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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.1-9.7


וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth.


וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם בָּעוֹף בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אִתְּכֶם מִכֹּל יֹצְאֵי הַתֵּבָה לְכֹל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ׃And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth.


וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם׃And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered.


וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה עַל כָּל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְעַל כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ׃And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered.


כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all.


אַךְ־בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.


וְאַךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶם לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם אֶדְרֹשׁ מִיַּד כָּל־חַיָּה אֶדְרְשֶׁנּוּ וּמִיַּד הָאָדָם מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו אֶדְרֹשׁ אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם׃And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it; and at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s brother, will I require the life of man.


שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man.


וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָהּ׃And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; swarm in the earth, and multiply therein.’ .


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

39 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.6, 5.29, 6.1, 7.6, 15.23, 23.8, 32.8-32.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.6. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם כִּי הִוא חָכְמַתְכֶם וּבִינַתְכֶם לְעֵינֵי הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁמְעוּן אֵת כָּל־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמְרוּ רַק עַם־חָכָם וְנָבוֹן הַגּוֹי הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה׃ 5.29. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם לֹא תָסֻרוּ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל׃ 6.1. וְזֹאת הַמִּצְוָה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לְלַמֵּד אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 6.1. וְהָיָה כִּי יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לָתֶת לָךְ עָרִים גְּדֹלֹת וְטֹבֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־בָנִיתָ׃ 7.6. כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּךָ בָּחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם סְגֻלָּה מִכֹּל הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 15.23. רַק אֶת־דָּמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵל עַל־הָאָרֶץ תִּשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ כַּמָּיִם׃ 23.8. לֹא־תְתַעֵב אֲדֹמִי כִּי אָחִיךָ הוּא לֹא־תְתַעֵב מִצְרִי כִּי־גֵר הָיִיתָ בְאַרְצוֹ׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 4.6. Observe therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples, that, when they hear all these statutes, shall say: ‘Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.’" 5.29. Ye shall observe to do therefore as the LORD your God hath commanded you; ye shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the left." 6.1. Now this is the commandment, the statutes, and the ordices, which the LORD your God commanded to teach you, that ye might do them in the land whither ye go over to possess it—" 7.6. For thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God: the LORD thy God hath chosen thee to be His own treasure, out of all peoples that are upon the face of the earth." 15.23. Only thou shalt not eat the blood thereof; thou shalt pour it out upon the ground as water." 23.8. Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land." 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 9.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.27. קִיְּמוּ וקבל [וְקִבְּלוּ] הַיְּהוּדִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְעַל־זַרְעָם וְעַל כָּל־הַנִּלְוִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר לִהְיוֹת עֹשִׂים אֵת שְׁנֵי הַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּכְתָבָם וְכִזְמַנָּם בְּכָל־שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה׃ 9.27. the Jews ordained, and took upon them, and upon their seed, and upon all such as joined themselves unto them, so as it should not fail, that they would keep these two days according to the writing thereof, and according to the appointed time thereof, every year;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1.7, 2.2, 19.1, 21.2, 21.14, 22.24, 23.15, 31.18, 34.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.7. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל פָּרוּ וַיִּשְׁרְצוּ וַיִּרְבּוּ וַיַּעַצְמוּ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד וַתִּמָּלֵא הָאָרֶץ אֹתָם׃ 2.2. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֵּרֶא אֹתוֹ כִּי־טוֹב הוּא וַתִּצְפְּנֵהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יְרָחִים׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָיו וְאַיּוֹ לָמָּה זֶּה עֲזַבְתֶּן אֶת־הָאִישׁ קִרְאֶן לוֹ וְיֹאכַל לָחֶם׃ 19.1. בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְצֵאת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה בָּאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינָי׃ 19.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵךְ אֶל־הָעָם וְקִדַּשְׁתָּם הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר וְכִבְּסוּ שִׂמְלֹתָם׃ 21.2. כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְּׁבִעִת יֵצֵא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם׃ 21.2. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם׃ 21.14. וְכִי־יָזִד אִישׁ עַל־רֵעֵהוּ לְהָרְגוֹ בְעָרְמָה מֵעִם מִזְבְּחִי תִּקָּחֶנּוּ לָמוּת׃ 22.24. אִם־כֶּסֶף תַּלְוֶה אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־הֶעָנִי עִמָּךְ לֹא־תִהְיֶה לוֹ כְּנֹשֶׁה לֹא־תְשִׂימוּן עָלָיו נֶשֶׁךְ׃ 23.15. אֶת־חַג הַמַּצּוֹת תִּשְׁמֹר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצּוֹת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִךָ לְמוֹעֵד חֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב כִּי־בוֹ יָצָאתָ מִמִּצְרָיִם וְלֹא־יֵרָאוּ פָנַי רֵיקָם׃ 31.18. וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּכַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינַי שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת לֻחֹת אֶבֶן כְּתֻבִים בְּאֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים׃ 34.22. וְחַג שָׁבֻעֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה לְךָ בִּכּוּרֵי קְצִיר חִטִּים וְחַג הָאָסִיף תְּקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה׃ 1.7. And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them." 2.2. And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months." 19.1. In the third month after the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai." 21.2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing." 21.14. And if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from Mine altar, that he may die." 22.24. If thou lend money to any of My people, even to the poor with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a creditor; neither shall ye lay upon him interest." 23.15. The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep; seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, at the time appointed in the month Abib—for in it thou camest out from Egypt; and none shall appear before Me empty;" 31.18. And He gave unto Moses, when He had made an end of speaking with him upon mount Sinai, the two tables of the testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God." 34.22. And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, even of the first-fruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the turn of the year."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1, 1.1-2.3, 1.1-2.4, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 1.9, 1.14, 1.15, 1.22, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 3, 3.1, 3.6, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.11, 6.12, 6.17, 7, 7.2, 7.11, 8, 8.14, 8.17, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 9, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 10, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.20, 47.27, 48.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 28.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.26. בַּעֲשֹׂתוֹ לַמָּטָר חֹק וְדֶרֶךְ לַחֲזִיז קֹלוֹת׃ 28.26. When He made a decree for the rain, And a way for the storm of thunders;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.4-18.5, 18.20, 19.37, 26.3, 26.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.4. אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי תַּעֲשׂוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לָלֶכֶת בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.37. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפָּטַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 26.3. אִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַי תֵּלֵכוּ וְאֶת־מִצְוֺתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם׃ 26.3. וְהִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֶת־בָּמֹתֵיכֶם וְהִכְרַתִּי אֶת־חַמָּנֵיכֶם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־פִּגְרֵיכֶם עַל־פִּגְרֵי גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וְגָעֲלָה נַפְשִׁי אֶתְכֶם׃ 26.9. וּפָנִיתִי אֲלֵיכֶם וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם׃ 18.4. Mine ordices shall ye do, and My statutes shall ye keep, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 18.20. And thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour’s wife, to defile thyself with her." 19.37. And ye shall observe all My statutes, and all Mine ordices, and do them: I am the LORD." 26.3. If ye walk in My statutes, and keep My commandments, and do them;" 26.9. And I will have respect unto you, and make you fruitful, and multiply you; and will establish My covet with you."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 36.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

36.13. אֵלֶּה הַמִּצְוֺת וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב עַל יַרְדֵּן יְרֵחוֹ׃ 36.13. These are the commandments and the ordices, which the LORD commanded by the hand of Moses unto the children of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.5-2.6, 8.2-8.8, 8.13, 106.34-106.39, 148.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.5. אָז יְדַבֵּר אֵלֵימוֹ בְאַפּוֹ וּבַחֲרוֹנוֹ יְבַהֲלֵמוֹ׃ 2.6. וַאֲנִי נָסַכְתִּי מַלְכִּי עַל־צִיּוֹן הַר־קָדְשִׁי׃ 8.2. יְהוָה אֲדֹנֵינוּ מָה־אַדִּיר שִׁמְךָ בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר תְּנָה הוֹדְךָ עַל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 8.3. מִפִּי עוֹלְלִים וְיֹנְקִים יִסַּדְתָּ עֹז לְמַעַן צוֹרְרֶיךָ לְהַשְׁבִּית אוֹיֵב וּמִתְנַקֵּם׃ 8.4. כִּי־אֶרְאֶה שָׁמֶיךָ מַעֲשֵׂי אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנָנְתָּה׃ 8.5. מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8. צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃ 106.34. לֹא־הִשְׁמִידוּ אֶת־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה לָהֶם׃ 106.35. וַיִּתְעָרְבוּ בַגּוֹיִם וַיִּלְמְדוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם׃ 106.36. וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־עֲצַבֵּיהֶם וַיִּהְיוּ לָהֶם לְמוֹקֵשׁ׃ 106.37. וַיִּזְבְּחוּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם לַשֵּׁדִים׃ 106.38. וַיִּשְׁפְּכוּ דָם נָקִי דַּם־בְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר זִבְּחוּ לַעֲצַבֵּי כְנָעַן וַתֶּחֱנַף הָאָרֶץ בַּדָּמִים׃ 106.39. וַיִּטְמְאוּ בְמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם וַיִּזְנוּ בְּמַעַלְלֵיהֶם׃ 148.6. וַיַּעֲמִידֵם לָעַד לְעוֹלָם חָק־נָתַן וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר׃ 2.5. Then will He speak unto them in His wrath, and affright them in His sore displeasure:" 2.6. 'Truly it is I that have established My king upon Zion, My holy mountain.'" 8.2. O LORD, our Lord, How glorious is Thy name in all the earth! Whose majesty is rehearsed above the heavens." 8.3. Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast Thou founded strength, Because of Thine adversaries; That Thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger." 8.4. When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, The moon and the stars, which Thou hast established;" 8.5. What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?" 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 8.8. Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;" 106.34. They did not destroy the peoples, As the LORD commanded them;" 106.35. But mingled themselves with the nations, And learned their works;" 106.36. And they served their idols, Which became a snare unto them;" 106.37. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto demons," 106.38. And shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their daughters, Whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan; And the land was polluted with blood." 106.39. Thus were they defiled with their works, And went astray in their doings." 148.6. He hath also established them for ever and ever; He hath made a decree which shall not be transgressed."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.4. וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃ 2.4. And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more."
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 5.22, 8.3, 31.35-31.36, 33.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.22. הַאוֹתִי לֹא־תִירָאוּ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה אִם מִפָּנַי לֹא תָחִילוּ אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי חוֹל גְּבוּל לַיָּם חָק־עוֹלָם וְלֹא יַעַבְרֶנְהוּ וַיִּתְגָּעֲשׁוּ וְלֹא יוּכָלוּ וְהָמוּ גַלָּיו וְלֹא יַעַבְרֻנְהוּ׃ 8.3. וְנִבְחַר מָוֶת מֵחַיִּים לְכֹל הַשְּׁאֵרִית הַנִּשְׁאָרִים מִן־הַמִּשְׁפָּחָה הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת בְּכָל־הַמְּקֹמוֹת הַנִּשְׁאָרִים אֲשֶׁר הִדַּחְתִּים שָׁם נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 31.35. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה נֹתֵן שֶׁמֶשׁ לְאוֹר יוֹמָם חֻקֹּת יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְאוֹר לָיְלָה רֹגַע הַיָּם וַיֶּהֱמוּ גַלָּיו יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 31.36. אִם־יָמֻשׁוּ הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה מִלְּפָנַי נְאֻם־יְהוָה גַּם זֶרַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁבְּתוּ מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי לְפָנַי כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 33.25. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אִם־לֹא בְרִיתִי יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה חֻקּוֹת שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ לֹא־שָׂמְתִּי׃ 5.22. Fear ye not Me? saith the LORD; Will ye not tremble at My presence? Who have placed the sand for the bound of the sea, An everlasting ordice, which it cannot pass; And though the waves thereof toss themselves, yet can they not prevail; Though they roar, yet can they not pass over it." 8.3. And death shall be chosen rather than life by all the residue that remain of this evil family, that remain in all the places whither I have driven them, saith the LORD of hosts." 31.35. Thus saith the LORD, Who giveth the sun for a light by day, And the ordices of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, Who stirreth up the sea, that the waves thereof roar, The LORD of hosts is His name:" 31.36. If these ordices depart from before Me, Saith the LORD, Then the seed of Israel also shall cease From being a nation before Me for ever." 33.25. Thus saith the LORD: If My covet be not with day and night, if I have not appointed the ordices of heaven and earth;"
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 6.3, 33.25, 34.2-34.3, 34.5-34.12, 34.15 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ הָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לֶהָרִים וְלַגְּבָעוֹת לָאֲפִיקִים ולגאית [וְלַגֵּאָיוֹת] הִנְנִי אֲנִי מֵבִיא עֲלֵיכֶם חֶרֶב וְאִבַּדְתִּי בָּמוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 33.25. לָכֵן אֱמֹר אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה עַל־הַדָּם תֹּאכֵלוּ וְעֵינֵכֶם תִּשְׂאוּ אֶל־גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וְדָם תִּשְׁפֹּכוּ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּירָשׁוּ׃ 34.2. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אֲלֵיהֶם הִנְנִי־אָנִי וְשָׁפַטְתִּי בֵּין־שֶׂה בִרְיָה וּבֵין שֶׂה רָזָה׃ 34.2. בֶּן־אָדָם הִנָּבֵא עַל־רוֹעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנָּבֵא וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם לָרֹעִים כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הוֹי רֹעֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ רֹעִים אוֹתָם הֲלוֹא הַצֹּאן יִרְעוּ הָרֹעִים׃ 34.3. אֶת־הַחֵלֶב תֹּאכֵלוּ וְאֶת־הַצֶּמֶר תִּלְבָּשׁוּ הַבְּרִיאָה תִּזְבָּחוּ הַצֹּאן לֹא תִרְעוּ׃ 34.3. וְיָדְעוּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם אִתָּם וְהֵמָּה עַמִּי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 34.5. וַתְּפוּצֶינָה מִבְּלִי רֹעֶה וַתִּהְיֶינָה לְאָכְלָה לְכָל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וַתְּפוּצֶינָה׃ 34.6. יִשְׁגּוּ צֹאנִי בְּכָל־הֶהָרִים וְעַל כָּל־גִּבְעָה רָמָה וְעַל כָּל־פְּנֵי הָאָרֶץ נָפֹצוּ צֹאנִי וְאֵין דּוֹרֵשׁ וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ׃ 34.7. לָכֵן רֹעִים שִׁמְעוּ אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה׃ 34.8. חַי־אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אִם־לֹא יַעַן הֱיוֹת־צֹאנִי לָבַז וַתִּהְיֶינָה צֹאנִי לְאָכְלָה לְכָל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה מֵאֵין רֹעֶה וְלֹא־דָרְשׁוּ רֹעַי אֶת־צֹאנִי וַיִּרְעוּ הָרֹעִים אוֹתָם וְאֶת־צֹאנִי לֹא רָעוּ׃ 34.9. לָכֵן הָרֹעִים שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃ 34.11. כִּי כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי־אָנִי וְדָרַשְׁתִּי אֶת־צֹאנִי וּבִקַּרְתִּים׃ 34.12. כְּבַקָּרַת רֹעֶה עֶדְרוֹ בְּיוֹם־הֱיוֹתוֹ בְתוֹךְ־צֹאנוֹ נִפְרָשׁוֹת כֵּן אֲבַקֵּר אֶת־צֹאנִי וְהִצַּלְתִּי אֶתְהֶם מִכָּל־הַמְּקוֹמֹת אֲשֶׁר נָפֹצוּ שָׁם בְּיוֹם עָנָן וַעֲרָפֶל׃ 34.15. אֲנִי אֶרְעֶה צֹאנִי וַאֲנִי אַרְבִּיצֵם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 6.3. and say: Ye mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord GOD: Thus saith the Lord GOD concerning the mountains and concerning the hills, concerning the ravines and concerning the valleys: Behold, I, even I, will bring a sword upon you, and I will destroy your high places." 33.25. Wherefore say unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD. Ye eat with the blood, and lift up your eyes unto your idols, and shed blood; and shall ye possess the land?" 34.2. ’Son of man, prophesy against the shepherds of Israel, prophesy, and say unto them, even to the shepherds: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe unto the shepherds of Israel that have fed themselves! should not the shepherds feed the sheep?" 34.3. Ye did eat the fat, and ye clothed you with the wool, ye killed the fatlings; but ye fed not the sheep." 34.5. So were they scattered, because there was no shepherd; and they became food to all the beasts of the field, and were scattered." 34.6. My sheep wandered through all the mountains, and upon every high hill, yea, upon all the face of the earth were My sheep scattered, and there was none that did search or seek." 34.7. Therefore, ye shepherds, hear the word of the LORD:" 34.8. As I live, saith the Lord GOD, surely forasmuch as My sheep became a prey, and My sheep became food to all the beasts of the field, because there was no shepherd, neither did My shepherds search for My sheep, but the shepherds fed themselves, and fed not My sheep;" 34.9. therefore, ye shepherds, hear the word of the LORD:" 34.10. Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I am against the shepherds; and I will require My sheep at their hand, and cause them to cease from feeding the sheep; neither shall the shepherds feed themselves any more; and I will deliver My sheep from their mouth, that they may not be food for them." 34.11. For thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, here am I, and I will search for My sheep, and seek them out." 34.12. As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among his sheep that are separated, so will I seek out My sheep; and I will deliver them out of all places whither they have been scattered in the day of clouds and thick darkness." 34.15. I will feed My sheep, and I will cause them to lie down, saith the Lord GOD."
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 24.17-24.24 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.17. וְאַחֲרֵי מוֹת יְהוֹיָדָע בָּאוּ שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַמֶּלֶךְ אָז שָׁמַע הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 24.18. וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרִים וְאֶת־הָעֲצַבִּים וַיְהִי־קֶצֶף עַל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם בְּאַשְׁמָתָם זֹאת׃ 24.19. וַיִּשְׁלַח בָּהֶם נְבִאִים לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֶל־יְהוָה וַיָּעִידוּ בָם וְלֹא הֶאֱזִינוּ׃ 24.21. וַיִּקְשְׁרוּ עָלָיו וַיִּרְגְּמֻהוּ אֶבֶן בְּמִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֲצַר בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 24.22. וְלֹא־זָכַר יוֹאָשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוֹיָדָע אָבִיו עִמּוֹ וַיַּהֲרֹג אֶת־בְּנוֹ וּכְמוֹתוֹ אָמַר יֵרֶא יְהוָה וְיִדְרֹשׁ׃ 24.23. וַיְהִי לִתְקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה עָלָה עָלָיו חֵיל אֲרָם וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּשְׁחִיתוּ אֶת־כָּל־שָׂרֵי הָעָם מֵעָם וְכָל־שְׁלָלָם שִׁלְּחוּ לְמֶלֶךְ דַּרְמָשֶׂק׃ 24.24. כִּי בְמִצְעַר אֲנָשִׁים בָּאוּ חֵיל אֲרָם וַיהוָה נָתַן בְּיָדָם חַיִל לָרֹב מְאֹד כִּי עָזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְאֶת־יוֹאָשׁ עָשׂוּ שְׁפָטִים׃ 24.17. Now after the death of Jehoiada came the princes of Judah, and prostrated themselves before the king. Then the king hearkened unto them." 24.18. And they forsook the house of the LORD, the God of their fathers, and served the Asherim and the idols; and wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for this their guiltiness." 24.19. Yet He sent prophets to them, to bring them back unto the LORD; and they admonished them, but they would not give ear." 24.20. And the spirit of God clothed Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest; and he stood above the people, and said unto them: ‘Thus saith God: Why transgress ye the commandments of the LORD, that ye cannot prosper? because ye have forsaken the LORD, He hath also forsaken you.’" 24.21. And they conspired against him, and stoned him with stones at the commandment of the king in the court of the house of the LORD." 24.22. Thus Joash the king remembered not the kindness which Jehoiada his father had done to him, but slew his son. And when he died, he said: ‘The LORD look upon it, and require it.’" 24.23. And it came to pass, when the year was come about, that the army of the Arameans came up against him; and they came to Judah and Jerusalem, and destroyed all the princes of the people from among the people, and sent all the spoil of them unto the king of Damascus." 24.24. For the army of the Arameans came with a small company of men; and the LORD delivered a very great host into their hand, because they had forsaken the LORD, the God of their fathers. So they executed judgment upon Joash."
13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 6.1, 32.6, 93.2-93.5, 93.8-93.10, 98.11 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.1. And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto 32.6. I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.' 93.3. And Enoch began to recount from the books and said: ' I was born the seventh in the first week, While judgement and righteousness still endured. 93.4. And after me there shall arise in the second week great wickedness, And deceit shall have sprung up; And in it there shall be the first end.And in it a man shall be saved; And after it is ended unrighteousness shall grow up, And a law shall be made for the sinners.And after that in the third week at its close A man shall be elected as the plant of righteous judgement, And his posterity shall become the plant of righteousness for evermore. 93.8. And after that in the sixth week all who live in it shall be blinded, And the hearts of all of them shall godlessly forsake wisdom.And in it a man shall ascend; And at its close the house of dominion shall be burnt with fire, And the whole race of the chosen root shall be dispersed. 93.9. And after that in the seventh week shall an apostate generation arise, And many shall be its deeds, And all its deeds shall be apostate. 98.11. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who work wickedness and eat blood: Whence have ye good things to eat and to drink and to be filled From all the good things which the Lord the Most High has placed in abundance on the earth; therefore ye shall have no peace.
14. Anon., Jubilees, 4.16, 6.1-6.22, 6.28-6.30, 6.32-6.38, 7.20, 7.22-7.24, 7.27-7.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.16. And at the close of the eighth jubilee Ke took Mûalêlêth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the ninth jubilee, in the first week in the third year of this week, and he called his name Mahalalel. 6.1. And on the new moon of the third month he went forth from the ark, and built an altar on that mountain. 6.2. And he made atonement for the earth, and took a kid and made atonement by its blood for all the guilt of the earth; for everything that had been on it had been destroyed, save those that were in the ark with Noah. 6.3. And he placed the fat thereof on the altar, and he took an ox, and a goat, and a sheep and kids, and salt, and a turtle-dove, and the young of a dove 6.4. and placed a burnt sacrifice on the altar, and poured thereon an offering mingled with oil, and sprinkled wine and strewed frankincense over everything, and caused a goodly savour to arise, acceptable before the Lord. 6.5. And the Lord smelt the goodly savour, and He made a covet with him that there should not be any more a flood to destroy the earth; 6.6. that all the days of the earth seed-time and harvest should never cease; cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night should not change their order, nor cease for ever. 6.7. And you, increase ye and multiply upon the earth, and become many upon it, and be a blessing upon it. 6.8. The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea. 6.9. And behold I have given unto you all beasts, and all winged things, and everything that moveth on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and all things for food; as the green herbs, I have given you all things to eat. 6.10. But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 6.11. At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall I require the blood of man. 6.12. Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man. 6.13. And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth. 6.14. And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh 6.15. and he made a covet before the Lord God for ever throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. 6.16. On this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a covet with the children of Israel in this month upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of all the words of the covet, which the Lord made with them for ever. 6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth 6.18. and the man who eateth the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land. 6.19. And do thou command the children of Israel to eat no blood, so that their names and their seed may be before the Lord our God continually. 6.20. And for this law there is no limit of days, for it is for ever. They shall observe it throughout their generations, so that they may continue supplicating on your behalf with blood before the altar; 6.21. every day and at the time of morning and evening they shall seek forgiveness on your behalf perpetually before the Lord that they may keep it and not be rooted out. 6.22. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood on the earth. 6.28. and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 6.29. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: 6.30. one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. 6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 6.33. For I have written in the book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day in the year 6.34. and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year. 6.35. And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. 6.36. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 6.37. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. 6.38. And on the new moon of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth. 7.20. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lûbâr; Sêdêqêtêlĕbâb fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’êlâtamâ’ûk on the south; ’Adatanêsês towards the west. 7.22. The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan, Tubal and Meshech and Tiras: these are the sons of Noah. 7.23. And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordices and commandments, and all the judgments that he knew 7.24. and he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless their Creator, and honour father and mother, and love their neighbour, and guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. 7.27. And they begat sons the Nâphîdîm, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another: and the Giants slew the Nâphîl, and the Nâphîl slew the Eljô, and the Eljô mankind, and one man another. 7.28. And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 7.29. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth
15. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.6. וּמַן־דִּי־לָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָא יִתְרְמֵא לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.6. and whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall the same hour be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.’"
16. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.39-2.41, 4.52-4.59, 7.48-7.49 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.39. When Mattathias and his friends learned of it, they mourned for them deeply. 2.40. And each said to his neighbor: "If we all do as our brethren have done and refuse to fight with the Gentiles for our lives and for our ordices, they will quickly destroy us from the earth. 2.41. So they made this decision that day: "Let us fight against every man who comes to attack us on the sabbath day; let us not all die as our brethren died in their hiding places. 4.52. Early in the morning on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month, which is the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-eighth year 4.53. they rose and offered sacrifice, as the law directs, on the new altar of burnt offering which they had built. 4.54. At the very season and on the very day that the Gentiles had profaned it, it was dedicated with songs and harps and lutes and cymbals. 4.55. All the people fell on their faces and worshiped and blessed Heaven, who had prospered them. 4.56. So they celebrated the dedication of the altar for eight days, and offered burnt offerings with gladness; they offered a sacrifice of deliverance and praise. 4.57. They decorated the front of the temple with golden crowns and small shields; they restored the gates and the chambers for the priests, and furnished them with doors. 4.58. There was very great gladness among the people, and the reproach of the Gentiles was removed. 4.59. Then Judas and his brothers and all the assembly of Israel determined that every year at that season the days of dedication of the altar should be observed with gladness and joy for eight days, beginning with the twenty-fifth day of the month of Chislev. 7.48. The people rejoiced greatly and celebrated that day as a day of great gladness. 7.49. And they decreed that this day should be celebrated each year on the thirteenth day of Adar.
17. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 10.1-10.8, 15.1-15.16, 15.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.1. Now Maccabeus and his followers, the Lord leading them on, recovered the temple and the city;' 10.2. and they tore down the altars which had been built in the public square by the foreigners, and also destroyed the sacred precincts.' 10.3. They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they burned incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence.' 10.4. And when they had done this, they fell prostrate and besought the Lord that they might never again fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him with forbearance and not be handed over to blasphemous and barbarous nations.' 10.5. It happened that on the same day on which the sanctuary had been profaned by the foreigners, the purification of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was Chislev.' 10.6. And they celebrated it for eight days with rejoicing, in the manner of the feast of booths, remembering how not long before, during the feast of booths, they had been wandering in the mountains and caves like wild animals.' 10.7. Therefore bearing ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place.' 10.8. They decreed by public ordice and vote that the whole nation of the Jews should observe these days every year. 15.1. When Nicanor heard that Judas and his men were in the region of Samaria, he made plans to attack them with complete safety on the day of rest.' 15.2. And when the Jews who were compelled to follow him said, 'Do not destroy so savagely and barbarously, but show respect for the day which he who sees all things has honored and hallowed above other days,' 15.3. the thrice-accursed wretch asked if there were a sovereign in heaven who had commanded the keeping of the sabbath day. 15.4. And when they declared, 'It is the living Lord himself, the Sovereign in heaven, who ordered us to observe the seventh day,' 15.5. he replied, 'And I am a sovereign also, on earth, and I command you to take up arms and finish the king's business.'Nevertheless, he did not succeed in carrying out his abominable design.' 15.6. This Nicanor in his utter boastfulness and arrogance had determined to erect a public monument of victory over Judas and his men. 15.7. But Maccabeus did not cease to trust with all confidence that he would get help from the Lord. 15.8. And he exhorted his men not to fear the attack of the Gentiles, but to keep in mind the former times when help had come to them from heaven, and now to look for the victory which the Almighty would give them.' 15.9. Encouraging them from the law and the prophets, and reminding them also of the struggles they had won, he made them the more eager.' 15.10. And when he had aroused their courage, he gave his orders, at the same time pointing out the perfidy of the Gentiles and their violation of oaths.' 15.11. He armed each of them not so much with confidence in shields and spears as with the inspiration of brave words, and he cheered them all by relating a dream, a sort of vision, which was worthy of belief.' 15.12. What he saw was this: Onias, who had been high priest, a noble and good man, of modest bearing and gentle manner, one who spoke fittingly and had been trained from childhood in all that belongs to excellence, was praying with outstretched hands for the whole body of the Jews.' 15.13. Then likewise a man appeared, distinguished by his gray hair and dignity, and of marvelous majesty and authority.' 15.14. And Onias spoke, saying, 'This is a man who loves the brethren and prays much for the people and the holy city, Jeremiah, the prophet of God.' 15.15. Jeremiah stretched out his right hand and gave to Judas a golden sword, and as he gave it he addressed him thus:' 15.16. Take this holy sword, a gift from God, with which you will strike down your adversaries.' 15.36. And they all decreed by public vote never to let this day go unobserved, but to celebrate the thirteenth day of the twelfth month -- which is called Adar in the Syrian language -- the day before Mordecai's day.'
18. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.1-17.8, 17.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds. 17.6. He made for them tongue and eyes;he gave them ears and a mind for thinking. 17.7. He filled them with knowledge and understanding,and showed them good and evil. 17.8. He set his eye upon their hearts to show them the majesty of his works. 17.17. He appointed a ruler for every nation,but Israel is the Lords own portion.
19. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 17.1-17.3, 17.5-17.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17.1. Great are thy judgments and hard to describe;therefore unintructed souls have gone astray. 17.2. For when lawless men supposed that they held the holy nation in their power,they themselves lay as captives of darkness and prisoners of long night,shut in under their roofs, exiles from eternal providence. 17.3. For thinking that in their secret sins they were unobserved behind a dark curtain of forgetfulness,they were scattered, terribly alarmed,and appalled by specters. 17.5. And no power of fire was able to give light,nor did the brilliant flames of the stars avail to illumine that hateful night. 17.6. Nothing was shining through to them except a dreadful, self-kindled fire,and in terror they deemed the things which they saw to be worse than that unseen appearance. 17.7. The delusions of their magic art lay humbled,and their boasted wisdom was scornfully rebuked. 17.8. For those who promised to drive off the fears and disorders of a sick soul were sick themselves with ridiculous fear.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.64-2.65 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.64. But after the purification, in this way, of all the things beneath the moon, the earth being thus washed and appearing new again, and such as it appeared to be when it was at first created, along with the entire universe, Noah came forth out of his wooden edifice, himself and his wife, and his sons and their wives, and with his family there came forth likewise, in one company, all the races of animals which had gone in with them, in order to the generation and propagation of similar creatures in future. 2.65. These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb
21. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.14-11.17 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.56 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.223-1.236, 11.291-11.296, 12.276-12.277, 12.412, 14.22-14.28, 17.354, 18.14, 18.18, 18.21, 18.116-18.119, 20.160-20.166 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.223. Abraham also placed his own happiness in this prospect, that, when he should die, he should leave this his son in a safe and secure condition; which accordingly he obtained by the will of God: who being desirous to make an experiment of Abraham’s religious disposition towards himself, appeared to him, and enumerated all the blessings he had bestowed on him; 1.224. how he had made him superior to his enemies; and that his son Isaac, who was the principal part of his present happiness, was derived from him; and he said that he required this son of his as a sacrifice and holy oblation. Accordingly he commanded him to carry him to the mountain Moriah, and to build an altar, and offer him for a burnt-offering upon it for that this would best manifest his religious disposition towards him, if he preferred what was pleasing to God, before the preservation of his own son. 1.225. 2. Now Abraham thought that it was not right to disobey God in any thing, but that he was obliged to serve him in every circumstance of life, since all creatures that live enjoy their life by his providence, and the kindness he bestows on them. Accordingly he concealed this command of God, and his own intentions about the slaughter of his son, from his wife, as also from every one of his servants, otherwise he should have been hindered from his obedience to God; and he took Isaac, together with two of his servants, and laying what things were necessary for a sacrifice upon an ass, he went away to the mountain. 1.226. Now the two servants went along with him two days; but on the third day, as soon as he saw the mountain, he left those servants that were with him till then in the plain, and, having his son alone with him, he came to the mountain. It was that mountain upon which king David afterwards built the temple. 1.227. Now they had brought with them every thing necessary for a sacrifice, excepting the animal that was to be offered only. Now Isaac was twenty-five years old. And as he was building the altar, he asked his father what he was about to offer, since there was no animal there for an oblation:—to which it was answered, “That God would provide himself an oblation, he being able to make a plentiful provision for men out of what they have not, and to deprive others of what they already have, when they put too much trust therein; that therefore, if God pleased to be present and propitious at this sacrifice, he would provide himself an oblation.” 1.228. 3. As soon as the altar was prepared, and Abraham had laid on the wood, and all things were entirely ready, he said to his son, “O son, I poured out a vast number of prayers that I might have thee for my son; when thou wast come into the world, there was nothing that could contribute to thy support for which I was not greatly solicitous, nor any thing wherein I thought myself happier than to see thee grown up to man’s estate, and that I might leave thee at my death the successor to my dominion; 1.229. but since it was by God’s will that I became thy father, and it is now his will that I relinquish thee, bear this consecration to God with a generous mind; for I resign thee up to God who has thought fit now to require this testimony of honor to himself, on account of the favors he hath conferred on me, in being to me a supporter and defender. 1.231. but so that he will receive thy soul with prayers and holy offices of religion, and will place thee near to himself, and thou wilt there be to me a succorer and supporter in my old age; on which account I principally brought thee up, and thou wilt thereby procure me God for my Comforter instead of thyself.” 1.232. 4. Now Isaac was of such a generous disposition as became the son of such a father, and was pleased with this discourse; and said, “That he was not worthy to be born at first, if he should reject the determination of God and of his father, and should not resign himself up readily to both their pleasures; since it would have been unjust if he had not obeyed, even if his father alone had so resolved.” So he went immediately to the altar to be sacrificed. 1.233. And the deed had been done if God had not opposed it; for he called loudly to Abraham by his name, and forbade him to slay his son; and said, “It was not out of a desire of human blood that he was commanded to slay his son, nor was he willing that he should be taken away from him whom he had made his father, but to try the temper of his mind, whether he would be obedient to such a command. 1.234. Since therefore he now was satisfied as to that his alacrity, and the surprising readiness he showed in this his piety, he was delighted in having bestowed such blessings upon him; and that he would not be wanting in all sort of concern about him, and in bestowing other children upon him; and that his son should live to a very great age; that he should live a happy life, and bequeath a large principality to his children, who should be good and legitimate.” 1.235. He foretold also, that his family should increase into many nations and that those patriarchs should leave behind them an everlasting name; that they should obtain the possession of the land of Canaan, and be envied by all men. When God had said this, he produced to them a ram, which did not appear before, for the sacrifice. 1.236. So Abraham and Isaac receiving each other unexpectedly, and having obtained the promises of such great blessings, embraced one another; and when they had sacrificed, they returned to Sarah, and lived happily together, God affording them his assistance in all things they desired. 11.291. Now there were slain by the Jews that were in the country, and in the other cities, seventy-five thousand of their enemies, and these were slain on the thirteenth day of the month, and the next day they kept as a festival. 11.292. In like manner the Jews that were in Shushan gathered themselves together, and feasted on the fourteenth day, and that which followed it; whence it is that even now all the Jews that are in the habitable earth keep these days festival, and send portions to one another. 11.293. Mordecai also wrote to the Jews that lived in the kingdom of Artaxerxes to observe these days, and celebrate them as festivals, and to deliver them down to posterity, that this festival might continue for all time to come, and that it might never be buried in oblivion; 11.294. for since they were about to be destroyed on these days by Haman, they would do a right thing, upon escaping the danger in them, and on them inflicting punishment on their enemies, to observe those days, and give thanks to God on them; 11.295. for which cause the Jews still keep the forementioned days, and call them days of Phurim (or Purim.) And Mordecai became a great and illustrious person with the king, and assisted him in the government of the people. He also lived with the queen; 11.296. o that the affairs of the Jews were, by their means, better than they could ever have hoped for. And this was the state of the Jews under the reign of Artaxerxes. 12.276. who taught them to fight, even on the Sabbath day; and told them that unless they would do so, they would become their own enemies, by observing the law [so rigorously], while their adversaries would still assault them on this day, and they would not then defend themselves, and that nothing could then hinder but they must all perish without fighting. 12.277. This speech persuaded them. And this rule continues among us to this day, that if there be a necessity, we may fight on Sabbath days. 12.412. This victory happened to fall on the thirteenth day of that month which by the Jews is called Adar and by the Macedonians Dystrus; and the Jews thereon celebrate this victory every year, and esteem it as a festival day. After which the Jewish nation were, for a while, free from wars, and enjoyed peace; but afterward they returned into their former state of wars and hazards. 14.22. There were present at the writing of this decree, Lucius Calpurnius Piso of the Menenian tribe, Servius Papinins Potitus of the Lemonian tribe, Caius Caninius Rebilius of the Terentine tribe, Publius Tidetius, Lucius Apulinus, the son of Lucius, of the Sergian tribe, Flavius, the son of Lucius, of the Lemonian tribe, Publius Platins, the son of Publius, of the Papyrian tribe, Marcus Acilius, the son of Marcus, of the Mecian tribe, Lucius Erucius, the son of Lucius, of the Stellatine tribe, Mareils Quintus Plancillus, the son of Marcus, of the Pollian tribe, and Publius Serius. 14.22. Now there was one, whose name was Onias, a righteous man he was, and beloved of God, who, in a certain drought, had prayed to God to put an end to the intense heat, and whose prayers God had heard, and had sent them rain. This man had hid himself, because he saw that this sedition would last a great while. However, they brought him to the Jewish camp, and desired, that as by his prayers he had once put an end to the drought, so he would in like manner make imprecations on Aristobulus and those of his faction. 14.23. of Titus Atilius Bulbus, the son of Titus, lieutet and vice-praetor to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Ephesians, sendeth greeting. Lucius Lentulus the consul freed the Jews that are in Asia from going into the armies, at my intercession for them; and when I had made the same petition some time afterward to Phanius the imperator, and to Lucius Antonius the vice-quaestor, I obtained that privilege of them also; and my will is, that you take care that no one give them any disturbance.” 14.23. And when, upon his refusal, and the excuses that he made, he was still by the multitude compelled to speak, he stood up in the midst of them, and said 14.24. In the presence of these it was that Lentulus pronounced this decree: I have before the tribunal dismissed those Jews that are Roman citizens, and are accustomed to observe the sacred rites of the Jews at Ephesus, on account of the superstition they are under.” 14.24. “O God, the King of the whole world! since those that stand now with me are thy people, and those that are besieged are also thy priests, I beseech thee, that thou wilt neither hearken to the prayers of those against these, nor bring to effect what these pray against those.” Whereupon such wicked Jews as stood about him, as soon as he had made this prayer, stoned him to death. 14.25. and that no king nor people may have leave to export any goods, either out of the country of Judea, or out of their havens, without paying customs, but only Ptolemy, the king of Alexandria, because he is our confederate and friend; and that, according to their desire, the garrison that is in Joppa may be ejected. 14.25. 2. But God punished them immediately for this their barbarity, and took vengeance of them for the murder of Onias, in the manner following: While the priests and Aristobulus were besieged, it happened that the feast called the passover was come, at which it is our custom to offer a great number of sacrifices to God; 14.26. and desired of the people, that upon the restitution of their law and their liberty, by the senate and people of Rome, they may assemble together, according to their ancient legal custom, and that we will not bring any suit against them about it; and that a place may be given them where they may have their congregations, with their wives and children, and may offer, as did their forefathers, their prayers and sacrifices to God. 14.26. but those that were with Aristobulus wanted sacrifices, and desired that their countrymen without would furnish them with such sacrifices, and assured them they should have as much money for them as they should desire; and when they required them to pay a thousand drachmae for each head of cattle, Aristobulus and the priests willingly undertook to pay for them accordingly, and those within let down the money over the walls, and gave it them. 14.27. But when the others had received it, they did not deliver the sacrifices, but arrived at that height of wickedness as to break the assurances they had given, and to be guilty of impiety towards God, by not furnishing those that wanted them with sacrifices. 14.27. And as the war was drawn out into a great length, Marcus came from Rome to take Sextus’s government upon him. But Caesar was slain by Cassius and Brutus in the senate-house, after he had retained the government three years and six months. This fact however, is related elsewhere. 14.28. And when the priests found they had been cheated, and that the agreements they had made were violated, they prayed to God that he would avenge them on their countrymen. Nor did he delay that their punishment, but sent a strong and vehement storm of wind, that destroyed the fruits of the whole country, till a modius of wheat was then bought for eleven drachmae. 14.28. 4. However, Antipater little thought that by saving Malichus he had saved his own murderer; for now Cassius and Marcus had got together an army, and intrusted the entire care of it with Herod, and made him general of the forces of Celesyria, and gave him a fleet of ships, and an army of horsemen and footmen; and promised him, that after the war was over they would make him king of Judea; for a war was already begun between Antony and the younger Caesar: 17.354. So Archelaus’s country was laid to the province of Syria; and Cyrenius, one that had been consul, was sent by Caesar to take account of people’s effects in Syria, and to sell the house of Archelaus. 18.14. They also believe that souls have an immortal rigor in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as they have lived virtuously or viciously in this life; and the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison, but that the former shall have power to revive and live again; 18.14. Alexander had a son of the same name with his brother Tigranes, and was sent to take possession of the kingdom of Armenia by Nero; he had a son, Alexander, who married Jotape, the daughter of Antiochus, the king of Commagena; Vespasian made him king of an island in Cilicia. 18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for; 18.18. Now Antonia was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, from the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus’s wife, and from her eminent chastity; for though she was still a young woman, she continued in her widowhood, and refused all other matches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to somebody else; yet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach. 18.21. and neither marry wives, nor are desirous to keep servants; as thinking the latter tempts men to be unjust, and the former gives the handle to domestic quarrels; but as they live by themselves, they minister one to another. 18.21. that it turned greatly to the advantage of his son among all; and, among others, the soldiery were so peculiarly affected to him, that they reckoned it an eligible thing, if need were, to die themselves, if he might but attain to the government. 18.116. 2. Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod’s army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, that was called the Baptist: 18.117. for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. 18.118. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. 18.119. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God’s displeasure to him. 20.161. Yet did Felix catch and put to death many of those impostors every day, together with the robbers. He also caught Eleazar, the son of Dineas, who had gotten together a company of robbers; and this he did by treachery; for he gave him assurance that he should suffer no harm, and thereby persuaded him to come to him; but when he came, he bound him, and sent him to Rome. 20.162. Felix also bore an ill-will to Jonathan, the high priest, because he frequently gave him admonitions about governing the Jewish affairs better than he did, lest he should himself have complaints made of him by the multitude, since he it was who had desired Caesar to send him as procurator of Judea. So Felix contrived a method whereby he might get rid of him, now he was become so continually troublesome to him; for such continual admonitions are grievous to those who are disposed to act unjustly. 20.163. Wherefore Felix persuaded one of Jonathan’s most faithful friends, a citizen of Jerusalem, whose name was Doras, to bring the robbers upon Jonathan, in order to kill him; and this he did by promising to give him a great deal of money for so doing. Doras complied with the proposal, and contrived matters so, that the robbers might murder him after the following manner: 20.164. Certain of those robbers went up to the city, as if they were going to worship God, while they had daggers under their garments, and by thus mingling themselves among the multitude they slew Jonathan 20.165. and as this murder was never avenged, the robbers went up with the greatest security at the festivals after this time; and having weapons concealed in like manner as before, and mingling themselves among the multitude, they slew certain of their own enemies, and were subservient to other men for money; and slew others, not only in remote parts of the city, but in the temple itself also; for they had the boldness to murder men there, without thinking of the impiety of which they were guilty. 20.166. And this seems to me to have been the reason why God, out of his hatred of these men’s wickedness, rejected our city; and as for the temple, he no longer esteemed it sufficiently pure for him to inhabit therein, but brought the Romans upon us, and threw a fire upon the city to purge it; and brought upon us, our wives, and children, slavery, as desirous to make us wiser by our calamities.
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.120-2.121, 2.152-2.158, 2.160-2.161, 2.163 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.152. and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; 2.153. but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155. but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 2.156. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.157. whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death; and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. 2.158. These are the Divine doctrines of the Essenes about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes. 2.163. and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men, although fate does cooperate in every action. They say that all souls are incorruptible, but that the souls of good men only are removed into other bodies,—but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment.
25. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.37-1.42, 2.218-2.219 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.37. and this is justly, or rather necessarily done, because every one is not permitted of his own accord to be a writer, nor is there any disagreement in what is written; they being only prophets that have written the original and earliest accounts of things as they learned them of God himself by inspiration; and others have written what hath happened in their own times, and that in a very distinct manner also. 8. 1.38. For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another [as the Greeks have], but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; 1.39. and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; 1.41. It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time; 1.42. and how firmly we have given credit to those books of our own nation, is evident by what we do; for during so many ages as have already passed, no one has been so bold as either to add any thing to them, to take any thing from them, or to make any change in them; but it becomes natural to all Jews, immediately and from their very birth, to esteem those books to contain divine doctrines, and to persist in them, and, if occasion be, willingly to die for them. 2.218. but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before. 2.219. Nor would I venture to write thus at this time, were it not well known to all by our actions that many of our people have many a time bravely resolved to endure any sufferings, rather than speak one word against our law. /p
26. New Testament, 1 John, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.12. unlike Cain, who was of the evil one, and killed his brother. Why did he kill him? Because his works were evil, and his brother's righteous.
27. New Testament, Acts, 19.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19.16. The man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overpowered them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded.
28. New Testament, Colossians, 1.6, 1.9-1.10, 1.15-1.20, 1.25, 2.9-2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. which has come to you; even as it is in all the world and is bearing fruit and increasing, as it does in you also, since the day you heard and knew the grace of God in truth; 1.9. For this cause, we also, since the day we heard this, don't cease praying and making requests for you, that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding 1.10. that you may walk worthily of the Lord, to please him in all respects, bearing fruit in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God; 1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19. For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. 1.25. of which I was made a servant, according to the stewardship of God which was given me toward you, to fulfill the word of God 2.9. For in him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily 2.10. and in him you are made full, who is the head of all principality and power;
29. New Testament, Galatians, 2.6, 2.10-2.14, 2.16, 2.19-2.20, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. But from those who were reputed to beimportant (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; Goddoesn't show partiality to man) -- they, I say, who were respectedimparted nothing to me 2.10. They only askedus to remember the poor -- which very thing I was also zealous to do. 2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. 2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 2.20. I have been crucified with Christ, andit is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which Inow live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me,and gave himself up for me. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator.
30. New Testament, Romans, 8.19-8.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God.
31. New Testament, John, 1.1, 1.19-1.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.19. This is John's testimony, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you? 1.20. He confessed, and didn't deny, but he confessed, "I am not the Christ. 1.21. They asked him, "What then? Are you Elijah?"He said, "I am not.""Are you the Prophet?"He answered, "No. 1.22. They said therefore to him, "Who are you? Give us an answer to take back to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself? 1.23. He said, "I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make straight the way of the Lord,' as Isaiah the prophet said. 1.24. The ones who had been sent were from the Pharisees. 1.25. They asked him, "Why then do you baptize, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet? 1.26. John answered them, "I baptize in water, but among you stands one whom you don't know. 1.27. He is the one who comes after me, who has come to be before me, whose sandal strap I'm not worthy to untie. 1.28. These things were done in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing. 1.29. The next day, he saw Jesus coming to him, and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 1.30. This is he of whom I said, 'After me comes a man who is preferred before me, for he was before me.' 1.31. I didn't know him, but for this reason I came baptizing in water: that he would be revealed to Israel. 1.32. John testified, saying, "I have seen the Spirit descending like a dove out of heaven, and it remained on him. 1.33. I didn't recognize him, but he who sent me to baptize in water, he said to me, 'On whomever you will see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.' 1.34. I have seen, and have testified that this is the Son of God. 1.35. Again, the next day, John was standing with two of his disciples
32. New Testament, Luke, 3.1-3.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene 3.2. in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. 3.3. He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for remission of sins. 3.4. As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord. Make his paths straight. 3.5. Every valley will be filled. Every mountain and hill will be brought low. The crooked will become straight, And the rough ways smooth. 3.6. All flesh will see God's salvation.' 3.7. He said therefore to the multitudes who went out to be baptized by him, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 3.8. Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and don't begin to say among yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father;' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones! 3.9. Even now the ax also lies at the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. 3.10. The multitudes asked him, "What then must we do? 3.11. He answered them, "He who has two coats, let him give to him who has none. He who has food, let him do likewise. 3.12. Tax collectors also came to be baptized, and they said to him, "Teacher, what must we do? 3.13. He said to them, "Collect no more than that which is appointed to you. 3.14. Soldiers also asked him, saying, "What about us? What must we do?"He said to them, "Extort from no one by violence, neither accuse anyone wrongfully. Be content with your wages. 3.15. As the people were in expectation, and all men reasoned in their hearts concerning John, whether perhaps he was the Christ 3.16. John answered them all, "I indeed baptize you with water, but he comes who is mightier than I, the latchet of whose sandals I am not worthy to loosen. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire 3.17. whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor, and will gather the wheat into his barn; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. 3.18. Then with many other exhortations he preached good news to the people 3.19. but Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias, his brother's wife, and for all the evil things which Herod had done 3.20. added this also to them all, that he shut up John in prison. 3.21. Now it happened, when all the people were baptized, Jesus also had been baptized, and was praying. The sky was opened 3.22. and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased.
33. New Testament, Mark, 1.2-1.11, 6.17-6.29, 10.3-10.5, 16.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.6. John was clothed with camel's hair and a leather belt around his loins. He ate locusts and wild honey. 1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.8. I baptized you in water, but he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 1.9. It happened in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized by John in the Jordan. 1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 6.17. For Herod himself had sent out and arrested John, and bound him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, for he had married her. 6.18. For John said to Herod, "It is not lawful for you to have your brother's wife. 6.19. Herodias set herself against him, and desired to kill him, but she couldn't 6.20. for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and kept him safe. When he heard him, he did many things, and he heard him gladly. 6.21. Then a convenient day came, that Herod on his birthday made a supper for his nobles, the high officers, and the chief men of Galilee. 6.22. When the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced, she pleased Herod and those sitting with him. The king said to the young lady, "Ask me whatever you want, and I will give it to you. 6.23. He swore to her, "Whatever you shall ask of me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom. 6.24. She went out, and said to her mother, "What shall I ask?"She said, "The head of John the Baptizer. 6.25. She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter. 6.26. The king was exceedingly sorry, but for the sake of his oaths, and of his dinner guests, he didn't wish to refuse her. 6.27. Immediately the king sent out a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring John's head, and he went and beheaded him in the prison 6.28. and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the young lady; and the young lady gave it to her mother. 6.29. When his disciples heard this, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you? 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her. 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 16.7. But go, tell his disciples and Peter, 'He goes before you into Galilee. There you will see him, as he said to you.'
34. New Testament, Matthew, 3.1-3.17, 5.8, 11.9-11.14, 14.3-14.12, 28.9-28.12, 28.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. In those days, John the Baptizer came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea, saying 3.2. Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand! 3.3. For this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make ready the way of the Lord, Make his paths straight. 3.4. Now John himself wore clothing made of camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. 3.5. Then people from Jerusalem, all of Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him. 3.6. They were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins. 3.7. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for his baptism, he said to them, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 3.8. Therefore bring forth fruit worthy of repentance! 3.9. Don't think to yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father,' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones. 3.10. Even now the ax lies at the root of the trees. Therefore, every tree that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and cast into the fire. 3.11. I indeed baptize you in water for repentance, but he who comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit. 3.12. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor. He will gather his wheat into the barn, but the chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire. 3.13. Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him. 3.14. But John would have hindered him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and you come to me? 3.15. But Jesus, answering, said to him, "Allow it now, for this is the fitting way for us to fulfill all righteousness." Then he allowed him. 3.16. Jesus, when he was baptized, went up directly from the water: and behold, the heavens were opened to him. He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on him. 3.17. Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. 5.8. Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God. 11.9. But why did you go out? To see a prophet? Yes, I tell you, and much more than a prophet. 11.10. For this is he, of whom it is written, 'Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way before you.' 11.11. Most assuredly I tell you, among those who are born of women there has not arisen anyone greater than John the Baptizer; yet he who is least in the Kingdom of Heaven is greater than he. 11.12. From the days of John the Baptizer until now, the Kingdom of Heaven suffers violence, and the violent take it by force. 11.13. For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John. 11.14. If you are willing to receive it, this is Elijah, who is to come. 14.3. For Herod had laid hold of John, and bound him, and put him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife. 14.4. For John said to him, "It is not lawful for you to have her. 14.5. When he would have put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they counted him as a prophet. 14.6. But when Herod's birthday came, the daughter of Herodias danced among them and pleased Herod. 14.7. Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatever she should ask. 14.8. She, being prompted by her mother, said, "Give me here on a platter the head of John the Baptizer. 14.9. The king was grieved, but for the sake of his oaths, and of those who sat at the table with him, he commanded it to be given 14.10. and he sent and beheaded John in the prison. 14.11. His head was brought on a platter, and given to the young lady: and she brought it to her mother. 14.12. His disciples came, and took the body, and buried it; and they went and told Jesus. 28.9. As they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, "Rejoice!"They came and took hold of his feet, and worshiped him. 28.10. Then Jesus said to them, "Don't be afraid. Go tell my brothers that they should go into Galilee, and there they will see me. 28.11. Now while they were going, behold, some of the guards came into the city, and told the chief priests all the things that had happened. 28.12. When they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave a large amount of silver to the soldiers 28.16. But the eleven disciples went into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had sent them.
35. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 5.73 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 36.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

36.7. וַיִּקֶּץ נֹחַ מִיֵּינוֹ (בראשית ט, כד), נִתְפָּרֵק יֵינוֹ מֵעָלָיו. וַיֵּדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לוֹ בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן, בְּנוֹ הַפָּסוּל, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (מלכים א ח, סד): כִּי מִזְבַּח הַנְּחשֶׁת קָטֹן מֵהָכִיל וגו'. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו, חָם חָטָא וּכְנַעַן נִתְקַלֵּל, אֶתְמָהָא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר לְפִי שֶׁכָּתוּב (בראשית ט, א): וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ וְאֶת בָּנָיו, וְאֵין קְלָלָה הֲוָה בִּמְקוֹם בְּרָכָה, לְפִיכָךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר כְּנַעַן רָאָה וְהִגִּיד לְחָם, לְפִיכָךְ תּוֹלִין אֶת הַקְּלָלָה בַּמְקֻלָּל. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה הַרְבֵּה צַעַר נִצְטַעֵר נֹחַ בַּתֵּבָה שֶׁלֹא הָיָה לוֹ בֵּן קָטָן שֶׁיְשַׁמְּשֶׁנּוּ, אָמַר לִכְשֶׁאֵצֵא אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד לִי בֵּן קָטָן שֶׁיְשַׁמְּשֵׁנִי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָשָׂה לוֹ חָם אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה, אָמַר אַתָּה מָנַעְתָּ אוֹתִי מִלְּהַעֲמִיד לִי בֵּן קָטָן שֶׁיְשַׁמְּשֵׁנִי, לְפִיכָךְ יִהְיֶה אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ עֶבֶד לְאֶחָיו שֶׁהֵן עֲבָדִים לִי. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵף אָמַר אַתָּה מָנַעְתָּ אוֹתִי מִלַּעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא בַּאֲפֵלָה, לְפִיכָךְ יִהְיֶה אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ כָּעוּר וּמְפֻחָם. רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵף אָמַר לוֹ אַתָּה מָנַעְתָּ אוֹתִי מִלְּהַעֲמִיד בֵּן רְבִיעִי, לְפִיכָךְ אֲנִי מְאָרֵר בֵּן רְבִיעִי שֶׁלְּךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא חָם וְכֶלֶב שִׁמְּשׁוּ בַּתֵּבָה, לְפִיכָךְ יָצָא חָם מְפֻחָם, וְכֶלֶב מְפֻרְסָם בְּתַשְׁמִישׁוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לְאֶחָד שֶׁקָּבַע מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ גּוֹזֵר אֲנִי שֶׁיִּתְפַּחֲמוּ פָנָיו וְיִפָּסֵל מַטְבֵּעוֹ, כָּךְ חָם וְכֶלֶב שִׁמְשׁוּ בַּתֵּבָה, לְפִיכָךְ יָצָא חָם מְפֻחָם וְכֶלֶב מְפֻרְסָם בְּתַשְׁמִישׁוֹ. 36.7. And Noah awoke from his wine (Gen 9:24): he was sobered from his wine. 'And knew what his youngest [katan] son had done to him.' Here [youngest] means, his worthless son, as you read, 'Because the brazen altar that was before Ad-nai was too small [katan] to receive the bunt-offering, etc.' (I Kings 8:64). And He said: Cursed be Canaan (9:25): Ham disagreed. Rabbi Yehudah said: Since it is written, 'And God blessed Noah and his sons' (Gen. 9:1), while there cannot be a curse where a blessing has been given, consequently. He said: Cursed be Canaan. Rabbi Nehemiah explained: It was Canaan who saw it [in the first place] and informed them, therefore the curse is attached to him who did wrong. Rabbi Berekiah said: Noah grieved very much in the Ark that he had no young son to wait on him, and declared, ‘When I go out I will beget a young son to do this for me.’ But when Ham acted thus to him, he exclaimed, ‘You have prevented me from begetting a young son to serve me, therefore that man [your son] will be a servant to his brethren!’ Rabbi Huna said in Rabbi Yosef’s name: [Noah declared], ‘You have prevented me from begetting a fourth son, therefore I curse your fourth son,’ Rabbi Huna also said in Rabbi Yosef’s name: You have prevented me from doing something that is done in the dark, therefore your seed will be ugly and dark-skinned. Rabbi Hiya said: Ham and the dog copulated in the ark, therefore Ham came forth black-skinned while the dog publicly exposes its copulation. Rabbi Levi said: This may be compared to one who minted his own coinage in the very palace of the king, whereupon the king ordered: I decree that his effigy be defaced and his coinage cancelled. Similarly, Ham and the dog copulated in the Ark and were punished."
37. Origen, Against Celsus, 8.40 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.40. Such is our doctrine of punishment; and the inculcation of this doctrine turns many from their sins. But let us see, on the other hand, what is the response given on this subject by the priest of Jupiter or Apollo of whom Celsus speaks. It is this: The mills of the gods grind slowly. Another describes punishment as reaching to children's children, and to those who came after them. How much better are those words of Scripture: The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, nor the children for the fathers. Every man shall be put to death for his own sin. And again, Every man that eats the sour grape, his teeth shall be set on edge. And, The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son: the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him. If any shall say that the response, To children's children, and to those who come after them, corresponds with that passage, Who visits the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me, let him learn from Ezekiel that this language is not to be taken literally; for he reproves those who say, Our fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge, and then he adds, As I live, says the Lord, every one shall die for his own sin. As to the proper meaning of the figurative language about sins being visited unto the third and fourth generation, we cannot at present stay to explain.
38. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 9.9-9.16 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

39. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitions, 4.16-4.19 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4.16. Now that the demons are desirous of occupying the bodies of men, this is the reason. They are spirits having their purpose turned to wickedness. Therefore by immoderate eating and drinking, and lust, they urge men on to sin, but only those who entertain the purpose of sinning, who, while they seem simply desirous of satisfying the necessary cravings of nature, give opportunity to the demons to enter into them, because through excess they do not maintain moderation. For as long as the measure of nature is kept, and legitimate moderation is preserved, the mercy of God does not give them liberty to enter into men. But when either the mind falls into impiety, or the body is filled with immoderate meat or drink, then, as if invited by the will and purpose of those who thus neglect themselves, they receive power as against those who have broken the law imposed by God. 4.17. You see, then, how important is the acknowledgment of God, and the observance of the divine religion, which not only protects those who believe from the assaults of the demon, but also gives them command over those who rule over others. And therefore it is necessary for you, who are of the Gentiles, to betake yourselves to God, and to keep yourselves from all uncleanness, that the demons may be expelled, and God may dwell in you. And at the same time, by prayers, commit yourselves to God, and call for His aid against the impudence of the demons; for 'whatever things ye ask, believing, you shall receive.' Matthew 21:22 But even the demons themselves, in proportion as they see faith grow in a man, in that proportion they depart from him, residing only in that part in which something of infidelity still remains; but from those who believe with full faith, they depart without any delay. For when a soul has come to the faith of God, it obtains the virtue of heavenly water, by which it extinguishes the demon like a spark of fire. 4.18. There is therefore a measure of faith, which, if it be perfect, drives the demon perfectly from the soul; but if it has any defect, something on the part of the demon still remains in the portion of infidelity; and it is the greatest difficulty for the soul to understand when or how, whether fully or less fully, the demon has been expelled from it. For if he remains in any quarter, when he gets an opportunity, he suggests thoughts to men's hearts; and they, not knowing whence they come, believe the suggestions of the demons, as if they were the perceptions of their own souls. Thus they suggest to some to follow pleasure by occasion of bodily necessity; they excuse the passionateness of others by excess of gall; they color over the madness of others by the vehemence of melancholy; and even extenuate the folly of some as the result of abundance of phlegm. But even if this were so, still none of these could be hurtful to the body, except from the excess of meats and drinks; because, when these are taken in excessive quantities, their abundance, which the natural warmth is not sufficient to digest, curdles into a sort of poison, and it, flowing through the bowels and all the veins like a common sewer, renders the motions of the body unhealthy and base. Wherefore moderation is to be attained in all things, that neither may place be given to demons, nor the soul, being possessed by them, be delivered along with them to be tormented in eternal fires. 4.19. There is also another error of the demons, which they suggest to the senses of men, that they should think that those things which they suffer, they suffer from such as are called gods, in order that thereby, offering sacrifices and gifts, as if to propitiate them, they may strengthen the worship of false religion, and avoid us who are interested in their salvation, that they may be freed from error; but this they do, as I have said, not knowing that these things are suggested to them by demons, for fear they should be saved. It is therefore in the power of every one, since man has been made possessed of free-will, whether he shall hear us to life, or the demons to destruction. Also to some, the demons, appearing visibly under various figures, sometimes throw out threats, sometimes promise relief from sufferings, that they may instil into those whom they deceive the opinion of their being gods, and that it may not be known that they are demons. But they are not concealed from us, who know the mysteries of the creation, and for what reason it is permitted to the demons to do those things in the present world; how it is allowed them to transform themselves into what figures they please, and to suggest evil thoughts, and to convey themselves, by means of meats and of drink consecrated to them, into the minds or bodies of those who partake of it, and to concoct vain dreams to further the worship of some idol.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 274
abraham\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 27
adam, adamic fall Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92
adam, compared to noah Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 95, 103
adam, name, spelling of Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
adam, subjugation of eve Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 105
adam McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 180
adam (human), as intersex or androgynus Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
adam (human), vs. adam Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
adam (human) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
agency, of kings McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 180
alexandria Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138
angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 72
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415, 468
animals, eating Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
animals, vs. humans Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
apocryphal acts McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
astronomical book of enoch VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
authority Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 468
babel, tower of babel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 27
basil of caesarea, noahs drunkenness Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 266
basil of caesarea Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
beall, todd s. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 64
beast, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
bible, texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
bible Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
biblical commentaries and exegesis Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
binaries, of creation Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
birds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415, 468
blood Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 19
bloodshed, ante-diluvian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
bloodshed, instruction on Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98, 99
border\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 27
borders v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
butler, octavia Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
cain, rivalry with abel Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
cain, seven sins, judgement Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
cain Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 274
canon Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138
catena(e) Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 84, 266
cattle Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415, 468
celsus, moral critique of bible Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 104
chaos Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
children, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
chosen ones; see also election Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98, 99
contradiction Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 96, 102, 104, 266
conversion, to judaism Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
cosmos Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
covenant, noahic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92, 98, 99
covenant Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 125; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 180; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98; VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 274
creation, binaries of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
creation, dominion and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
creation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
culture, cultural affiliations in galilee Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 161
culture, nature and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
curse of canaan Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138
david McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 180
deception, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
deception/deceit Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92, 99
demonic, temptation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
depression Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 101
dialogue, audience Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 101, 104
didymus Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
difference, between humans and animals Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
difference, between kinds Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
discourses of divine law, in biblical literature Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 16
dispersion\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 27
divine law, in biblical israel Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 16
domestication Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 61
dominion Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
egyptians, karaite attitudes towards Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
essenes, celibacy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 64, 65
essenes, martyrdom Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 52
essenes, oaths Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 64
essenes, secrecy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 64
essenes Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 52, 64, 65
eucharist, of bread alone McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
eucharist, of bread and water McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
eusebius of emesa, chams curse Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 104
eusebius of emesa, noahs drunkenness Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 266
eusebius of emesa, questions formulations Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
eve, subjugation to adam Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 96, 105
fear of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
feldman, louis h. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 52, 65
festivals VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
fish Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415, 468
flesh, animal Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
flesh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
flood/deluge, great/noahs, destruction of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98, 99
flood/deluge, great/noahs Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
flood Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 125
flood narrative VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
foot/feet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
fullness McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 180
gallagher, edmon l. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 52
gender, essentialism Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
gender, fixity of, questioning Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
gender, in language Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
generation, in priestly creation narrative Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
generation, of seth Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
genesis\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 27
giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
glossing, noahs drunkenness Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 102
glossing Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 100
god, children of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
greenberg, moshe Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 16
halakhah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
ham Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
heaven Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
heaven\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 27
hebrew bible, composition of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
hermeneutic Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138
homily, diatribe Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 100
homoioteleuton Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
humanity, in image of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
humans, vs. animals Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
humans Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
humility, incest Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
image of god, and adams image Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415; Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
image vi Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
images, of god Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
imitatio dei Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 61
immorality Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138
impurity/uncleanness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
instruction/teaching, on covering nakedness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
instruction/teaching, on separation from fornication Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
instruction/teaching, on shedding of blood Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
instruction/teaching, on worshipping the creator Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
intersex Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
jacob Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 72
japheth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
japheth b. eli (yefet b. eli) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
jared Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92
john chrysostom, letter to stageirios Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 101
john the baptist, josephuss account of Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 65
jubilees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
judaism (karaites, rabbanites) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
kalām Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
karaites Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
king as agent of divinity McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 180
language, gender and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
law/torah, for sinners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92, 98
law/torah, mosaic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
le guin, ursula Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
lifeblood in meat Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
likeness, of adam Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
limit Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
lot Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
manuscript/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 72
martyrdom Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 52
mason, steve Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 64
meade, john d. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 52
meat, avoidance/prohibition McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
meier, john p. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 65
memorial days VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
metaphor Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 61
minim (species) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
moses VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
murder Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92
muʿtazilite theology Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
nakedness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
natural law Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 96
nature, and culture Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
natureculture Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
nebrod Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 96, 105
nehemiah, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138
neighbour, love of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
noah, covenant with McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 274
noah, grandsons of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98, 99
noah, noahic covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92, 98
noah, sons Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 84, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 266
noah Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 125; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 180; Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 72; VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Measuring Time (1998) 30
noahs sons Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 105
non-literal interpretation, prophecy Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 64
nonbinarity, and natureculture Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
observed by, image and likeness of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
observed by, seth begotten by Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
offerings, sacrifices Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 125
order Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
origen, celsus on generational punishment Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 104
origen, noahs drunkenness, sons Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 102, 104, 266
origen, scholia on genesis Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 102, 104, 266
pagan Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138
parents, honour of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
particularism Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 16
paul Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92
peace Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
peru u-revu (be fruitful and multiply), multivalence of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
peru u-revu (be fruitful and multiply), object of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
peru u-revu (be fruitful and multiply) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
planting, of righteousness/truth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98, 99
positive divine law (biblical) Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 16
priestly source (p), hierarchy in Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
priestly source (p) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
pseudo-clementines McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
qaytūriyya, al-qirqisani, yaʿqub (iraqi karaite) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 603
questions-and-answers, relation to other genres Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 104
resident alien Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 92
rule/ruler, animals, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 468
rule/ruler, shepherds, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 468
rule/ruler Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 468
sacrifice, criticism/avoidance of McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
sacrifice, process of, in hebrew bible Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 61
sacrifice, symbolism of Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 61
sadducees Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 52
scapegoat Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 274
scripture' McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 180
secrecy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 64
seth, generation of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
sexgender, as term Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
sexgender, binary, disrupting Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 205
sexgender, of adam Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
shame Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
sheep Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
shem Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
shepherds Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 61
space v Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 25
spirits, demonic/giants Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
sprouting Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92, 99
stern, menahem Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 64
stone, michael e. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 64
submission Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
taylor, joan e. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 64
teeth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
temple Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 125
text-world, defamiliarization Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 101
thackeray, h. st. john Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 65
the flood Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
tradition, jewish Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 72
tradition Tefera and Stuckenbruck, Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions (2021) 72
traveling deity\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 27
violence Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 99
watchers/rebellious angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 92, 99
will, as grounding biblical divine law Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 16
wine, avoidance/prohibition McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 181
worship Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 98
yehudah ha-nasi, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138
ziqqurrat\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 27
– greek and rabbinic Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138
– halakhic midrash Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138
– rabbinic use of Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 138