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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.3-9.4


כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all.


אַךְ־בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.


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44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.6, 5.29, 6.1, 7.6, 8.10, 12.15-12.16, 15.23, 30.20, 32.8-32.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.6. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם כִּי הִוא חָכְמַתְכֶם וּבִינַתְכֶם לְעֵינֵי הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁמְעוּן אֵת כָּל־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמְרוּ רַק עַם־חָכָם וְנָבוֹן הַגּוֹי הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה׃ 5.29. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם לֹא תָסֻרוּ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל׃ 6.1. וְזֹאת הַמִּצְוָה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לְלַמֵּד אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 6.1. וְהָיָה כִּי יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לָתֶת לָךְ עָרִים גְּדֹלֹת וְטֹבֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־בָנִיתָ׃ 7.6. כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּךָ בָּחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם סְגֻלָּה מִכֹּל הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 12.15. רַק בְּכָל־אַוַּת נַפְשְׁךָ תִּזְבַּח וְאָכַלְתָּ בָשָׂר כְּבִרְכַּת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ בְּכָל־שְׁעָרֶיךָ הַטָּמֵא וְהַטָּהוֹר יֹאכְלֶנּוּ כַּצְּבִי וְכָאַיָּל׃ 12.16. רַק הַדָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃ 15.23. רַק אֶת־דָּמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵל עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 4.6. Observe therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples, that, when they hear all these statutes, shall say: ‘Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.’" 5.29. Ye shall observe to do therefore as the LORD your God hath commanded you; ye shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left." 6.1. Now this is the commandment, the statutes, and the ordices, which the LORD your God commanded to teach you, that ye might do them in the land whither ye go over to possess it—" 7.6. For thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God: the LORD thy God hath chosen thee to be His own treasure, out of all peoples that are upon the face of the earth." 8.10. And thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless the LORD thy God for the good land which He hath given thee." 12.15. Notwithstanding thou mayest kill and eat flesh within all thy gates, after all the desire of thy soul, according to the blessing of the LORD thy God which He hath given thee; the unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of the gazelle, and as of the hart." 12.16. Only ye shall not eat the blood; thou shalt pour it out upon the earth as water." 15.23. Only thou shalt not eat the blood thereof; thou shalt pour it out upon the ground as water." 30.20. to love the LORD thy God, to hearken to His voice, and to cleave unto Him; for that is thy life, and the length of thy days; that thou mayest dwell in the land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them." 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.7, 2.2, 6.5, 19.1, 21.2, 21.14, 22.24, 23.15, 26.1, 26.35, 31.16, 31.18, 34.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.7. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל פָּרוּ וַיִּשְׁרְצוּ וַיִּרְבּוּ וַיַּעַצְמוּ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד וַתִּמָּלֵא הָאָרֶץ אֹתָם׃ 2.2. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֵּרֶא אֹתוֹ כִּי־טוֹב הוּא וַתִּצְפְּנֵהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יְרָחִים׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָיו וְאַיּוֹ לָמָּה זֶּה עֲזַבְתֶּן אֶת־הָאִישׁ קִרְאֶן לוֹ וְיֹאכַל לָחֶם׃ 6.5. וְגַם אֲנִי שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת־נַאֲקַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר מִצְרַיִם מַעֲבִדִים אֹתָם וָאֶזְכֹּר אֶת־בְּרִיתִי׃ 19.1. בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְצֵאת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה בָּאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינָי׃ 19.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵךְ אֶל־הָעָם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּם הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר וְכִבְּסוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם׃ 21.2. כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְּׁבִעִת יֵצֵא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם׃ 21.2. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם׃ 21.14. וְכִי־יָזִד אִישׁ עַל־רֵעֵהוּ לְהָרְגוֹ בְעָרְמָה מֵעִם מִזְבְּחִי תִּקָּחֶנּוּ לָמוּת׃ 22.24. אִם־כֶּסֶף תַּלְוֶה אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־הֶעָנִי עִמָּךְ לֹא־תִהְיֶה לוֹ כְּנֹשֶׁה לֹא־תְשִׂימוּן עָלָיו נֶשֶׁךְ׃ 23.15. אֶת־חַג הַמַּצּוֹת תִּשְׁמֹר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצּוֹת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִךָ לְמוֹעֵד חֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב כִּי־בוֹ יָצָאתָ מִמִּצְרָיִם וְלֹא־יֵרָאוּ פָנַי רֵיקָם׃ 26.1. וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן תַּעֲשֶׂה עֶשֶׂר יְרִיעֹת שֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר וּתְכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתֹלַעַת שָׁנִי כְּרֻבִים מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם׃ 26.1. וְעָשִׂיתָ חֲמִשִּׁים לֻלָאֹת עַל שְׂפַת הַיְרִיעָה הָאֶחָת הַקִּיצֹנָה בַּחֹבָרֶת וַחֲמִשִּׁים לֻלָאֹת עַל שְׂפַת הַיְרִיעָה הַחֹבֶרֶת הַשֵּׁנִית׃ 26.35. וְשַׂמְתָּ אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן מִחוּץ לַפָּרֹכֶת וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה נֹכַח הַשֻּׁלְחָן עַל צֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן תֵּימָנָה וְהַשֻּׁלְחָן תִּתֵּן עַל־צֶלַע צָפוֹן׃ 31.16. וְשָׁמְרוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לְדֹרֹתָם בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 31.18. וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּכַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינַי שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת לֻחֹת אֶבֶן כְּתֻבִים בְּאֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים׃ 34.22. וְחַג שָׁבֻעֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה לְךָ בִּכּוּרֵי קְצִיר חִטִּים וְחַג הָאָסִיף תְּקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה׃ 1.7. And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them." 2.2. And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months." 6.5. And moreover I have heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered My covet." 19.1. In the third month after the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai." 21.2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing." 21.14. And if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from Mine altar, that he may die." 22.24. If thou lend money to any of My people, even to the poor with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a creditor; neither shall ye lay upon him interest." 23.15. The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep; seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, at the time appointed in the month Abib—for in it thou camest out from Egypt; and none shall appear before Me empty;" 26.1. Moreover thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains: of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, with cherubim the work of the skilful workman shalt thou make them." 26.35. And thou shalt set the table without the veil, and the candlestick over against the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south; and thou shalt put the table on the north side." 31.16. Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covet." 31.18. And He gave unto Moses, when He had made an end of speaking with him upon mount Sinai, the two tables of the testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God." 34.22. And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, even of the first-fruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the turn of the year."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1-2.3, 1.1-2.4, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 1.9, 1.22, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 3, 3.6, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.24, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.10, 4.11, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.18, 5.19, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.17, 7, 7.2, 7.11, 8, 8.3, 8.4, 8.14, 8.20, 8.21, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 10, 15, 17, 17.1, 23.9, 32.23, 32.24, 32.25, 32.26, 32.27, 32.28, 32.29, 32.30, 32.31, 32.32, 32.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 28.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.26. בַּעֲשֹׂתוֹ לַמָּטָר חֹק וְדֶרֶךְ לַחֲזִיז קֹלוֹת׃ 28.26. When He made a decree for the rain, And a way for the storm of thunders;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 3.17, 10.10, 11.2, 11.34, 11.38, 11.47, 15.2-15.30, 17.3-17.6, 17.11-17.16, 18.4-18.5, 18.20, 19.37, 20.24-20.26, 26.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.17. חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־חֵלֶב וְכָל־דָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃ 11.2. כֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.2. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֹאת הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכְלוּ מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.34. מִכָּל־הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא עָלָיו מַיִם יִטְמָא וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל־כְּלִי יִטְמָא׃ 11.38. וְכִי יֻתַּן־מַיִם עַל־זֶרַע וְנָפַל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 11.47. לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֹר וּבֵין הַחַיָּה הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת וּבֵין הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵאָכֵל׃ 15.2. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲמַרְתֶּם אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ זוֹבוֹ טָמֵא הוּא׃ 15.2. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו בְּנִדָּתָהּ יִטְמָא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.3. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאֶחָד חַטָּאת וְאֶת־הָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִזּוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ׃ 15.3. וְזֹאת תִּהְיֶה טֻמְאָתוֹ בְּזוֹבוֹ רָר בְּשָׂרוֹ אֶת־זוֹבוֹ אוֹ־הֶחְתִּים בְּשָׂרוֹ מִזּוֹבוֹ טֻמְאָתוֹ הִוא׃ 15.4. כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא וְכָל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.5. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּמִשְׁכָּבוֹ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.6. וְהַיֹּשֵׁב עַל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.7. וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בִּבְשַׂר הַזָּב יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.8. וְכִי־יָרֹק הַזָּב בַּטָּהוֹר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.9. וְכָל־הַמֶּרְכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִרְכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא׃ 15.11. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַזָּב וְיָדָיו לֹא־שָׁטַף בַּמָּיִם וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.12. וּכְלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַזָּב יִשָּׁבֵר וְכָל־כְּלִי־עֵץ יִשָּׁטֵף בַּמָּיִם׃ 15.13. וְכִי־יִטְהַר הַזָּב מִזּוֹבוֹ וְסָפַר לוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לְטָהֳרָתוֹ וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בְּמַיִם חַיִּים וְטָהֵר׃ 15.14. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִקַּח־לוֹ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וּבָא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּנְתָנָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 15.15. וְעָשָׂה אֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן אֶחָד חַטָּאת וְהָאֶחָד עֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה מִזּוֹבוֹ׃ 15.16. וְאִישׁ כִּי־תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.17. וְכָל־בֶּגֶד וְכָל־עוֹר אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה עָלָיו שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְכֻבַּס בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחֲצוּ בַמַּיִם וְטָמְאוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.19. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־תִהְיֶה זָבָה דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּהְיֶה בְנִדָּתָהּ וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.21. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמִשְׁכָּבָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.22. וְכָל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.23. וְאִם עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב הוּא אוֹ עַל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־הִוא יֹשֶׁבֶת־עָלָיו בְּנָגְעוֹ־בוֹ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.24. וְאִם שָׁכֹב יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ וּתְהִי נִדָּתָהּ עָלָיו וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְכָל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.25. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָזוּב זוֹב דָּמָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים בְּלֹא עֶת־נִדָּתָהּ אוֹ כִי־תָזוּב עַל־נִדָּתָהּ כָּל־יְמֵי זוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ כִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ תִּהְיֶה טְמֵאָה הִוא׃ 15.26. כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר־תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו כָּל־יְמֵי זוֹבָהּ כְּמִשְׁכַּב נִדָּתָהּ יִהְיֶה־לָּהּ וְכָל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר תֵּשֵׁב עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה כְּטֻמְאַת נִדָּתָהּ׃ 15.27. וְכָל־הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּם יִטְמָא וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.28. וְאִם־טָהֲרָה מִזּוֹבָהּ וְסָפְרָה לָּהּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְאַחַר תִּטְהָר׃ 15.29. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּקַּח־לָהּ שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיאָה אוֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 17.3. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִבֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט שׁוֹר אוֹ־כֶשֶׂב אוֹ־עֵז בַּמַּחֲנֶה אוֹ אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 17.4. וְאֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא הֱבִיאוֹ לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן לַיהוָה לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה דָּם יֵחָשֵׁב לָאִישׁ הַהוּא דָּם שָׁפָךְ וְנִכְרַת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ׃ 17.5. לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יָבִיאוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־זִבְחֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר הֵם זֹבְחִים עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה וֶהֱבִיאֻם לַיהוָה אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְזָבְחוּ זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה אוֹתָם׃ 17.6. וְזָרַק הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִקְטִיר הַחֵלֶב לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.12. עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא־תֹאכַל דָּם וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם לֹא־יֹאכַל דָּם׃ 17.13. וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ־עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת־דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר׃ 17.14. כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃ 17.15. וְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה בָּאֶזְרָח וּבַגֵּר וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃ 17.16. וְאִם לֹא יְכַבֵּס וּבְשָׂרוֹ לֹא יִרְחָץ וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 18.4. אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי תַּעֲשׂוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לָלֶכֶת בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.37. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפָּטַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 20.24. וָאֹמַר לָכֶם אַתֶּם תִּירְשׁוּ אֶת־אַדְמָתָם וַאֲנִי אֶתְּנֶנָּה לָכֶם לָרֶשֶׁת אֹתָהּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הִבְדַּלְתִּי אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָעַמִּים׃ 20.25. וְהִבְדַּלְתֶּם בֵּין־הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהֹרָה לַטְּמֵאָה וּבֵין־הָעוֹף הַטָּמֵא לַטָּהֹר וְלֹא־תְשַׁקְּצוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבָעוֹף וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־הִבְדַּלְתִּי לָכֶם לְטַמֵּא׃ 20.26. וִהְיִיתֶם לִי קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה וָאַבְדִּל אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָעַמִּים לִהְיוֹת לִי׃ 26.3. אִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַי תֵּלֵכוּ וְאֶת־מִצְוֺתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם׃ 26.3. וְהִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֶת־בָּמֹתֵיכֶם וְהִכְרַתִּי אֶת־חַמָּנֵיכֶם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־פִּגְרֵיכֶם עַל־פִּגְרֵי גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וְגָעֲלָה נַפְשִׁי אֶתְכֶם׃ 3.17. It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings, that ye shall eat neither fat nor blood." 10.10. And that ye may put difference between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the clean;" 11.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: These are the living things which ye may eat among all the beasts that are on the earth." 11.34. All food therein which may be eaten, that on which water cometh, shall be unclean; and all drink in every such vessel that may be drunk shall be unclean." 11.38. But if water be put upon the seed, and aught of their carcass fall thereon, it is unclean unto you." 11.47. to make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the living thing that may be eaten and the living thing that may not be eaten." 15.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When any man hath an issue out of his flesh, his issue is unclean." 15.3. And this shall be his uncleanness in his issue: whether his flesh run with his issue, or his flesh be stopped from his issue, it is his uncleanness." 15.4. Every bed whereon he that hath the issue lieth shall be unclean; and every thing whereon he sitteth shall be unclean. ." 15.5. And whosoever toucheth his bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.6. And he that sitteth on any thing whereon he that hath the issue sat shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.7. And he that toucheth the flesh of him that hath the issue shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.8. And if he that hath the issue spit upon him that is clean, then he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.9. And what saddle soever he that hath the issue rideth upon shall be unclean." 15.10. And whosoever toucheth any thing that was under him shall be unclean until the even; and he that beareth those things shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.11. And whomsoever he that hath the issue toucheth, without having rinsed his hands in water, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.12. And the earthen vessel, which he that hath the issue toucheth, shall be broken; and every vessel of wood shall be rinsed in water." 15.13. And when he that hath an issue is cleansed of his issue, then he shall number to himself seven days for his cleansing, and wash his clothes; and he shall bathe his flesh in running water, and shall be clean." 15.14. And on the eighth day he shall take to him two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and come before the LORD unto the door of the tent of meeting, and give them unto the priest." 15.15. And the priest shall offer them, the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD for his issue." 15.16. And if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.17. And every garment, and every skin, whereon is the flow of seed, shall be washed with water, and be unclean until the even." 15.18. The woman also with whom a man shall lie carnally, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.19. And if a woman have an issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood, she shall be in her impurity seven days; and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the even." 15.20. And every thing that she lieth upon in her impurity shall be unclean; every thing also that she sitteth upon shall be unclean." 15.21. And whosoever toucheth her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.22. And whosoever toucheth any thing that she sitteth upon shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.23. And if he be on the bed, or on any thing whereon she sitteth, when he toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the even." 15.24. And if any man lie with her, and her impurity be upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; and every bed whereon he lieth shall be unclean. ." 15.25. And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days not in the time of her impurity, or if she have an issue beyond the time of her impurity; all the days of the issue of her uncleanness she shall be as in the days of her impurity: she is unclean." 15.26. Every bed whereon she lieth all the days of her issue shall be unto her as the bed of her impurity; and every thing whereon she sitteth shall be unclean, as the uncleanness of her impurity." 15.27. And whosoever toucheth those things shall be unclean, and shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.28. But if she be cleansed of her issue, then she shall number to herself seven days, and after that she shall be clean." 15.29. And on the eighth day she shall take unto her two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tent of meeting." 15.30. And the priest shall offer the one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for her before the LORD for the issue of her uncleanness." 17.3. What man soever there be of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it without the camp," 17.4. and hath not brought it unto the door of the tent of meeting, to present it as an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD, blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people." 17.5. To the end that the children of Israel may bring their sacrifices, which they sacrifice in the open field, even that they may bring them unto the LORD, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest, and sacrifice them for sacrifices of peace-offerings unto the LORD." 17.6. And the priest shall dash the blood against the altar of the LORD at the door of the tent of meeting, and make the fat smoke for a sweet savour unto the LORD." 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life." 17.12. Therefore I said unto the children of Israel: No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood." 17.13. And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that taketh in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust." 17.14. For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off." 17.15. And every soul that eateth that which dieth of itself, or that which is torn of beasts, whether he be home-born or a stranger, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean." 17.16. But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh, then he shall bear his iniquity." 18.4. Mine ordices shall ye do, and My statutes shall ye keep, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 18.20. And thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour’s wife, to defile thyself with her." 19.37. And ye shall observe all My statutes, and all Mine ordices, and do them: I am the LORD." 20.24. But I have said unto you: ‘Ye shall inherit their land, and I will give it unto you to possess it, a land flowing with milk and honey.’ I am the LORD your God, who have set you apart from the peoples." 20.25. Ye shall therefore separate between the clean beast and the unclean, and between the unclean fowl and the clean; and ye shall not make your souls detestable by beast, or by fowl, or by any thing wherewith the ground teemeth, which I have set apart for you to hold unclean." 20.26. And ye shall be holy unto Me; for I the LORD am holy, and have set you apart from the peoples, that ye should be Mine." 26.3. If ye walk in My statutes, and keep My commandments, and do them;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 16.9, 35.33-35.34, 36.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.9. הַמְעַט מִכֶּם כִּי־הִבְדִּיל אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶתְכֶם מֵעֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַקְרִיב אֶתְכֶם אֵלָיו לַעֲבֹד אֶת־עֲבֹדַת מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה וְלַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי הָעֵדָה לְשָׁרְתָם׃ 35.33. וְלֹא־תַחֲנִיפוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּהּ כִּי הַדָּם הוּא יַחֲנִיף אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְלָאָרֶץ לֹא־יְכֻפַּר לַדָּם אֲשֶׁר שֻׁפַּךְ־בָּהּ כִּי־אִם בְּדַם שֹׁפְכוֹ׃ 35.34. וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹשְׁבִים בָּהּ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָהּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 36.13. אֵלֶּה הַמִּצְוֺת וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב עַל יַרְדֵּן יְרֵחוֹ׃ 16.9. is it but a small thing unto you, that the God of Israel hath separated you from the congregation of Israel, to bring you near to Himself, to do the service of the tabernacle of the LORD, and to stand before the congregation to minister unto them;" 35.33. So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are; for blood, it polluteth the land; and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it." 35.34. And thou shalt not defile the land which ye inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the LORD dwell in the midst of the children of Israel.’" 36.13. These are the commandments and the ordices, which the LORD commanded by the hand of Moses unto the children of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2, 2.5-2.6, 8.2-8.8, 8.13, 106.34-106.41, 148.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 2.5. אָז יְדַבֵּר אֵלֵימוֹ בְאַפּוֹ וּבַחֲרוֹנוֹ יְבַהֲלֵמוֹ׃ 2.6. וַאֲנִי נָסַכְתִּי מַלְכִּי עַל־צִיּוֹן הַר־קָדְשִׁי׃ 8.2. יְהוָה אֲדֹנֵינוּ מָה־אַדִּיר שִׁמְךָ בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר תְּנָה הוֹדְךָ עַל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 8.3. מִפִּי עוֹלְלִים וְיֹנְקִים יִסַּדְתָּ עֹז לְמַעַן צוֹרְרֶיךָ לְהַשְׁבִּית אוֹיֵב וּמִתְנַקֵּם׃ 8.4. כִּי־אֶרְאֶה שָׁמֶיךָ מַעֲשֵׂי אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנָנְתָּה׃ 8.5. מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8. צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃ 106.34. לֹא־הִשְׁמִידוּ אֶת־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה לָהֶם׃ 106.35. וַיִּתְעָרְבוּ בַגּוֹיִם וַיִּלְמְדוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם׃ 106.36. וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־עֲצַבֵּיהֶם וַיִּהְיוּ לָהֶם לְמוֹקֵשׁ׃ 106.37. וַיִּזְבְּחוּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם לַשֵּׁדִים׃ 106.38. וַיִּשְׁפְּכוּ דָם נָקִי דַּם־בְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר זִבְּחוּ לַעֲצַבֵּי כְנָעַן וַתֶּחֱנַף הָאָרֶץ בַּדָּמִים׃ 106.39. וַיִּטְמְאוּ בְמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם וַיִּזְנוּ בְּמַעַלְלֵיהֶם׃ 106.41. וַיִּתְּנֵם בְּיַד־גּוֹיִם וַיִּמְשְׁלוּ בָהֶם שֹׂנְאֵיהֶם׃ 148.6. וַיַּעֲמִידֵם לָעַד לְעוֹלָם חָק־נָתַן וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר׃ 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night." 2.5. Then will He speak unto them in His wrath, and affright them in His sore displeasure:" 2.6. 'Truly it is I that have established My king upon Zion, My holy mountain.'" 8.2. O LORD, our Lord, How glorious is Thy name in all the earth! Whose majesty is rehearsed above the heavens." 8.3. Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast Thou founded strength, Because of Thine adversaries; That Thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger." 8.4. When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, The moon and the stars, which Thou hast established;" 8.5. What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?" 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 8.8. Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;" 106.34. They did not destroy the peoples, As the LORD commanded them;" 106.35. But mingled themselves with the nations, And learned their works;" 106.36. And they served their idols, Which became a snare unto them;" 106.37. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto demons," 106.38. And shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their daughters, Whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan; And the land was polluted with blood." 106.39. Thus were they defiled with their works, And went astray in their doings." 106.40. Therefore was the wrath of the LORD kindled against His people, And He abhorred His inheritance." 106.41. And He gave them into the hand of the nations; And they that hated them ruled over them." 148.6. He hath also established them for ever and ever; He hath made a decree which shall not be transgressed."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 14.32-14.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.32. ויעש [וַיַּעַט] הָעָם אֶל־שלל [הַשָּׁלָל] וַיִּקְחוּ צֹאן וּבָקָר וּבְנֵי בָקָר וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ־אָרְצָה וַיֹּאכַל הָעָם עַל־הַדָּם׃ 14.33. וַיַּגִּידוּ לְשָׁאוּל לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה הָעָם חֹטִאים לַיהוָה לֶאֱכֹל עַל־הַדָּם וַיֹּאמֶר בְּגַדְתֶּם גֹּלּוּ־אֵלַי הַיּוֹם אֶבֶן גְּדוֹלָה׃ 14.34. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל פֻּצוּ בָעָם וַאֲמַרְתֶּם לָהֶם הַגִּישׁוּ אֵלַי אִישׁ שׁוֹרוֹ וְאִישׁ שְׂיֵהוּ וּשְׁחַטְתֶּם בָּזֶה וַאֲכַלְתֶּם וְלֹא־תֶחֶטְאוּ לַיהוָה לֶאֱכֹל אֶל־הַדָּם וַיַּגִּשׁוּ כָל־הָעָם אִישׁ שׁוֹרוֹ בְיָדוֹ הַלַּיְלָה וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ־שָׁם׃ 14.35. וַיִּבֶן שָׁאוּל מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה אֹתוֹ הֵחֵל לִבְנוֹת מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה׃ 14.32. And the people flew upon the spoil, and took sheep, and oxen, and calves, and slew them on the ground: and the people did eat them with the blood." 14.33. Then they told Sha᾽ul, saying, Behold, the people sin against the Lord, in that they eat with the blood. And he said, You have transgressed: roll a great stone to me this day." 14.34. And Sha᾽ul said, Disperse yourselves among the people, and say to them, Bring me here every man his ox, and every man his sheep, and slay them here, and eat; and sin not against the Lord in eating with the blood. And all the people brought every man his ox with him that night, and slew them there." 14.35. And Sha᾽ul built an altar to the Lord: that was the first altar that he built to the Lord."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.4, 26.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 26.19. יִחְיוּ מֵתֶיךָ נְבֵלָתִי יְקוּמוּן הָקִיצוּ וְרַנְּנוּ שֹׁכְנֵי עָפָר כִּי טַל אוֹרֹת טַלֶּךָ וָאָרֶץ רְפָאִים תַּפִּיל׃ 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more." 26.19. Thy dead shall live, my dead bodies shall arise— Awake and sing, ye that dwell in the dust— For Thy dew is as the dew of light, And the earth shall bring to life the shades."
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 5.22, 8.3, 31.35-31.36, 33.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.22. הַאוֹתִי לֹא־תִירָאוּ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה אִם מִפָּנַי לֹא תָחִילוּ אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי חוֹל גְּבוּל לַיָּם חָק־עוֹלָם וְלֹא יַעַבְרֶנְהוּ וַיִּתְגָּעֲשׁוּ וְלֹא יוּכָלוּ וְהָמוּ גַלָּיו וְלֹא יַעַבְרֻנְהוּ׃ 8.3. וְנִבְחַר מָוֶת מֵחַיִּים לְכֹל הַשְּׁאֵרִית הַנִּשְׁאָרִים מִן־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָה הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת בְּכָל־הַמְּקֹמוֹת הַנִּשְׁאָרִים אֲשֶׁר הִדַּחְתִּים שָׁם נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 31.35. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה נֹתֵן שֶׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם חֻקֹּת יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְאוֹר לָיְלָה רֹגַע הַיָּם וַיֶּהֱמוּ גַלָּיו יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 31.36. אִם־יָמֻשׁוּ הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה מִלְּפָנַי נְאֻם־יְהוָה גַּם זֶרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁבְּתוּ מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי לְפָנַי כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 33.25. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אִם־לֹא בְרִיתִי יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה חֻקּוֹת שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ לֹא־שָׂמְתִּי׃ 5.22. Fear ye not Me? saith the LORD; Will ye not tremble at My presence? Who have placed the sand for the bound of the sea, An everlasting ordice, which it cannot pass; And though the waves thereof toss themselves, yet can they not prevail; Though they roar, yet can they not pass over it." 8.3. And death shall be chosen rather than life by all the residue that remain of this evil family, that remain in all the places whither I have driven them, saith the LORD of hosts." 31.35. Thus saith the LORD, Who giveth the sun for a light by day, And the ordices of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, Who stirreth up the sea, that the waves thereof roar, The LORD of hosts is His name:" 31.36. If these ordices depart from before Me, Saith the LORD, Then the seed of Israel also shall cease From being a nation before Me for ever." 33.25. Thus saith the LORD: If My covet be not with day and night, if I have not appointed the ordices of heaven and earth;"
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 6.3, 22.26, 33.25, 34.2-34.3, 34.5-34.12, 34.15, 36.17-36.18 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ הָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לֶהָרִים וְלַגְּבָעוֹת לָאֲפִיקִים ולגאית [וְלַגֵּאָיוֹת] הִנְנִי אֲנִי מֵבִיא עֲלֵיכֶם חֶרֶב וְאִבַּדְתִּי בָּמוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 22.26. כֹּהֲנֶיהָ חָמְסוּ תוֹרָתִי וַיְחַלְּלוּ קָדָשַׁי בֵּין־קֹדֶשׁ לְחֹל לֹא הִבְדִּילוּ וּבֵין־הַטָּמֵא לְטָהוֹר לֹא הוֹדִיעוּ וּמִשַׁבְּתוֹתַי הֶעְלִימוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וָאֵחַל בְּתוֹכָם׃ 33.25. לָכֵן אֱמֹר אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה עַל־הַדָּם תֹּאכֵלוּ וְעֵינֵכֶם תִּשְׂאוּ אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וְדָם תִּשְׁפֹּכוּ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּירָשׁוּ׃ 34.2. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אֲלֵיהֶם הִנְנִי־אָנִי וְשָׁפַטְתִּי בֵּין־שֶׂה בִרְיָה וּבֵין שֶׂה רָזָה׃ 34.2. בֶּן־אָדָם הִנָּבֵא עַל־רוֹעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנָּבֵא וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם לָרֹעִים כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הוֹי רֹעֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ רֹעִים אוֹתָם הֲלוֹא הַצֹּאן יִרְעוּ הָרֹעִים׃ 34.3. אֶת־הַחֵלֶב תֹּאכֵלוּ וְאֶת־הַצֶּמֶר תִּלְבָּשׁוּ הַבְּרִיאָה תִּזְבָּחוּ הַצֹּאן לֹא תִרְעוּ׃ 34.3. וְיָדְעוּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם אִתָּם וְהֵמָּה עַמִּי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 34.5. וַתְּפוּצֶינָה מִבְּלִי רֹעֶה וַתִּהְיֶינָה לְאָכְלָה לְכָל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וַתְּפוּצֶינָה׃ 34.6. יִשְׁגּוּ צֹאנִי בְּכָל־הֶהָרִים וְעַל כָּל־גִּבְעָה רָמָה וְעַל כָּל־פְּנֵי הָאָרֶץ נָפֹצוּ צֹאנִי וְאֵין דּוֹרֵשׁ וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ׃ 34.7. לָכֵן רֹעִים שִׁמְעוּ אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה׃ 34.8. חַי־אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אִם־לֹא יַעַן הֱיוֹת־צֹאנִי לָבַז וַתִּהְיֶינָה צֹאנִי לְאָכְלָה לְכָל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה מֵאֵין רֹעֶה וְלֹא־דָרְשׁוּ רֹעַי אֶת־צֹאנִי וַיִּרְעוּ הָרֹעִים אוֹתָם וְאֶת־צֹאנִי לֹא רָעוּ׃ 34.9. לָכֵן הָרֹעִים שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃ 34.11. כִּי כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי־אָנִי וְדָרַשְׁתִּי אֶת־צֹאנִי וּבִקַּרְתִּים׃ 34.12. כְּבַקָּרַת רֹעֶה עֶדְרוֹ בְּיוֹם־הֱיוֹתוֹ בְתוֹךְ־צֹאנוֹ נִפְרָשׁוֹת כֵּן אֲבַקֵּר אֶת־צֹאנִי וְהִצַּלְתִּי אֶתְהֶם מִכָּל־הַמְּקוֹמֹת אֲשֶׁר נָפֹצוּ שָׁם בְּיוֹם עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃ 34.15. אֲנִי אֶרְעֶה צֹאנִי וַאֲנִי אַרְבִּיצֵם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 36.17. בֶּן־אָדָם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל יֹשְׁבִים עַל־אַדְמָתָם וַיְטַמְּאוּ אוֹתָהּ בְּדַרְכָּם וּבַעֲלִילוֹתָם כְּטֻמְאַת הַנִּדָּה הָיְתָה דַרְכָּם לְפָנָי׃ 36.18. וָאֶשְׁפֹּךְ חֲמָתִי עֲלֵיהֶם עַל־הַדָּם אֲשֶׁר־שָׁפְכוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְגִלּוּלֵיהֶם טִמְּאוּהָ׃ 6.3. and say: Ye mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord GOD: Thus saith the Lord GOD concerning the mountains and concerning the hills, concerning the ravines and concerning the valleys: Behold, I, even I, will bring a sword upon you, and I will destroy your high places." 22.26. Her priests have done violence to My law, and have profaned My holy things; they have put no difference between the holy and the common, neither have they taught difference between the unclean and the clean, and have hid their eyes from My sabbaths, and I am profaned among them." 33.25. Wherefore say unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD. Ye eat with the blood, and lift up your eyes unto your idols, and shed blood; and shall ye possess the land?" 34.2. ’Son of man, prophesy against the shepherds of Israel, prophesy, and say unto them, even to the shepherds: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe unto the shepherds of Israel that have fed themselves! should not the shepherds feed the sheep?" 34.3. Ye did eat the fat, and ye clothed you with the wool, ye killed the fatlings; but ye fed not the sheep." 34.5. So were they scattered, because there was no shepherd; and they became food to all the beasts of the field, and were scattered." 34.6. My sheep wandered through all the mountains, and upon every high hill, yea, upon all the face of the earth were My sheep scattered, and there was none that did search or seek." 34.7. Therefore, ye shepherds, hear the word of the LORD:" 34.8. As I live, saith the Lord GOD, surely forasmuch as My sheep became a prey, and My sheep became food to all the beasts of the field, because there was no shepherd, neither did My shepherds search for My sheep, but the shepherds fed themselves, and fed not My sheep;" 34.9. therefore, ye shepherds, hear the word of the LORD:" 34.10. Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I am against the shepherds; and I will require My sheep at their hand, and cause them to cease from feeding the sheep; neither shall the shepherds feed themselves any more; and I will deliver My sheep from their mouth, that they may not be food for them." 34.11. For thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, here am I, and I will search for My sheep, and seek them out." 34.12. As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among his sheep that are separated, so will I seek out My sheep; and I will deliver them out of all places whither they have been scattered in the day of clouds and thick darkness." 34.15. I will feed My sheep, and I will cause them to lie down, saith the Lord GOD." 36.17. ’Son of man, when the house of Israel dwelt in their own land, they defiled it by their way and by their doings; their way before Me was as the uncleanness of a woman in her impurity." 36.18. Wherefore I poured out My fury upon them for the blood which they had shed upon the land, and because they had defiled it with their idols;"
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 22.8 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.8. וַיְהִי עָלַי דְּבַר־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר דָּם לָרֹב שָׁפַכְתָּ וּמִלְחָמוֹת גְּדֹלוֹת עָשִׂיתָ לֹא־תִבְנֶה בַיִת לִשְׁמִי כִּי דָּמִים רַבִּים שָׁפַכְתָּ אַרְצָה לְפָנָי׃ 22.8. But the word of the LORD came to me, saying: Thou hast shed blood abundantly, and hast made great wars; thou shalt not build a house unto My name, because thou hast shed much blood upon the earth in My sight."
13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 6.1, 6.6, 7.1, 7.4-7.6, 9.7-9.8, 10.10, 10.20-10.22, 15.3-15.7, 22.6-22.7, 32.3-32.6, 93.2-93.5, 93.8-93.10, 98.11 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.1. And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto 6.6. by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn 7.1. And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charm 7.4. all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against 7.5. them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and 7.6. fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood. Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones. 9.7. men were striving to learn: And Semjaza, to whom Thou hast given authority to bear rule over his associates. And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the 10.21. destroy from off the earth. And all the children of men shall become righteous, and all nation 10.22. hall offer adoration and shall praise Me, and all shall worship Me. And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement, and from all sin, and from all punishment, and from all torment, and I will never again send (them) upon it from generation to generation and for ever. 15.3. for you: Wherefore have ye left the high, holy, and eternal heaven, and lain with women, and defiled yourselves with the daughters of men and taken to yourselves wives, and done like the children 15.4. of earth, and begotten giants (as your) sons And though ye were holy, spiritual, living the eternal life, you have defiled yourselves with the blood of women, and have begotten (children) with the blood of flesh, and, as the children of men, have lusted after flesh and blood as those also do who die 15.5. and perish. Therefore have I given them wives also that they might impregnate them, and beget 15.6. children by them, that thus nothing might be wanting to them on earth. But you were formerly 15.7. piritual, living the eternal life, and immortal for all generations of the world. And therefore I have not appointed wives for you; for as for the spiritual ones of the heaven, in heaven is their dwelling. 22.6. with me, and I said unto him: 'This spirit which maketh suit, whose is it, whose voice goeth forth and maketh suit to heaven ' 22.7. And he answered me saying: 'This is the spirit which went forth from Abel, whom his brother Cain slew, and he makes his suit against him till his seed is destroyed from the face of the earth, and his seed is annihilated from amongst the seed of men.' 32.3. I and from afar off trees more numerous than I these trees and great-two trees there, very great, beautiful, and glorious, and magnificent, and the tree of knowledge, whose holy fruit they eat and know great wisdom. 32.4. That tree is in height like the fir, and its leaves are like (those of) the Carob tree: and its fruit 32.5. is like the clusters of the vine, very beautiful: and the fragrance of the tree penetrates afar. Then 32.6. I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.' 93.3. And Enoch began to recount from the books and said: ' I was born the seventh in the first week, While judgement and righteousness still endured. 93.4. And after me there shall arise in the second week great wickedness, And deceit shall have sprung up; And in it there shall be the first end.And in it a man shall be saved; And after it is ended unrighteousness shall grow up, And a law shall be made for the sinners.And after that in the third week at its close A man shall be elected as the plant of righteous judgement, And his posterity shall become the plant of righteousness for evermore. 93.8. And after that in the sixth week all who live in it shall be blinded, And the hearts of all of them shall godlessly forsake wisdom.And in it a man shall ascend; And at its close the house of dominion shall be burnt with fire, And the whole race of the chosen root shall be dispersed. 93.9. And after that in the seventh week shall an apostate generation arise, And many shall be its deeds, And all its deeds shall be apostate. 98.11. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who work wickedness and eat blood: Whence have ye good things to eat and to drink and to be filled From all the good things which the Lord the Most High has placed in abundance on the earth; therefore ye shall have no peace.
14. Anon., Jubilees, 4.16, 5.7-5.9, 6.1-6.22, 6.28-6.30, 6.32-6.38, 7.20, 7.22-7.33, 21.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.16. And at the close of the eighth jubilee Ke took Mûalêlêth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the ninth jubilee, in the first week in the third year of this week, and he called his name Mahalalel. 5.7. And He said: "I shall destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the earth which I have created. 5.8. But Noah found grace before the eyes of the Lord. 5.9. And against the angels whom He had sent upon the earth, He was exceedingly wroth, and He gave commandment to root them out of all their dominion 6.1. And on the new moon of the third month he went forth from the ark, and built an altar on that mountain. 6.2. And he made atonement for the earth, and took a kid and made atonement by its blood for all the guilt of the earth; for everything that had been on it had been destroyed, save those that were in the ark with Noah. 6.3. And he placed the fat thereof on the altar, and he took an ox, and a goat, and a sheep and kids, and salt, and a turtle-dove, and the young of a dove 6.4. and placed a burnt sacrifice on the altar, and poured thereon an offering mingled with oil, and sprinkled wine and strewed frankincense over everything, and caused a goodly savour to arise, acceptable before the Lord. 6.5. And the Lord smelt the goodly savour, and He made a covet with him that there should not be any more a flood to destroy the earth; 6.6. that all the days of the earth seed-time and harvest should never cease; cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night should not change their order, nor cease for ever. 6.7. And you, increase ye and multiply upon the earth, and become many upon it, and be a blessing upon it. 6.8. The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea. 6.9. And behold I have given unto you all beasts, and all winged things, and everything that moveth on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and all things for food; as the green herbs, I have given you all things to eat. 6.10. But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 6.11. At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall I require the blood of man. 6.12. Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man. 6.13. And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth. 6.14. And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh 6.15. and he made a covet before the Lord God for ever throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. 6.16. On this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a covet with the children of Israel in this month upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of all the words of the covet, which the Lord made with them for ever. 6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth 6.18. and the man who eateth the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land. 6.19. And do thou command the children of Israel to eat no blood, so that their names and their seed may be before the Lord our God continually. 6.20. And for this law there is no limit of days, for it is for ever. They shall observe it throughout their generations, so that they may continue supplicating on your behalf with blood before the altar; 6.21. every day and at the time of morning and evening they shall seek forgiveness on your behalf perpetually before the Lord that they may keep it and not be rooted out. 6.22. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood on the earth. 6.28. and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 6.29. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: 6.30. one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. 6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 6.33. For I have written in the book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day in the year 6.34. and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year. 6.35. And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. 6.36. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 6.37. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. 6.38. And on the new moon of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth. 7.20. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lûbâr; Sêdêqêtêlĕbâb fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’êlâtamâ’ûk on the south; ’Adatanêsês towards the west. 7.22. The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan, Tubal and Meshech and Tiras: these are the sons of Noah. 7.23. And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordices and commandments, and all the judgments that he knew 7.24. and he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless their Creator, and honour father and mother, and love their neighbour, and guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. 7.25. For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth, namely 7.26. owing to the fornication wherein the Watchers against the law of their ordices went a whoring after the daughters of men, and took themselves wives of all which they chose: and they made the beginning of uncleanness. 7.27. And they begat sons the Nâphîdîm, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another: and the Giants slew the Nâphîl, and the Nâphîl slew the Eljô, and the Eljô mankind, and one man another. 7.28. And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 7.29. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth 7.30. and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. 7.31. And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything. 7.32. And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us into the ark 7.33. and behold I see your works before me that ye do not walk in righteousness; for in the path of destruction ye have begun to walk 21.18. (but) hard and clean, without fault, a sound and new growth; and do not lay (thereon) old wood, [for its fragrance is gone] for there is no longer fragrance in it as before.
15. Cicero, On Duties, 3.29-3.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.29. Forsitan quispiam dixerit: Nonne igitur sapiens, si fame ipse conficiatur, abstulerit cibum alteri homini ad nullam rem utili? Minime vero; non enim mihi est vita mea utilior quam animi talis affectio, neminem ut violem commodi mei gratia. Quid? si Phalarim, crudelem tyrannum et immanem, vir bonus, ne ipse frigore conficiatur, vestitu spoliare possit, nonne faciat? 3.30. Haec ad iudicandum sunt facillima. Nam, si quid ab homine ad nullam partem utili utilitatis tuae causa detraxeris, inhumane feceris contraque naturae legem; sin autem is tu sis, qui multam utilitatem rei publicae atque hominum societati, si in vita remaneas, afferre possis, si quid ob eam causam alteri detraxeris, non sit reprehendendum. Sin autem id non sit eius modi, suum cuique incommodum ferendum est potius quam de alterius commodis detrahendum. Non igitur magis est contra naturam morbus aut egestas aut quid eius modi quam detractio atque appetitio alieni, sed communis utilitatis derelictio contra naturam est; est enim iniusta. 3.31. Itaque lex ipsa naturae, quae utilitatem hominum conservat et continet, decernet profecto, ut ab homine inerti atque inutili ad sapientem, bonum, fortem virum transferantur res ad vivendum necessariae, qui si occiderit, multum de communi utilitate detraxerit, modo hoc ita faciat, ut ne ipse de se bene existimans seseque diligens hanc causam habeat ad iniuriam. Ita semper officio fungetur utilitati consulens hominum et ei, quam saepe commemoro, humanae societati. 3.29.  But, perhaps, someone may say: "Well, then, suppose a wise man were starving to death, might he not take the bread of some perfectly useless member of society?" [Not at all; for my life is not more precious to me than that temper of soul which would keep me from doing wrong to anybody for my own advantage.] "Or again; supposing a righteous man were in a position to rob the cruel and inhuman tyrant Phalaris of clothing, might he not do it to keep himself from freezing to death? 3.30.  These cases are very easy to decide. For, if merely for one's own benefit one were to take something away from a man, though he were a perfectly worthless fellow, it would be an act of meanness and contrary to Nature's law. But suppose one would be able, by remaining alive, to render signal service to the state and to human society — if from that motive one should take something from another, it would not be a matter for censure. But, if such is not the case, each one must bear his own burden of distress rather than rob a neighbour of his rights. We are not to say, therefore, that sickness or want or any evil of that sort is more repugt to Nature than to covet and to appropriate what is one's neighbour's; but we do maintain that disregard of the common interests is repugt to Nature; for it is unjust. 3.31.  And therefore Nature's law itself, which protects and conserves human interests, will surely determine that a man who is wise, good, and brave, should in emergency have the necessaries of life transferred to him from a person who is idle and worthless; for the good man's death would be a heavy loss to the common weal; only let him beware that self-esteem and self-love do not find in such a transfer of possessions a pretext for wrong-doing. But, thus guided in his decision, the good man will always perform his duty, promoting the general interests of human society on which I am so fond of dwelling.
16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 6.4-6.5, 6.13-6.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.6, 7.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.6. וּמַן־דִּי־לָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָא יִתְרְמֵא לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 7.18. וִיקַבְּלוּן מַלְכוּתָא קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְיַחְסְנוּן מַלְכוּתָא עַד־עָלְמָא וְעַד עָלַם עָלְמַיָּא׃ 3.6. and whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall the same hour be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.’" 7.18. But the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.’"
18. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.17. He appointed a ruler for every nation,but Israel is the Lords own portion.
19. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5.9, 5.25-5.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.9. It is senseless not to enjoy delicious things that are not shameful, and wrong to spurn the gifts of nature. 5.25. Therefore we do not eat defiling food; for since we believe that the law was established by God, we know that in the nature of things the Creator of the world in giving us the law has shown sympathy toward us. 5.26. He has permitted us to eat what will be most suitable for our lives, but he has forbidden us to eat meats that would be contrary to this.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.119-4.125 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.119. Moreover, Moses Commands{25}{#le 5:2.} that no man shall take of any dead carcass, or of any body which has been torn by wild beasts; partly because it is not fitting that man should share a feast with untameable beasts, so as to become almost a fellow reveller in their carnivorous festivals; and partly because perhaps it is injurious and likely to cause disease if the juice of the dead body becomes mingled with the blood, and perhaps, also, because it is proper to preserve that which has been pre-occupied and seized beforehand by death untouched, having a respect to the necessities of nature by which it has been seized. 4.120. Now many of the lawgivers both among the Greeks and barbarians, praise those who are skilful in hunting, and who seldom fail in their pursuit or miss their aim, and who pride themselves on their successful hunts, especially when they divide the limbs of the animals which they have caught with the huntsmen and the hounds, as being not only brave hunters but men of very sociable dispositions. But any one who was a sound interpreter of the sacred constitution and code of laws would very naturally blame them, since the lawgiver of that code has expressly forbidden any enjoyment of carcasses or of bodies torn by beasts for the reasons before mentioned. 4.121. But if any one of those persons who devote themselves wholly to meditations on and to the practice of virtue were suddenly to become fond of gymnastic exercises and of hunting, looking upon hunting as a sort of prelude to and representation of the wars and dangers that have to be encountered against the enemy, then, whenever such a man is successful in his sport, he ought to give the beasts which he has slain to his dogs as a feast for them, and as a reward or wages for their successful boldness and their irreproachable alliance. But he ought not himself to touch them, inasmuch as he has been previously taught in the case of irrational animals, what sentiments he ought to entertain, respecting his enemies. For he ought to carry on war against them, not for the sake of unrighteous gain like those who make a dishonest traffic of all their actions, but either in revenge for some calamities which he has previously suffered at their hands, or with a view toward some which he expects to suffer. 4.122. But some men, with open mouths, carry even the excessive luxury and boundless intemperance of Sardanapalus to such an indefinite and unlimited extent, being wholly absorbed in the invention of senseless pleasures, that they prepare sacrifices which ought never be offered, strangling their victims, and stifling the essence of life, {26}{#le 17:11.} which they ought to let depart free and unrestrained, burying the blood, as it were, in the body. For it ought to have been sufficient for them to enjoy the flesh by itself, without touching any of those parts which have an connection with the soul or life. 4.123. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{#le 3:17.} The blood, for the reason which I have already mentioned, that it is the essence of the life; not of the mental and rational life, but of that which exists in accordance with the outward senses, to which it is owing that both we and irrational animals also have a common existence.CONCERNING THE SOUL OR LIFE OF MANXXIV. For the essence of the soul of man is the breath of God, especially if we follow the account of Moses, who, in his history of the creation of the world, says that God breathed into the first man, the founder of our race, the breath of life; breathing it into the principal part of his body, namely the face, where the outward senses are established, the body-guards of the mind, as if it were the great king. And that which was thus breathed into his face was manifestly the breath of the air, or whatever else there may be which is even more excellent than the breath of the air, as being a ray emitted from the blessed and thricehappy nature of God. 4.124. But Moses commanded men to abstain from eating fat, because it is gross. And again, he gave us this injunction, in order to inculcate temperance and a zeal for an austere life: for some things we easily abandon, and without any hesitation; though we do not willingly encounter any anxieties or labours for the sake of the acquisition of virtue. 4.125. For which reason these two parts are to be taken out of every victim and burnt with fire, as a kind of first fruits, namely, the fat and the blood; the one being poured upon the altar as a libation; and the other as a fuel to the flame, being applied instead of oil, by reason of its fatness, to the consecrated and holy flame.
21. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 2.105 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 9.3, 10.1, 23.3, 28.3 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.146 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.146. Nor let any flesh of horses, or of mules, or of asses, he brought into the city, whether they be wild or tame; nor that of leopards, or foxes, or hares; and, in general, that of any animal which is forbidden for the Jews to eat. Nor let their skins be brought into it; nor let any such animal be bred up in the city. Let them only be permitted to use the sacrifices derived from their forefathers, with which they have been obliged to make acceptable atonements to God. And he that transgresseth any of these orders, let him pay to the priests three thousand drachmae of silver.”
24. Mishnah, Hulin, 3.1, 9.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1. The following [defects] render cattle terefah:If the esophagus was pierced; If the windpipe severed; If the membrane of the brain was pierced; If the heart was pierced as far as its cavity thereof; If the spine was broken and the cord severed; If the liver was gone and none of it remained; If the lung was pierced, Or if part of it was missing Rabbi Shimon says: only if it was pierced as far as the main bronchi; If the stomach, If the gall-bladder was pierced, If the intestines were pierced; If the innermost stomach was pierced, If the greater part of the outer stomach was pierced. Rabbi Judah says: in a large animal [if it was torn] to the extent of a handbreadth, and in a small animal the greater part. If the omasum (the third stomach of a rumit) [was pierced]; of if the second stomach was pierced on the outside; If the animal fell from the roof; If most of its ribs were fractured; Or if it was mauled by a wolf Rabbi Judah says: small animals [are terefah] if mauled by a wolf, large cattle if mauled by a lion; small fowl if mauled by a hawk, large fowl if mauled by a falcon. This is the rule: if an animal with a similar defect could not continue to live, it is terefah." 9.2. In the following cases the skin is considered flesh: The skin of a person, The skin of the domesticated pig. Rabbi Yose says: even the skin of the wild pig. The skin of the hump of a young camel. The skin of the head of a young calf. The skin around the hooves. The skin of the pudenda. The skin of a fetus. The skin beneath the fat tail. The skin of the gecko, the monitor, the lizard and the skink. Rabbi Judah says: the lizard is like the weasel. If any of these skins was tanned or trampled upon as much as [was usual] for tanning, it becomes clean, excepting the skin of a man. Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri says: the eight reptiles have [real] skins."
25. Mishnah, Yoma, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.6. Then he sprinkled the top of the altar seven times. And he would pour out the remainder of the blood at the western base of the outer altar. And [the remainder of the blood sprinkled] on the outer altar he poured out at the southern base. Both mingled in the aqueduct and flowed into Nahal Kidron, and they were sold to gardeners as manure and by using them one transgresses the law of trespass (meilah)."
26. New Testament, 1 John, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.12. unlike Cain, who was of the evil one, and killed his brother. Why did he kill him? Because his works were evil, and his brother's righteous.
27. New Testament, Acts, 10.34, 10.43, 11.17, 15.9, 15.29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.34. Peter opened his mouth and said, "Truly I perceive that God doesn't show favoritism; 10.43. All the prophets testify about him, that through his name everyone who believes in him will receive remission of sins. 11.17. If then God gave to them the same gift as us, when we believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I, that I could withstand God? 15.9. He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. 15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell.
28. New Testament, Galatians, 2.6, 2.10-2.14, 2.16, 2.19-2.20, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. But from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator.
29. New Testament, John, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
30. New Testament, Luke, 1.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. according to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to enter into the temple of the Lord and burn incense.
31. New Testament, Mark, 10.3-10.5, 16.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 16.7. But go, tell his disciples and Peter, 'He goes before you into Galilee. There you will see him, as he said to you.'
32. New Testament, Matthew, 5.8, 28.9-28.12, 28.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.8. Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God. 28.9. As they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, "Rejoice!"They came and took hold of his feet, and worshiped him. 28.10. Then Jesus said to them, "Don't be afraid. Go tell my brothers that they should go into Galilee, and there they will see me. 28.11. Now while they were going, behold, some of the guards came into the city, and told the chief priests all the things that had happened. 28.12. When they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave a large amount of silver to the soldiers 28.16. But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had sent them.
33. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 20.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

20.5. עַל גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ (בראשית ג, יד), בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ, יָרְדוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וְקָצְצוּ יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו, וְהָיָה קוֹלוֹ הוֹלֵךְ מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, בָּא נָחָשׁ לְלַמֵּד עַל מַפַּלְתָּהּ שֶׁל מִצְרַיִם וְנִמְצָא לָמֵד מִמֶּנָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה מו, כב): קוֹלָהּ כַּנָּחָשׁ יֵלֵךְ, רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי הוּנָא, חַד מִנְהוֹן אָמַר אַתָּה גָּרַמְתָּ לַבְּרִיּוֹת שֶׁיְהוּ מְהַלְּכֵי גְּחוּנִים עַל מֵתֵיהֶם, אַף אַתָּה עַל גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אַף קִלְּלָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יֵשׁ בָּהּ בְּרָכָה, אָמַר אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ, הֵיאַךְ הָיָה בּוֹרֵחַ לַכֹּתֶל וְנִכְנַס לַחֹר וְנִצֹּל. (בראשית ג, יד): וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי חִילְפָאי לֹא עָפָר מִכָּל צַד אֶלָּא בּוֹקֵעַ וְיוֹרֵד עַד שֶׁהוּא מַגִּיעַ לְסֶלַע וְשׁוֹמֵט גִּידִין שֶׁל אֲדָמָה וְאוֹכֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא הַכֹּל מִתְרַפְּאִין חוּץ מִנָּחָשׁ וְגִבְעוֹנִים, נָחָשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סה, כה): וְנָחָשׁ עָפָר לַחְמוֹ לֹא יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא יַשְׁחִיתוּ וגו', גִּבְעוֹנִים (יחזקאל מח, יט): וְהָעֹבֵד הָעִיר יַעַבְדוּהוּ מִכֹּל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, רַבִּי אָסֵי וְרַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי עֲשִׂיתִיךָ מֶלֶךְ עַל הַבְּהֵמָה וְעַל הַחַיָּה וְאַתָּה לֹא בִּקַּשְׁתָּ, אֲנִי עֲשִׂיתִיךָ שֶׁתְּהֵא מְהַלֵּךְ קוֹמְמִיּוּת כְּאָדָם, וְאַתָּה לֹא בִּקַּשְׁתָּ, עַל גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ. אֲנִי עֲשִׂיתִיךָ שֶׁתְּהֵא אוֹכֵל מַאֲכָלוֹת כְּאָדָם, וְאַתָּה לֹא בִּקַּשְׁתָּ, וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ, אַתָּה בִּקַּשְׁתָּ לַהֲרֹג אֶת הָאָדָם וְלִשָֹּׂא אֶת חַוָּה, וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה, הֱוֵי מַה שֶּׁבִּקֵּשׁ לֹא נִתַּן לוֹ, וּמַה שֶּׁבְּיָדוֹ נִטַּל מִמֶּנּוּ. וְכֵן מָצִינוּ בְּקַיִן וּבְקֹרַח וּבִלְעָם וּבְדוֹאֵג וַאֲחִיתֹפֶל וְגֵיחֲזִי וְאַבְשָׁלוֹם וּבַאֲדוֹנִיָּהוּ וּבְעֻזִּיָּהוּ וּבְהָמָן, מַה שֶׁבִּקְּשׁוּ לֹא נִתַּן לָהֶם, וּמַה שֶּׁבְּיָדָם נִטַּל מֵהֶם. 20.5. ... [The snake was created] “ruler over beast and animal / melekh `al hab’heimah v`al hachayah” [and] “erect like Adam / qom’miyut k’adam”"
34. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 2.16-2.17 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.16. On the fifth day the living creatures which proceed from the waters were produced, through which also is revealed the manifold wisdom of God in these things; for who could count their multitude and very various kinds? Moreover, the things proceeding from the waters were blessed by God, that this also might be a sign of men's being destined to receive repentance and remission of sins, through the water and laver of regeneration - as many as come to the truth, and are born again, and receive blessing from God. But the monsters of the deep and the birds of prey are a similitude of covetous men and transgressors. For as the fish and the fowls are of one nature, - some indeed abide in their natural state, and do no harm to those weaker than themselves, but keep the law of God, and eat of the seeds of the earth; others of them, again, transgress the law of God, and eat flesh, and injure those weaker than themselves: thus, too, the righteous, keeping the law of God, bite and injure none, but live holily and righteously. But robbers, and murderers, and godless persons are like monsters of the deep, and wild beasts, and birds of prey; for they virtually devour those weaker than themselves. The race, then, of fishes and of creeping things, though partaking of God's blessing, received no very distinguishing property. 2.17. And on the sixth day, God having made the quadrupeds, and wild beasts, and the land reptiles, pronounced no blessing upon them, reserving His blessing for man, whom He was about to create on the sixth day. The quadrupeds, too, and wild beasts, were made for a type of some men, who neither know nor worship God, but mind earthly things, and repent not. For those who turn from their iniquities and live righteously, in spirit fly upwards like birds, and mind the things that are above, and are well-pleasing to the will of God. But those who do not know nor worship God, are like birds which have wings, but cannot fly nor soar to the high things of God. Thus, too, though such persons are called men, yet being pressed down with sins, they mind grovelling and earthly things. And the animals are named wild beasts [θηρία], from their being hunted [θηρεύεσθαι], not as if they had been made evil or venomous from the first - for nothing was made evil by God, but all things good, yea, very good - but the sin in which man was concerned brought evil upon them. For when man transgressed, they also transgressed with him. For as, if the master of the house himself acts rightly, the domestics also of necessity conduct themselves well; but if the master sins, the servants also sin with him; so in like manner it came to pass, that in the case of man's sin, he being master, all that was subject to him sinned with him. When, therefore, man again shall have made his way back to his natural condition, and no longer does evil, those also shall be restored to their original gentleness.
35. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18b. ומי יימר דהכי איכא [א"ל השתא חזית] הוו הנהו כלבי דהוו קא אכלי אינשי שקל קלא שדא בהו הוו קאתו למיכליה אמר אלהא דמאיר ענני שבקוה ויהבה ליה,לסוף אשתמע מילתא בי מלכא אתיוה אסקוה לזקיפה אמר אלהא דמאיר ענני אחתוה אמרו ליה מאי האי אמר להו הכי הוה מעשה,אתו חקקו לדמותיה דר' מאיר אפיתחא דרומי אמרי כל דחזי לפרצופא הדין לייתיה יומא חדא חזיוהי רהט אבתריה רהט מקמייהו על לבי זונות איכא דאמרי בשולי עובדי כוכבים חזא טמש בהא ומתק בהא איכא דאמרי אתא אליהו אדמי להו כזונה כרכתיה אמרי חס ושלום אי ר' מאיר הוה לא הוה עביד הכי,קם ערק אתא לבבל איכא דאמרי מהאי מעשה ואיכא דאמרי ממעשה דברוריא:,תנו רבנן ההולך לאיצטדינין ולכרקום וראה שם את הנחשים ואת החברין בוקיון ומוקיון ומוליון ולוליון בלורין סלגורין הרי זה מושב לצים ועליהם הכתוב אומר (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש אשר לא הלך וגו' כי אם בתורת ה' חפצו הא למדת. שדברים הללו מביאין את האדם לידי ביטול תורה,ורמינהי [הולכין] לאיצטדינין מותר מפני שצווח ומציל ולכרקום מותר מפני ישוב מדינה ובלבד שלא יתחשב עמהם ואם נתחשב עמהם אסור קשיא איצטדינין אאיצטדינין קשיא כרקום אכרקום,בשלמא כרקום אכרקום ל"ק כאן במתחשב עמהן כאן בשאין מתחשב עמהן אלא איצטדינין אאיצטדינין קשיא,תנאי היא דתניא אין הולכין לאיצטדינין מפני מושב לצים ור' נתן מתיר מפני שני דברים אחד מפני שצווח ומציל ואחד מפני שמעיד עדות אשה להשיאה,תנו רבנן אין הולכין לטרטיאות ולקרקסיאות מפני שמזבלין שם זיבול לעבודת כוכבים דברי ר' מאיר וחכמים אומרים מקום שמזבלין אסור מפני חשד עבודת כוכבים ומקום שאין מזבלין שם אסור מפני מושב לצים,מאי בינייהו אמר ר' חנינא מסורא נשא ונתן איכא בינייהו,דרש ר' שמעון בן פזי מאי דכתיב אשרי האיש אשר לא הלך בעצת רשעים ובדרך חטאים לא עמד ובמושב לצים לא ישב וכי מאחר שלא הלך היכן עמד ומאחר שלא עמד היכן ישב ומאחר שלא ישב היכן לץ,אלא לומר לך שאם הלך סופו לעמוד ואם עמד סופו לישב ואם ישב סופו ללוץ ואם לץ עליו הכתוב אומר (משלי ט, יב) אם חכמת חכמת לך ואם לצת לבדך תשא,א"ר אליעזר כל המתלוצץ יסורין באין עליו שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, כב) ועתה אל תתלוצצו פן יחזקו מוסריכם אמר להו רבא לרבנן במטותא בעינא מינייכו דלא תתלוצצו דלא ליתו עלייכו יסורין,אמר רב קטינא כל המתלוצץ מזונותיו מתמעטין שנאמר (הושע ז, ה) משך ידו את לוצצים אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש כל המתלוצץ נופל בגיהנם שנאמר (משלי כא, כד) זד יהיר לץ שמו עושה בעברת זדון ואין עברה אלא גיהנם שנאמר (צפניה א, טו) יום עברה היום ההוא,אמר ר' אושעיא כל המתייהר נופל בגיהנם שנאמר זד יהיר לץ שמו עושה בעברת זדון ואין עברה אלא גיהנם שנאמר יום עברה היום ההוא אמר רבי חנילאי בר חנילאי כל המתלוצץ גורם כלייה לעולם שנאמר ועתה אל תתלוצצו פן יחזקו מוסריכם כי כלה ונחרצה שמעתי,אמר רבי אליעזר קשה היא שתחילת' יסורין וסופו כלייה דרש ר' שמעון בן פזי אשרי האיש אשר לא הלך לטרטיאות ולקרקסיאות של עובדי כוכבים ובדרך חטאים לא עמד זה שלא עמד בקנגיון ובמושב לצים לא ישב שלא ישב בתחבולות,שמא יאמר אדם הואיל ולא הלכתי לטרטיאות ולקרקסיאות ולא עמדתי בקנגיון אלך ואתגרה בשינה ת"ל ובתורתו יהגה יומם ולילה,אמר רב שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן אשרי האיש אשר לא הלך בעצת רשעים זה 18b. bAnd who can say that this isthe case, that I will be saved by this utterance? Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: You will now see. There were thesecarnivorous bdogs that would devour people;Rabbi Meir btook a clodof earth, bthrewit bat them,and when bthey came to devour him, he said: God of Meir answer me!The dogs then bleft himalone, bandafter seeing this the guard bgavethe daughter of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon btoRabbi Meir., bUltimately the matter was heardin bthe king’s court,and the guard, who bwas brought and taken to be hanged, said: God of Meir answer me!They then blowered him down,as they were unable to hang him. bThey said to him: What is this? He said to them: This was the incidentthat occurred, and he proceeded to relate the entire story to them., bTheythen bwentand bengraved the image of Rabbi Meir at the entrance of Romewhere it would be seen by everyone, and they bsaid: Anyone who seesa man with bthis face should bring himhere. bOne day,Romans bsawRabbi Meir and bran after him,and bhe ran away from themand bentered a brothelto hide. bSome sayhe then escaped capture because bhe sawfood bcooked by gentilesand bdipped [ itemash /i] thisfinger binthe food band tastedit bwith thatother finger, and thereby fooled them into thinking that he was eating their food, which they knew Rabbi Meir would not do. And bsome saythat he escaped detection because bElijah came, appeared to them as a prostituteand bembracedRabbi Meir. The Romans who were chasing him bsaid: Heaven forbid, if this were Rabbi Meir, he would not actin bthatmanner.,Rabbi Meir barose, fled,and barrived in Babylonia.The Gemara notes: bThere arethose bwho saythat he fled because bof this incident, and there arethose bwho saythat he fled due to embarrassment bfrom the incident involvinghis wife bBerurya. /b,§ bThe Sages taught:With regard to bone who goes to stadiums [ ile’itztadinin /i]where people are killed in contests with gladiators or beasts, bor to a camp of besiegers [ iulkharkom /i]where different forms of entertainment are provided for the besieging army, bandhe bsees therethe acts of bthe diviners and those who cast spells,or the acts of the clowns known as ibukiyon /i, or imukiyon /i, or imuliyon /i, or iluliyon /i,or ibelurin /i,or isalgurin /i, this iscategorized as b“the seat of the scornful”; and with regard tosuch places bthe verse states: “Happy is the man that has not walkedin the council of the wicked, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful. bBut his delight is in the Torah of the Lord”(Psalms 1:1–2). bYou learnfrom here bthat these matters bring a person to derelictionof the study bof Torah,since had he not sat in “the seat of the scornful,” he would delight in the study of Torah., bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom another ibaraita /i: bOne is permittedto bgo to stadiums, because he can scream and savethe life of a Jew who would otherwise be killed there; band it is permittedto go bto a camp of besiegers, becauseat times one can provide for the public bwelfareby petitioning the besiegers and saving the residents of the btown, provided that he is not countedas one bof them; but if he is countedas one bof them, it is prohibited.This is bdifficult,as there is a contradiction between the statement about attending bstadiumsin the first ibaraitaand the statement baboutattending bstadiumsin the second ibaraita /i, and is similarly bdifficultas there is a contradiction between the statement about ba camp of besiegersin the first ibaraitaand the statement babout a camp of besiegersin the second ibaraita /i.,The Gemara continues: bGranted,the apparent contradiction between one statement about ba camp of besiegersand the other statement babout a camp of besiegersis bnot difficult,as bhere,the first ibaraitais referring to a case bwhere he is countedas one bof them,and bthere,the second ibaraitais referring to a case bwhere he is not countedas one bof them. Butwith regard to the contradiction between the ruling about attending bstadiumsin the first ibaraitaand the ruling baboutattending bstadiumsin the second ibaraita /i, it is bdifficult. /b,The Gemara answers: This issue bisa dispute between itanna’im /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may not go to stadiums, becausethey are considered b“the seat of the scornful.” And Rabbi Natan permitsattending stadiums bdue to tworeasons; boneis bbecause he can scream and savethe life of someone who would otherwise be killed, bandthe other boneis bbecauseeven if he cannot save the man’s life, bhe can provide testimonythat ba woman’shusband died, which will enable her bto marryagain., bThe Sages taught: One may not go to theaters [ iletarteiot /i] or circuses [ iulkirkaseiot /i] because they sacrifice offerings there toobjects of bidol worship;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: It is prohibitedto go to ba place where they sacrificeofferings, bdue to a suspicion of idol worship, and it isalso bprohibitedto go to ba place where they do not sacrificeofferings, bdue toit being considered b“the seat of the scornful.” /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthe opinion of the Rabbis and that of Rabbi Meir? After all, according to both opinions it is prohibited to attend theaters or circuses. bRabbi Ḥanina of Sura said:The difference bbetween themarises in the case of one who bengaged in businessthere. According to Rabbi Meir, the profits are forbidden as the proceeds of idol worship, as Rabbi Meir maintains that the gentiles certainly worship idols at theaters or circuses. Conversely, according to the Rabbis, the profits are forbidden only if it is established that they worshipped idols there.,§ Apropos the earlier discussion of the evils of scornfulness, the Gemara cites several statements that criticize such behavior. bRabbi Shimon ben Pazi taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Happy is the man that has not walked in the counsel of the wicked, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful”(Psalms 1:1)? bSince he did not walkin the counsel of the wicked, bhowcould bhe standwith them? bAnd since he did not stand, howcould bhe sitwith them? bAnd since he did not sitwith them, bhowcould bhehave bscorned?Since he never joined the company of the wicked, he would have no reason to be involved with them in any manner., bRather,the verse serves bto say to you that if he walkedwith the wicked, bhe will ultimately standwith them. bAnd if he stoodwith them, bhe will ultimately sitin their company, band if he sat, he will ultimately scornalong with them. bAnd if he scorned, the verse says about him: “If you are wise, you are wise for yourself; and if you scorn, you alone shall bear it”(Proverbs 9:12)., bRabbi Eliezer says:Concerning banyone who scoffs, suffering will befall him, as it is stated: “Now therefore do not be scoffers, lest your suffering be made strong”(Isaiah 28:22). Similarly, bRava said to the Sageswho were sitting before him: bPlease, I ask of you that you not scoff, so that suffering will not befall you. /b, bRav Ketina says:Concerning banyone who scoffs, his sustece is lessened, as it is stated: “He stretches out his hand with scorners”(Hosea 7:5), meaning that God withdraws His providence from scoffers and does not provide for them. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Anyone who scoffs falls into Gehenna, as it is stated: “A proud and haughty man, scorner is his name, he acts in arrogant wrath”(Proverbs 21:24). bAnd wrathmeans bnothing other than Gehenna, as it is statedwith regard to the Day of Judgment: b“That day is a day of wrath”(Zephaniah 1:15)., bRabbi Oshaya says,based on the same verse: bAnyone who is haughty falls into Gehenna, as it is stated: “A proud and haughty man, scorner is his name, he acts in arrogant wrath”(Proverbs 21:24). bAnd wrath means nothing other than Gehenna, as it is stated: “That day is a day of wrath”(Zephaniah 1:15). bRabbi Ḥanilai bar Ḥanilai says: Anyone who scoffs causes exterminationto be wrought bupon the world, as it is stated: “Now therefore do not be scoffers, lest your suffering be made strong; for an extermination wholly determined have I heardfrom the Lord, the God of hosts, upon the whole land” (Isaiah 28:22)., bRabbi Eliezer says:Scoffing bis a severesin, bas at firstone is punished with bsuffering, and ultimatelyone is punished with bextermination. Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi taught: “Happy is the man that has not walkedin the counsel of the wicked,” this is referring btothe btheaters and circuses of gentiles; “nor stood in the way of sinners,” thisis referring to bone who has not stoodas an observer bat bestial contests [ ibekinigiyyon /i]; “nor sat in the seat of the scornful,”this is referring to bone who has not sat in the bad companyof people who engage in scoffing and jeering., bLest a person say: Since I did not go to theaters and circuses, and did not stand in bestial contests, I will go and indulge in sleep, the verse states: “And he meditates in His law day and night”(Psalms 1:2). This demonstrates that it is not sufficient simply to avoid transgressions; rather, it is necessary to engage actively in Torah study.,§ The Gemara relates an alternative homiletic interpretation of the verse discussed above. bRav Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: “Happy is the man that has not walked in the counsel of the wicked”(Psalms 1:1); bthis /b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. גידפי דמיפרמי,והא בעי כסוי וכי תימא דמכסו ליה והאמר רבי זירא אמר רב השוחט צריך שיתן עפר למטה ועפר למעלה שנאמר (ויקרא יז, יג) וכסהו בעפר עפר לא נאמר אלא בעפר מלמד שהשוחט צריך שיתן עפר למטה ועפר למעלה,דמזמין ליה לעפר דכולה פתקא:,היה שוחט והתיז [וכו']: אמר רבי זירא מלא צואר וחוץ לצואר,איבעיא להו מלא צואר וחוץ לצואר כמלא צואר דהוו לה תרי צוארי או דלמא מלא צואר וחוץ לצואר משהו,תא שמע היה שוחט והתיז שני ראשין בבת אחת אם יש לסכין מלא צואר אחד כשר מאי מלא צואר אחד אילימא מלא צואר אחד ותו לא השתא בבהמה אחת בעינן מלא צואר וחוץ לצואר בשתי בהמות סגי להו כמלא צואר אחד אלא פשיטא מלא צואר חוץ לשני צוארין,ש"מ מלא צואר חוץ לצואר ש"מ:,בד"א בזמן שהוליך ולא הביא וכו': אמר רב מנשה באיזמל שאין לו קרנים,אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרב אויא לרב מנשה מחטא מאי אמר ליה מחטא מבזע בזע,מחטא דאושכפי מאי אמר ליה תנינא אפילו כל שהוא מאי לאו מחטא דאושכפי לא איזמל איזמל בהדיא קתני לה פרושי קא מפרש מאי כל שהו איזמל,ה"נ מסתברא דאי ס"ד מחטא דאושכפי השתא מחטא דאושכפי שריא איזמל מיבעיא איזמל אצטריכא ליה ס"ד אמינא ליגזר איזמל שאין לו קרנים אטו איזמל שיש לו קרנים קא משמע לן:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big נפלה סכין ושחטה אע"פ ששחטה כדרכה פסולה שנאמר (דברים כז, ז) וזבחת ואכלת מה שאתה זובח אתה אוכל:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big טעמא דנפלה הא הפילה הוא כשרה ואע"ג דלא מיכוין,מאן תנא דלא בעינן כוונה לשחיטה אמר רבא ר' נתן היא דתני אושעיא זעירא דמן חבריא זרק סכין לנועצה בכותל והלכה ושחטה כדרכה ר' נתן מכשיר וחכמים פוסלים הוא תני לה והוא אמר לה הלכה כר' נתן,והא אמרה רבא חדא זימנא דתנן וכולן ששחטו ואחרים רואין אותן שחיטתן כשרה ואמרינן מאן תנא דלא בעי כוונה לשחיטה ואמר רבא רבי נתן היא,צריכא דאי אשמועינן התם משום דקא מיכוין לשום חתיכה בעולם אבל הכא דלא קא מיכוין אימא לא,ואי אשמעינן הכא משום דקאתי מכח בן דעת אבל התם דלא קאתי מכח בן דעת אימא לא צריכא:,אתמר נדה שנאנסה וטבלה אמר רב יהודה אמר רב טהורה לביתה ואסורה לאכול בתרומה ור' יוחנן אמר אף לביתה לא טהרה,א"ל רבא לר"נ לרב דאמר טהורה לביתה ואסורה לאכול בתרומה עון כרת הותרה איסור מיתה מיבעיא,אמר ליה בעלה חולין הוא וחולין לא בעי כוונה ומנא תימרא דתנן גל שנתלש ובו ארבעים סאה ונפל על האדם ועל הכלים טהורין מאי לאו אדם דומיא דכלים מה כלים דלא מיכווני אף אדם נמי לא בעי כוונה,ממאי דלמא ביושב ומצפה עסקינן אימתי יתלש הגל 31a. bthat the feathersat the front of the neck were bunraveledby the arrow, a clear indication that slaughter was performed from the front of the neck.,The Gemara notes another difficulty encountered in the slaughter of a flying bird with an arrow. bBut doesn’tthe bird’s blood brequire coveringwith earth? bAnd if you would say thatRabbi Yona bar Taḥlifa bcoversthe blood, bbut doesn’t Rabbi Zeira saythat bRav says:In fulfilling the mitzva of covering the blood, bone who slaughtersan undomesticated animal or bird bmust place earth beneaththe blood band earth aboveit, bas it is stated:“He shall spill its blood, band cover it in earth”(Leviticus 17:13). bIt is not stated:Cover it with bearth, but rather “in earth /b.” This bteaches that one who slaughters must place earth beneaththe blood band earth abovethe blood, so that the blood will be within the earth.,The Gemara answers bthatRabbi Yona bar Taḥlifa would bdesignate for himselfthe bearth of the entire valley [ ipatka /i]before shooting the arrow. That earth would serve as the layer of earth beneath the blood and he would proceed to cover the blood with another layer of earth.,§ The mishna teaches: In a case where bone wasin the process of bslaughteringthe animal in the standard manner band he decapitatedthe animal in one motion, if the length of the knife is equivalent to the breadth of the animal’s entire neck, the slaughter is valid. bRabbi Zeira says:The knife must be equivalent to bthebreadth of the animal’s bentire neck andextend bbeyond the neck. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Did Rabbi Zeira mean: Equivalent to the breadth of the animal’s bentire neck andextend bbeyond the neckby an amount equivalent to the breadth of the bentire neck,in which case the length of the knife bwouldequal the breadth of btwo necks? Or perhapshe meant: Equivalent to the breadth of the bentire neck and beyond the neckby bany amount? /b,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhearproof to resolve the dilemma from the continuation of the mishna: If bone wasin the process of bslaughteringtwo animals simultaneously, band he decapitated two heads in onemotion, bifthe length bof the knifeis equivalent to the breadth of ban entire neckof boneof the animals the slaughter is bvalid.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: The breadth of ban entire neckof boneof the animals? bIf we saythat it means the breadth of bone entire neck and nothing more,that is difficult. bNow,for the slaughter bof one animal, we requirethat the knife be equivalent to the breadth of the animal’s bentire neck andextend bbeyond the neck;for the slaughter bof two animals,is it possible that a knife whose length is equivalent to the breadth of boneanimal’s bentire neck would be sufficient? Rather,it is bobviousthat it means that the length of the knife must be equivalent to the breadth of bone entire neck beyond thebreadth of btwo necks. /b,The Gemara suggests: bLearn fromthe mishna that Rabbi Zeira means that the length of the knife must be equivalent to the breadth of the animal’s entire neck and extend bbeyond the neckby the breadth of the bentire neck.The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from itthat this was Rabbi Zeira’s intent.,§ The mishna continues: bIn whatcase bis this statement said?It is bwhen one drewthe knife bback and did not drawit bforth,or drew it forth and did not draw it back. But if he drew it back and forth, even if the knife was of any length, even if he slaughtered with a scalpel, the slaughter is valid. bRav Menashe said:This is the ihalakha binthe case of ba scalpel that does not have protrusionsfrom the sides. If there are protrusions, since the scalpel is short, there is concern that the corners may perforate the isimanimor enter between the isimanimand invalidate the slaughter., bRav Aḥa, son of Rav Avya, said to Rav Menashe: Whatis the ihalakhawith regard to slaughter with ba needle?Rav Menashe bsaid to him: A needle piercesthe isimanim /i, as it perforates the neck instead of cutting it.,Rav Aḥa then asked Rav Menashe: bWhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to slaughtering with ba cobbler’s needle,which is flat and has sharp sides? Rav Menashe bsaid to him: Wealready blearnin the mishna: bEvenif the knife was of bany length,the slaughter is valid. bWhat, is it notreferring to slaughter with ba cobbler’s needle?The Gemara responds: bNo.The reference is to slaughtering with ba scalpel,which is larger than a cobbler’s needle. The Gemara objects: The itanna bteachesthe case of ba scalpel explicitlyin the mishna. Therefore, the phrase in the mishna: A knife of any length, must be referring to an item smaller than a scalpel. The Gemara explains: The subsequent mention of the scalpel bis explainingthe phrase: Even if the knife was of any length. bWhat isthe knife of bany lengthwith which slaughter is valid? It is ba scalpel. /b, bThis too stands to reason, as, if it enters your mindthat the phrase: A knife of any length, is referring to ba cobbler’s needle, nowthat it is bpermittedto slaughter with ba cobbler’s needle, isit bnecessaryfor the itannato teach that it is permitted to slaughter with ba scalpel,which is larger than a cobbler’s needle? The Gemara rejects that reasoning: It bis necessaryfor the mishna to teach both the case of a cobbler’s needle and the case of ba scalpel,as it could benter your mind to saythat it is prohibited to slaughter with a scalpel even though it is permitted to slaughter with a cobbler’s needle. The reasoning for this distinction would be: bLetthe Sages bissue a decreeprohibiting the use of ba scalpel with no protrusions due tothe prohibition against using ba scalpel with protrusions.Therefore, the itanna bteaches usthat there is no decree and it is permitted to slaughter with a scalpel that has no protrusions., strongMISHNA: /strong If ba knife fell and slaughteredan animal, balthoughthe knife bslaughteredthe animal bin the standard manner,the slaughter is bnot valid, as it is stated: “And you shall slaughter…and you shall eat”(Deuteronomy 27:7), from which it is derived: bThat which you slaughter you may eat,and that which was slaughtered on its own, you may not eat., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that if a knife fell and slaughtered an animal the slaughter is not valid. The Gemara notes: bThe reasonthe slaughter is not valid is bthatthe knife bfell. Butby inference, if bone droppedthe knife the slaughter is bvalid, andthat is the ihalakha beven thoughwhen dropping the knife he bdid not intendto slaughter the animal.,The Gemara asks: bWho is the itanna /iwho holds bthat we do not require intent for slaughter? Rava said:It bis Rabbi Natan, as Oshaya, the youngest of the companyof Sages, btaughta ibaraita /i: If bone threw a knife to embed it in the wall andin the course of its flight the knife bwent and slaughteredan animal bin itsproper bmanner, Rabbi Natan deemsthe slaughter bvalid and the Rabbis deemthe slaughter bnot valid.Oshaya bteachesthe ibaraita band he saysabout bit:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Natanthat there is no need for intent to perform a valid act of slaughter.,The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Ravaalready bsay it one timethat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan? bAs we learnedin a mishna (2a): bAndwith regard to bany of them,a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor, bwho slaughteredan animal band others seeand supervise bthem, their slaughter is valideven though they are incapable of intent. bAnd we said: Who is the itanna /iwho holds bthat we do not require intent for slaughter? And Rava said:It bis Rabbi Natan. /b,The Gemara answers: Both statements bare necessary. As hadRava btaught ushis statement btherewith regard to a deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor, one would have thought that the slaughter is valid bdue tothe fact bthatalthough the individual lacks intent to slaughter the animal, bhe intendshis action bfor the sake of cutting in general. But here,with regard to throwing a knife at the wall, bwhere he does not intendto cut at all, bsay no,the slaughter is not valid., bAnd hadRava btaught ushis statement bherewith regard to throwing the knife, one would have thought that the slaughter is valid is bdue tothe fact bthatit bcomes due tothe action bof a mentally competent person. But there,with regard to slaughter by a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor, bwherethe slaughter bdoes not come due tothe action bof a mentally competent person, saythat the slaughter is bnotvalid. Therefore, it is bnecessaryfor Rava to teach both cases.,§ The mishna is now cited as proof in an amoraic dispute. bIt was stated:With regard to ba menstruating woman who,after the menstrual flow ended, bwas compelledagainst her will band immersedin a ritual bath, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: She is ritually pure vis-à-vis her house,i.e., it is permitted for her to engage in intercourse with her husband, bbut it is prohibited for her to partake of iteruma /ibecause the immersion is not considered valid for that purpose. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: She was not purified even vis-à-vis her house. /b, bRava said to Rav Naḥman: According tothe opinion of bRav, who saysthat bshe is ritually pure vis-à-vis her house but it is prohibited for her to partake of iteruma /i,it is difficult. With regard to ba transgressionpunishable bby ikaret /i,i.e., intercourse with a menstruating woman, bshe was rendered permittedby immersion against her will; with regard to partaking of iteruma /i, ba prohibitionpunishable by bdeathat the hand of Heaven, which is a lesser punishment, bisit bnecessaryto say that it is permitted for her through immersion against her will? Why then does Rav deem it prohibited for her to partake of iteruma /i?,Rav Naḥman bsaid to him:The halakhic status of bher husband is non-sacred, and non-sacreditems bdo not require intentfor purification. bAnd from where do you sayso? It is bas we learnedin a mishna ( iMikvaot5:6): In the case of ba wave that was detachedfrom the sea, band in itwere bforty ise’a /iof water, bandthat wave bfell onan impure bperson or onimpure bvessels, they are ritually pure. What, is it notthat ba personis bsimilar to vessels? Just as vessels do not intendto be purified and they are purified by the wave, bso too, a person does not require intentin order to be purified.,The Gemara rejects that proof: bFrom whereis there proof that this is the meaning of the mishna? bPerhaps we are dealing withthe case of one who bsitsnear the water band waitsto determine bwhen the wave will be detached,which is tantamount to having intent to immerse
37. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

111b. שאין בה סמיכה עמידה שיש בה סמיכה נוחה הימנה,וכן אמרו יצחק ושמעון ואושעיא אמרו דבר אחד הלכה כר' יהודה בפרדות דתניא רבי יהודה אומר פרדה שתבעה אין מרביעין עליה לא סוס ולא חמור אלא מינה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק יצחק זה רבי יצחק נפחא שמעון זה ר"ש בן פזי ואמרי לה ר"ל אושעיא זה רבי אושעיא ברבי,אמר ר' אלעזר עמי הארצות אינן חיים שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, יד) מתים בל יחיו וגו' תניא נמי הכי מתים בל יחיו יכול לכל ת"ל רפאים בל יקומו במרפה עצמו מדברי תורה הכתוב מדבר,א"ל ר' יוחנן לא ניחא למרייהו דאמרת להו הכי ההוא במרפה עצמו לעבודת כוכבים הוא דכתיב א"ל מקרא אחר אני דורש דכתיב (ישעיהו כו, יט) כי טל אורות טליך וארץ רפאים תפיל כל המשתמש באור תורה אור תורה מחייהו וכל שאין משתמש באור תורה אין אור תורה מחייהו,כיון דחזייה דקמצטער א"ל רבי מצאתי להן תקנה מן התורה (דברים ד, ד) ואתם הדבקים בה' אלהיכם חיים כולכם היום וכי אפשר לדבוקי בשכינה והכתיב (דברים ד, כד) כי ה' אלהיך אש אוכלה,אלא כל המשיא בתו לתלמיד חכם והעושה פרקמטיא לתלמידי חכמים והמהנה תלמידי חכמים מנכסיו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו מדבק בשכינה,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (דברים ל, כ) לאהבה את ה' אלהיך ולדבקה בו וכי אפשר לאדם לידבק בשכינה אלא כל המשיא בתו לתלמיד חכם והעושה פרקמטיא לתלמידי חכמים והמהנה תלמידי חכמים מנכסיו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו מדבק בשכינה,א"ר חייא בר יוסף עתידין צדיקים שמבצבצין ועולין בירושלים שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) ויציצו מעיר כעשב הארץ ואין עיר אלא ירושלים שנאמר (מלכים ב יט, לד) וגנותי אל העיר הזאת,וא"ר חייא בר יוסף עתידים צדיקים שיעמדו במלבושיהן ק"ו מחטה מה חטה שנקברה ערומה יוצאה בכמה לבושין צדיקים שנקברו בלבושיהן על אחת כמה וכמה,וא"ר חייא בר יוסף עתידה א"י שתוציא גלוסקאות וכלי מילת שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) יהי פסת בר בארץ,ת"ר יהי פסת בר בארץ בראש הרים אמרו עתידה חטה שתתמר כדקל ועולה בראש הרים ושמא תאמר יש צער לקוצרה תלמוד לומר (תהלים עב, טז) ירעש כלבנון פריו הקב"ה מביא רוח מבית גנזיו ומנשבה עליה ומשרה את סלתה ואדם יוצא לשדה ומביא מלא פיסת ידו וממנה פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,(דברים לב, יד) עם חלב כליות חטה אמרו עתידה חטה שתהא כשתי כליות של שור הגדול ואל תתמה שהרי שועל קינן בלפת ושקלוהו ומצאו בו ששים ליטרין בליטרא של צפורי,תניא אמר רב יוסף מעשה בשיחין באחד שהניח לו אביו שלשה בדי חרדל ונפשח אחד מהן ונמצאו בו תשעה קבין חרדל ועציו סיככו בו סוכת יוצרין: אמר ר"ש בן תחליפא קלח של כרוב הניח לנו אבא והיינו עולים ויורדים בו בסולם,(דברים לב, יד) ודם ענב תשתה חמר אמרו לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה יש בו צער לבצור ולדרוך העולם הבא מביא ענוה אחת בקרון או בספינה ומניחה בזוית ביתו ומספק הימנה כפטוס גדול ועציו מסיקין תחת התבשיל ואין לך כל ענבה וענבה שאין בה שלשים גרבי יין שנא' (דברים לב, יד) ודם ענב תשתה חמר אל תקרי חמר אלא חומר,כי אתא רב דימי אמר מאי דכתיב (בראשית מט, יא) אוסרי לגפן עירה אין לך כל גפן וגפן שבא"י שאין צריך עיר אחת לבצור (בראשית מט, יא) ולשורקה בני אתונו אין לך כל אילן סרק שבא"י שאינו מוציא משוי שתי אתונות ושמא תאמר אין בו יין ת"ל (בראשית מט, יא) כבס ביין לבושו ושמא תאמר אינו אדום ת"ל ודם ענב תשתה חמר,ושמא תאמר אינו מרוה ת"ל סותה ושמא תאמר אין בו טעם ת"ל חכלילי עינים מיין כל חיך שטועמו אומר לי לי ושמא תאמר לנערים יפה ולזקנים אינו יפה ת"ל ולבן שנים מחלב אל תיקרי לבן שינים אלא לבן שנים,פשטיה דקרא במאי כתיב כי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרה כנסת ישראל לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם רמוז בעיניך דבסים מחמרא ואחוי לי שיניך דבסים מחלבא,מסייע ליה לר' יוחנן דאמר ר' יוחנן טוב המלבין שינים לחבירו יותר ממשקהו חלב שנאמר ולבן שנים מחלב אל תקרי לבן שינים אלא לבון שינים,רב חייא בר אדא מקרי דרדקי דר"ל הוה איפגר תלתא יומי ולא אתא כי אתא א"ל אמאי איפגרת,א"ל דלית אחת הניח לי אבא ובצרתי ממנה יום ראשון ג' מאות אשכולות אשכול לגרב יום שני בצרתי ג' מאות אשכולות שתי אשכולות לגרב יום שלישי בצרתי ממנה ג' מאות אשכולות שלש אשכולות לגרב והפקרתי יותר מחציה א"ל אי לאו דאיפגרת הוה עבדא טפי,רמי בר יחזקאל איקלע לבני ברק חזנהו להנהו עיזי דקאכלן תותי תאיני וקנטיף דובשא מתאיני וחלבא טייף מנייהו ומיערב בהדי הדדי אמר היינו זבת חלב ודבש,א"ר יעקב בן דוסתאי מלוד לאונו שלשה מילין פעם אחת קדמתי בנשף והלכתי עד קרסולי בדבש של תאינים אמר ר"ל לדידי חזי לי זבת חלב ודבש של צפורי והוי שיתסר מילין אשיתסר מילין אמר רבה בר בר חנה לדידי חזי לי זבת חלב ודבש של כל ארץ ישראל 111b. bwithout support, standing with a support,i.e. an object against which one can lean, bis better than it. /b, bAnd so too,the brothers bsaidto Rabba: bYitzḥak, Shimon, and Oshayaall bsaid the same statement:The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda with regard to female mules. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says:With regard to ba female mule in heat, onemay bnot mate a horse or a donkey with her,due to the prohibition against crossbreeding of livestock. bRather,one mates her with bone of her kind,another mule., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said,in explanation of this last statement of Rabba’s brothers: bYitzḥak isto be identified with bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa; Shimon is Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi. And some saythat he is bReish Lakish,i.e., Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. bOshaya is Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished /b.,§ bRabbi Elazar said: The common, uneducated peoplewill bnotcome balivein the future, bas it is stated: “The dead live not”(Isaiah 26:14). In other words, those who were already considered dead in their lifetimes will not come back to life afterward either. bThisidea bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“The dead live not”;one bmighthave thought that this is referring bto everyone,i.e., none of the dead will live again. Therefore, bthe verse states: “The shades [ irefa’im /i] rise not”(Isaiah 26:14). This teaches that bthe verse is speaking of one who weakens [ imerapeh /i] himself from matters of Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said toRabbi Elazar: bTheir master,i.e. God, bis not pleased that you say this ofordinary Jews. Rather, bthatverse bis written about one who weakens himselfand succumbs bto idol worship.Those who commit this great sin do not merit to be resurrected in the future. Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: I teachit from ba different verse, as it is written: “For Your dew is as the dew of light, and the earth shall bring to life the shades”(Isaiah 26:19). Rabbi Elazar explains: bAnyone who uses the light of Torah,which is called the dew of light, bthe light of Torahwill brevive him; and anyone who does not use the light of Torah, the light of Torahwill bnot revive him. /b, bSinceRabbi Elazar bsaw thatRabbi Yoḥa bwas grievedover the distress of common, uneducated people, bhe said to him: My teacher, I have found for them a remedy from the Torahso that they will merit life in the World-to-Come, as it states: b“But You who cleave to the Lord your God, are alive every one of you this day”(Deuteronomy 4:4). bBut is it possible to cleave to the Divine Presence? Isn’t it written: For the Lord your God is a devouring fire”(Deuteronomy 4:24)?, bRather,this verse teaches that banyone who marries his daughter to a Torah scholar, and one who conducts business [ iperakmatya /i] on behalf of Torah scholars,by investing their money, band one whoutilizes his wealth bto benefit Torah scholars with his propertyin some other way, bthe verse ascribes himcredit bas though he is cleaving to the Divine Presence. /b, bOn a similar note, you say:The verse states: b“To love the Lord your God,to hearken to His voice, band to cleave to Him”(Deuteronomy 30:20). bBut is it possible for a person to cleave to the Divine Presence? Rather, anyone who marries his daughter to a Torah scholar, and one who conducts business on behalf of Torah scholars, and one whoutilizes his wealth bto benefit Torah scholars with his property, the verse ascribes himcredit bas though he is cleaving to the Divine Presence. /b,§ bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef said: In the future,at the time of the resurrection of the dead, bthe righteous will burst forth and arise in Jerusalem, as it is stated: “And may they blossom out of the city like the grass of the earth”(Psalms 72:16), bandthe term b“city”means bnothing otherthan bJerusalem, as it is stated: “For I will defend this city”(II Kings 19:34)., bAnd Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef said: In the future the righteous will standup from their graves bin their clothes.This is derived by an ia fortiori /iinference bfromthe example of bwheat: Just as wheat, which is buried naked,i.e., the seed alone is planted, and yet it bemergesfrom the ground bwith several layers of garb,including straw and chaff, in the case of bthe righteous, who are buriedfully bclothed, all the more sodo they come out of the ground properly dressed., bAnd Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yoseffurther bsaid: In the future Eretz Yisrael will produce cakes [ igeluskaot /i] andfine bwool clothing [ imeilat /i]that will grow from the ground, bas it is stated: “Let abundant [ ipissat /i] grain [ ibar /i] be in the land”(Psalms 72:16). The term ipissatis interpreted in a similar manner to iketonet passim /i, Joseph’s valuable clothing of many colors, while ibarcan mean bread.,§ bThe Sages taughtthe following with regard to the verse b“Let abundant [ ipissat /i] grain be in the land upon the top of the mountains”(Psalms 72:16). bThey said: In the future, wheat will rise up, and growtall blike a palm tree, and ascend to the top of the mountains. And lest you saythat if wheat will grow this tall bits reaperwill suffer bdiscomfort, thesame bverse states: “May his fruit rustle like Lebanon.” The Holy One, Blessed be He,will bbring a wind from His treasury and blow across, andthis will thereby binduce the flourto fall from the stalks of wheat, band a person will go out to the field and bring back a palmful [ ipissat /i]of flour, bfrom which he willprovide bhis livelihood and the livelihood of the members of his household. /b,It is stated: b“With the kidney-fat of wheat”(Deuteronomy 32:14). The Sages bsaid: In the future,each and every kernel of bwheat will be asbig as bthe two kidneys of the large ox. And do not be surprisedthat this is possible, bas there wasan incident involving ba fox that nested inside a turnip, and they weighedthis turnip, band they discoveredthat even discounting the space dug out by the fox, bitstill weighed bsixty ilitra /i,as measured bby the ilitraof Tzippori. /b,Similarly, bit is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRav Yosef said:There was ban incidentwhich occurred binthe village of bShiḥin,in Eretz Yisrael, binvolving one whose father had left him three branches of mustard, one of which broke. And they discovered onthis one branch alone bnine ikavof mustard. Andwith the bwood of itslarge branches bthey roofed a booth for artisans.Similarly, bRabbi Shimon ben Taḥlifa said: Father left us a cabbage stalk and we would go up and down on it with a ladder,due to its great height.,§ It is stated: b“And from the blood of the grape you drank foaming wine”(Deuteronomy 32:14). The Sages bsaid: The World-to-Come is not like this world.In bthis world there is sufferinginvolved bin pickinggrapes bandin bpressingthem. By contrast, in the bWorld-to-Comeone will bbring one grape in a wagon or on a boat and set it down in a corner of his house and supply from it enoughto fill baboutthe amount of ba large jug [ ipitus /i], and with its wood one will kindlea fire bunder a cooked dish. And every grape you have will produce no lessthan bthirty full jugs of wine,each with the capacity of a ise’a /i. bAs it is stated: “And from the blood of the grape you drank foaming wine [ iḥamer /i].” Do not readthis term as iḥamer /i; rather,read it as iḥomer /i,which is a measure equaling thirty ise’a /i.,§ bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Binding his foal to the vine”(Genesis 49:11), which is interpreted as a prophecy for the future? It means that bevery grapevine you have in Eretz Yisrael requires a foal tocarry the load of its bharvest.The verse continues: b“And his donkey’s colt to the choice vine [ isoreka /i].”The Gemara explains: bEvery barren [ iserak /i] tree you have in Eretz Yisrael will producesufficient fruit in the future bto loadupon btwo donkeys. And lest you saythat these trees bdo not contain wine, thesame bverse states: “He washes his garments in wine.” And lest you saythat the wine bis not red, the verse states: “And from the blood of the grape you drank foaming wine”(Deuteronomy 32:14)., bAnd lest you saythat this wine bdoes not inebriatethose who drink it, bthe verse states: “And his vesture [ isuto /i]in the blood of grapes” (Genesis 49:11). This verse indicates that these wines will induce [ imesit /i] a state of drunkenness. bAnd lest you saythat this wine bhas no flavor, the verse states: “His eyes shall be red [ iḥakhlili /i] with wine”(Genesis 49:12). This unusual term is read homiletically as follows: bEach palate [ iḥeikh /i] that tastes it says:This is bfor me, for me [ ili li /i]. And lest you saythat the wine bis good for the young but it is not good for the old, the verse states: “And his teeth white [ ileven shinayim /i] with milk”(Genesis 49:12). bDo not readthis expression as ileven shinayim /i; rather,read it as ileven shanim /i,one of years, i.e., an elderly person.,The Gemara asks: bTo what does the plain meaning ofthe aforementioned bverse refer? When Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said: The congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: Hint with Your eyesa love bthat is sweeter than wine, and show me Your teeththrough a smile bthat is sweeter than milk. /b,The Gemara comments: This interpretation bsupportsthe opinion bof Rabbi Yoḥa. As Rabbi Yoḥa said: One who whitens his teeth to his friendby smiling at him bis better than one who gives him milk to drink, as it is stated: “And his teeth white [ ileven shinayim /i] with milk”(Genesis 49:12). bDo not readthis expression as ileven shinayim /i; rather,read it as ilibbun shinayim /i,the whitening of teeth. Likewise, the phrase: With milk, can be read as: Than milk.,§ The Gemara relates further stories concerning the great bounty of Eretz Yisrael. bRav Ḥiyya bar Adda was a school teacher of Reish Lakish.On one occasion, Rav Ḥiyya bar Adda bwas delayed for three days and did not cometo teach the children. bWhen hefinally bcame,Reish Lakish bsaid to him: Why were you delayed? /b,Rav Ḥiyya bar Adda bsaid to him: Father left me one branchof a grape vine, band I harvested from iton the bfirst day three hundred grape clusters,and each bclusteryielded a quantity of wine enough btofill ba jug.On the bsecond day I harvestedanother bthree hundred grape clusters,and every btwo clustersyielded enough wine btofill ba jug.On bthe third day Ionce again bharvested three hundred grape clusters,and every bthree clustersyielded enough btofill ba jug, and I declared ownerless more than half of it.Reish Lakish bsaid to him: Had you not delayedand thereby disrupted the Torah study of children, each grape cluster bwould have produced morewine. Due to your cancellation of Torah study, each cluster yielded progressively less.,§ bRami bar Yeḥezkel happenedto come bto Benei Berak.He bsaw those goats that were grazing beneath a figtree, band there was honey oozing from the figs and milk dripping fromthe goats, bandthe two liquids bwere mixing together. He said: This isthe meaning of the verse “A land bflowing with milk and honey”(Exodus 3:8)., bRabbi Ya’akov ben Dostai said: There are three imilfrom Lud to Ono. Once I rose early in the morning and I walked in ankle-deep honeyoozing bfrom fig trees. Reish Lakish said: I myself sawa region called: The place bflowing with milk and honey by Tzippori, and it wasan area that covered bsixteen by sixteen imil /i,256 square imil /i. bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: I myself sawthe region bflowing with milk and honey of all Eretz Yisrael, /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

49a. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ארבעה עשר שחל להיות בשבת מבערין את הכל מלפני השבת דברי ר"מ וחכמים אומרים בזמנו ר"א בר צדוק אומר תרומה מלפני השבת וחולין בזמנן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא ר"א בר צדוק אומר פעם אחת שבת אבא ביבנה וחל ארבעה עשר להיות בשבת ובא זונין ממונה של ר"ג ואמר הגיע עת לבער את החמץ והלכתי אחר אבא וביערנו את החמץ:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ההולך לשחוט את פסחו ולמול את בנו ולאכול סעודת אירוסין בבית חמיו ונזכר שיש לו חמץ בתוך ביתו אם יכול לחזור ולבער ולחזור למצותו יחזור ויבער ואם לאו מבטלו בלבו,להציל מן הנכרים ומן הנהר ומן הלסטים ומן הדליקה ומן המפולת יבטל בלבו ולשבות שביתת הרשות יחזור מיד,וכן מי שיצא מירושלים ונזכר שיש בידו בשר קדש אם עבר צופים שורפו במקומו ואם לאו חוזר ושורפו לפני הבירה מעצי המערכה,ועד כמה הן חוזרין ר"מ אומר זה וזה בכביצה ר' יהודה אומר זה וזה בכזית וחכמים אומרים בשר קדש בכזית וחמץ בכביצה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהו ההולך לאכול סעודת אירוסין בבית חמיו ולשבות שביתת הרשות יחזור מיד,א"ר יוחנן לא קשיא הא ר' יהודה הא רבי יוסי דתניא סעודת אירוסין רשות דברי ר' יהודה רבי יוסי אומר מצוה,והשתא דאמר רב חסדא מחלוקת בסעודה שניה אבל בסעודה ראשונה דברי הכל מצוה אפילו תימא הא והא ר' יהודה ולא קשיא הא בסעודה ראשונה הא בסעודה שניה,תניא אמר רבי יהודה אני לא שמעתי אלא סעודת אירוסין אבל לא סבלונות אמר לו ר' יוסי אני שמעתי סעודת אירוסין וסבלונות,תניא רבי שמעון אומר כל סעודה שאינה של מצוה אין תלמיד חכם רשאי להנות ממנה,כגון מאי א"ר יוחנן כגון בת כהן לישראל ובת תלמיד חכם לעם הארץ דא"ר יוחנן בת כהן לישראל אין זווגן עולה יפה,מאי היא אמר רב חסדא או אלמנה או גרושה או זרע אין לה במתניתא תנא קוברה או קוברתו או מביאתו לידי עניות,איני והא א"ר יוחנן הרוצה שיתעשר ידבק בזרעו של אהרן כל שכן שתורה וכהונה מעשרתן לא קשיא הא בת"ח הא בעם הארץ,ר' יהושע נסיב כהנתא חלש אמר לא ניחא ליה לאהרן דאדבק בזרעיה דהוי ליה חתנא כי אנא,רב אידי בר אבין נסיב כהנתא נפקו מיניה תרי בני סמיכי רב ששת בריה דרב אידי ור' יהושע בריה דרב אידי אמר ר"פ אי לא נסיבנא כהנתא לא איעתרי,אמר רב כהנא אי לא נסיבנא כהנתא לא גלאי אמרו ליה והא למקום תורה גלית לא גלאי כדגלי אינשי,אמר רבי יצחק כל הנהנה מסעודת הרשות לסוף גולה שנא' (עמוס ו, ד) ואוכלים כרים מצאן ועגלים מתוך מרבק וכתיב לכן עתה יגלו בראש גולים:,ת"ר כל ת"ח המרבה סעודתו בכל מקום סוף מחריב את ביתו ומאלמן את אשתו ומייתם את גוזליו ותלמודו משתכח ממנו ומחלוקות רבות באות עליו ודבריו אינם נשמעים ומחלל שם שמים ושם רבו ושם אביו וגורם שם רע לו ולבניו ולבני בניו עד סוף כל הדורות,מאי היא אמר אביי קרו ליה בר מחים תנורי רבא אמר בר מרקיד בי כובי רב פפא אמר בר מלחיך פינכי רב שמעיה אמר בר מך רבע:,ת"ר לעולם ימכור אדם כל מה שיש לו וישא בת ת"ח שאם מת או גולה מובטח לו שבניו ת"ח ואל ישא בת ע"ה שאם מת או גולה בניו ע"ה,ת"ר לעולם ימכור אדם כל מה שיש לו וישא בת ת"ח וישיא בתו לת"ח משל לענבי הגפן בענבי הגפן דבר נאה ומתקבל ולא ישא בת עם הארץ משל לענבי הגפן בענבי הסנה דבר כעור 49a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bthe fourteenthof Nisan bthat occurs on Shabbat, one removes allleaven from his possession, whether it is iterumaor non-sacred food, bbefore Shabbat,except for that which will be eaten during the first part of Shabbat. In that case, one cannot remove leaven from his possession on the fourteenth of Nisan itself as he does in other years. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say:One may remove the leaven bat itsusual btimeon the fourteenth of Nisan by throwing it away or declaring it ownerless. bRabbi Eliezer bar Tzadok says: iTeruma /ishould be removed bbefore Shabbat,as only a few people are permitted to eat it and therefore one can presume that it will remain uneaten during Shabbat. However, bnon-sacredfoods should be removed bat theirusual btime,on the fourteenth of Nisan itself., strongGEMARA: /strong bIt was taughtin the iToseftathat bRabbi Eliezer bar Tzadok says: One time my father,Rabbi Tzadok, bspent Shabbat in Yavne, and the fourteenthof Nisan boccurred onthat bShabbat. Zonin,who was bthe appointee of Rabban Gamliel, came and said: The time has come to remove leavened bread; and I went with my father and we removed the leavened bread.This story serves as anecdotal evidence that leaven is removed at the usual time on the fourteenth of Nisan, even on Shabbat., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne who is travelingon the eve of Passover bto slaughter his Paschal lamb, to circumcise his son, or to eat a betrothal feast in his father-in-law’s house, and he remembers that he has leavened bread in his house, if he is able to returnto his house band removethe leaven and afterward breturn to the mitzvatoward which he was traveling, bhe should returnhome band removehis leaven. bBut ifthere is not enough time for him to go home and remove the leaven, and still complete the mitzva that he already began, bhe should nullify it in his heart,as by Torah law this is sufficient.,If one was traveling bto saveJews from an attack by bgentiles, from aflooding briver, from bandits, from a fire, or from a collapsedbuilding, he should not even attempt to return, and instead bhe should nullifythe leaven bin his heart.This applies even if he could remove his leaven and still return to his previous activity. If he went bto establish his Shabbatresidence in order to adjust his Shabbat limit for an boptionalpurpose, rather than in order to fulfill a commandment, bhe should return immediatelyto remove his leaven., bAnd so too,the same ihalakhaapplies to bone who left Jerusalem and remembered that there was consecrated meat in his hand.Meat that is taken out of Jerusalem becomes disqualified, and one is required to burn it in proximity to the Temple. bIf he passedthe area of Mount bScopus[iTzofim /i],beyond which one cannot see Jerusalem, bhe burnsthe meat bat the sitewhere bheis located; band ifhe has bnottraveled that far, bhe must return and burn it before the Temple with wood from the arrangementon the altar, which was designated for burning consecrated items that were disqualified.,The mishna asks: For bhow muchleaven or consecrated meat is one required bto return? Rabbi Meir says:In both bthiscase band thatcase, one must return for ban egg-bulk. Rabbi Yehuda says:In both bthiscase band thatcase, one must return for ban olive-bulk. And the Rabbis saythat the amount depends on the case: With regard to bconsecrated meat,he is required to return if he has ban olive-bulk, butin a case where he remembers that he has bleavened bread,he required to return only bfor an egg-bulk. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara braises a contradictionbetween this mishna and another source. It was taught in a ibaraita /i: bOne who is traveling to eat a betrothal feast in his father-in-law’s house or to establish his Shabbatresidence for an boptionalpurpose, bmust return immediatelyto remove his leaven. This contradicts the mishna, which states that one who is going to a betrothal feast may nullify the leaven without returning for it, because the meal is considered a mitzva., bRabbi Yoḥa said:This is bnot difficult,as there is a tannaitic dispute with regard to the issue. bThissource, the ibaraita /i, is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,while bthatsource, the mishna, is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yosei. As it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA betrothal feast is optional;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says:It is a bmitzva. /b, bAnd now that Rav Ḥisda said: The disputebetween Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei applies to bthe secondbetrothal feast, where the groom takes part in an additional meal with the bride’s family, bbut everyone agrees that the firstbetrothal bfeast is a mitzva,the contradiction between the mishna and the ibaraitacan be resolved differently. bEven if you say that thismishna and bthat ibaraitaare both in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bnot difficult. Thismishna, which relates to the meal as a mitzva, is referring to bthe first meal. That ibaraita /i, which assumes that the meal is not a mitzva, is referring to bthe second meal. /b, bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said: I heard onlythat there is a mitzva with regard to a bbetrothal feastitself, bbut notwith regard to the feast of the bgifts [ isivlonot /i],when the groom would present gifts to the bride. While a festive meal was eaten on this occasion, it was not considered to be a mitzva. bRabbi Yosei said to him: I heardthat both ba betrothal feast andthe feast of the bgiftsare considered mitzvot.,Having discussed whether a betrothal feast is a mitzva, the Gemara addresses a related issue. bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon says: A Torah scholar may notderive bbenefit frompartaking in bany feast that is not a mitzva. /b,The Gemara asks: bIn what casedoes this statement apply? bRabbi Yoḥa said: In a casewhere bthe daughter of a priestmarries ban Israelite,or where bthe daughter of a Torah scholarmarries ban ignoramus.Although a wedding feast is generally a mitzva, it is not in this case, bas Rabbi Yoḥa said:When bthe daughter of a priestmarries ban Israelite their union will not be auspicious,as it is disgraceful for the priesthood when the daughter of a priest marries an Israelite.,The Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by bthisstatement that their union will be inauspicious? bRav Ḥisda said:The inauspicious nature of such a marriage can be identified based on the verse describing the return of a daughter of a priest to her father’s house after marrying a non-priest. The verse is understood as mentioning that the marriage will result in one of three possibilities: she will beither be a widow, a divorcee, or without children(see Leviticus 22:13). bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i:Either her husband bwill bury her or she will bury him,because one of them will die young, bor she will cause him to become poor. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥahimself bsay: One who wishes to become wealthy should cling to the descendants of Aaron,and ball the more soshould the merit of the bTorahand the bpriesthood cause them to become wealthy.The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as bthiscase, where he becomes wealthy, brefers to a Torah scholarwho marries a woman of priestly lineage. In that case their union will be a successful one. bThatcase, where their union will not be auspicious, refers to ban ignoramuswho marries a woman of priestly lineage.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yehoshua married a daughter of a priestand bbecame ill. He said:Apparently, bit is not satisfactory to Aaronthe priest bthat I cling to his descendants, so that he has a son-in-law like me. /b,The Gemara also relates that bRav Idi bar Avin married a daughter of a priest. Two sonswho were bordainedto decide halakhic matters bcame from him,namely bRav Sheshet, son of Rav Idi, and Rabbi Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi.Similarly, bRav Pappa said: Had I not married a daughter of a priest, I would not have become wealthy. /b,On the other hand, bRav Kahana,who was not a priest, bsaid: Had I not married a daughter of a priest, I would not have been exiled,as Rav Kahana was forced to flee from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael. bThey said to him: But you were exiled to a place of Torah,which is not a punishment at all. He answered: bI was not exiled as people aregenerally bexiled,i.e., I did not emigrate of my own free will; rather, I was forced to flee from the authorities., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who benefits frompartaking in ban optional feast,which is not a mitzva, bwill ultimately be exiled, as it is stated: “And eat the lambs of the flock and the calves out of the midst of the stall”(Amos 6:4), band it is written: “Therefore now they shall go into exile at the head of the exiles;and the revelry of those who stretched themselves out shall pass away” (Amos 6:7).,The Gemara continues discussing a Torah scholar who benefits from optional feasts. bThe Sages taught: Any Torah scholar who feasts excessively everywheredegrades himself and brings suffering upon himself. He will bultimately destroy his house, widow his wife, orphan his chicks,i.e., his children, band his studies will be forgotten. Much dispute will come upon him, his words will not be heeded, and he will desecrate God’s name and the name of his master and the name of his father. And he will cause a bad name for himself, his children, and his descendants throughout future generations. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is thisbad reputation that he causes to himself and his descendants? bAbaye said:His son bis called the son[ibar/b] bof the one who heats ovens,since this person continually heated ovens in order to prepare food for feasts. bRava said:His son will be called bthe son of the one who dancesin binns [ ibei kuvei /i],as he seems to be invited to every feast to entertain the guests. bRav Pappa said:His son will be called bthe son of the one who licks bowls [ ipinkhei /i]. Rav Shemaya said:His son will be called bthe son of the one who foldshis garment band crouches,i.e., falls asleep drunk.,On the topic of proper marriage partners, the Gemara cites the following discussion. bThe Sages taught: One should alwaysbe willing to bsell all he hasin order to bmarry the daughter of a Torah scholar, as if he dies orif he bis exiledand he cannot raise his children, bhe can be assured that his sons will be Torah scholars,since their mother will ensure that they are well educated. bAnd one should not marry the daughter of an ignoramus, as if he dies or is exiled, his sons will be ignoramuses. /b,Furthermore, bthe Sages taught: One should alwaysbe willing to bsell all he hasin order to bmarry the daughter of a Torah scholar andin order to bmarry off his daughter to a Torah scholar.This type of marriage can be bcompared to grapes of a vinethat become intertwined bwith grapes of a vine, somethingwhich is bbeautiful and acceptableto God and man. bAnd one should not marry the daughter of an ignoramus.This type of marriage can be bcompared to grapes of a vinethat have become intertwined bwith berries of a bramble,which is bsomething unseemly /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. כי הא (דרבה) בר חמא כי הוו קיימי מקמיה דרב חסדא מרהטי בגמרא בהדי הדדי והדר מעייני בסברא,אמר רבא מאני משתיא במטללתא מאני מיכלא בר ממטללתא חצבא ושחיל בר ממטללתא ושרגא במטללתא ואמרי לה בר ממטללתא ולא פליגי הא בסוכה גדולה הא בסוכה קטנה:,ירדו גשמים: תנא משתסרח המקפה של גריסין,אביי הוה קא יתיב קמיה דרב יוסף במטללתא נשב זיקא וקא מייתי ציבותא אמר להו רב יוסף פנו לי מאני מהכא אמר ליה אביי והא תנן משתסרח המקפה אמר ליה לדידי כיון דאנינא דעתאי כמי שתסרח המקפה דמי לי,ת"ר היה אוכל בסוכה וירדו גשמים וירד אין מטריחין אותו לעלות עד שיגמור סעודתו היה ישן תחת הסוכה וירדו גשמים וירד אין מטריחין אותו לעלות עד שיאור,איבעיא להו עד שיעור או עד שיאור ת"ש עד שיאור ויעלה עמוד השחר תרתי אלא אימא עד שיעור ויעלה עמוד השחר:,משל למה הדבר דומה: איבעיא להו מי שפך למי ת"ש דתניא שפך לו רבו קיתון על פניו ואמר לו אי אפשי בשמושך,ת"ר בזמן שהחמה לוקה סימן רע לכל העולם כולו משל למה הדבר דומה למלך בשר ודם שעשה סעודה לעבדיו והניח פנס לפניהם כעס עליהם ואמר לעבדו טול פנס מפניהם והושיבם בחושך,תניא רבי מאיר אומר כל זמן שמאורות לוקין סימן רע לשונאיהם של ישראל מפני שמלומדין במכותיהן משל לסופר שבא לבית הספר ורצועה בידו מי דואג מי שרגיל ללקות בכל יום ויום הוא דואג,תנו רבנן בזמן שהחמה לוקה סימן רע לעובדי כוכבים לבנה לוקה סימן רע לשונאיהם של ישראל מפני שישראל מונין ללבנה ועובדי כוכבים לחמה לוקה במזרח סימן רע ליושבי מזרח במערב סימן רע ליושבי מערב באמצע הרקיע סימן רע לכל העולם כולו,פניו דומין לדם חרב בא לעולם לשק חיצי רעב באין לעולם לזו ולזו חרב וחיצי רעב באין לעולם לקה בכניסתו פורענות שוהה לבא ביציאתו ממהרת לבא וי"א חילוף הדברים,ואין לך כל אומה ואומה שלוקה שאין אלהיה לוקה עמה שנאמר (שמות יב, יב) ובכל אלהי מצרים אעשה שפטים ובזמן שישראל עושין רצונו של מקום אין מתיראין מכל אלו שנאמר (ירמיהו י, ב) כה אמר ה' אל דרך הגוים אל תלמדו ומאותות השמים אל תחתו כי יחתו הגוים מהמה עובדי כוכבים יחתו ואין ישראל יחתו,ת"ר בשביל ארבעה דברים חמה לוקה על אב בית דין שמת ואינו נספד כהלכה ועל נערה המאורסה שצעקה בעיר ואין מושיע לה ועל משכב זכור ועל שני אחין שנשפך דמן כאחד,ובשביל ארבעה דברים מאורות לוקין על כותבי (פלסתר) ועל מעידי עדות שקר ועל מגדלי בהמה דקה בא"י ועל קוצצי אילנות טובות,ובשביל ד' דברים נכסי בעלי בתים נמסרין למלכות על משהי שטרות פרועים ועל מלוי ברבית 29a. bAsin bthatsituation involving Rava and Rami bbar Ḥama, when they would stand before Rav Ḥisda,after he taught them a ihalakha btheywould bquicklyreview bthe traditionthat they heard from him btogether andonly bthen analyze the rationaleof the tradition that they had received. Apparently, in the study of Mishna and the amoraic commentary on the Mishna there is a distinction between extensive and intensive study.,With regard to residence in the isukka /i, bRava said: Drinking vesselssuch as cups, which are usually clean, remain bin the isukka /i. Eating vesselsare taken bout of the isukka /iafter use. bAn earthenware jug and a wicker basket [ ishaḥil]that are used for drawing water are taken boutside the isukka /i. And a lampremains binside the isukka /i, and some sayit is taken boutside the isukka /i.The Gemara comments: bAnd they do not disagree.Rather, bthisopinion, that a lamp remains inside the isukka /i, is referring bto a large isukka /i,where the lamp and its odor do not disturb those residing in the isukka /i. And bthatopinion, that the lamp is taken outside the isukka /i, is referring bto a small isukka /i,where the lamp’s odor is offensive.,§ The mishna stated: If brain fell,it is permitted to leave the isukkafrom the point that it is raining so hard that the congealed dish will spoil. bIt was taughtin the iTosefta /i: The measure is bfrom when a congealed dish of pounded grain,a dish ruined by even slight rainfall, bwill spoil. /b, bAbaye was sitting before Rav Yosef in the isukka /i. The wind blew and broughtwith it bsplintersfrom the roofing, and they fell onto the food. bRav Yosef said to him: Vacate my vessels from here,and I will eat in the house. bAbaye said to him: Didn’t we learnin the mishna that one remains in the isukka buntil the congealed dish will spoil?That is not yet the case. bHe said to him: For me, since I am delicate,this situation bis as if the congealed dish will spoil. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bone was eating in the isukka /i, and rain fell,and bhe descendedfrom the isukkaon the roof to eat in his house, bone does not burden him to ascendback to the isukkaonce the rain ceases buntilafter bhe finishes his meal.Similarly, if bone was sleeping underthe roofing of bthe isukka /i, and rain fell, and he descendedto sleep in the house, bone does not burden him to ascendback to the isukkaonce the rain ceases; rather, he may sleep in the house buntil it becomes light. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Is the correct reading of the ibaraita /i: bUntil one awakens [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an iayin /i, and once he awakens he returns to the isukkaeven in the middle of the night? Or is the correct reading: bUntil it becomes light [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an ialef /i, and he need not return to the isukkauntil morning? bComeand bheara proof that will resolve the matter from a related ibaraita /i: One need not return to the isukka buntil it becomes light [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an ialef /i, band dawnarrives. The Gemara asks: Why did the ibaraitarepeat the arrival of light btwotimes (Ritva)? bRather, sayinstead: bUntil he awakens [ isheyeor /i],spelled with an iayin /i, band the dawnarrives. Both of the readings are accurate, as until one awakens and it becomes light he may remain in the house.,§ The mishna continues: The Sages btold a parable: To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable to a servant who comes to pour wine for his master, and he pours a jug of water in his face. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWho pouredthe water bin whoseface? bComeand bheara proof, bas it is taughtexplicitly in a ibaraita /i: bHis master poured a jugof water bon his face and said to him: I do not want your service. /b,Apropos the fact that rain on iSukkotis an indication of divine rebuke, the Gemara cites several related topics. bThe Sages taught: When the sun is eclipsed it is a bad omen for the entire world.The Gemara tells ba parable. To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable bto a king of flesh and blood who prepared a feast for his servants and placed a lantern [ ipanas /i] before themto illuminate the hall. bHe became angry at them and said to his servant: Take the lantern from before them and seat them in darkness. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir says: When theheavenly blights,i.e., the sun and the moon, bare eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people,which is a euphemism for the Jewish people, bbecause they are experienced in their beatings.Based on past experience, they assume that any calamity that afflicts the world is directed at them. The Gemara suggests ba parable:This is similar bto a teacher who comes to the school with a strap in his hand. Who worries?The child bwho is accustomed to be beaten each and every day isthe one who bworries. /b, bThe Sages taughtin another ibaraita /i: bWhen the sun is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for theother bnations.When bthe moon is eclipsed, it is a bad omen for the enemies of the Jewish people.This is bdue tothe fact bthat the Jewish people calculatetheir calendar primarily based bon the moon, and theother bnationscalculate based bon the sun.When the sun is beclipsed in the east, it is a bad omen for the residentsof the lands of bthe east.When it is eclipsed bin the west, it is a bad omen for the residentsof the lands of bthe west.When it is eclipsed bin the middle of the sky, it is a bad omen for the entire world. /b,If, during an eclipse, bthe visageof the sun bisred blike blood,it is an omen that bsword,i.e., war, bis coming to the world.If the sun bisblack blike sackclothmade of dark goat hair, it is an omen that barrows of hunger are coming to the world,because hunger darkens people’s faces. When it is similar both bto this,to blood, band to that,to sackcloth, it is a sign that both bsword and arrows of hunger are coming to the world.If it was beclipsed upon its entry,soon after rising, it is an omen that bcalamity is tarrying to come.If the sun is eclipsed bupon its departureat the end of the day, it is an omen that bcalamity is hastening to come. And some say the matters are reversed:An eclipse in the early morning is an omen that calamity is hastening, while an eclipse in the late afternoon is an omen that calamity is tarrying.,The Sages said: bThere is no nation that is afflicted whose god is not afflicted with it, as it is stated: “And against all the gods of Egypt I will mete out judgment; I am God”(Exodus 12:12). The Gemara adds: bWhen the Jewish people perform God’s will, theyneed bnot fear any of theseomens, bas it is stated: “Thus says the Lord: Learn not the way of the nations, and be not dismayed at the signs of Heaven; for the nations are dismayed at them”(Jeremiah 10:2). bThe nations will be dismayed, but the Jewish people will not be dismayed,provided they do not follow the ways of the nations., bThe Sages taughtthat bon account of four matters the sun is eclipsed: Onaccount of ba president of the court who dies and is not eulogized appropriately,and the eclipse is a type of eulogy by Heaven; bonaccount of ba betrothed young woman who screamed in the citythat she was being raped band there was no one to rescue her; onaccount of bhomosexuality; and onaccount of btwo brothers whose blood was spilled as one. /b, bAnd on account of four matters theheavenly blightsare beclipsed: Onaccount of bforgers of a fraudulent document [ ipelaster /i]that is intended to discredit others; bonaccount of btestifiers of false testimony; onaccount of braisers of small domesticated animals in Eretz Yisraelin a settled area; band onaccount of bchoppers of good,fruit-producing btrees. /b, bAnd on account of four matters the property of homeowners is delivered to the monarchyas punishment: bOnaccount of those bkeepers of paidpromissory bnotes,who keep these documents instead of tearing them or returning them to the borrowers, as that would allow the lender to collect money with the note a second time; band onaccount of blenders with interest; /b
40. Origen, Against Celsus, 4.92, 8.40 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.92. In my opinion, however, it is certain wicked demons, and, so to speak, of the race of Titans or Giants, who have been guilty of impiety towards the true God, and towards the angels in heaven, and who have fallen from it, and who haunt the denser parts of bodies, and frequent unclean places upon earth, and who, possessing some power of distinguishing future events, because they are without bodies of earthly material, engage in an employment of this kind, and desiring to lead the human race away from the true God, secretly enter the bodies of the more rapacious and savage and wicked of animals, and stir them up to do whatever they choose, and at whatever time they choose: either turning the fancies of these animals to make flights and movements of various kinds, in order that men may be caught by the divining power that is in the irrational animals, and neglect to seek after the God who contains all things; or to search after the pure worship of God, but allow their reasoning powers to grovel on the earth, and among birds and serpents, and even foxes and wolves. For it has been observed by those who are skilled in such matters, that the clearest prognostications are obtained from animals of this kind; because the demons cannot act so effectively in the milder sort of animals as they can in these, in consequence of the similarity between them in point of wickedness; and yet it is not wickedness, but something like wickedness, which exist in these animals. 8.40. Such is our doctrine of punishment; and the inculcation of this doctrine turns many from their sins. But let us see, on the other hand, what is the response given on this subject by the priest of Jupiter or Apollo of whom Celsus speaks. It is this: The mills of the gods grind slowly. Another describes punishment as reaching to children's children, and to those who came after them. How much better are those words of Scripture: The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, nor the children for the fathers. Every man shall be put to death for his own sin. And again, Every man that eats the sour grape, his teeth shall be set on edge. And, The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son: the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him. If any shall say that the response, To children's children, and to those who come after them, corresponds with that passage, Who visits the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me, let him learn from Ezekiel that this language is not to be taken literally; for he reproves those who say, Our fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge, and then he adds, As I live, says the Lord, every one shall die for his own sin. As to the proper meaning of the figurative language about sins being visited unto the third and fourth generation, we cannot at present stay to explain.
41. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 9.9-9.16 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

42. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitions, 4.16-4.19 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4.16. Now that the demons are desirous of occupying the bodies of men, this is the reason. They are spirits having their purpose turned to wickedness. Therefore by immoderate eating and drinking, and lust, they urge men on to sin, but only those who entertain the purpose of sinning, who, while they seem simply desirous of satisfying the necessary cravings of nature, give opportunity to the demons to enter into them, because through excess they do not maintain moderation. For as long as the measure of nature is kept, and legitimate moderation is preserved, the mercy of God does not give them liberty to enter into men. But when either the mind falls into impiety, or the body is filled with immoderate meat or drink, then, as if invited by the will and purpose of those who thus neglect themselves, they receive power as against those who have broken the law imposed by God. 4.17. You see, then, how important is the acknowledgment of God, and the observance of the divine religion, which not only protects those who believe from the assaults of the demon, but also gives them command over those who rule over others. And therefore it is necessary for you, who are of the Gentiles, to betake yourselves to God, and to keep yourselves from all uncleanness, that the demons may be expelled, and God may dwell in you. And at the same time, by prayers, commit yourselves to God, and call for His aid against the impudence of the demons; for 'whatever things ye ask, believing, you shall receive.' Matthew 21:22 But even the demons themselves, in proportion as they see faith grow in a man, in that proportion they depart from him, residing only in that part in which something of infidelity still remains; but from those who believe with full faith, they depart without any delay. For when a soul has come to the faith of God, it obtains the virtue of heavenly water, by which it extinguishes the demon like a spark of fire. 4.18. There is therefore a measure of faith, which, if it be perfect, drives the demon perfectly from the soul; but if it has any defect, something on the part of the demon still remains in the portion of infidelity; and it is the greatest difficulty for the soul to understand when or how, whether fully or less fully, the demon has been expelled from it. For if he remains in any quarter, when he gets an opportunity, he suggests thoughts to men's hearts; and they, not knowing whence they come, believe the suggestions of the demons, as if they were the perceptions of their own souls. Thus they suggest to some to follow pleasure by occasion of bodily necessity; they excuse the passionateness of others by excess of gall; they color over the madness of others by the vehemence of melancholy; and even extenuate the folly of some as the result of abundance of phlegm. But even if this were so, still none of these could be hurtful to the body, except from the excess of meats and drinks; because, when these are taken in excessive quantities, their abundance, which the natural warmth is not sufficient to digest, curdles into a sort of poison, and it, flowing through the bowels and all the veins like a common sewer, renders the motions of the body unhealthy and base. Wherefore moderation is to be attained in all things, that neither may place be given to demons, nor the soul, being possessed by them, be delivered along with them to be tormented in eternal fires. 4.19. There is also another error of the demons, which they suggest to the senses of men, that they should think that those things which they suffer, they suffer from such as are called gods, in order that thereby, offering sacrifices and gifts, as if to propitiate them, they may strengthen the worship of false religion, and avoid us who are interested in their salvation, that they may be freed from error; but this they do, as I have said, not knowing that these things are suggested to them by demons, for fear they should be saved. It is therefore in the power of every one, since man has been made possessed of free-will, whether he shall hear us to life, or the demons to destruction. Also to some, the demons, appearing visibly under various figures, sometimes throw out threats, sometimes promise relief from sufferings, that they may instil into those whom they deceive the opinion of their being gods, and that it may not be known that they are demons. But they are not concealed from us, who know the mysteries of the creation, and for what reason it is permitted to the demons to do those things in the present world; how it is allowed them to transform themselves into what figures they please, and to suggest evil thoughts, and to convey themselves, by means of meats and of drink consecrated to them, into the minds or bodies of those who partake of it, and to concoct vain dreams to further the worship of some idol.
43. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 8.5-8.7

44. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 144

144. points and explain them to you. For you must not fall into the degrading idea that it was out of regard to mice and weasels and other such things that Moses drew up his laws with such exceeding care. All these ordices were made for the sake of righteousness to aid the quest for virtue and


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 274
adam, adamic fall Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92
adam, compared to noah Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 95, 103
adam, curse of Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 91
adam, name, spelling of Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
adam, subjugation of eve Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 105
adam (human), as intersex or androgynus Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
adam (human), vs. adam Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
adam (human) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
alimentary Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 88
allegory Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 74
allotment, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
allotment, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
amei haarets (nonlearned jews), and torah study Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 136
amei haarets (nonlearned jews), as subhuman Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 136
amei haarets (nonlearned jews), palestinian sources on Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 136
amei haarets (nonlearned jews) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 136
angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 72
angels Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
animals, devoured by the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
animals, dietary regulations Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
animals, eating Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60, 205
animals, purity of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
animals, vs. humans Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
ante-diluvian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
apocryphal acts McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
astronomical book of enoch VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
baillet m. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 22
basil of caesarea Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
beast, attacking seth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
beast, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
behemah (animal) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
belial Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
bible Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
binaries, of creation Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
bind/binding Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
birds, devoured by the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
birds, dietary regulations Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
blessing Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 61
blind/blinding/blindness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
blood Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 50; Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 19, 74, 113
bloodshed, ante-diluvian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
bloodshed, instruction on Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98, 99
body and soul Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 50
borders v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
bread McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
burial, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
burial, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
butler, octavia Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
cain, rivalry with abel Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
cain, seven sins, judgement Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
cain Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 274
calendar, samaritan Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 22
catena(e) Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 84
cattle, devoured by the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
cave Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
celsus, moral critique of bible Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 104
chaos Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
chosen ones; see also election Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98, 99
commensality Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 74
complaint Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
contradiction Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 96, 102, 104
cooking Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 74, 113
cosmos Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
covenant, noahic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92, 98, 99
covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98; VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 274
creation, binaries of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
creation, dominion and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
creation, essentially good Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 210
creation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
creeping things, devoured by the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
creeping things Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 161
culture, nature and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
dead sea scrolls Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
death Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 26
deception/deceit Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92, 99
deduction Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
demonic, temptation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
demons and food Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 210
demons in second temple judaism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 50
depression Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 101
desire Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
dialogue, audience Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 101, 104
didymus Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
diet, vegetarian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
dietary laws Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
dietary laws ascetic role of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 88
dietary laws biblical Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 50, 88, 210
dietary laws demonological interpretation of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 210
dietary laws historical interpretation of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 88
dietary laws in the second-and third-century texts Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 88
dietary laws natural interpretation of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 88, 210
difference, between humans and animals Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
difference, between kinds Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
difference, generation of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
discourses of divine law, in biblical literature Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 16
divine law, in biblical israel Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 16
domestication Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 61
dominion Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
dositheans Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 22
dreams and visions, temporal shifts Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 76
eleazar, r., and amei haarets Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 136
elitism Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 136
enoch literature, earliest Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 22
enochic traditions Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
eschaton Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 210
essenes McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
eternal vs. temporal life Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 136
eucharist, of bread alone McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
eucharist, of bread and water McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
eusebius of emesa, answer formulations Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 91
eusebius of emesa, chams curse Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 104
eusebius of emesa, on the flood, arc-in-sky Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 91
eusebius of emesa, questions formulations Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
eve, subjugation to adam Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 96, 105
fat Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 113
fear Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
festivals VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
fig Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
fish, devoured by the giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
flesh, animal Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
flesh/fleshly Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
flood/deluge, great/noahs, destruction of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98, 99
flood/deluge, great/noahs Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98, 367
flood Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 61; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
flood narrative, in bible Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 52
flood narrative VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
food, impurity of among jews Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 50
food, impurity of and demonology Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 210
food, impurity of in second- and third-century sources Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 88
food laws, eating without discrimination Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 76
food laws, permitted and non-permitted species Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 76
fruit, forbidden (illicit) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
gender, essentialism Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
gender, fixity of, questioning Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
gender, in language Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
generation, in priestly creation narrative Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
generation, of difference Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
generation, of seth Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
gentiles Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
giants, conflict among Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
giants, oppressors Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99, 367
glossing, noahs drunkenness Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 102
glossing Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 100
greenberg, moshe Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 16
ham Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
hayah (living being) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
heaven Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
hebrew bible, composition of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
herb Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
homily, diatribe Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 100
homoioteleuton Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
humanity, in image of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
humans, vs. animals Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
humans Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25, 26
humility, incest Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
hunting Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 112
hybrids, types of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
idolatry Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
illness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
image of god, and adams image Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
image of god Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
image vi Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25, 26
images, of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
imitatio dei Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 61
impurity/uncleanness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
impurity Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
instruction/teaching, on covering nakedness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
instruction/teaching, on separation from fornication Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
instruction/teaching, on shedding of blood Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
instruction/teaching, on worshipping the creator Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
intersex Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
israel, land of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 136
jacob Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 72
japheth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
jared Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92
john chrysostom, letter to stageirios Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 101
jubilees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
judaism, asceticism McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
key roots, gmr (learn) Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
key roots, hgh (mediate or reflect) Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
kilayim, in sifra Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
kilayim Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
knowledge, as making Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
knowledge production, in the sifra Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
kābôd Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 26
language, gender and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
law/torah, for sinners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92, 98
law/torah, mosaic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
le guin, ursula Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
learning, from more than one teacher Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
lifeblood in meat Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
likeness, of adam Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
limit Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
logic (higayon) Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
lot Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
mamzerim Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
manual of discipline (iqs) McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
manuscript/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 72
marriage Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 126
mastema Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
meat, avoidance/prohibition McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
meat Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 88; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
memorial days VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
menstruation Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 50
metaphor Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 61
milk Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 113
minim (species), signs of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
minim (species) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
miut (restriction, exclusion) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
monsters/giants Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 50
montgomery j.a. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 22
moses VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
murder, expiation through the blood of the murderer Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 126
murder Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 50; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92
nakedness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
nation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 26
natural law Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 96
nature, and culture Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
nature, and impurity Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 210
natureculture Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
nebrod Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 96, 105
neighbour, love of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
noah, arc-in-sky Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 91
noah, covenant with McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 274
noah, grandsons of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98, 99
noah, noachide commandments Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 367
noah, noahic covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92, 98
noah, sons Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 84, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105
noah Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 210; Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 126; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 72; VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
noahs sons Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 105
non-literal interpretation, prophecy Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
nonbinarity, and natureculture Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
observed by, image and likeness of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
observed by, seth begotten by Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
order Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25, 26
origen, celsus on generational punishment Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 104
origen, noahs drunkenness, sons Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 102, 104
origen, scholia on genesis Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 102, 104
palestinian sources, on amei haarets Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 136
paradise, traveling (journey or foray) to/from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
paradise, walls of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
parents, honour of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
particularism Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 16
paul Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92
peace Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
peripatetic Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 88
peru u-revu (be fruitful and multiply), multivalence of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
peru u-revu (be fruitful and multiply), object of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
peru u-revu (be fruitful and multiply) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
peter's vision, halakhic perspectives" Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 76
pigs Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 210
planting, of righteousness/truth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98, 99
positive divine law (biblical) Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 16
powels s. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 22
pray/prayers Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
prey animals Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 74
priestly source (p), hierarchy in Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
priestly source (p) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
pseudo-clementines McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
pure/purity Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
purity, impurity, defilement, cleansing, defilement by association Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 76
purity, separate from impurity Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
purity, signs of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
questions-and-answers, relation to other genres Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 104
qumran McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
rabbinic literature, as onto-epistemic enterprise Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
rashi Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
rava Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
reason Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 74
reasoning Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
recitation Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
reflection Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
regions, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
regions, three Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 484
relativization of impurity Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 88
resident alien Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 92
revelation Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 74
ribuy (expansiveness, inclusion) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 60
sacrifice, criticism/avoidance of McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
sacrifice, process of, in hebrew bible Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 61
sacrifice, symbolism of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 61
sages, and amei haarets Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 136
samaritans Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 22
sanctuary Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 26
satan Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 49
scapegoat Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 274
sciatic nerve Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 74, 112, 113
second temple judaism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 50
septuagint Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
seth, generation of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
sevara, sevara vs. gemara Hirshman, The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C (2009) 74
sexgender, as term Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
sexgender, binary, disrupting Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
sexgender, of adam Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27