וְהִשְׂכִּיל וְעָשָׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה בָּאָרֶץ׃ 32.1. וָאֶכְתֹּב בַּסֵּפֶר וָאֶחְתֹּם וָאָעֵד עֵדִים וָאֶשְׁקֹל הַכֶּסֶף בְּמֹאזְנָיִם׃ 32.1. הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־הָיָה אֶל־יִרְמְיָהוּ מֵאֵת יְהוָה בשנת [בַּשָּׁנָה] הָעֲשִׂרִית לְצִדְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה הִיא הַשָּׁנָה שְׁמֹנֶה־עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה לִנְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר׃ 52.29. בִּשְׁנַת שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה לִנְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר מִירוּשָׁלִַם נֶפֶשׁ שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שְׁלֹשִׁים וּשְׁנָיִם׃ 22.29. O land, land, land, Hear the word of the LORD." 23.5. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous shoot, and he shall reign as king and prosper, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land." 32.1. The word that came to Jeremiah from the LORD in the tenth year of Zedekiah king of Judah, which was the eighteenth year of Nebuchadrezzar." 52.29. in the eighteenth year of Nebuchadrezzar, from Jerusalem, eight hundred thirty and two persons;"
11. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 1.14-1.15, 2.1, 2.6-2.8, 2.10 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.14. וַיָּעַר יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחַ זְרֻבָּבֶל בֶּן־שַׁלְתִּיאֵל פַּחַת יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־רוּחַ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן־יְהוֹצָדָק הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל וְאֶת־רוּחַ כֹּל שְׁאֵרִית הָעָם וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ מְלָאכָה בְּבֵית־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 1.15. בְּיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ בַּשִּׁשִּׁי בִּשְׁנַת שְׁתַּיִם לְדָרְיָוֶשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 2.1. בַּשְּׁבִיעִי בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הָיָה דְּבַר־יְהוָה בְּיַד־חַגַּי הַנָּבִיא לֵאמֹר׃ 2.1. בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לַתְּשִׁיעִי בִּשְׁנַת שְׁתַּיִם לְדָרְיָוֶשׁ הָיָה דְּבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־חַגַּי הַנָּבִיא לֵאמֹר׃ 2.6. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת עוֹד אַחַת מְעַט הִיא וַאֲנִי מַרְעִישׁ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְאֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־הֶחָרָבָה׃ 2.7. וְהִרְעַשְׁתִּי אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם וּבָאוּ חֶמְדַּת כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם וּמִלֵּאתִי אֶת־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה כָּבוֹד אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 2.8. לִי הַכֶּסֶף וְלִי הַזָּהָב נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.14. And the LORD stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, and the spirit of all the remt of the people; and they came and did work in the house of the LORD of hosts, their God," 1.15. in the four and twentieth day of the month, in the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king." 2.1. In the seventh month, in the one and twentieth day of the month, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying:" 2.6. For thus saith the LORD of hosts: Yet once, it is a little while, and I will shake the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land;" 2.7. and I will shake all nations, and the choicest things of all nations shall come, and I will fill this house with glory, saith the LORD of hosts." 2.8. Mine is the silver, and Mine the gold, saith the LORD of hosts." 2.10. In the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying:"
12. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 3.6, 3.8, 5.15 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.6. מִיּוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הֵחֵלּוּ לְהַעֲלוֹת עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה וְהֵיכַל יְהוָה לֹא יֻסָּד׃ 3.8. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית לְבוֹאָם אֶל־בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים לִירוּשָׁלִַם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי הֵחֵלּוּ זְרֻבָּבֶל בֶּן־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל וְיֵשׁוּעַ בֶּן־יוֹצָדָק וּשְׁאָר אֲחֵיהֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם וְכָל־הַבָּאִים מֵהַשְּׁבִי יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּעֲמִידוּ אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה לְנַצֵּחַ עַל־מְלֶאכֶת בֵּית־יְהוָה׃ 5.15. וַאֲמַר־לֵהּ אלה [אֵל] מָאנַיָּא שֵׂא אֵזֶל־אֲחֵת הִמּוֹ בְּהֵיכְלָא דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם וּבֵית אֱלָהָא יִתְבְּנֵא עַל־אַתְרֵהּ׃ 3.6. From the first day of the seventh month began they to offer burnt-offerings unto the LORD; but the foundation of the temple of the LORD was not yet laid." 3.8. Now in the second year of their coming unto the house of God at Jerusalem, in the second month, began Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and the rest of their brethren the priests and the Levites, and all they that were come out of the captivity unto Jerusalem; and appointed the Levites, from twenty years old and upward, to have the oversight of the work of the house of the LORD." 5.15. and he said unto him: Take these vessels, go, put them in the temple that is in Jerusalem, and let the house of God be builded in its place."
13. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month."
14. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 1.1, 1.7, 1.16, 2.1, 2.9, 2.13, 3.8, 4.8, 4.10, 6.12, 6.15 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיַּעַן הָאִישׁ הָעֹמֵד בֵּין־הַהַדַסִּים וַיֹּאמַר אֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח יְהוָה לְהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ׃ 1.1. בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁמִינִי בִּשְׁנַת שְׁתַּיִם לְדָרְיָוֶשׁ הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־זְכַרְיָה בֶּן־בֶּרֶכְיָה בֶּן־עִדּוֹ הַנָּבִיא לֵאמֹר׃ 1.7. בְּיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לְעַשְׁתֵּי־עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ שְׁבָט בִּשְׁנַת שְׁתַּיִם לְדָרְיָוֶשׁ הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־זְכַרְיָה בֶּן־בֶּרֶכְיָהוּ בֶּן־עִדּוֹא הַנָּבִיא לֵאמֹר׃ 1.16. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה שַׁבְתִּי לִירוּשָׁלִַם בְּרַחֲמִים בֵּיתִי יִבָּנֶה בָּהּ נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וקוה [וְקָו] יִנָּטֶה עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 2.1. וָאֶשָּׂא אֶת־עֵינַי וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה אַרְבַּע קְרָנוֹת׃ 2.1. הוֹי הוֹי וְנֻסוּ מֵאֶרֶץ צָפוֹן נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי כְּאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם פֵּרַשְׂתִּי אֶתְכֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.9. וַאֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לָּהּ נְאֻם־יְהוָה חוֹמַת אֵשׁ סָבִיב וּלְכָבוֹד אֶהְיֶה בְתוֹכָהּ׃ 2.13. כִּי הִנְנִי מֵנִיף אֶת־יָדִי עֲלֵיהֶם וְהָיוּ שָׁלָל לְעַבְדֵיהֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁלָחָנִי׃ 3.8. שְׁמַע־נָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל אַתָּה וְרֵעֶיךָ הַיֹּשְׁבִים לְפָנֶיךָ כִּי־אַנְשֵׁי מוֹפֵת הֵמָּה כִּי־הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אֶת־עַבְדִּי צֶמַח׃ 4.8. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 6.12. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה־אִישׁ צֶמַח שְׁמוֹ וּמִתַּחְתָּיו יִצְמָח וּבָנָה אֶת־הֵיכַל יְהוָהּ׃ 6.15. וּרְחוֹקִים יָבֹאוּ וּבָנוּ בְּהֵיכַל יְהוָה וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּן בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 1.1. In the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD unto Zechariah the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet, saying: 1.7. Upon the four and twentieth day of the eleventh month, which is the month Shebat, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD unto Zechariah the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet, saying—" 1.16. Therefore thus saith the LORD: I return to Jerusalem with compassions: My house shall be built in it, saith the LORD of hosts, and a line shall be stretched forth over Jerusalem." 2.1. And I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and behold four horns." 2.9. For I, saith the LORD, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and I will be the glory in the midst of her." 2.13. For, behold, I will shake My hand over them, and they shall be a spoil to those that served them’; and ye shall know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me." 3.8. Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, thou and thy fellows that sit before thee; for they are men that are a sign; for, behold, I will bring forth My servant the Shoot." 4.8. Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:" 4.10. For who hath despised the day of small things? even they shall see with joy the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel, even these seven, which are the eyes of the LORD, that run to and fro through the whole earth.’" 6.12. and speak unto him, saying: Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying: Behold, a man whose name is the Shoot, and who shall shoot up out of his place, and build the temple of the LORD;" 6.15. And they that are far off shall come and build in the temple of the LORD, and ye shall know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me unto you. And it shall come to pass, if ye will diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD your God—.’"
15. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 4.17-4.20 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

16. Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.3.16 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.3.16. Again, I for my part do not commend those men who, when they have become competitors in the games and have already been victorious many times and enjoy fame, are so fond of contest that they do not stop until they are defeated and so end their athletic training; nor on the other hand do I commend those dicers who, if they win one success, throw for double stakes, for I see that the majority of such people become utterly impoverished.
17. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.1, 4.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. אנתה [אַנְתְּ] מַלְכָּא שָׂמְתָּ טְּעֵם דִּי כָל־אֱנָשׁ דִּי־יִשְׁמַע קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְסַנְתֵּרִין וסיפניה [וְסוּפֹּנְיָה] וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא׃ 3.1. נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא עֲבַד צְלֵם דִּי־דְהַב רוּמֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁתִּין פְּתָיֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁת אֲקִימֵהּ בְּבִקְעַת דּוּרָא בִּמְדִינַת בָּבֶל׃ 4.1. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי רֵאשִׁי עַל־מִשְׁכְּבִי וַאֲלוּ עִיר וְקַדִּישׁ מִן־שְׁמַיָּא נָחִת׃ 4.1. אֲנָה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר שְׁלֵה הֲוֵית בְּבֵיתִי וְרַעְנַן בְּהֵיכְלִי׃ 3.1. Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof six cubits; he set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon." 4.1. I Nebuchadnezzar was at rest in my house, and flourishing in my palace."
18. Septuagint, Judith, 4.3, 5.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.3. For they had only recently returned from the captivity, and all the people of Judea were newly gathered together, and the sacred vessels and the altar and the temple had been consecrated after their profanation. 5.19. But now they have returned to their God, and have come back from the places to which they were scattered, and have occupied Jerusalem, where their sanctuary is, and have settled in the hill country, because it was uninhabited.
19. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.17, 5.6, 7.11-7.24, 10.21, 13.18-13.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.17. Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. 5.6. As he says also in another place, "You are a priest forever, After the order of Melchizedek. 7.11. Now if there was perfection through the Levitical priesthood (for under it the people have received the law), what further need was there for another priest to arise after the order of Melchizedek, and not be called after the order of Aaron? 7.12. For the priesthood being changed, there is of necessity a change made also in the law. 7.13. For he of whom these things are said belongs to another tribe, from which no one has officiated at the altar. 7.14. For it is evident that our Lord has sprung out of Judah, about which tribe Moses spoke nothing concerning priesthood. 7.15. This is yet more abundantly evident, if after the likeness of Melchizedek there arises another priest 7.16. who has been made, not after the law of a fleshly commandment, but after the power of an endless life: 7.17. for it is testified, "You are a priest forever, According to the order of Melchizedek. 7.18. For there is an annulling of a foregoing commandment because of its weakness and uselessness 7.19. (for the law made nothing perfect), and a bringing in thereupon of a better hope, through which we draw near to God. 7.20. Inasmuch as he was not made priest without the taking of an oath 7.21. (for they indeed have been made priests without an oath), but he with an oath by him that says of him, "The Lord swore and will not change his mind, 'You are a priest forever, According to the order of Melchizedek'". 7.22. By so much has Jesus become the collateral of a better covet. 7.23. Many, indeed, have been made priests, because they are hindered from continuing by death. 7.24. But he, because he lives forever, has his priesthood unchangeable. 10.21. and having a great priest over the house of God 13.18. Pray for us, for we are persuaded that we have a good conscience, desiring to live honorably in all things. 13.19. I strongly urge you to do this, that I may be restored to you sooner. 13.20. Now may the God of peace, who brought again from the dead the great shepherd of the sheep with the blood of an eternal covet, our Lord Jesus 13.21. make you complete in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is well pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen. 13.22. But I exhort you, brothers, endure the word of exhortation, for I have written to you in few words. 13.23. Know that our brother Timothy has been freed, with whom, if he comes shortly, I will see you.
20. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

66b. שחתן פוסק הוא פוסק פחות חומש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן אין צריך לומר ראשון תלמיד חכם ושני עם הארץ אלא אפילו ראשון עם הארץ ושני תלמיד חכם יכול לומר לאחיך הייתי רוצה ליתן לך אי אפשי ליתן:,פסקה להכניס לו אלף דינר כו': היינו רישא תנא שומא רבה וקתני שומא זוטא תנא שומא דידיה וקתני שומא דידה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big פסקה להכניס לו כספים סלעה נעשה ששה דינרין החתן מקבל עליו עשרה דינרים לקופה לכל מנה ומנה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר הכל כמנהג המדינה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big היינו פוסק כנגדם חמשה עשר מנה,תנא עסקא רבה ותנא עסקא זוטא וצריכא דאי תנא עסקא רבה דנפיש רווחא אבל עסקא זוטא דזוטר רווחא אימא לא צריכא ואי אשמעינן עסקא זוטא דזוטר זיונא אבל עסקא רבה דנפיש זיונא אימא לא צריכא:,החתן מקבל עליו עשרה דינר לקופה: מאי קופה אמר רב אשי קופה של בשמים ואמר רב אשי לא נאמרו דברים הללו אלא בירושלים,בעי רב אשי במנה הנישום או במנה המתקבל,את"ל מנה המתקבל יום ראשון או כל יום ויום את"ל כל יום ויום שבת ראשונה או כל שבת ושבת את"ל כל שבת ושבת חדש ראשון או כל חדש וחדש את"ל כל חדש וחדש שנה ראשונה או כל שנה ושנה תיקו,א"ר יהודה אמר רב מעשה בבתו של נקדימון בן גוריון שפסקו לה חכמים ארבע מאות זהובים לקופה של בשמים לבו ביום אמרה להם כך תפסקו לבנותיכם וענו אחריה אמן:,ת"ר מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה יוצא מירושלים והיו תלמידיו מהלכין אחריו ראה ריבה אחת שהיתה מלקטת שעורים מבין גללי בהמתן של ערביים כיון שראתה אותו נתעטפה בשערה ועמדה לפניו,אמרה לו רבי פרנסני אמר לה בתי מי את אמרה לו בת נקדימון בן גוריון אני אמר לה בתי ממון של בית אביך היכן הלך אמרה לו רבי לא כדין מתלין מתלא בירושלים מלח ממון חסר ואמרי לה חסד ושל בית חמיך היכן הוא אמרה לו בא זה ואיבד את זה,אמרה לו רבי זכור אתה כשחתמת על כתובתי אמר להן לתלמידיו זכור אני כשחתמתי על כתובתה של זו והייתי קורא בה אלף אלפים דינרי זהב מבית אביה חוץ משל חמיה בכה רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואמר אשריכם ישראל בזמן שעושין רצונו של מקום אין כל אומה ולשון שולטת בהם ובזמן שאין עושין רצונו של מקום מוסרן ביד אומה שפלה ולא ביד אומה שפלה אלא ביד בהמתן של אומה שפלה,ונקדימון בן גוריון לא עבד צדקה והתניא אמרו עליו על נקדימון בן גוריון כשהיה יוצא מביתו לבית המדרש כלי מילת היו 66b. the bson-in-law pledgesaccording to the amount of the dowry that the bride brings, bhe pledges one-fifth lessin the marriage contract, which is the actual value of the property., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a ibaraitato expand upon the mishna’s statement that the father is not required to give the second son-in-law the gift that he promised the first son-in-law, as follows. bThe Sages taught: Needless to say,this ruling applies when the bfirstis ba Torah scholar andthe bsecondis ban ignoramus,since the father-in-law has a reason to refuse to give the second a dowry like the first. bBut evenif the bfirstis ban ignoramus andthe bsecondis ba Torah scholar,the father-in-law bmay say: To your brother, I wanted to givethis dowry, but bto you I do not want to giveit, since the obligation incurred was to a specific individual.,The mishna discusses the relationship between the value of the dowry the bride brings in and the amount of money the groom records in the marriage contract, and various examples are illustrated, e.g., if the woman bpledged to bring him one thousanddinars. The Gemara asks: bTheselatter examples in the mishna bare the same as the first clause of the mishna,and they all illustrate the same ficial conditions. Why was it not sufficient to mention only the case of the thousand dinars? The Gemara explains: The itanna bteachesabout ba large appraisalof her substantial property, band healso bteachesabout ba small appraisalin a case where she has minimal property, to illustrate that there is no halakhic difference between them. Similarly, the itanna bteachesabout the husband’s own bappraisalof how to assess how much she must provide, band healso bteachesabout the wife’s own initial bappraisalthat she did and the corresponding amount that he must write., strongMISHNA: /strong If bshe pledged to bring him moneyand not articles to serve as a dowry, bher isela /i,i.e., four dinars, bbecomes sixdinars with respect to the husband’s obligation in the marriage contract. This follows the standard outlined in the previous mishna: The groom increases his obligation by one half since he will profit from this money. Additionally, the bgroom accepts upon himselfto give btendinars bto the accountfor her needs, bfor each and every hundred dinarsthat she brings. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Everythingis bin accordance with the regional custom. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Concerning the first clause, that her iselabecomes six dinars, the Gemara asks: bThis isidentical to that which was taught in the previous mishna, that if she brings one thousand dinars in her dowry, bhe pledges against them fifteen hundred dinars.Why does the mishna cite another example to demonstrate the same principle?,The Gemara responds: The itanna btaughtabout blargeinvestment bcapitaland btaughtabout bsmallinvestment bcapital. Andit is bnecessaryto relate to both situations, bbecause if he taughtonly the case of blarge capital, whichhas babundant profit,you might think that only then does the husband add one-half. bHowever,for bsmall capital, whichhas bsmall profit,you could bsaythat this is bnotthe case. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto also state the principle in this mishna. bAndconversely, bifthe itannahad btaught usonly about bsmall capital,then you might think that bbecauseit has blittle expense,one must add a half. bHowever,with regard to blarge capital,for bwhichthere is babundant expense,you could bsaythat the husband need bnotadd as much. Therefore, it is bnecessaryto state both cases to teach that the husband adds one-half to the sum in any case.,The mishna states that the bson-in-law accepts upon himselfto give bten dinars to the account.The Gemara asks: bWhatis this baccount? Rav Ashi said:It is ban accountfor expenses bof perfumesand cosmetics. bAnd Rav Ashi said: This statement was said onlyfor women bin Jerusalem,where the women are accustomed to using an abundance of perfume.,According to the mishna, the husband must give ten dinars for each and every hundred dinars that she brings. bRav Ashi raises a dilemma:Does this speak bofeach bhundred dinars that are appraisedin her dowry, bor ofeach bhundred dinars that are acceptedby the husband in the marriage contract, which is the appraisal reduced by one-fifth?, bIf you saythat the mishna speaks of each bhundred dinars that is accepted,is the intent that he gives a one-time sum only on the bfirst day oron beach day? If you saythat he gives it bevery day,does he give it only the bfirst weekof marriage bor each week? If you sayhe gives it beach week,does he give it only the bfirst month or each month? If you sayhe gives it beach month,does he give it only the bfirst yearof marriage bor each year?The Gemara does not determine how the calculation must be rendered and with what frequency the husband is required to provide for her cosmetics, and the dilemmas bshall standunresolved.,§ bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:There was ban incident involvingthe bdaughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon. When the Sages designated for her four hundred goldcoins bfor her account of perfumes,from her late husband’s estate, bforuse bon that same day, sheblessed them and bsaid to them: Thisis how byoushould also bpledge for yourown bdaughters, and they answered after her: Amen. /b,Apropos the daughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon, the Gemara relates what later became of her: bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. When he was riding on a donkey and leaving Jerusalem, and his students were walking after himto learn from him, bhe saw a certain young woman who was gathering barley from among the dung of the animals of Arabs.She was so poor that she subsisted on the undigested barley within the dung. bWhen she saw him, she wrapped herself in her hair,as she had nothing else with which to cover herself, and bstood before him. /b, bShe said to him: My teacher, sustain me.He did not recognize her, so bhe said to her: My daughter, who are you? She said to him: I amthe bdaughter of Nakdimon ben Guryon. He said to her: My daughter, the money of your father’s household, where didit bgo?How did you become so poor? bShe said to him: My teacher, is it notthat they bsay such a proverb in Jerusalem: Salt for money is lacking [ iḥaser /i]?There is nothing with which to preserve it and prevent it from being lost. bAnd some saythe proverb asserts that bkindness [ iḥesed /i]is salt for money, i.e., using money for acts of kindness preserves it. He continued to ask her: bAndthe money bof your father-in-law’s house,which was used properly, for benevolent acts, bwhere is it? She said to him: This one came and destroyed that one;all the money was combined, and it was all lost together., bShe said to him: My teacher,do byou remember when you signed on my marriage contract? He said to his students: I remember that when I signed on the marriage contract of thiswoman, band I read in it,it listed ba thousand thousands,i.e., one million bgold dinarsas a dowry bfrom her father’s house, aside from thatwhich was promised her bfrom her father-in-law. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai cried and said: How fortunate are you, Israel,for bwhenIsrael bperforms the will ofthe bOmnipresent, no nation or tonguecan brule over them; and whenIsrael bdoes not perform the will of the Omnipresent, He delivers them into the hand of a lowly nation. Notonly are they delivered binto the hand of a lowly nation, but even into the hand of the animals of a lowly nation,as in the pitiful instance of Nakdimon’s daughter.,The recorded incident implies that Nakdimon lost all of his wealth after having failed to use it for acts of kindness. The Gemara asks: bAnd did not Nakdimon ben Guryon perform charity? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThey said about Nakdimon ben Guryonthat bwhen he would leave his hometo go bto the study hall,there were bfine woolen garmentshis attendants bwould /b
21. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15b. בפרוזבוטי אמר רב פפא וקרו ליה עבדא דמזדבן בטלמי,וכל זה איננו שוה לי מלמד שכל גנזיו של אותו רשע חקוקין על לבו ובשעה שרואה את מרדכי יושב בשער המלך אמר כל זה איננו שוה לי,ואמר ר' אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא עתיד הקב"ה להיות עטרה בראש כל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, ה) ביום ההוא יהיה ה' צבאות לעטרת צבי [וגו'] מאי לעטרת צבי ולצפירת תפארה לעושין צביונו ולמצפין תפארתו יכול לכל ת"ל לשאר עמו למי שמשים עצמו כשירים,ולרוח משפט זה הדן את יצרו וליושב על המשפט זה הדן דין אמת לאמתו ולגבורה זה המתגבר על יצרו משיבי מלחמה שנושאין ונותנין במלחמתה של תורה שערה [אלו ת"ח] שמשכימין ומעריבין בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות,אמרה מדת הדין לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מה נשתנו אלו מאלו אמר לה הקדוש ברוך הוא ישראל עסקו בתורה אומות העולם לא עסקו בתורה,אמר ליה גם אלה ביין שגו ובשכר תעו פקו פליליה אין פקו אלא גיהנם שנאמר (שמואל א כה, לא) ולא תהיה זאת לך לפוקה ואין פליליה אלא דיינין שנאמר (שמות כא, כב) ונתן בפלילים,ותעמד בחצר בית המלך הפנימית א"ר לוי כיון שהגיעה לבית הצלמים נסתלקה הימנה שכינה אמרה (תהלים כב, ב) אלי אלי למה עזבתני שמא אתה דן על שוגג כמזיד ועל אונס כרצון,או שמא על שקראתיו כלב שנאמר (תהלים כב, כא) הצילה מחרב נפשי מיד כלב יחידתי חזרה וקראתו אריה שנאמר (תהלים כב, כב) הושיעני מפי אריה,ויהי כראות המלך את אסתר המלכה אמר רבי יוחנן ג' מלאכי השרת נזדמנו לה באותה שעה אחד שהגביה את צוארה ואחד שמשך חוט של חסד עליה ואחד שמתח את השרביט,וכמה אמר רבי ירמיה שתי אמות היה והעמידו על שתים עשרה ואמרי לה על שש עשרה ואמרי לה על עשרים וארבע במתניתא תנא על ששים וכן אתה מוצא באמתה של בת פרעה וכן אתה מוצא בשיני רשעים דכתיב (תהלים ג, ח) שיני רשעים שברת ואמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי שברת אלא שריבבת רבה בר עופרן אמר משום ר"א ששמע מרבו ורבו מרבו מאתים,ויאמר לה המלך לאסתר המלכה מה בקשתך עד חצי המלכות ותעש חצי המלכות ולא כל המלכות ולא דבר שחוצץ למלכות ומאי ניהו בנין בית המקדש,יבא המלך והמן אל המשתה ת"ר מה ראתה אסתר שזימנה את המן ר"א אומר פחים טמנה לו שנאמר (תהלים סט, כג) יהי שלחנם לפניהם לפח,ר' יהושע אומר מבית אביה למדה שנאמר (משלי כה, כא) אם רעב שונאך האכילהו לחם וגו' ר"מ אומר כדי שלא יטול עצה וימרוד,ר' יהודה אומר כדי שלא יכירו בה שהיא יהודית ר' נחמיה אומר כדי שלא יאמרו ישראל אחות יש לנו בבית המלך ויסיחו דעתן מן הרחמים ר' יוסי אומר כדי שיהא מצוי לה בכל עת ר"ש בן מנסיא אומר אולי ירגיש המקום ויעשה לנו נס,רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר אסביר לו פנים כדי שיהרג הוא והיא רבן גמליאל אומר מלך הפכפכן היה אמר רבי גמליאל עדיין צריכין אנו למודעי דתניא ר' אליעזר המודעי אומר קנאתו במלך קנאתו בשרים,רבה אמר (משלי טז, יח) לפני שבר גאון אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו (ירמיהו נא, לט) בחומם אשית את משתיהם וגו' אשכחיה רבה בר אבוה לאליהו א"ל כמאן חזיא אסתר ועבדא הכי א"ל ככולהו תנאי וככולהו אמוראי,ויספר להם המן את כבוד עשרו ורוב בניו וכמה רוב בניו אמר רב ל' עשרה מתו ועשרה נתלו ועשרה מחזרין על הפתחים,ורבנן אמרי אותן שמחזרין על הפתחים שבעים הויא דכתיב (שמואל א ב, ה) שבעים בלחם נשכרו אל תקרי שבעים אלא שבעים,ורמי בר אבא אמר כולן מאתים ושמונה הוו שנאמר ורוב בניו ורוב בגימטריא מאתן וארביסר הוו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק ורב כתיב,בלילה ההוא נדדה שנת המלך אמר רבי תנחום נדדה שנת מלכו של עולם ורבנן אמרי נדדו עליונים נדדו תחתונים רבא אמר שנת המלך אחשורוש ממש,נפלה ליה מילתא בדעתיה אמר מאי דקמן דזמינתיה אסתר להמן דלמא עצה קא שקלי עילויה דההוא גברא למקטליה הדר אמר אי הכי לא הוה גברא דרחים לי דהוה מודע לי הדר אמר דלמא איכא איניש דעבד בי טיבותא ולא פרעתיה משום הכי מימנעי אינשי ולא מגלו לי מיד ויאמר להביא את ספר הזכרונות דברי הימים,ויהיו נקראים מלמד שנקראים מאיליהן וימצא כתוב כתב מבעי ליה מלמד 15b. basone with the heritage of ba poor man [ iperozeboti /i],as Mordecai had been Haman’s slave master and was aware of Haman’s lowly lineage. bRav Pappa said: And he was called: The slave who was sold fora loaf of bbread. /b,Haman’s previously quoted statement: b“Yet all this avails me nothing”(Esther 5:13), bteaches that all the treasures of that wicked one were engraved on his heart, and when he saw Mordecai sitting at the king’s gate, he said:As long as Mordecai is around, ball thisthat I wear on my heart bavails me nothing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazarfurther bsaidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will be a crown on the head of each and every righteous man. As it is stated: “In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory,and for a diadem of beauty, to the residue of His people” (Isaiah 28:5). bWhat isthe meaning of b“for a crown of glory [ itzevi /i], and for a diadem [ ivelitzefirat /i] of beauty”?A crown bfor those that do His will [ itzivyono /i] anda diadem bfor those that await [ ivelamtzapin /i] His glory.One bmighthave thought that this extends bto allsuch individuals. Therefore, bthe verse states: “To the residue of his people,” to whoever regards himself as a remainder,i.e., small and unimportant like residue. But whoever holds himself in high esteem will not merit this.,Apropos the quotation from Isaiah, the Gemara explains the following verse, which states: “And for a spirit of justice to him that sits in judgment and for strength to them that turn back the battle to the gate” (Isaiah 28:6). b“And for a spirit of justice”; thisis referring to bone who brings hisevil binclination to trialand forces himself to repent. b“To him that sits in judgment”; thisis referring to bone who judges an absolutely true judgment. “And for strength”; thisis referring to bone who triumphs over hisevil binclination. “Them that turn back the battle”;this is referring to those bthat give and takein their discussion of ihalakha bin the battle ofunderstanding bthe Torah. “To the gate”;this is referring to bthe Torah scholars who arrive early and stay lateat the darkened gates bof the synagogues and study halls. /b,The Gemara continues with an episode associated with a verse in Isaiah. bThe Attribute of Justice said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, how are these,referring to the Jewish people, bdifferent from those,the other nations of the world, such that God performs miracles only on behalf of the Jewish people? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toit: bThe Jewish people occupied themselves with Torah,whereas btheother bnations of the world did not occupy themselves with Torah. /b,The Attribute of Justice bsaid to Him: “These also reel through wine, and stagger through strong drink;the priest and the prophet reel through strong drink, they are confused because of wine, they stagger because of strong drink; they reel in vision, bthey stumble [ ipaku /i] in judgment [ ipeliliyya /i]”(Isaiah 28:7). The word ipaku /iin this context is referring bonly to Gehenna, as it is stated: “That this shall not be a cause of stumbling [ ipuka /i] to you”(I Samuel 25:31), bandthe word ipeliliyya /ihere is referring bonly to judges, as it is stated: “And he shall pay as the judges determine [ ibifelilim /i]”(Exodus 21:22). The response of the Attribute of Justice was essentially that the Jewish people have also sinned and are consequently liable to receive punishment.,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the verses of the Megilla. The verse states with regard to Esther: b“And she stood in the inner court of the king’s house”(Esther 5:1). bRabbi Levi said: Once she reached the chamber of the idols,which was in the inner court, bthe Divine Presence left her. Sheimmediately bsaid: “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?”(Psalms 22:2). bPerhapsit is because bYou judge an unintentional sin as oneperformed bintentionally, andan action bdone due tocircumstances bbeyond one’s control asone done bwillingly. /b, bOr perhapsYou have left me bbecausein my prayers bI calledHaman ba dog, as it is stated: “Deliver my soul from the sword; my only one from the hand of the dog”(Psalms 22:21). bSheat once bretracted and called himin her prayers ba lion, as it is statedin the following verse: b“Save me from the lion’s mouth”(Psalms 22:22).,The verse states: b“And so it was, that when the king saw Esther the queenstanding in the court, that she obtained favor in his sight; and the king held out to Esther the golden scepter that was in his hand” (Esther 5:2). bRabbi Yoḥa said: Three ministering angels happened to join her at that time: One that raised up her neck,so that she could stand erect, free of shame; bone that strung a cordof divine bgrace around her,endowing her with charm and beauty; band one that stretched theking’s bscepter. /b, bHow muchwas it stretched? bRabbi Yirmeya said:The scepter bwas two cubits, and he made it twelvecubits. bAnd some saythat he made it bsixteencubits, bandyet bothers say twenty-fourcubits. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i:He made it bsixtycubits. bAnd similarly you find with the arm of Pharaoh’s daughter,which she stretched out to take Moshe. bAnd so too, you find with the teeth of the wicked, as it is written: “You have broken the teeth of the wicked”(Psalms 3:8), with regard to which bReish Lakish said: Do not readit as b“You have broken [ ishibbarta /i],” butas: bYou have enlarged [ isheribavta /i]. Rabba bar oferan said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, who heard it from his teacher, whoin turn heard it bfrom his teacher:The scepter was stretched btwo hundredcubits.,The verse states: b“Then the king said to her” (Esther 5:3), to Esther the queen, “What is your wish, even to half the kingdom, it shall be performed”(Esther 5:6). The Gemara comments that Ahasuerus intended only a limited offer: Only bhalf the kingdom, but not the whole kingdom, and not something that would serve as a barrier to the kingdom,as there is one thing to which the kingdom will never agree. bAnd what is that? The building of the Temple;if that shall be your wish, realize that it will not be fulfilled.,The verse states that Esther requested: “If it seem good unto the king, blet the king and Haman come this day to the banquetthat I have prepared for him” (Esther 5:4). bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhat did Esther see to invite Hamanto the banquet? bRabbi Elazar says: She hid a snare for him, as it is stated: “Let their table become a snare before them”(Psalms 69:23), as she assumed that she would be able to trip up Haman during the banquet., bRabbi Yehoshua says: She learnedto do bthis fromthe Jewish teachings of bher father’s house, as it is stated: “If your enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat”(Proverbs 25:21). bRabbi Meir says:She invited him bin orderthat he be near her at all times, bso that he would not take counsel and rebelagainst Ahasuerus when he discovered that the king was angry with him., bRabbi Yehuda says:She invited Haman bso that it not be found out that she was a Jew,as had she distanced him, he would have become suspicious. bRabbi Neḥemya says:She did this bso that the Jewish people would not say: We have a sister in the king’s house, andconsequently bneglect theirprayers for divine bmercy. Rabbi Yosei says:She acted in this manner, bso thatHaman would balways be on hand for her,as that would enable her to find an opportunity to cause him to stumble before the king. bRabbi Shimon ben Menasya saidthat Esther said to herself: bPerhaps the Omnipresent will take noticethat all are supporting Haman and nobody is supporting the Jewish people, band He will perform for us a miracle. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says:She said to herself: bI will act kindly toward himand thereby bring the king to suspect that we are having an affair; she did so bin order thatboth bhe and she would be killed.Essentially, Esther was willing to be killed with Haman in order that the decree would be annulled. bRabban Gamliel says:Ahasuerus bwas a fickle king,and Esther hoped that if he saw Haman on multiple occasions, eventually he would change his opinion of him. bRabban Gamliel said: We still needthe words of Rabbi Eliezer bHaModa’ito understand why Esther invited Haman to her banquet. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer HaModa’i says: She made the king jealous of him and she made theother bministers jealous of him,and in this way she brought about his downfall., bRabba says:Esther invited Haman to her banquet in order to fulfill that which is stated: b“Pride goes before destruction”(Proverbs 16:18), which indicates that in order to destroy the wicked, one must first bring them to pride. It can be understood according to bAbaye and Rava, who both saythat she invited Haman in order to fulfill the verse: b“When they are heated, I will make feasts for them,and I will make them drunk, that they may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep” (Jeremiah 51:39). The Gemara relates that bRabba bar Avuhonce bhappened upon Elijahthe Prophet and bsaid to him: In accordance with whose understanding did Esther seefit to bact in this manner?What was the true reason behind her invitation? bHe,Elijah, bsaid to him:Esther was motivated by all the reasons previously mentioned and did so bfor allthe reasons previously stated by bthe itanna’imand allthe reasons stated by bthe iamora’im /i. /b,The verse states: b“And Haman recounted to them the glory of his riches, and the multitude of his sons”(Esther 5:11). The Gemara asks: bAnd how manysons did he in fact have that are referred to as b“the multitude of his sons”? Rav said:There were bthirtysons; btenof them bdiedin childhood, bten of them were hangedas recorded in the book of Esther, band tensurvived and were forced to bbeg atother people’s bdoors. /b, bAnd the Rabbis say: Those that begged atother people’s bdoorsnumbered bseventy, as it is written: “Those that were full, have hired themselves out for bread”(I Samuel 2:5). bDo not read it as: “Those that were full” [ iseve’im/b]; brather,read it as bseventy [ ishivim /i],indicating that there were seventy who “hired themselves out for bread.”, bAnd Rami bar Abba said: All ofHaman’s sons together numbered btwo hundred and eight, as it is stated: “And the multitude [ iverov /i] of his sons.”The numerical value of the word iverovequals two hundred and eight, alluding to the number of his sons. The Gemara comments: bButin fact, bthe numerical value [ igimatriyya /i] ofthe word iverovequals two hundred and fourteen,not two hundred and eight. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The word iverovis writtenin the Bible without the second ivav /i, and therefore its numerical value equals two hundred and eight.,The verse states: b“On that night the sleep of the king was disturbed”(Esther 6:1). bRabbi Tanḥum said:The verse alludes to another king who could not sleep; bthe sleep of the King of the universe,the Holy One, Blessed be He, bwas disturbed. And the Sages say:The sleep of bthe higher ones,the angels, bwas disturbed, andthe sleep of bthe lower ones,the Jewish people, bwas disturbed. Rava said:This should be understood bliterally: The sleep of King Ahasueruswas disturbed.,And this was the reason Ahasuerus could not sleep: bA thought occurred to himand bhe saidto himself: bWhat is this before us that Esther has invited Haman? Perhaps they are conspiring against that man,i.e., against me, bto kill him. Hethen bsaid againto himself: bIf this is so, is there no man who loves me and would inform meof this conspiracy? bHethen bsaid againto himself: bPerhaps there is some man who has done a favor for me and I have notproperly brewarded him, and due to thatreason bpeople refrain from revealing to meinformation regarding such plots, as they see no benefit for themselves. bImmediatelyafterward, the verse states: b“And he commanded the book of remembrances of the chronicles to be brought”(Esther 6:1).,The verse states: b“And they were readbefore the king” (Esther 6:1). The Gemara explains that bthispassive form: “And they were read,” bteaches that they were readmiraculously bby themselves.It further says: b“And it was found written [ ikatuv /i]”(Esther 6:2). The Gemara asks: Why does the Megilla use the word ikatuv /i, which indicates that it was newly written? bIt should have said: A writing [ iketav /i]was found, which would indicate that it had been written in the past. The Gemara explains: This bteaches /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3b. למנינא אחרינא הוא אמר רב פפא שנת עשרים שנת עשרים לגזירה שוה מה התם לארתחשסתא אף הכא לארתחשסתא,וממאי דמעשה דכסליו קדים דילמא מעשה דניסן קדים,לא ס"ד דתניא דברים שאמר חנני לנחמיה בכסליו אמרן נחמיה למלך בניסן,דברים שאמר חנני לנחמיה בכסליו שנאמר (נחמיה א, א) דברי נחמיה בן חכליה ויהי בחדש כסליו שנת עשרים ואני הייתי בשושן הבירה ויבא חנני אחד מאחי הוא ואנשים מיהודה ואשאלם על היהודים הפליטה אשר נשארו מן השבי ועל ירושלם ויאמרו לי הנשארים אשר נשארו מן השבי שם במדינה ברעה גדולה ובחרפה וחומת ירושלם מפורצת ושעריה נצתו באש,אמרן נחמיה למלך בניסן שנאמר (נחמיה ב, א) ויהי בחדש ניסן שנת עשרים לארתחשסתא המלך יין לפניו ואשא את היין ואתנה למלך ולא הייתי רע לפניו ויאמר לי המלך מדוע פניך רעים ואתה אינך חולה אין זה כי אם רע לב ואירא הרבה מאד ואומר למלך המלך לעולם יחיה מדוע לא ירעו פני אשר העיר בית קברות אבותי חרבה ושעריה אוכלו באש,ויאמר לי המלך על מה זה אתה מבקש ואתפלל אל אלהי השמים ואומר למלך אם על המלך טוב ואם ייטב עבדך לפניך אשר תשלחני אל יהודה אל עיר קברות אבותי ואבננה ויאמר לי המלך והשגל יושבת אצלו עד מתי יהיה מהלכך ומתי תשוב וייטב לפני המלך וישלחני ואתנה לו זמן,מתיב רב יוסף (חגי א, טו) ביום עשרים וארבעה לחדש בששי בשנת שתים לדריוש וכתיב (חגי ב, א) בשביעי (בשנת שתים) בעשרים ואחד לחדש ואם איתא בשביעי בשנת ג' מיבעי ליה,אמר ר' אבהו כורש מלך כשר היה לפיכך מנו לו כמלכי ישראל,מתקיף לה רב יוסף חדא דא"כ קשו קראי אהדדי דכתיב (עזרא ו, טו) ושיציא ביתא דנא עד יום תלתא לירח אדר די היא שנת שית למלכות דריוש מלכא ותניא באותו זמן לשנה הבאה עלה עזרא מבבל וגלותו עמו וכתיב (עזרא ז, ח) ויבא ירושלם בחדש החמישי היא שנת השביעית למלך ואם איתא שנת השמינית מיבעי ליה,ועוד מי דמי התם כורש הכא דריוש תנא הוא כורש הוא דריוש הוא ארתחשסתא כורש שמלך כשר היה ארתחשסתא על שם מלכותו ומה שמו דריוש שמו,מ"מ קשיא א"ר יצחק לא קשיא כאן קודם שהחמיץ כאן לאחר שהחמיץ,מתקיף לה רב כהנא ומי החמיץ והכתיב 3b. bitfollows some bother count. Rav Pappa said:The meaning of the first instance of the expression b“the twentieth year”may be inferred from the second instance of the expression b“the twentieth year” by way of a verbal analogy: Just as therethe reference is to the twentieth year bof Artaxerxes, so too, herethe reference is to the twentieth year bof Artaxerxes. /b,The Gemara raises another question: Even though those two events took place in the same year, bfrom whereis it known bthat the incidentthat occurred bin Kislev took place first? Perhaps the incidentthat occurred bin Nisan took place first,in which case it is possible that even the years of gentile kings are counted from Nisan.,The Gemara answers: bIt should not enter your mindto say this, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe words that Hai told Nehemiah inthe month of bKislev, Nehemiah told the king inthe month of bNisan. /b,The ibaraitaexplains: bThe words that Hai said toNehemiah bin Kislevare bas it is stated: “The words of Nehemiah, son of Hachaliah: And it came to pass in the month Kislev, in the twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the capital, that Hai, one of my brothers, came out of Judah, he and certain men; and I asked them concerning the Jews who had escaped, who were left of the captivity, and concerning Jerusalem. And they said to me: The remt who are left of the captivity there in the province suffer much hardship and insult; and the wall of Jerusalem is broken down, and its gates are burned with fire”(Nehemiah 1:1–3)., bNehemiah told thesewords bto the king in Nisan, as it is stated: “And it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him, and I took up the wine and gave it to the king. Now I had not been before sad in his presence. And the king said to me: Why is your face sad, seeing that you are not sick? This is nothing else but sorrow of the heart. Then I was very much afraid, and I said to the king: Let the king live forever: Why should not my face be sad, when the city, the place of the tombs of my ancestors, lies waste, and its gates are consumed with fire?”(Nehemiah 2:1–3)., b“Then the king said to me: For what do you ask? So I prayed to the God of heaven. And I said to the king: If it please the king, and if your servant has found favor in your sight, that you would send me to Judea, to the city of the graves of my ancestors, that I may rebuild it. And the king said to me, the consort also sitting by him: For how long shall your journey be? And when will you return? So it pleased the king to send me; and I set him a time”(Nehemiah 2:4–6)., bRav Yosef raised an objectionagainst the rule established by Rav Ḥisda that the years of gentile kings are counted from Tishrei from the verse that states: b“On the twenty-fourth day of the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king”(Haggai 1:15), band it is writtenimmediately afterward: b“In the seventh month, in the second year, on the twenty-first day of the month,the word of the Lord came by the prophet Haggai, saying” (Haggai 2:1). bAnd if it were sothat the years of gentile kings are counted from Tishrei, bwhatthe verse bneededto state is: bIn the seventh month in the third year,as a new year had already started for him., bRabbi Abbahu saidin answer to this objection: bCyrus was a virtuous king,and bconsequentlyHaggai bcountedthe years bof hisreign blikethose of bthe kings of Israel,i.e., from Nisan., bRav Yosef strongly objects to thisexplanation for two reasons: bOneobjection is bthat ifthis is bso, the verses contradict each other, as it is written: “And this house was finished on the third of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king”(Ezra 6:15), band it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAt that same time in the following year Ezra went up from Babylonia together with hiscompany of bexiles. And it is writtenin the Bible: b“And he came to Jerusalem in the fifth month, which was in the seventh year of the king”(Ezra 7:8). bAnd if it were sothat this king’s years were counted like those of the kings of Israel, bwhatthe verse bneededto state is: Which was in bthe eighth yearof the king., bAnd further,a second objection: bAreRav Yosef’s objection and Rabbi Abbahu’s resolution bcomparable? There,Rabbi Abbahu speaks of bCyrus,whereas bhere,the verses speak of bDarius,and it was never said about Darius that he was a virtuous king. The Gemara explains: This is not difficult, as the Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: All three names are referring to the same person: bHe is Cyrus; he is Darius;and bhe isalso bArtaxerxes.He was called bCyrus [ iKoresh /i] because he was a virtuous [ ikasher /i] king;he was called bArtaxerxes after his kingdom,i.e., this was his royal title; band what was hisreal bname? Darius was his name. /b,The Gemara notes: bIn any case, it is difficult,as in one place his years are counted from Nisan, whereas in another place they are counted from Tishrei. bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Thisis bnot difficult,as it can be explained as follows: bHere,where his years are counted from Nisan like the kings of Israel, it speaks of him bbefore he became corrupt,whereas bthere,where his years are counted from Tishrei, it speaks of him bafter he became corrupt. /b, bRav Kahana strongly objects to thisexplanation: bDid hereally bbecome corruptafter Ezra went to Eretz Yisrael? bBut isn’t it written: /b
23. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 17 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

24. Anon., Esther Rabbah, 8.7

8.7. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לְהָשִׁיב אֶל מָרְדֳּכָי (אסתר ד, טו), אָמְרָה לוֹ לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת כָּל הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים, אֵלּוּ הֵן י"ג וְי"ד וְט"ו בְּנִיסָן. שָׁלַח לָהּ וַהֲרֵי בָּהֶם יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח, אָמְרָה לוֹ זָקֵן שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, לָמָּה הוּא פֶּסַח. מִיָּד שָׁמַע מָרְדֳּכַי וְהוֹדָה לִדְבָרֶיהָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַיַּעֲבֹר מָרְדֳּכָי וַיַּעַשׂ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוְתָה עָלָיו אֶסְתֵּר. תַּמָּן אָמְרִין שֶׁהֶעֱבִיר יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל פֶּסַח בְּתַעֲנִית. וְעַל אוֹתָהּ צָרָה וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל ה' וַיֹּאמֶר גָּלוּי וְיָדוּעַ לִפְנֵי כִסֵּא כְבוֹדֶךָ אֲדוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים כִּי לֹא מִגַּבְהוּת לֵב וּמֵרוּם עַיִן עָשִׂיתִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא הִשְׁתַּחֲוֵיתִי לְהָמָן, כִּי אִם מִיִּרְאָתְךָ פָּעַלְתִּי זֹאת, לְבִלְתִּי הִשְׁתַּחֲווֹת לוֹ, כִּי יָרֵאתִי מִפָּנֶיךָ לְבִלְתִּי תֵּת כְּבוֹדְךָ לְבָשָׂר וָדָם, וְלֹא רָצִיתִי לְהִשְׁתַּחֲווֹת לְזוּלָתֶךָ, כִּי מִי אֲנִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא אֶשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לְהָמָן עַל תְּשׁוּעַת עַמְךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל, כִּי לוֹחֵךְ הָיִיתִי מִנְעַל רַגְלָיו. וְעַתָּה אֱלֹהֵינוּ הַצִּילֵנוּ נָא מִיָּדוֹ, וְיִפֹּל בַּשַּׁחַת אֲשֶׁר כָּרָה וְיִלָּכֵד בָּרֶשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר טָמַן לְרַגְלֵי חֲסִידֶיךָ, וְיֵדַע הַמַּרְגִּיז הַזֶּה כִּי לֹא שָׁכַחְתָּ הַהַבְטָחָה שֶׁהִבְטַחְתָּנוּ (ויקרא כו, מד): וְאַף גַּם זֹאת בִּהְיוֹתָם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם לֹא מְאַסְתִּים וְלֹא גְּעַלְתִּים לְכַלֹּתָם לְהָפֵר בְּרִיתִי אִתָּם כִּי אֲנִי ה' אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. מֶה עָשָׂה מָרְדֳּכַי, קִבֵּץ אֶת הַתִּינוֹקוֹת וְעִנָּה אוֹתָם מִלֶּחֶם וּמַיִם, וְהִלְבִּישָׁן שָׂק וְהוֹשִׁיבָם בָּאֵפֶר, וְהָיוּ צוֹעֲקִים וּבוֹכִין וְעוֹסְקִין בַתּוֹרָה. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא הָיְתָה אֶסְתֵּר נִפְחֶדֶת מְאֹד מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר צָמְחָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, וַתִּפְשֹׁט בִּגְדֵּי מַלְכוּתָהּ וְאֶת תִּפְאַרְתָּהּ, וַתִּלְבַּשׁ שַׂק, וַתִּפְרַע שְׂעַר רֹאשָׁהּ וַתְּמַלֵּא אוֹתוֹ עָפָר וָאֵפֶר, וַתְּעַנֶּה נַפְשָׁהּ בְּצוֹם, וַתִּפֹּל עַל פָּנֶיהָ לִפְנֵי ה' וַתִּתְפַּלֵל, וַתֹּאמַר, ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר מָשַׁלְתָּ מִימֵי קֶדֶם, וּבָרָאתָ אֶת הָעוֹלָם, עֲזֹר נָא אֲמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁאַרְתִּי יְתוֹמָה בְּלִי אָב וָאֵם, וּמְשׁוּלָה לַעֲנִיָּה שׁוֹאֶלֶת מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת, כֵּן אָנֹכִי שׁוֹאֶלֶת רַחֲמֶיךָ מֵחַלּוֹן לְחַלּוֹן בְּבֵית אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, וְעַתָּה ה' הַצְלִיחָה נָא לַאֲמָתְךָ הָעֲנִיָּה הַזֹּאת וְהַצִּילָה אֶת צֹאן מַרְעִיתֶךָ מִן הָאוֹיְבִים הָאֵלּוּ אֲשֶׁר קָמוּ עָלֵינוּ, כִּי אֵין לְךָ מַעֲצֹר לְהוֹשִׁיעַ בְּרַב אוֹ בִמְעָט. וְאַתָּה אֲבִי יְתוֹמִים עֲמֹד נָא לִימִין הַיְתוֹמָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר בְּחַסְדְּךָ בָטְחָה, וּתְנָה אוֹתִי לְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי הָאִישׁ הַזֶּה כִּי יְרֵאתִיו, וְהַשְׁפִּילֵהוּ לְפָנַי כִּי אַתָּה מַשְׁפִּיל גֵּאִים.
25. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 1.12



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 29
ahab Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 87
alexander the great Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1007
artaxerxes i Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1000, 1009
atonement Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 245
blessings Gera, Judith (2014) 136
book of judith, chronology Gera, Judith (2014) 136
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 349
councils and conferences Gera, Judith (2014) 136
crucifixion Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 29
ctesias Gera, Judith (2014) 136
daniel, book, lxx versions Gera, Judith (2014) 136
day of atonement Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 245
eliezer (or elazar), rabbi, ben shamua Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 88
exile, captivity, and return, exodus, story of Gera, Judith (2014) 136
fire Gera, Judith (2014) 136
gold, statue Gera, Judith (2014) 136
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 136
jehoshaphat Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 87
law Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 29
lxx/septuagint/septuaginta Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 171
malachi Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 171
medes and media Gera, Judith (2014) 136
nebuchadnezzar, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 136
nebuchadnezzar, historical Gera, Judith (2014) 136
nebuchadnezzar of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 136
nehemiah Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1000, 1004
neusner, jacob' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 88
passover Gera, Judith (2014) 136
pharaoh Gera, Judith (2014) 136
prostration and bowing Gera, Judith (2014) 136
ptolemy i Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1007
ptolemy ii Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1007
rabbis Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1000
red sea Gera, Judith (2014) 136
regulations pertaining to Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 245
septimus severus Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1010
septuagint/septuaginta/lxx Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 171
septuagint Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 29
shadrach, meshach, abed-nego Gera, Judith (2014) 136
sheshbazzar Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1009, 1010
sparta Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1004
spring Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1004
statues Gera, Judith (2014) 136
talmud Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 171
temple Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1005, 1008, 1009, 1010; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 245
thucydides Gera, Judith (2014) 136
tissaphernes Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1004
vitae prophetarum Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 171
xenophon Gera, Judith (2014) 136
zechariah, date of prophecies against persia Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1004, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1008
zerubabel Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1005, 1006, 1008, 1009, 1010