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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6285
Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2.19


הוֹי אֹמֵר לָעֵץ הָקִיצָה עוּרִי לְאֶבֶן דּוּמָם הוּא יוֹרֶה הִנֵּה־הוּא תָּפוּשׂ זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וְכָל־רוּחַ אֵין בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃Woe unto him that saith to the wood: ‘Awake’, To the dumb stone: ‘Arise! ’ Can this teach? Behold, it is overlaid with gold and silver, And there is no breath at all in the midst of it.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.28, 28.36, 28.64, 29.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.28. וַעֲבַדְתֶּם־שָׁם אֱלֹהִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם עֵץ וָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִרְאוּן וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּן וְלֹא יֹאכְלוּן וְלֹא יְרִיחֻן׃ 28.36. יוֹלֵךְ יְהוָה אֹתְךָ וְאֶת־מַלְכְּךָ אֲשֶׁר תָּקִים עָלֶיךָ אֶל־גּוֹי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ וְעָבַדְתָּ שָּׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עֵץ וָאָבֶן׃ 28.64. וֶהֱפִיצְךָ יְהוָה בְּכָל־הָעַמִּים מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעָבַדְתָּ שָּׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ עֵץ וָאָבֶן׃ 29.17. פֶּן־יֵשׁ בָּכֶם אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה אוֹ מִשְׁפָּחָה אוֹ־שֵׁבֶט אֲשֶׁר לְבָבוֹ פֹנֶה הַיּוֹם מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָלֶכֶת לַעֲבֹד אֶת־אֱלֹהֵי הַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם פֶּן־יֵשׁ בָּכֶם שֹׁרֶשׁ פֹּרֶה רֹאשׁ וְלַעֲנָה׃ 4.28. And there ye shall serve gods, the work of men’s hands, wood and stone, which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell." 28.36. The LORD will bring thee, and thy king whom thou shalt set over thee, unto a nation that thou hast not known, thou nor thy fathers; and there shalt thou serve other gods, wood and stone." 28.64. And the LORD shall scatter thee among all peoples, from the one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth; and there thou shalt serve other gods, which thou hast not known, thou nor thy fathers, even wood and stone." 29.17. lest there should be among you man, or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart turneth away this day from the LORD our God, to go to serve the gods of those nations; lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.3-20.5, 20.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.3. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 20.23. וְלֹא־תַעֲלֶה בְמַעֲלֹת עַל־מִזְבְּחִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תִגָּלֶה עֶרְוָתְךָ עָלָיו׃ 20.3. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;" 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 20.23. Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered thereon."
3. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 7.13, 8.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.13. אוֹי לָהֶם כִּי־נָדְדוּ מִמֶּנִּי שֹׁד לָהֶם כִּי־פָשְׁעוּ בִי וְאָנֹכִי אֶפְדֵּם וְהֵמָּה דִּבְּרוּ עָלַי כְּזָבִים׃ 8.4. הֵם הִמְלִיכוּ וְלֹא מִמֶּנִּי הֵשִׂירוּ וְלֹא יָדָעְתִּי כַּסְפָּם וּזְהָבָם עָשׂוּ לָהֶם עֲצַבִּים לְמַעַן יִכָּרֵת׃ 7.13. Woe unto them! for they have strayed from Me; Destruction unto them! for they have transgressed against Me; Shall I then redeem them, Seeing they have spoken lies against Me?" 8.4. They have set up kings, but not from Me, they have made princes, and I knew it not; of their silver and their gold have they made them idols, that they may be cut off."
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 42.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

42.6. עַל־כֵּן אֶמְאַס וְנִחַמְתִּי עַל־עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃ 42.6. Wherefore I abhor my words, and repent, Seeing I am dust and ashes."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 26.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.1. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֱלִילִם וּפֶסֶל וּמַצֵּבָה לֹא־תָקִימוּ לָכֶם וְאֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית לֹא תִתְּנוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת עָלֶיהָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 26.1. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם יָשָׁן נוֹשָׁן וְיָשָׁן מִפְּנֵי חָדָשׁ תּוֹצִיאוּ׃ 26.1. Ye shall make you no idols, neither shall ye rear you up a graven image, or a pillar, neither shall ye place any figured stone in your land, to bow down unto it; for I am the LORD your God."
6. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 2.1, 2.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. הוֹי חֹשְׁבֵי־אָוֶן וּפֹעֲלֵי רָע עַל־מִשְׁכְּבוֹתָם בְּאוֹר הַבֹּקֶר יַעֲשׂוּהָ כִּי יֶשׁ־לְאֵל יָדָם׃ 2.1. קוּמוּ וּלְכוּ כִּי לֹא־זֹאת הַמְּנוּחָה בַּעֲבוּר טָמְאָה תְּחַבֵּל וְחֶבֶל נִמְרָץ׃ 2.3. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי חֹשֵׁב עַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָה הַזֹּאת רָעָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תָמִישׁוּ מִשָּׁם צַוְּארֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא תֵלְכוּ רוֹמָה כִּי עֵת רָעָה הִיא׃ 2.1. Woe to them that devise iniquity And work evil upon their beds! When the morning is light, they execute it, Because it is in the power of their hand." 2.3. Therefore thus saith the LORD: Behold, against this family do I devise an evil, From which ye shall not remove your necks, Neither shall ye walk upright; for it shall be an evil time."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.22-1.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.22. עַד־מָתַי פְּתָיִם תְּאֵהֲבוּ פֶתִי וְלֵצִים לָצוֹן חָמְדוּ לָהֶם וּכְסִילִים יִשְׂנְאוּ־דָעַת׃ 1.23. תָּשׁוּבוּ לְתוֹכַחְתִּי הִנֵּה אַבִּיעָה לָכֶם רוּחִי אוֹדִיעָה דְבָרַי אֶתְכֶם׃ 1.22. ’How long, ye thoughtless, will ye love thoughtlessness? And how long will scorners delight them in scorning, And fools hate knowledge?" 1.23. Turn you at my reproof; behold, I will pour out my spirit unto you, I will make known my words unto you."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 7.12, 9.7-9.8, 96.12-96.13, 98.8-98.9, 115.4-115.8, 135.15-135.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.12. אֱלֹהִים שׁוֹפֵט צַדִּיק וְאֵל זֹעֵם בְּכָל־יוֹם׃ 9.7. הָאוֹיֵב תַּמּוּ חֳרָבוֹת לָנֶצַח וְעָרִים נָתַשְׁתָּ אָבַד זִכְרָם הֵמָּה׃ 9.8. וַיהוָה לְעוֹלָם יֵשֵׁב כּוֹנֵן לַמִּשְׁפָּט כִּסְאוֹ׃ 96.12. יַעֲלֹז שָׂדַי וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ אָז יְרַנְּנוּ כָּל־עֲצֵי־יָעַר׃ 96.13. לִפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי בָא כִּי בָא לִשְׁפֹּט הָאָרֶץ יִשְׁפֹּט־תֵּבֵל בְּצֶדֶק וְעַמִּים בֶּאֱמוּנָתוֹ׃ 115.4. עֲ‍צַבֵּיהֶם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃ 115.5. פֶּה־לָהֶם וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ׃ 115.6. אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִשְׁמָעוּ אַף לָהֶם וְלֹא יְרִיחוּן׃ 115.7. יְדֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְמִישׁוּן רַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְהַלֵּכוּ לֹא־יֶהְגּוּ בִּגְרוֹנָם׃ 115.8. כְּמוֹהֶם יִהְיוּ עֹשֵׂיהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בֹּטֵחַ בָּהֶם׃ 135.15. עֲצַבֵּי הַגּוֹיִם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃ 135.16. פֶּה־לָהֶם וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ׃ 135.17. אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יַאֲזִינוּ אַף אֵין־יֶשׁ־רוּחַ בְּפִיהֶם׃ 135.18. כְּמוֹהֶם יִהְיוּ עֹשֵׂיהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בֹּטֵחַ בָּהֶם׃ 7.12. God is a righteous judge, Yea, a God that hath indignation every day:" 9.7. O thou enemy, the waste places are come to an end for ever; And the cities which thou didst uproot, Their very memorial is perished." 9.8. But the LORD is enthroned for ever; He hath established His throne for judgment." 96.12. Let the field exult; and all that is therein; Then shall all the trees of the wood sing for joy;" 96.13. Before the LORD, for He is come; For He is come to judge the earth; He will judge the world with righteousness, And the peoples in His faithfulness." 115.4. Their idols are silver and gold, The work of men's hands." 115.5. They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not;" 115.6. They have ears, but they hear not; Noses have they, but they smell not;" 115.7. They have hands, but they handle not; Feet have they, but they walk not; Neither speak they with their throat. ." 115.8. They that make them shall be like unto them; Yea, every one that trusteth in them." 135.15. The idols of the nations are silver and gold, The work of men's hands." 135.16. They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not;" 135.17. They have ears, but they hear not; Neither is there any breath in their mouths." 135.18. They that make them shall be like unto them; Yea, every one that trusteth in them."
9. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 2.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.15. זֹאת הָעִיר הָעַלִּיזָה הַיּוֹשֶׁבֶת לָבֶטַח הָאֹמְרָה בִּלְבָבָהּ אֲנִי וְאַפְסִי עוֹד אֵיךְ הָיְתָה לְשַׁמָּה מַרְבֵּץ לַחַיָּה כֹּל עוֹבֵר עָלֶיהָ יִשְׁרֹק יָנִיעַ יָדוֹ׃ 2.15. This is the joyous city That dwelt without care, That said in her heart: ‘I am, and there is none else beside me’; How is she become a desolation, A place for beasts to lie down in! Every one that passeth by her Shall hiss, and wag his hand."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.48 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.48. וְשָׁבוּ אֵלֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבָם וּבְכָל־נַפְשָׁם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר־שָׁבוּ אֹתָם וְהִתְפַּלְלוּ אֵלֶיךָ דֶּרֶךְ אַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה לַאֲבוֹתָם הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בָּחַרְתָּ וְהַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בנית [בָּנִיתִי] לִשְׁמֶךָ׃ 8.48. if they return unto Thee with all their heart and with all their soul in the land of their enemies, who carried them captive, and pray unto Thee toward their land, which Thou gavest unto their fathers, the city which Thou hast chosen, and the house which I have built for Thy name;"
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 19.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.18. וְנָתְנוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּאֵשׁ כִּי לֹא אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה כִּי אִם־מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי־אָדָם עֵץ וָאֶבֶן וַיְאַבְּדוּם׃ 19.18. and have cast their gods into the fire; for they were no gods, but the work of men’s hands, wood and stone; therefore they have destroyed them."
12. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 6.1, 6.4-6.7 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

6.1. הוֹי הַשַּׁאֲנַנִּים בְּצִיּוֹן וְהַבֹּטְחִים בְּהַר שֹׁמְרוֹן נְקֻבֵי רֵאשִׁית הַגּוֹיִם וּבָאוּ לָהֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 6.1. וּנְשָׂאוֹ דּוֹדוֹ וּמְסָרְפוֹ לְהוֹצִיא עֲצָמִים מִן־הַבַּיִת וְאָמַר לַאֲשֶׁר בְּיַרְכְּתֵי הַבַּיִת הַעוֹד עִמָּךְ וְאָמַר אָפֶס וְאָמַר הָס כִּי לֹא לְהַזְכִּיר בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 6.4. הַשֹּׁכְבִים עַל־מִטּוֹת שֵׁן וּסְרֻחִים עַל־עַרְשׂוֹתָם וְאֹכְלִים כָּרִים מִצֹּאן וַעֲגָלִים מִתּוֹךְ מַרְבֵּק׃ 6.5. הַפֹּרְטִים עַל־פִּי הַנָּבֶל כְּדָוִיד חָשְׁבוּ לָהֶם כְּלֵי־שִׁיר׃ 6.6. הַשֹּׁתִים בְּמִזְרְקֵי יַיִן וְרֵאשִׁית שְׁמָנִים יִמְשָׁחוּ וְלֹא נֶחְלוּ עַל־שֵׁבֶר יוֹסֵף 6.7. לָכֵן עַתָּה יִגְלוּ בְּרֹאשׁ גֹּלִים וְסָר מִרְזַח סְרוּחִים׃ 6.1. Woe to them that are at ease in Zion, And to them that are secure in the mountain of Samaria, The notable men of the first of the nations, To whom the house of Israel come!" 6.4. That lie upon beds of ivory, And stretch themselves upon their couches, And eat the lambs out of the flock, And the calves out of the midst of the stall;" 6.5. That thrum on the psaltery, That devise for themselves instruments of music, like David;" 6.6. That drink wine in bowls, And anoint themselves with the chief ointments; But they are not grieved for the hurt of Joseph." 6.7. Therefore now shall they go captive at the head of them that go captive, And the revelry of them that stretched themselves shall pass away."
13. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2.6, 2.9, 2.15 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.6. הֲלוֹא־אֵלֶּה כֻלָּם עָלָיו מָשָׁל יִשָּׂאוּ וּמְלִיצָה חִידוֹת לוֹ וְיֹאמַר הוֹי הַמַּרְבֶּה לֹּא־לוֹ עַד־מָתַי וּמַכְבִּיד עָלָיו עַבְטִיט׃ 2.9. הוֹי בֹּצֵעַ בֶּצַע רָע לְבֵיתוֹ לָשׂוּם בַּמָּרוֹם קִנּוֹ לְהִנָּצֵל מִכַּף־רָע׃ 2.15. הוֹי מַשְׁקֵה רֵעֵהוּ מְסַפֵּחַ חֲמָתְךָ וְאַף שַׁכֵּר לְמַעַן הַבִּיט עַל־מְעוֹרֵיהֶם׃ 2.6. Shall not all these take up a parable against him, And a taunting riddle against him, And say: ‘Woe to him that increaseth that which is not his! How long? and that ladeth himself with many pledges! ’" 2.9. Woe to him that gaineth evil gains for his house, That he may set his nest on high, That he may be delivered from the power of evil!" 2.15. Woe unto him that giveth his neighbour drink, That puttest thy venom thereto, and makest him drunken also, That thou mayest look on their nakedness!"
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.20, 3.9, 3.11, 10.1-10.2, 10.4-10.6, 28.4, 30.22, 31.7, 37.19, 40.18, 44.9-44.20, 46.1, 46.3, 46.5-46.6, 46.8-46.9, 46.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.9. הַכָּרַת פְּנֵיהֶם עָנְתָה בָּם וְחַטָּאתָם כִּסְדֹם הִגִּידוּ לֹא כִחֵדוּ אוֹי לְנַפְשָׁם כִּי־גָמְלוּ לָהֶם רָעָה׃ 3.11. אוֹי לְרָשָׁע רָע כִּי־גְמוּל יָדָיו יֵעָשֶׂה לּוֹ׃ 10.1. כַּאֲשֶׁר מָצְאָה יָדִי לְמַמְלְכֹת הָאֱלִיל וּפְסִילֵיהֶם מִירוּשָׁלִַם וּמִשֹּׁמְרוֹן׃ 10.1. הוֹי הַחֹקְקִים חִקְקֵי־אָוֶן וּמְכַתְּבִים עָמָל כִּתֵּבוּ׃ 10.2. לְהַטּוֹת מִדִּין דַּלִּים וְלִגְזֹל מִשְׁפַּט עֲנִיֵּי עַמִּי לִהְיוֹת אַלְמָנוֹת שְׁלָלָם וְאֶת־יְתוֹמִים יָבֹזּוּ׃ 10.2. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא־יוֹסִיף עוֹד שְׁאָר יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפְלֵיטַת בֵּית־יַעֲקֹב לְהִשָּׁעֵן עַל־מַכֵּהוּ וְנִשְׁעַן עַל־יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּאֱמֶת׃ 10.4. בִּלְתִּי כָרַע תַּחַת אַסִּיר וְתַחַת הֲרוּגִים יִפֹּלוּ בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־שָׁב אַפּוֹ וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה׃ 10.5. הוֹי אַשּׁוּר שֵׁבֶט אַפִּי וּמַטֶּה־הוּא בְיָדָם זַעְמִי׃ 10.6. בְּגוֹי חָנֵף אֲשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ וְעַל־עַם עֶבְרָתִי אֲצַוֶּנּוּ לִשְׁלֹל שָׁלָל וְלָבֹז בַּז ולשימו [וּלְשׂוּמוֹ] מִרְמָס כְּחֹמֶר חוּצוֹת׃ 28.4. וְהָיְתָה צִיצַת נֹבֵל צְבִי תִפְאַרְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ גֵּיא שְׁמָנִים כְּבִכּוּרָהּ בְּטֶרֶם קַיִץ אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶה הָרֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ בְּעוֹדָהּ בְּכַפּוֹ יִבְלָעֶנָּה׃ 30.22. וְטִמֵּאתֶם אֶת־צִפּוּי פְּסִילֵי כַסְפֶּךָ וְאֶת־אֲפֻדַּת מַסֵּכַת זְהָבֶךָ תִּזְרֵם כְּמוֹ דָוָה צֵא תֹּאמַר לוֹ׃ 31.7. כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִמְאָסוּן אִישׁ אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וֶאֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לָכֶם יְדֵיכֶם חֵטְא׃ 37.19. וְנָתֹן אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּאֵשׁ כִּי לֹא אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה כִּי אִם־מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי־אָדָם עֵץ וָאֶבֶן וַיְאַבְּדוּם׃ 40.18. וְאֶל־מִי תְּדַמְּיוּן אֵל וּמַה־דְּמוּת תַּעַרְכוּ לוֹ׃ 44.9. יֹצְרֵי־פֶסֶל כֻּלָּם תֹּהוּ וַחֲמוּדֵיהֶם בַּל־יוֹעִילוּ וְעֵדֵיהֶם הֵמָּה בַּל־יִרְאוּ וּבַל־יֵדְעוּ לְמַעַן יֵבֹשׁוּ׃ 44.11. הֵן כָּל־חֲבֵרָיו יֵבֹשׁוּ וְחָרָשִׁים הֵמָּה מֵאָדָם יִתְקַבְּצוּ כֻלָּם יַעֲמֹדוּ יִפְחֲדוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ יָחַד׃ 44.12. חָרַשׁ בַּרְזֶל מַעֲצָד וּפָעַל בַּפֶּחָם וּבַמַּקָּבוֹת יִצְּרֵהוּ וַיִּפְעָלֵהוּ בִּזְרוֹעַ כֹּחוֹ גַּם־רָעֵב וְאֵין כֹּחַ לֹא־שָׁתָה מַיִם וַיִּיעָף׃ 44.13. חָרַשׁ עֵצִים נָטָה קָו יְתָאֲרֵהוּ בַשֶּׂרֶד יַעֲשֵׂהוּ בַּמַּקְצֻעוֹת וּבַמְּחוּגָה יְתָאֳרֵהוּ וַיַּעֲשֵׂהוּ כְּתַבְנִית אִישׁ כְּתִפְאֶרֶת אָדָם לָשֶׁבֶת בָּיִת׃ 44.14. לִכְרָת־לוֹ אֲרָזִים וַיִּקַּח תִּרְזָה וְאַלּוֹן וַיְאַמֶּץ־לוֹ בַּעֲצֵי־יָעַר נָטַע אֹרֶן וְגֶשֶׁם יְגַדֵּל׃ 44.15. וְהָיָה לְאָדָם לְבָעֵר וַיִּקַּח מֵהֶם וַיָּחָם אַף־יַשִּׂיק וְאָפָה לָחֶם אַף־יִפְעַל־אֵל וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ עָשָׂהוּ פֶסֶל וַיִּסְגָּד־לָמוֹ׃ 44.16. חֶצְיוֹ שָׂרַף בְּמוֹ־אֵשׁ עַל־חֶצְיוֹ בָּשָׂר יֹאכֵל יִצְלֶה צָלִי וְיִשְׂבָּע אַף־יָחֹם וְיֹאמַר הֶאָח חַמּוֹתִי רָאִיתִי אוּר׃ 44.17. וּשְׁאֵרִיתוֹ לְאֵל עָשָׂה לְפִסְלוֹ יסגוד־[יִסְגָּד־] לוֹ וְיִשְׁתַּחוּ וְיִתְפַּלֵּל אֵלָיו וְיֹאמַר הַצִּילֵנִי כִּי אֵלִי אָתָּה׃ 44.18. לֹא יָדְעוּ וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כִּי טַח מֵרְאוֹת עֵינֵיהֶם מֵהַשְׂכִּיל לִבֹּתָם׃ 44.19. וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶל־לִבּוֹ וְלֹא דַעַת וְלֹא־תְבוּנָה לֵאמֹר חֶצְיוֹ שָׂרַפְתִּי בְמוֹ־אֵשׁ וְאַף אָפִיתִי עַל־גֶּחָלָיו לֶחֶם אֶצְלֶה בָשָׂר וְאֹכֵל וְיִתְרוֹ לְתוֹעֵבָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לְבוּל עֵץ אֶסְגּוֹד׃ 46.1. כָּרַע בֵּל קֹרֵס נְבוֹ הָיוּ עֲצַבֵּיהֶם לַחַיָּה וְלַבְּהֵמָה נְשֻׂאֹתֵיכֶם עֲמוּסוֹת מַשָּׂא לַעֲיֵפָה׃ 46.1. מַגִּיד מֵרֵאשִׁית אַחֲרִית וּמִקֶּדֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נַעֲשׂוּ אֹמֵר עֲצָתִי תָקוּם וְכָל־חֶפְצִי אֶעֱשֶׂה׃ 46.3. שִׁמְעוּ אֵלַי בֵּית יַעֲקֹב וְכָל־שְׁאֵרִית בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל הַעֲמֻסִים מִנִּי־בֶטֶן הַנְּשֻׂאִים מִנִּי־רָחַם׃ 46.5. לְמִי תְדַמְיוּנִי וְתַשְׁווּ וְתַמְשִׁלוּנִי וְנִדְמֶה׃ 46.6. הַזָּלִים זָהָב מִכִּיס וְכֶסֶף בַּקָּנֶה יִשְׁקֹלוּ יִשְׂכְּרוּ צוֹרֵף וְיַעֲשֵׂהוּ אֵל יִסְגְּדוּ אַף־יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ׃ 46.8. זִכְרוּ־זֹאת וְהִתְאֹשָׁשׁוּ הָשִׁיבוּ פוֹשְׁעִים עַל־לֵב׃ 46.9. זִכְרוּ רִאשֹׁנוֹת מֵעוֹלָם כִּי אָנֹכִי אֵל וְאֵין עוֹד אֱלֹהִים וְאֶפֶס כָּמוֹנִי׃ 46.13. קֵרַבְתִּי צִדְקָתִי לֹא תִרְחָק וּתְשׁוּעָתִי לֹא תְאַחֵר וְנָתַתִּי בְצִיּוֹן תְּשׁוּעָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל תִּפְאַרְתִּי׃ 2.20. In that day a man shall cast away His idols of silver, and his idols of gold, Which they made for themselves to worship, To the moles and to the bats;" 3.9. The show of their countece doth witness against them; And they declare their sin as Sodom, they hide it not. Woe unto their soul! For they have wrought evil unto themselves." 3.11. Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill with him; For the work of his hands shall be done to him." 10.1. Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, And to the writers that write iniquity;" 10.2. To turn aside the needy from judgment, And to take away the right of the poor of My people, That widows may be their spoil, And that they may make the fatherless their prey!" 10.4. They can do nought except crouch under the captives, And fall under the slain. For all this His anger is not turned away, But His hand is stretched out still." 10.5. O Asshur, the rod of Mine anger, In whose hand as a staff is Mine indignation!" 10.6. I do send him against an ungodly nation, And against the people of My wrath do I give him a charge, To take the spoil, and to take the prey, And to tread them down like the mire of the streets." 28.4. And the fading flower of his glorious beauty, Which is on the head of the fat valley, Shall be as the first-ripe fig before the summer, Which when one looketh upon it, While it is yet in his hand he eateth it up." 30.22. And ye shall defile thy graven images overlaid with silver, And thy molten images covered with gold; Thou shalt put them far away as one unclean; Thou shalt say unto it: ‘Get thee hence.’" 31.7. For in that day they shall cast away every man his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, Which your own hands have made unto you for a sin." 37.19. and have cast their gods into the fire; for they were no gods, but the work of men’s hands, wood and stone; therefore they have destroyed them." 40.18. To whom then will ye liken God? Or what likeness will ye compare unto Him?" 44.9. They that fashion a graven image are all of them vanity, And their delectable things shall not profit; And their own witnesses see not, nor know; That they may be ashamed." 44.10. Who hath fashioned a god, or molten an image That is profitable for nothing?" 44.11. Behold, all the fellows thereof shall be ashamed; And the craftsmen skilled above men; Let them all be gathered together, let them stand up; They shall fear, they shall be ashamed together." 44.12. The smith maketh an axe, And worketh in the coals, and fashioneth it with hammers, And worketh it with his strong arm; Yea, he is hungry, and his strength faileth; He drinketh no water, and is faint." 44.13. The carpenter stretcheth out a line; He marketh it out with a pencil; He fitteth it with planes, And he marketh it out with the compasses, And maketh it after the figure of a man, According to the beauty of a man, to dwell in the house." 44.14. He heweth him down cedars, And taketh the ilex and the oak, And strengtheneth for himself one among the trees of the forest; He planteth a bay-tree, and the rain doth nourish it." 44.15. Then a man useth it for fuel; And he taketh thereof, and warmeth himself; Yea, he kindleth it, and baketh bread; Yea, he maketh a god, and worshippeth it; He maketh it a graven image, and falleth down thereto." 44.16. He burneth the half thereof in the fire; With the half thereof he eateth flesh; He roasteth roast, and is satisfied; Yea, he warmeth himself, and saith: ‘Aha, I am warm, I have seen the fire’;" 44.17. And the residue thereof he maketh a god, even his graven image; He falleth down unto it and worshippeth, and prayeth unto it, And saith: ‘Deliver me, for thou art my god.’" 44.18. They know not, neither do they understand; For their eyes are bedaubed, that they cannot see, And their hearts, that they cannot understand." 44.19. And none considereth in his heart, Neither is there knowledge nor understanding to say: ‘I have burned the half of it in the fire; Yea, also I have baked bread upon the coals thereof; I have roasted flesh and eaten it; And shall I make the residue thereof an abomination? Shall I fall down to the stock of a tree?’" 44.20. He striveth after ashes, A deceived heart hath turned him aside, That he cannot deliver his soul, nor say: ‘Is there not a lie in my right hand?’" 46.1. Bel boweth down, Nebo stoopeth; their idols are upon the beasts, and upon the cattle; the things that ye carried about are made a load, a burden to the weary beast." 46.3. Hearken unto Me, O house of Jacob, and all the remt of the house of Israel, that are borne [by Me] from the birth, that are carried from the womb:" 46.5. To whom will ye liken Me, and make Me equal, and compare Me, that we may be like?" 46.6. Ye that lavish gold out of the bag, and weigh silver in the balance; ye that hire a goldsmith, that he make it a god, to fall down thereto, yea, to worship." 46.8. Remember this, and stand fast; bring it to mind, O ye transgressors." 46.9. Remember the former things of old: That I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like Me;" 46.13. I bring near My righteousness, it shall not be far off, And My salvation shall not tarry; And I will place salvation in Zion For Israel My glory."
15. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.1-10.16, 22.13, 23.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.1. וַיהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֱמֶת הוּא־אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים וּמֶלֶךְ עוֹלָם מִקִּצְפּוֹ תִּרְעַשׁ הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא־יָכִלוּ גוֹיִם זַעְמוֹ׃ 10.1. שִׁמְעוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עֲלֵיכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 10.2. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־דֶּרֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם אַל־תִּלְמָדוּ וּמֵאֹתוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם אַל־תֵּחָתּוּ כִּי־יֵחַתּוּ הַגּוֹיִם מֵהֵמָּה׃ 10.2. אָהֳלִי שֻׁדָּד וְכָל־מֵיתָרַי נִתָּקוּ בָּנַי יְצָאֻנִי וְאֵינָם אֵין־נֹטֶה עוֹד אָהֳלִי וּמֵקִים יְרִיעוֹתָי׃ 10.3. כִּי־חֻקּוֹת הָעַמִּים הֶבֶל הוּא כִּי־עֵץ מִיַּעַר כְּרָתוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי־חָרָשׁ בַּמַּעֲצָד׃ 10.4. בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב יְיַפֵּהוּ בְּמַסְמְרוֹת וּבְמַקָּבוֹת יְחַזְּקוּם וְלוֹא יָפִיק׃ 10.5. כְּתֹמֶר מִקְשָׁה הֵמָּה וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ נָשׂוֹא יִנָּשׂוּא כִּי לֹא יִצְעָדוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ מֵהֶם כִּי־לֹא יָרֵעוּ וְגַם־הֵיטֵיב אֵין אוֹתָם׃ 10.6. מֵאֵין כָּמוֹךָ יְהוָה גָּדוֹל אַתָּה וְגָדוֹל שִׁמְךָ בִּגְבוּרָה׃ 10.7. מִי לֹא יִרָאֲךָ מֶלֶךְ הַגּוֹיִם כִּי לְךָ יָאָתָה כִּי בְכָל־חַכְמֵי הַגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מַלְכוּתָם מֵאֵין כָּמוֹךָ׃ 10.8. וּבְאַחַת יִבְעֲרוּ וְיִכְסָלוּ מוּסַר הֲבָלִים עֵץ הוּא׃ 10.9. כֶּסֶף מְרֻקָּע מִתַּרְשִׁישׁ יוּבָא וְזָהָב מֵאוּפָז מַעֲשֵׂה חָרָשׁ וִידֵי צוֹרֵף תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁם מַעֲשֵׂה חֲכָמִים כֻּלָּם׃ 10.11. כִּדְנָה תֵּאמְרוּן לְהוֹם אֱלָהַיָּא דִּי־שְׁמַיָּא וְאַרְקָא לָא עֲבַדוּ יֵאבַדוּ מֵאַרְעָא וּמִן־תְּחוֹת שְׁמַיָּא אֵלֶּה׃ 10.12. עֹשֵׂה אֶרֶץ בְּכֹחוֹ מֵכִין תֵּבֵל בְּחָכְמָתוֹ וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ נָטָה שָׁמָיִם׃ 10.13. לְקוֹל תִּתּוֹ הֲמוֹן מַיִם בַּשָּׁמַיִם וַיַּעֲלֶה נְשִׂאִים מִקְצֵה ארץ [הָאָרֶץ] בְּרָקִים לַמָּטָר עָשָׂה וַיּוֹצֵא רוּחַ מֵאֹצְרֹתָיו׃ 10.14. נִבְעַר כָּל־אָדָם מִדַּעַת הֹבִישׁ כָּל־צוֹרֵף מִפָּסֶל כִּי שֶׁקֶר נִסְכּוֹ וְלֹא־רוּחַ בָּם׃ 10.15. הֶבֶל הֵמָּה מַעֲשֵׂה תַּעְתֻּעִים בְּעֵת פְּקֻדָּתָם יֹאבֵדוּ׃ 10.16. לֹא־כְאֵלֶּה חֵלֶק יַעֲקֹב כִּי־יוֹצֵר הַכֹּל הוּא וְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֵׁבֶט נַחֲלָתוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 22.13. הוֹי בֹּנֶה בֵיתוֹ בְּלֹא־צֶדֶק וַעֲלִיּוֹתָיו בְּלֹא מִשְׁפָּט בְּרֵעֵהוּ יַעֲבֹד חִנָּם וּפֹעֲלוֹ לֹא יִתֶּן־לוֹ׃ 23.1. הוֹי רֹעִים מְאַבְּדִים וּמְפִצִים אֶת־צֹאן מַרְעִיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 23.1. כִּי מְנָאֲפִים מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ כִּי־מִפְּנֵי אָלָה אָבְלָה הָאָרֶץ יָבְשׁוּ נְאוֹת מִדְבָּר וַתְּהִי מְרוּצָתָם רָעָה וּגְבוּרָתָם לֹא־כֵן׃ 10.1. Hear ye the word which the LORD speaketh unto you, O house of Israel;" 10.2. thus saith the LORD: Learn not the way of the nations, And be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; For the nations are dismayed at them." 10.3. For the customs of the peoples are vanity; For it is but a tree which one cutteth out of the forest, The work of the hands of the workman with the axe." 10.4. They deck it with silver and with gold, They fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not." 10.5. They are like a pillar in a garden of cucumbers, and speak not; They must needs be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them, for they cannot do evil, Neither is it in them to do good." 10.6. There is none like unto Thee, O LORD; Thou art great, and Thy name is great in might." 10.7. Who would not fear Thee, O king of the nations? For it befitteth Thee; Forasmuch as among all the wise men of the nations, and in all their royalty, There is none like unto Thee." 10.8. But they are altogether brutish and foolish: The vanities by which they are instructed are but a stock;" 10.9. Silver beaten into plates which is brought from Tarshish, And gold from Uphaz, The work of the craftsman and of the hands of the goldsmith; Blue and purple is their clothing; They are all the work of skilful men." 10.10. But the LORD God is the true God, He is the living God, and the everlasting King; At His wrath the earth trembleth, And the nations are not able to abide His indignation." 10.11. Thus shall ye say unto them: ‘The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth, these shall perish from the earth, and from under the heavens.’" 10.12. He that hath made the earth by His power, That hath established the world by His wisdom, And hath stretched out the heavens by His understanding;" 10.13. At the sound of His giving a multitude of waters in the heavens, When He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth; When He maketh lightnings with the rain, And bringeth forth the wind out of His treasuries;" 10.14. Every man is proved to be brutish, without knowledge, Every goldsmith is put to shame by the graven image, His molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them." 10.15. They are vanity, a work of delusion; In the time of their visitation they shall perish." 10.16. Not like these is the portion of Jacob; For He is the former of all things, And Israel is the tribe of His inheritance; The LORD of hosts is His name." 22.13. Woe unto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness, And his chambers by injustice; That useth his neighbour’s service without wages, And giveth him not his hire;" 23.1. Woe unto the shepherds that destroy and scatter the sheep of My pasture! saith the LORD."
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 6.11, 13.3, 14.6, 16.17, 16.23, 24.6, 24.9 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.11. כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הַכֵּה בְכַפְּךָ וּרְקַע בְּרַגְלְךָ וֶאֱמָר־אָח אֶל כָּל־תּוֹעֲבוֹת רָעוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדֶּבֶר יִפֹּלוּ׃ 13.3. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הוֹי עַל־הַנְּבִיאִים הַנְּבָלִים אֲשֶׁר הֹלְכִים אַחַר רוּחָם וּלְבִלְתִּי רָאוּ׃ 14.6. לָכֵן אֱמֹר אֶל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה שׁוּבוּ וְהָשִׁיבוּ מֵעַל גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וּמֵעַל כָּל־תּוֹעֲבֹתֵיכֶם הָשִׁיבוּ פְנֵיכֶם׃ 16.17. וַתִּקְחִי כְּלֵי תִפְאַרְתֵּךְ מִזְּהָבִי וּמִכַּסְפִּי אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָךְ וַתַּעֲשִׂי־לָךְ צַלְמֵי זָכָר וַתִּזְנִי־בָם׃ 16.23. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי כָּל־רָעָתֵךְ אוֹי אוֹי לָךְ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 24.6. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה אוֹי עִיר הַדָּמִים סִיר אֲשֶׁר חֶלְאָתָה בָהּ וְחֶלְאָתָהּ לֹא יָצְאָה מִמֶּנָּה לִנְתָחֶיהָ לִנְתָחֶיהָ הוֹצִיאָהּ לֹא־נָפַל עָלֶיהָ גּוֹרָל׃ 24.9. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אוֹי עִיר הַדָּמִים גַּם־אֲנִי אַגְדִּיל הַמְּדוּרָה׃ 6.11. Thus saith the Lord GOD: Smite with thy hand, and stamp with thy foot, and say: Alas! because of all the evil abominations of the house of Israel; for they shall fall by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence." 13.3. Thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe unto the vile prophets, that follow their own spirit, and things which they have not seen!" 14.6. Therefore say unto the house of Israel: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Return ye, and turn yourselves from your idols; and turn away your faces from all your abominations." 16.17. Thou didst also take thy fair jewels of My gold and of My silver, which I had given thee, and madest for thee images of men, and didst play the harlot with them;" 16.23. And it came to pass after all thy wickedness—woe, woe unto thee! saith the Lord GOD—" 24.6. Wherefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe to the bloody city, to the pot whose filth is therein, and whose filth is not gone out of it! bring it out piece by piece; no lot is fallen upon it." 24.9. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe to the bloody city! I also will make the pile great,"
17. Anon., 1 Enoch, 60.24, 94.6-94.7, 94.9, 95.5-95.6, 96.4-96.5, 96.7, 97.7, 98.1, 98.10-98.11, 98.15-98.16, 99.1-99.2, 99.6, 99.8, 99.13-99.14, 103.8-103.15, 104.1-104.6, 104.9-104.13 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

94.6. Woe to those who build unrighteousness and oppression And lay deceit as a foundation; For they shall be suddenly overthrown, And they shall have no peace. 94.7. Woe to those who build their houses with sin; For from all their foundations shall they be overthrown, And by the sword shall they fall. [And those who acquire gold and silver in judgement suddenly shall perish.] 94.9. Ye have committed blasphemy and unrighteousness, And have become ready for the day of slaughter, And the day of darkness and the day of the great judgement. 95.5. Woe to you who requite your neighbour with evil; For ye shall be requited according to your works. 95.6. Woe to you, lying witnesses, And to those who weigh out injustice, For suddenly shall ye perish. 96.4. Woe unto you, ye sinners, for your riches make you appear like the righteous, But your hearts convict you of being sinners, And this fact shall be a testimony against you for a memorial of (your) evil deeds. 96.5. Woe to you who devour the finest of the wheat, And drink wine in large bowls, And tread under foot the lowly with your might. 96.7. Woe to you who work unrighteousness And deceit and blasphemy: It shall be a memorial against you for evil. 97.7. Woe to you, ye sinners, who live on the mid ocean and on the dry land, Whose remembrance is evil against you. 98.1. And now I swear unto you, to the wise and to the foolish, For ye shall have manifold experiences on the earth. 98.1. and so good hap shall not be your portion. And now, know ye that ye are prepared for the day of destruction: wherefore do not hope to live, ye sinners, but ye shall depart and die; for ye know no ransom; for ye are prepared for the day of the great judgement, for the day of tribulation and great shame for your spirits. 98.11. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who work wickedness and eat blood: Whence have ye good things to eat and to drink and to be filled From all the good things which the Lord the Most High has placed in abundance on the earth; therefore ye shall have no peace. 99.1. Woe to you who work godlessness, And glory in lying and extol them: Ye shall perish, and no happy life shall be yours. 99.1. But in those days blessed are all they who accept the words of wisdom, and understand them, And observe the paths of the Most High, and walk in the path of His righteousness, And become not godless with the godless; For they shall be saved. 99.2. Woe to them who pervert the words of uprightness, And transgress the eternal law, And transform themselves into what they were not [into sinners]: They shall be trodden under foot upon the earth. 99.8. And they shall become godless by reason of the folly of their hearts, And their eyes shall be blinded through the fear of their hearts And through visions in their dreams. 99.13. Woe to you who build your houses through the grievous toil of others, And all their building materials are the bricks and stones of sin; I tell you ye shall have no peace. 99.14. Woe to them who reject the measure and eternal heritage of their fathers And whose souls follow after idols; For they shall have no rest. 103.8. And into darkness and chains and a burning flame where there is grievous judgement shall your spirits enter; And the great judgement shall be for all the generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye shall have no peace. 103.9. Say not in regard to the righteous and good who are in life: ' In our troubled days we have toiled laboriously and experienced every trouble, And met with much evil and been consumed, And have become few and our spirit small. 103.11. We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us. 103.12. They have had dominion over us that hated us and smote us; And to those that hated us we have bowed our necks But they pitied us not. 103.13. We desired to get away from them that we might escape and be at rest, But found no place whereunto we should flee and be safe from them. 103.14. And are complained to the rulers in our tribulation, And cried out against those who devoured us, But they did not attend to our cries And would not hearken to our voice. 103.15. And they helped those who robbed us and devoured us and those who made us few; and they concealed their oppression, and they did not remove from us the yoke of those that devoured us and dispersed us and murdered us, and they concealed their murder, and remembered not that they had lifted up their hands against us. 104.1. I swear unto you, that in heaven the angels remember you for good before the glory of the Great 104.1. idols; for all your lying and all your godlessness issue not in righteousness but in great sin. And now I know this mystery, that sinners will alter and pervert the words of righteousness in many ways, and will speak wicked words, and lie, and practice great deceits, and write books concerning 104.2. One: and your names are written before the glory of the Great One. Be hopeful; for aforetime ye were put to shame through ill and affliction; but now ye shall shine as the lights of heaven 104.3. ye shall shine and ye shall be seen, and the portals of heaven shall be opened to you. And in your cry, cry for judgement, and it shall appear to you; for all your tribulation shall be visited on the 104.4. rulers, and on all who helped those who plundered you. Be hopeful, and cast not away your hopes for ye shall have great joy as the angels of heaven. What shall ye be obliged to do Ye shall not have to hide on the day of the great judgement and ye shall not be found as sinners, and the eternal 104.6. judgement shall be far from you for all the generations of the world. And now fear not, ye righteous, when ye see the sinners growing strong and prospering in their ways: be not companions with them 104.9. day and night, see all your sins. Be not godless in your hearts, and lie not and alter not the words of uprightness, nor charge with lying the words of the Holy Great One, nor take account of your 104.11. their words. But when they write down truthfully all my words in their languages, and do not change or minish ought from my words but write them all down truthfully -all that I first testified 104.12. concerning them. Then, I know another mystery, that books will be given to the righteous and the 104.13. wise to become a cause of joy and uprightness and much wisdom. And to them shall the books be given, and they shall believe in them and rejoice over them, and then shall all the righteous who have learnt therefrom all the paths of uprightness be recompensed.'
18. Anon., Jubilees, 22.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

22.18. May the Most High God give thee all the blessings Wherewith he hath blessed me And wherewith He blessed Noah and Adam; May they rest on the sacred head of thy seed from generation to generation for ever.
19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Epistle of Jeremiah, 11, 30, 39, 50, 55, 57-58, 70-71, 8, 10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.32, 2.35, 2.45, 5.4, 5.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.32. הוּא צַלְמָא רֵאשֵׁהּ דִּי־דְהַב טָב חֲדוֹהִי וּדְרָעוֹהִי דִּי כְסַף מְעוֹהִי וְיַרְכָתֵהּ דִּי נְחָשׁ׃ 2.35. בֵּאדַיִן דָּקוּ כַחֲדָה פַּרְזְלָא חַסְפָּא נְחָשָׁא כַּסְפָּא וְדַהֲבָא וַהֲווֹ כְּעוּר מִן־אִדְּרֵי־קַיִט וּנְשָׂא הִמּוֹן רוּחָא וְכָל־אֲתַר לָא־הִשְׁתֲּכַח לְהוֹן וְאַבְנָא דִּי־מְחָת לְצַלְמָא הֲוָת לְטוּר רַב וּמְלָת כָּל־אַרְעָא׃ 2.45. כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־חֲזַיְתָ דִּי מִטּוּרָא אִתְגְּזֶרֶת אֶבֶן דִּי־לָא בִידַיִן וְהַדֶּקֶת פַּרְזְלָא נְחָשָׁא חַסְפָּא כַּסְפָּא וְדַהֲבָא אֱלָהּ רַב הוֹדַע לְמַלְכָּא מָה דִּי לֶהֱוֵא אַחֲרֵי דְנָה וְיַצִּיב חֶלְמָא וּמְהֵימַן פִּשְׁרֵהּ׃ 5.4. אִשְׁתִּיו חַמְרָא וְשַׁבַּחוּ לֵאלָהֵי דַּהֲבָא וְכַסְפָּא נְחָשָׁא פַרְזְלָא אָעָא וְאַבְנָא׃ 5.23. וְעַל מָרֵא־שְׁמַיָּא הִתְרוֹמַמְתָּ וּלְמָאנַיָּא דִי־בַיְתֵהּ הַיְתִיו קדמיך [קָדָמָךְ] ואנתה [וְאַנְתְּ] ורברבניך [וְרַבְרְבָנָךְ] שֵׁגְלָתָךְ וּלְחֵנָתָךְ חַמְרָא שָׁתַיִן בְּהוֹן וְלֵאלָהֵי כַסְפָּא־וְדַהֲבָא נְחָשָׁא פַרְזְלָא אָעָא וְאַבְנָא דִּי לָא־חָזַיִן וְלָא־שָׁמְעִין וְלָא יָדְעִין שַׁבַּחְתָּ וְלֵאלָהָא דִּי־נִשְׁמְתָךְ בִּידֵהּ וְכָל־אֹרְחָתָךְ לֵהּ לָא הַדַּרְתָּ׃ 2.32. As for that image, its head was of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of brass," 2.35. Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken in pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing-floors; and the wind carried them away, so that no place was found for them; and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth." 2.45. Forasmuch as thou sawest that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter; and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.’" 5.4. They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone." 5.23. but hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of His house before thee, and thou and thy lords, thy consorts and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know; and the God in whose hand thy breath is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified;"
21. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.24, 21.6, 28.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.24. Yet to those who repent he grants a return,and he encourages those whose endurance is failing. 21.6. Whoever hates reproof walks in the steps of the sinner,but he that fears the Lord will repent in his heart. 28.7. Remember the commandments, and do not be angry with your neighbor;remember the covet of the Most High, and overlook ignorance.
22. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 13.10, 14.21, 15.7-15.8, 15.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13.10. But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of mens hands,gold and silver fashioned with skill,and likenesses of animals,or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand. 14.21. And this became a hidden trap for mankind,because men, in bondage to misfortune or to royal authority,bestowed on objects of stone or wood the name that ought not to be shared. 15.7. For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides. 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 15.19. and even as animals they are not so beautiful in appearance that one would desire them,but they have escaped both the praise of God and his blessing.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 53-64, 66-76, 81, 52 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Again, what shall we say of those who worship carved works and images? the substances of which, stone and wood, were only a little while before perfectly destitute of shape, before the stone-cutters or wood-cutters hewed them out of the kindred stuff around them, while the remainder of the material, their near relation and brother as it were, is made into ewers, or foot-pans, and other common and dishonoured vessels, which are employed rather for uses of darkness than for such as will bear the light;
25. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.15, 1.30-1.31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. The number seven is also the first number which is compounded of the perfect number, that is to say of six, and of the unit. And in some sense the numbers which are below ten are either generated by, or do themselves generate those numbers which are below ten, and the number ten itself. But the number seven neither generates any of the numbers below ten, nor is it generated by any of them. On which account the Pythagoreans compare this number to the Goddess always a virgin who was born without a mother, because it was not generated by any other, and will not generate any other. VI. 1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker.
26. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 12.32, 12.55-12.83 (1st cent. CE

12.68.  "And, last of all, he showed himself not only a maker of verses but also of words, giving utterance to those of his own invention, in some cases by simply giving his own names to the things and in others adding his new ones to those current, putting, as it were, a bright and more expressive seal upon a seal. He avoided no sound, but in short imitated the voices of rivers and forests, of winds and fire and sea, and also of bronze and of stone, and, in short, of all animals and instruments without exception, whether of wild beasts or of birds or of pipes and reeds. He invented the terms 'clang' (kanache), 'boom' (bombos), 'crash' (ktupos), 'thud' (doupos), 'rattle' (arabos), and spoke of 'roaring rivers,' 'whizzing missiles,' 'thundering waves,' 'raging winds,' and other such terrifying and truly astonishing phenomena, thus filling the mind with great confusion and uproar. 12.69.  Consequently he had no lack of fear-inspiring names for things and of pleasant ones, and also of smooth and rough ones, as well as of those which have countless other differences in both their sounds and their meanings. As a result of this epic art of his he was able to implant in the soul any emotion he wished. "But our art, on the other hand, that which is dependent on the workman's hand and the artist's creative touch, by no means attains to such freedom; but first we need a material substance, a material so tough that it will last, yet can be worked without much difficulty and consequently not easy to procure; we need, too, no small number of assistants. 12.70.  And then, in addition, the sculptor must have worked out for himself a design that shows each subject in one single posture, and that too a posture that admits of no movement and is unalterable, so perfected that it will comprise within itself the whole of the god's nature and power. But for the poets it is perfectly easy to include very many shapes and all sorts of attitudes in their poetry, adding movements and periods of rest to them according to what they consider fitting at any given time, and actions and spoken words, and they have, I imagine, an additional advantage in the matter of difficulty and that of time. For the poet when moved by one single conception and one single impulse of his soul draws forth an immense volume of verses, as if from a gushing spring of water, before the vision and the conception he had grasped can leave him and flow away. But of our art the execution is laborious and slow, advancing with difficulty a step at a time, the reason being, no doubt, that it must work with a rock-like and hard material. 12.71.  "But the most difficult thing of all is that the sculptor must keep the very same image in his mind continuously until he finishes his work, which often takes many years. Indeed, the popular saying that the eyes are more trustworthy than the ears is perhaps true, yet they are much harder to convince and demand much greater clearness; for while the eye agrees exactly with what it sees, it is not impossible to excite and cheat the ear by filling it with representations under the spell of metre and sound. 12.72.  Then again, while the measures of our art are enforced upon us by considerations of numbers and magnitude, the poets have the power to increase even these elements to any extent. For this reason it was easy enough for Homer to give the size of Eris by saying, With humble crest at first, anon her head, While yet she treads the earth, affronts the skies. But I must be content, I suppose, merely to fill up the space designated by Eleans or Athenians. 12.78.  "As for these attributes, then, I have represented them in so far as it was possible to do so, since I was not able to name them. But the god who continually sends the lightning's flash, portending war and the destruction of many or a mighty downpour of rain, or of hail or of snow, or who stretches the dark blue rainbow across the sky, the symbol of war, or who sends a shooting star, which hurls forth a stream of sparks, a dread portent to sailors or soldiers, or who sends grievous strife upon Greeks and barbarians so as to inspire tired and despairing men with unceasing love for war and battle, and the god who weighed in the balance the fates of the godlike men or of whole armies to be decided by its spontaneous inclination — that god, I say, it was not possible to represent by my art; nor assuredly should I ever have desired to do so even had it been possible. 12.79.  For of thunder what sort of soundless image, or of lightning and of the thunderbolt what kind of a likeness without the lightning's flash could by any possibility be made from the metals taken from the subterranean workings of this land at least? Then when the earth was shaken and Olympus was moved by a slight inclination of the eyebrows, or a crown of cloud was about his head, it was easy enough for Homer to describe them, and great was the freedom he enjoyed for all such things; but for our art it is absolutely impossible, for it permits the observer to test it with his eyes from close at hand and in full view.
27. New Testament, 1 Peter, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.5. who will give account to him who is ready to judge the living and the dead.
28. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.9-1.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God 1.10. and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead -- Jesus, who delivers us from the wrath to come.
29. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. I charge you therefore before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who will judge the living and the dead at His appearing and His kingdom:
30. New Testament, Acts, 2.24, 2.32, 2.38, 3.15, 3.17, 3.19, 3.26, 4.10, 5.30, 8.22, 10.40-10.42, 13.27, 13.30, 13.33-13.34, 13.37, 14.16, 17.29, 26.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.24. whom God raised up, having freed him from the agony of death, because it was not possible that he should be held by it. 2.32. This Jesus God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses. 2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 3.15. and killed the Prince of life, whom God raised from the dead, whereof we are witnesses. 3.17. Now, brothers, I know that you did this in ignorance, as did also your rulers. 3.19. Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that so there may come times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord 3.26. God, having raised up his servant, Jesus, sent him to you first, to bless you, in turning away everyone of you from your wickedness. 4.10. be it known to you all, and to all the people of Israel, that in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead, in him does this man stand here before you whole. 5.30. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you killed, hanging him on a tree. 8.22. Repent therefore of this, your wickedness, and ask God if perhaps the thought of your heart may be forgiven you. 10.40. God raised him up the third day, and gave him to be revealed 10.41. not to all the people, but to witnesses who were chosen before by God, to us, who ate and drank with him after he rose from the dead. 10.42. He charged us to preach to the people and to testify that this is he who is appointed by God as the Judge of the living and the dead. 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 14.16. who in the generations gone by allowed all the nations to walk in their own ways. 17.29. Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold, or silver, or stone, engraved by art and device of man. 26.8. Why is it judged incredible with you, if God does raise the dead?
31. New Testament, Apocalypse, 9.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.20. The rest of mankind, who were not killed with these plagues, didn't repent of the works of their hands, that they wouldn't worship demons, and the idols of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood; which can neither see, nor hear, nor walk.
32. New Testament, Romans, 1.18-1.32, 2.16, 3.25, 14.9-14.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness 1.19. because that which is known of God is revealed in them, for God revealed it to them. 1.20. For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. 1.21. Because, knowing God, they didn't glorify him as God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless heart was darkened. 1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 1.26. For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. 1.27. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural function of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another, men doing what is inappropriate with men, and receiving in themselves the due penalty of their error. 1.28. Even as they refused to have God in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not fitting; 1.29. being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil habits, secret slanderers 1.30. backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents 1.31. without understanding, covet-breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 1.32. who, knowing the ordice of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but also approve of those who practice them. 2.16. in the day when God will judge the secrets of men, according to my gospel, by Jesus Christ. 3.25. whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God's forbearance; 14.9. For to this end Christ died, rose, and lived again, that he might be Lord of both the dead and the living. 14.10. But you, why do you judge your brother? Or you again, why do you despise your brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.
33. New Testament, John, 5.22, 5.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.22. For the Father judges no one, but he has given all judgment to the Son 5.27. He also gave him authority to execute judgment, because he is a son of man.
34. New Testament, Luke, 9.22, 15.7, 16.30, 18.33, 20.37, 23.34, 24.5-24.7, 24.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.22. saying, "The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up. 15.7. I tell you that even so there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents, than over ninety-nine righteous people who need no repentance. 16.30. He said, 'No, father Abraham, but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent.' 18.33. They will scourge and kill him. On the third day, he will rise again. 20.37. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord 'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' 23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots. 24.5. Becoming terrified, they bowed their faces down to the earth. They said to them, "Why do you seek the living among the dead? 24.6. He isn't here, but is risen. Remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee 24.7. saying that the Son of Man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again? 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abram/abraham, prayer for ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 515
acts of the apostles Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 634
afterlife, eschatological punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
age/era, present Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 260
areopagus speech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 634
blasphemy/blasphemers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 260
blessing, covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
blessing Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 260
church Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 178
clay Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
covenant, blessings Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
covenant, curses Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
curses Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
day, of great judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 398
day, of unceasing blood Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
deeds, wicked of humans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
divinity Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 178
epicurus, death is nothing Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 634
god Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 178
gold Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
homer Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 515
idols, making/fashioning of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
idols Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
images, material for idols Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
instruction/teaching, false Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
ishmael Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 515
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 515
judgment, final universal Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 634
lady Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 178
land, of israel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
logos Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 515
memory Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 515
metals, fashioning of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
odysseus Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 515
oppression Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
oppressors Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 260
paul, areopagus speech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 634
peace, lack of for the sinners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
penelope Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 515
pentateuch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 515
phidias, depicting god Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 634
poor Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 260
poverty Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 260
prepared, for punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 398
prophetic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
prophets Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 260
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197, 398
repentance, universal Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 634
silver Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
slavery Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 178
soul, as wax tablet Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 515
spirit Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 178
stones, idols Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
sudden/quick destruction Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 197
unrepentance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
vision Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 178
wealth/prosperity, unjust gain of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 260
wealth/prosperity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 260
wisdom Harkins and Maier, Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas (2022) 178
wood Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
worship' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 398
zeus, phidias Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 634