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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 5.2


וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי־יֶרֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.


זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמָם אָדָם בְּיוֹם הִבָּרְאָם׃male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.19, 4.32, 14.7, 17.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.19. וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂא עֵינֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְאֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים כֹּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם וַעֲבַדְתָּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם לְכֹל הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 4.32. כִּי שְׁאַל־נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ לְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם עַל־הָאָרֶץ וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד־קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם הֲנִהְיָה כַּדָּבָר הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה אוֹ הֲנִשְׁמַע כָּמֹהוּ׃ 14.7. אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה הַשְּׁסוּעָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶבֶת וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָן כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הֵמָּה וּפַרְסָה לֹא הִפְרִיסוּ טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם׃ 17.3. וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּעֲבֹד אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לָהֶם וְלַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹ לַיָּרֵחַ אוֹ לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צִוִּיתִי׃ 4.19. and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heaven, thou be drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath allotted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven." 4.32. For ask now of the days past, which were before thee, since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other, whether there hath been any such thing as this great thing is, or hath been heard like it?" 14.7. Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of them that only chew the cud, or of them that only have the hoof cloven: the camel, and the hare, and the rock-badger, because they chew the cud but part not the hoof, they are unclean unto you;" 17.3. and hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, or the sun, or the moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have commanded not;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.2, 4.20, 12.2-12.3, 12.40, 24.5, 24.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.2. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתֵּרֶא אֹתוֹ כִּי־טוֹב הוּא וַתִּצְפְּנֵהוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה יְרָחִים׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנֹתָיו וְאַיּוֹ לָמָּה זֶּה עֲזַבְתֶּן אֶת־הָאִישׁ קִרְאֶן לוֹ וְיֹאכַל לָחֶם׃ 12.2. כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 12.2. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃ 12.3. וַיָּקָם פַּרְעֹה לַיְלָה הוּא וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וְכָל־מִצְרַיִם וַתְּהִי צְעָקָה גְדֹלָה בְּמִצְרָיִם כִּי־אֵין בַּיִת אֲשֶׁר אֵין־שָׁם מֵת׃ 12.3. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בֶּעָשֹׂר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְיִקְחוּ לָהֶם אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית־אָבֹת שֶׂה לַבָּיִת׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.11. וְאֶל־אֲצִילֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיֶּחֱזוּ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ׃ 2.2. And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months." 4.20. And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt; and Moses took the rod of God in his hand." 12.2. ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you." 12.3. Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’houses, a lamb for a household;" 12.40. Now the time that the children of Israel dwelt in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years." 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.11. And upon the nobles of the children of Israel He laid not His hand; and they beheld God, and did eat and drink."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1, 1.1-2.4, 1.4, 1.5, 1.7, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.22, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 2, 2.2, 2.4, 2.7, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.21, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.11, 3.22, 4, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.25, 4.26, 5, 5.1, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.29, 5.32, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.11, 7.2, 7.11, 7.23, 8.4, 8.5, 8.14, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 11.7, 16.3, 16.15, 16.16, 18.12, 25.1, 25.2, 25.26, 26.21, 26.22, 26.27, 30.11, 35.27, 35.28, 38.24, 49.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.6, 16.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.6. וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶבֶת כִּי־מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא וּפַרְסָה לֹא הִפְרִיסָה טְמֵאָה הִוא לָכֶם׃ 16.29. וְהָיְתָה לָכֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ תְּעַנּוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם וְכָל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃ 11.6. And the hare, because she cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, she is unclean unto you" 16.29. And it shall be a statute for ever unto you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and shall do no manner of work, the home-born, or the stranger that sojourneth among you."
5. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. כִּי־שִׂפְתֵי כֹהֵן יִשְׁמְרוּ־דַעַת וְתוֹרָה יְבַקְשׁוּ מִפִּיהוּ כִּי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה־צְבָאוֹת הוּא׃ 2.7. For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, And they should seek the law at his mouth; For he is the messenger of the LORD of hosts."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 16.15, 24.15-24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.15. וַיִּחַר לְמֹשֶׁה מְאֹד וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־יְהוָה אַל־תֵּפֶן אֶל־מִנְחָתָם לֹא חֲמוֹר אֶחָד מֵהֶם נָשָׂאתִי וְלֹא הֲרֵעֹתִי אֶת־אַחַד מֵהֶם׃ 24.15. וַיִּשָּׂא מְשָׁלוֹ וַיֹּאמַר נְאֻם בִּלְעָם בְּנוֹ בְעֹר וּנְאֻם הַגֶּבֶר שְׁתֻם הָעָיִן׃ 24.16. נְאֻם שֹׁמֵעַ אִמְרֵי־אֵל וְיֹדֵעַ דַּעַת עֶלְיוֹן מַחֲזֵה שַׁדַּי יֶחֱזֶה נֹפֵל וּגְלוּי עֵינָיִם׃ 24.17. אֶרְאֶנּוּ וְלֹא עַתָּה אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב דָּרַךְ כּוֹכָב מִיַּעֲקֹב וְקָם שֵׁבֶט מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמָחַץ פַּאֲתֵי מוֹאָב וְקַרְקַר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵׁת׃ 16.15. And Moses was very wroth, and said unto the LORD: ‘Respect not thou their offering; I have not taken one ass from them, neither have I hurt one of them.’" 24.15. And he took up his parable, and said: The saying of Balaam the son of Beor, And the saying of the man whose eye is opened;" 24.16. The saying of him who heareth the words of God, And knoweth the knowledge of the Most High, Who seeth the vision of the Almighty, Fallen down, yet with opened eyes:" 24.17. I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh; There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, And a scepter shall rise out of Israel, And shall smite through the corners of Moab, And break down all the sons of Seth."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.6-8.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8. צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃ 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 8.8. Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 12.10, 13.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מִי שְׁמֶךָ כִּי־יָבֹא דבריך [דְבָרְךָ] וְכִבַּדְנוּךָ׃ 12.10. Then died Ivżan, and was buried at Bet-leĥem." 13.17. And Manoaĥ said to the angel of the Lord, What is thy name, that when thy sayings come to pass we may do thee honour?"
9. Plato, Philebus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

39e. but not to the future? Pro. To the future especially. Soc. Do you say to the future especially because they are all hopes relating to the future and we are always filled with hopes all our lives? Pro. Precisely. Soc. Well, here is a further question for you to answer. Pro. What is it? Soc. A just, pious, and good man is surely a friend of the gods, is he not? Pro. Certainly. Soc. And an unjust and thoroughly bad man
10. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

40b. and the other is a forward motion due to its being dominated by the revolution of the Same and Similar; but in respect of the other five motions they are at rest and move not, so that each of them may attain the greatest possible perfection. From this cause, then, came into existence all those unwandering stars which are living creatures divine and eternal and abide for ever revolving uniformly in the same spot; and those which keep swerving and wandering have been generated in the fashion previously described. And Earth, our nurse, which is globed around the pole that stretches through all
11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.1-1.2, 85.1-85.10, 91.17, 93.1-93.3, 93.5, 93.10 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be 1.2. living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which i 85.4. the other red. And that black bull gored the red one and pursued him over the earth, and thereupon 85.5. I could no longer see that red bull. But that black bull grew and that heifer went with him, and 85.6. I saw that many oxen proceeded from him which resembled and followed him. And that cow, that first one, went from the presence of that first bull in order to seek that red one, but found him 85.7. not, and lamented with a great lamentation over him and sought him. And I looked till that first 85.8. bull came to her and quieted her, and from that time onward she cried no more. And after that she bore another white bull, and after him she bore many bulls and black cows. 85.9. And I saw in my sleep that white bull likewise grow and become a great white bull, and from Him proceeded many white bulls, and they resembled him. And they began to beget many white bulls, which resembled them, one following the other, (even) many. 91.17. And after that there will be many weeks without number for ever, And all shall be in goodness and righteousness, And sin shall no more be mentioned for ever. 93.1. And at its close shall be elected The elect righteous of the eternal plant of righteousness, To receive sevenfold instruction concerning all His creation. 93.3. And Enoch began to recount from the books and said: ' I was born the seventh in the first week, While judgement and righteousness still endured.
12. Anon., Jubilees, 2.13-2.14, 4.7-4.16, 7.23, 10.3-10.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 4.7. And for this reason we announce when we come before the Lord our God all the sin which is committed in heaven and on earth, and in light and in darkness, and everywhere. 4.8. And Adam and his wife mourned for Abel four weeks of years 4.9. and in the fourth year of the fifth week they became joyful, and Adam knew his wife again, and she bare him a son, and he called his name Seth; for he said "God hath raised up a second seed unto us on the earth instead of Abel; for Cain slew him. 4.10. And in the sixth week he begat his daughter ’Azûrâ. 4.11. And Cain took ’Âwân his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch at the close of the fourth jubilee. 4.12. And in the first year of the first week of the fifth jubilee, houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city, and called its name after the name of his son Enoch. 4.13. And Adam knew Eve his wife and she bare yet nine sons. 4.14. And in the fifth week of the fifth jubilee Seth took ’Azûrâ his sister to be his wife, and in the fourth (year of the sixth week) she bare him Enos. br He began to call on the name of the Lord on the earth. 4.15. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week Enos took Nôâm his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name Ke. 4.16. And at the close of the eighth jubilee Ke took Mûalêlêth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the ninth jubilee, in the first week in the third year of this week, and he called his name Mahalalel. 7.23. And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordices and commandments, and all the judgments that he knew 10.3. And he prayed before the Lord his God, and said: God of the spirits of all flesh, who hast shown mercy unto me, And hast saved me and my sons from the waters of the flood, And hast not caused me to perish as Thou didst the sons of perdition; 10.4. For Thy grace hath been great towards me, And great hath been Thy mercy to my soul; 10.5. Let Thy grace be lift up upon my sons 10.6. But do Thou bless me and my sons, that we may increase and multiply and replenish the earth.
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q418, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.13-7.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃ 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him." 7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed."
15. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 25.23-25.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

25.23. A dejected mind, a gloomy face,and a wounded heart are caused by an evil wife. Drooping hands and weak knees are caused by the wife who does not make her husband happy. 25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die. 25.25. Allow no outlet to water,and no boldness of speech in an evil wife.
16. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 25.24-25.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 109, 108 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

108. This difficult and scarcely explicable perplexity we may escape if we adopt the inner and allegorical explanation in accordance with natural philosophy. For we say that the high priest is not a man, but is the word of God, who has not only no participation in intentional errors, but none even in those which are involuntary.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. And the invisible divine reason, perceptible only by intellect, he calls the image of God. And the image of this image is that light, perceptible only by the intellect, which is the image of the divine reason, which has explained its generation. And it is a star above the heavens, the source of those stars which are perceptible by the external senses, and if any one were to call it universal light he would not be very wrong; since it is from that the sun and the moon, and all the other planets and fixed stars derive their due light, in proportion as each has power given to it; that unmingled and pure light being obscured when it begins to change, according to the change from that which is perceptible only by the intellect, to that which is perceptible by the external senses; for none of those things which are perceptible to the external senses is pure. IX.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.229 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.229. What then ought we to say? There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, "I am the God (ho Theos);" but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, "He who was seen by thee in the place," not of the God (tou Theou), but simply "of God" (Theou);
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.81 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.81. For if it was necessary to examine the mortal body of the priest that it ought not be imperfect through any misfortune, much more was it necessary to look into his immortal soul, which they say is fashioned in the form of the living God. Now the image of God is the Word, by which all the world was made.
21. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.79, 2.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 138-139, 115 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

115. Now these energies are especially the food of the soul, which is competent to give suck, as the lawgiver says, "Honey out of the rock, and oil out of the solid Rock," meaning by the solid rock which cannot be cut through, the wisdom of God, which is the nurse and foster-mother and educator of those who desire incorruptible food;
23. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 4.1, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

24. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.3. Μετανοήσατε, οἶκος Ἰσραήλ, ἀπὸ τῆς ἀνομίας ὑμῶν: εἶπον τοῖς υἱοῖς τοῦ λαοῦ μου. Ἐὰν ὦσιν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ὑμῶν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἕως τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἐὰν ὦσιν πυρρότεραι κόκκου καὶ μελανώτεραι σάκκου, καὶ ἐπιστραφῆτε πρός με ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας καὶ εἴπητε: Πάτερ: ἐπακούσομαι ὑμῶν ὡς λαοῦ ἁγίου.
25. Mishnah, Bekhorot, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. If a cow gave birth to a species of donkey, or a donkey gave birth to a species of horse, it is exempt from [the law of] the firstling, for it is said, “the firstling of a donkey,” “the firstling of a donkey,” twice [to teach that the law of the firstling does not apply] until that which gives birth is a donkey and that which is born is a donkey. And what is the law with regard to eating them? If a clean animal gave birth to a species of unclean animal, it is permitted to be eaten. But if an unclean animal gave birth to a species of a clean animal, it is forbidden to be eaten, for that which comes out of the unclean is unclean and that which comes out of the clean is clean. If an unclean fish swallowed a clean fish, it is permitted to be eaten. But if a clean fish has swallowed an unclean fish, the latter is forbidden to be eaten, because it is not [the clean fish's] growth."
26. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]"
27. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.4. For if God didn't spare angels when they sinned, but cast them down to Tartarus, and committed them to pits of darkness, to be reserved to judgment;
28. New Testament, Acts, 2.38, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 3.19. Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that so there may come times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord
29. New Testament, Jude, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

30. New Testament, Romans, 9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.4, 5.26, 6.35, 6.48, 10.30, 10.38, 11.25, 14.2-14.4, 14.6, 14.9-14.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 5.26. For as the Father has life in himself, even so he gave to the Son also to have life in himself. 6.35. Jesus said to them. "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will not be hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty. 6.48. I am the bread of life. 10.30. I and the Father are one. 10.38. But if I do them, though you don't believe me, believe the works; that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. 11.25. Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me, though he die, yet will he live. 14.2. In my Father's house are many mansions. If it weren't so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you. 14.3. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and will receive you to myself; that where I am, you may be there also. 14.4. Where I go, you know, and you know the way. 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?' 14.10. Don't you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. 14.11. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; or else believe me for the very works' sake.
32. New Testament, Mark, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you.
33. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 8.1, 8.11, 21.3, 24.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ (בראשית א, כו), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַח (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם, אוֹכֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו הוּא בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ה, ב): זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, דְּיוּ פַּרְצוּפִים בְּרָאוֹ, וְנִסְּרוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גַּבִּים, גַּב לְכָאן וְגַב לְכָאן. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מִתְּרֵין סִטְרוֹהִי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן, דִּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן וְלִסְטַר מַשְׁכְּנָא וגו'. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ, וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם בְּרָאוֹ, מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו'. מִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַּיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, טז): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, דְּאָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹקִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמֵר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ זְבוּב קְדָמְךָ, יַתּוּשׁ קְדָמְךָ, שִׁלְשׁוּל זֶה קְדָמְךָ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל עֳנָשִׁין. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַף בְּקִלּוּס אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קמח, א): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו', וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים קמח, ז): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הָאָרֶץ וגו' וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קמח, יא): מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים (תהלים קמח, יב): בַּחוּרִים וְגַם בְּתוּלוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקִּלּוּסוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף, כָּךְ בְּרִיָּתוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, מַה טַּעְמֵיהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו', וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וגו'. 8.1. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן טָעוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ וְאִפַּרְכוֹס שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקָרוּכִין, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה מְבַקְּשִׁין לוֹמַר לַמֶּלֶךְ דּוֹמִינוֹ, וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין אֵיזֶהוּ, מֶה עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּחָפוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לַקָּרוּכִין, וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אִפַּרְכוֹס. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, טָעוּ בּוֹ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הִפִּיל עָלָיו תַּרְדֵּמָה וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אָדָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה ב, כב): חִדְלוּ לָכֶם מִן הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נְשָׁמָה בְּאַפּוֹ כִּי בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא. 8.11. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם (בראשית ה, ב), זֶה אֶחָד מִן הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁשִּׁנּוּ לְתַלְמַי הַמֶּלֶךְ, זָכָר וּנְקוּבָיו בְּרָאָם. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק וְרַבָּנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמְרֵי, בָּרָא בוֹ אַרְבַּע בְּרִיּוֹת מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאַרְבַּע מִלְּמַטָּן, אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה כִּבְהֵמָה, פָּרָה וְרָבָה כִּבְהֵמָה, וּמַטִּיל גְּלָלִים כִּבְהֵמָה, וּמֵת כִּבְהֵמָה. מִלְּמַעְלָה, עוֹמֵד כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, מְדַבֵּר כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, יֵשׁ בּוֹ דַּעַת כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְרוֹאֶה כְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת. וּבְהֵמָה אֵינָה רוֹאָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אֶלָּא זֶה מְצַדֵּד. רַבִּי תִּפְדָאי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא, הָעֶלְיוֹנִים נִבְרְאוּ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת וְאֵינָן פָּרִין וְרָבִין, וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים פָּרִים וְרָבִים, וְלֹא נִבְרְאוּ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲרֵינִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים, פָּרָה וְרָבָה מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים. רַבִּי תִּפְדָאי בְּשֵׁם רַב אַחָא אָמַר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אִם בּוֹרֵא אֲנִי אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים הוּא חַי וְאֵינוֹ מֵת, מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים הוּא מֵת וְאֵינוֹ חַי, אֶלָּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִן הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וּמִן הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, אִם יֶחְטָא יָמוּת, וְאִם לֹא יֶחְטָא יִחְיֶה. 21.3. אִם יַעֲלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם שִׂיאוֹ וְרֹאשׁוֹ לָעָב יַגִּיעַ (איוב כ, ו), אִם יַעֲלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם שִׂיאוֹ, רוּמֵיהּ. וְרֹאשׁוֹ לָעָב יַגִּיעַ, עַד מָטֵי עֲנָנַיָא, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר מְלוֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, מִן הַצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, וּמִנַּיִן אַף כַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. (איוב כ, ז): כְּגֶלְּלוֹ לָנֶצַח יֹאבֵד, עַל שֶׁגָּלַל מִצְוָה קַלָּה נִטְרַד מִגַּן עֵדֶן, (איוב כ, ז): רֹאָיו יֹאמְרוּ אַיּוֹ, הוּא הָאָדָם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁטְּרָדוֹ הִתְחִיל מְקוֹנֵן עָלָיו וְאוֹמֵר הֵן הָאָדָם וגו'. 24.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם, כְּתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וְעַל סִפְרְךָ כֻּלָּם יִכָּתֵבוּ יָמִים יֻצָּרוּ וְלוֹ אֶחָד בָּהֶם, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ, מִמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי. וּמִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן עַד שֶׁאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מֻטָּל גֹּלֶם לִפְנֵי מִי שֶׁאָמַר וְהָיָה הָעוֹלָם, הֶרְאָה לוֹ דּוֹר דּוֹר וְדוֹרְשָׁיו, דּוֹר דּוֹר וַחֲכָמָיו, דּוֹר דּוֹר וְסוֹפְרָיו, דּוֹר דּוֹר וּמַנְהִיגָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ, גֹּלֶם שֶׁרָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ כְּבָר הֵם כְּתוּבִים עַל סִפְרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הֱוֵי זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדוֹת אָדָם. 8.1. ... Said R’ Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne/androginos, as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created [for] him a double-face/di-prosopon/ du-par’tsufin, and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back [t]here, as it is said, “Back/achor and before/qedem You formed me” [Ps 139:5]. They objected to him: But it says, “He took one of his ribs/ts’la`ot . . . ” [Gn 2:21]! He said to them: [It means] “[one] of his sides/sit’rohi”, just as you would say, “And for the side/tsela` of the Tabernacle/ mishkan” [Ex 26:20], which they translate [in Aramaic] “for the side/seter”. R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” [Ps 139:16]. R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]..." 8.11. ... R’ Yehoshua barNechemyah in the name of R’ Chanina bar Yitshak and the rabbis in the name of R’ Lazar (Elazar), say: He created in him four creations from above /mil’ma`lah and four from below /mil’matah. From above – he stands like the ministering angels / mal’akhey hashareit, and speaks like the ministering angels, and has knowledge in him like the ministering angels, and sees like the ministering angels . . . From below – he eats and drinks like an animal /kab’heimah, bears fruit and multiplies, leaves piles (excretes) and dies like an animal... Said the Holy One: If I create him from the upper ones [alone] he lives and won’t die [in this world]; from the lower ones, he dies [in this world] and won’t live [in the coming world]." 21.3. ...R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]." 24.2. ... R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” "
35. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 18.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ, זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (חבקוק א, ז): אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא. אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ, מִמִּזְרַח לְמַעֲרָב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, מִן הַצָּפוֹן לְדָרוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, וּמִנַּיִן אַף כַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זוֹ חַוָּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ג, יב): וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה עִמָּדִי הִוא נָתְנָה לִּי וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה עֵשָׂו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים כז, טו): וַתִּקַּח רִבְקָה אֶת בִּגְדֵי עֵשָׂו בְּנָהּ הַגָּדֹל. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה עֹבַדְיָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק עֹבַדְיָה גֵּר אֲדוֹמִי הָיָה, וְהָיָה מִתְנַבֵּא עַל אֱדוֹם (עובדיה א, יח): וְלֹא יִהְיֶה שָׂרִיד לְבֵית עֵשָׂו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה סַנְחֵרִיב, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה לו, כ): מִי בְּכָל אֱלֹהֵי הָאֲרָצוֹת הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר הִצִילוּ אֶת אַרְצָם מִיָּדִי. מִמֶּנוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, אֵלּוּ בָּנָיו (מלכים ב יט, לז): וַיְהִי הוּא מִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה בֵּית נִסְרֹךְ אֱלֹהָיו וְאַדְרַמֶּלֶךְ וְשַׁרְאֶצֶר בָּנָיו הִכֻּהוּ בַחֶרֶב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה חִירָם מֶלֶךְ צוֹר, דִּכְתִיב (יחזקאל כח, ב): בֶּן אָדָם אֱמֹר לִנְגִיד צֹר כֹּה אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהִים יַעַן גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן מָסֹרֶת אַגָּדָה הִיא חִירָם בַּעַל אִמּוֹ שֶׁל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הָיָה, עָמַד עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל כח, יח): וָאוֹצִיא אֵשׁ מִתּוֹכְךָ הִיא אֲכָלַתְךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר (ישעיה יד, יג): וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה וגו'. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ, אָמְרוּ כָּל אוֹתָן שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁעָבְרוּ עַל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, נָטְלוּ אֶת אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ וְהִמְלִיכוּהוּ תַּחְתָּיו, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁחָזַר נְטָלוֹ וַחֲבָשׁוֹ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְכָל מִי שֶׁהָיָה נִכְנַס בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים בְּיָמָיו לֹא הָיָה יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יד, יז): אֲסִירָיו לֹא פָתַח בָּיְתָה. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁמֵּת חָזְרוּ עַל אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ לְהַמְלִיכוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶם אֵינִי שׁוֹמֵעַ לָכֶם, בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה שָׁמַעְתִּי לָכֶם נְטָלַנִּי וַחֲבָשַׁנִי בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְעַכְשָׁיו הֲרֵי הוּא הוֹרְגֵנִי, וְלֹא הֶאֱמִין לָהֶם עַד שֶׁגְּרָרוּהוּ וְהִשְׁלִיכוּהוּ לְפָנָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה יד, יט): וְאַתָּה הָשְׁלַכְתָּ מִקִּבְרְךָ וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִינָא וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא כָּל שׂוֹנֵא וְשׂוֹנֵא שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ הָיָה בָּא וְדוֹקְרוֹ בַּחֶרֶב, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יד, יט): לְבֻשׁ הֲרֻגִים מְטֹעֲנֵי חָרֶב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים פב, ו): אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, שֶׁלָּקוּ בְּזִיבוּת וּבְצָרַעַת, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶן: אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ.
36. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.8.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

37. Nag Hammadi, The Apocryphon of John, 9.14 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

62b. אכולהו והא ששה חדשים קאמר אינו דומה מי שיש לו פת בסלו למי שאין לו פת בסלו,א"ל רבה בר רב חנן לאביי חמר ונעשה גמל מאי א"ל רוצה אשה בקב ותיפלות מעשרה קבין ופרישות:,הספנים אחת לששה חדשים דברי ר' אליעזר: אמר רב ברונא אמר רב הלכה כר"א אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמר רב זו דברי ר' אליעזר אבל חכמים אומרים התלמידים יוצאין לת"ת ב' וג' שנים שלא ברשות אמר רבא סמכו רבנן אדרב אדא בר אהבה ועבדי עובדא בנפשייהו,כי הא דרב רחומי הוה שכיח קמיה דרבא במחוזא הוה רגיל דהוה אתי לביתיה כל מעלי יומא דכיפורי יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא הוה מסכיא דביתהו השתא אתי השתא אתי לא אתא חלש דעתה אחית דמעתא מעינה הוה יתיב באיגרא אפחית איגרא מתותיה ונח נפשיה,עונה של תלמידי חכמים אימת אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מע"ש לע"ש (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו אמר רב יהודה ואיתימא רב הונא ואיתימא רב נחמן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,יהודה בריה דר' חייא חתניה דר' ינאי הוה אזיל ויתיב בבי רב וכל בי שמשי הוה אתי לביתיה וכי הוה אתי הוה קא חזי קמיה עמודא דנורא יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא כיון דלא חזי ההוא סימנא אמר להו רבי ינאי כפו מטתו שאילמלי יהודה קיים לא ביטל עונתו הואי (קהלת י, ה) כשגגה שיוצא מלפני השליט ונח נפשיה,רבי איעסק ליה לבריה בי רבי חייא כי מטא למיכתב כתובה נח נפשה דרביתא אמר רבי ח"ו פסולא איכא יתיבו ועיינו במשפחות רבי אתי משפטיה בן אביטל ורבי חייא אתי משמעי אחי דוד,אזיל איעסק ליה לבריה בי ר' יוסי בן זימרא פסקו ליה תרתי סרי שנין למיזל בבי רב אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו ניהוו שית שנין אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו איכניס והדר איזיל הוה קא מכסיף מאבוה א"ל בני דעת קונך יש בך,מעיקרא כתיב (שמות טו, יז) תביאמו ותטעמו ולבסוף כתיב (שמות כה, ח) ועשו לי מקדש ושכנתי בתוכם,אזיל יתיב תרתי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתא איעקרא דביתהו אמר רבי היכי נעביד נגרשה יאמרו ענייה זו לשוא שימרה נינסיב איתתא אחריתי יאמרו זו אשתו וזו זונתו בעי עלה רחמי ואיתסיאת:,רבי חנניה בן חכינאי הוה קאזיל לבי רב בשילהי הלוליה דר"ש בן יוחאי א"ל איעכב לי עד דאתי בהדך לא איעכבא ליה אזל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתי אישתנו שבילי דמתא ולא ידע למיזל לביתיה,אזל יתיב אגודא דנהרא שמע לההיא רביתא דהוו קרו לה בת חכינאי בת חכינאי מלי קולתך ותא ניזיל אמר ש"מ האי רביתא דידן אזל בתרה הוה יתיבא דביתהו קא נהלה קמחא דל עינה חזיתיה סוי לבה פרח רוחה אמר לפניו רבש"ע ענייה זו זה שכרה בעא רחמי עלה וחייה,רבי חמא בר ביסא אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי מדרשא כי אתא אמר לא איעביד כדעביד בן חכינאי עייל יתיב במדרשא שלח לביתיה אתא ר' אושעיא בריה יתיב קמיה הוה קא משאיל ליה שמעתא חזא דקא מתחדדי שמעתיה חלש דעתיה אמר אי הואי הכא הוה לי זרע כי האי,על לביתיה על בריה קם קמיה הוא סבר למשאליה שמעתתא קא בעי אמרה ליה דביתהו מי איכא אבא דקאים מקמי ברא קרי עליה רמי בר חמא (קהלת ד, יב) החוט המשולש לא במהרה ינתק זה ר' אושעיא בנו של רבי חמא בר ביסא,ר"ע רעיא דבן כלבא שבוע הוה חזיתיה ברתיה דהוה צניע ומעלי אמרה ליה אי מקדשנא לך אזלת לבי רב אמר לה אין איקדשא ליה בצינעה ושדרתיה שמע אבוה אפקה מביתיה אדרה הנאה מנכסיה אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שנין בבי רב כי אתא אייתי בהדיה תרי סרי אלפי תלמידי שמעיה לההוא סבא דקאמר לה עד כמה 62b. the itannataught us a ihalakha bwith regard to all of them,not only a man of leisure or a laborer. He asked him: bButwith regard to a sailor bit saidthat the set interval for conjugal relations is bsix months;why, then, should he have to divorce her if he vowed to forbid these relations for only a week? He answered him: It is well known that bone who has bread in his basket is not comparable to one who does not have bread in his basket.On a fast day, one who does not have bread available in his basket suffers more than one who does have bread available and knows that he will be able to eat later. In this case as well, when a woman knows that marital relations are forbidden to her due to a vow, her suffering from waiting for her husband to return is increased., bRabba bar Rav Ha said to Abaye: If a donkey driverwho is already married wants to bbecome a camel driver, whatis the ihalakha /i? Is he permitted to change his profession in order to earn more money from his work, even though this will mean he reduces the frequency with which he engages in conjugal relations with his wife? bHe answered him: A woman prefers a ikav /i,i.e., modest means, bwith conjugal relations to ten ikavwith abstinence.Consequently, he is not allowed to change his profession without her permission.,§ The mishna stated: For bsailors,the set interval for conjugal relations is bonce every six months. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Berona saidthat bRav said:The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer. Rav Adda bar Ahava saidthat bRav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer, but the Rabbis say: Students may leavetheir homes bto study Torahfor as long as btwo or three years without permissionfrom their wives. bRava said: The Sages relied on Rabbi Adda bar Ahava’sopinion band performed an actionlike this bthemselves,but the results were sometimes fatal.,This is basit is related babout Rav Reḥumi, who would commonlystudy bbefore Rava in Meḥoza: He was accustomed to comeback bto his home everyyear on the beve of Yom Kippur. One day he wasparticularly bengrossed inthe ihalakha /ihe was studying, and so he remained in the study hall and did not go home. bHis wife was expecting himthat day and continually said to herself: bNow he is coming, now he is coming.But in the end, bhe did not come. She was distressedby this and ba tear fell from her eye.At that exact moment, Rav Reḥumi bwas sitting on the roof. The roof collapsed under him and he died.This teaches how much one must be careful, as he was punished severely for causing anguish to his wife, even inadvertently.,§ bWhenis btheideal btime for Torah scholarsto fulfill their conjugal obligations? bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:The appropriate time for them is bfrom Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve,i.e., on Friday nights. Similarly, it is stated with regard to the verse b“that brings forth its fruit in its season”(Psalms 1:3): bRav Yehuda said, and some saythat it was bRav Huna, and some saythat it was bRav Naḥman: Thisis referring to one bwho engages in marital relations,bringing forth his fruit, bfrom Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve. /b,It is related further that bYehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyyaand bson-in-law of Rabbi Yannai, would go and sit in the study hall, and everyShabbat eve bat twilight he would come to his house. When he would come,Rabbi Yannai bwould see a pillar of fire preceding himdue to his sanctity. bOne day he was engrossed inthe ihalakha /ihe was studying, and he stayed in the study hall and did not return home. bWhen Rabbi Yannai did not see that signpreceding him, bhe said tothe family: bTurn his bed over,as one does at times of mourning, since he must have died, reasoning that bif Yehuda were alive he would not have missed his set intervalfor conjugal relations and would certainly have come home. What he said bbecame “like an error that proceeds from a ruler”(Ecclesiastes 10:5), bandYehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, bdied. /b,It is related further that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi barranged for his sonto marry a daughter of bthe household of Rabbi Ḥiyya. When he came to write the marriage contract, the girl died. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Is there, Heaven forbid, some disqualificationin these families, as it appears that God prevented this match from taking place? bThey sat and looked into the families’ancestry and found that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas descended from Shefatya ben Avital,the wife of David, whereas bRabbi Ḥiyya was descended from Shimi, David’s brother. /b, bHe went and arranged for his sonto marry a daughter bof the household of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra. They agreed for himthat they would support him for btwelve years to go to study in the study hall.It was assumed that he would first go to study and afterward get married. bThey passedthe girl bin front ofthe groom and when he saw her bhe said: Let it bejust bsix years. They passed her in front of himagain and bhe said to them: I will marry hernow band then goto study. bHe wasthen bashamedto see bhis father,as he thought he would reprimand him because when he saw the girl he desired her and could not wait. His father placated him and bsaid to him: My son, you have your Maker’s perception,meaning you acted the same way that God does.,The proof for this is that binitially it is written: “You bring them and plant themin the mountain of Your inheritance, the place that You, O Lord, have made for You to dwell in” (Exodus 15:17), which indicates that God’s original intention was to build a Temple for the Jewish people after they had entered Eretz Yisrael. bAnd ultimately it is written: “And let them make Me a Sanctuary, that I may dwell among them”(Exodus 25:8), i.e., even while they were still in the desert, which indicates that due to their closeness to God, they enjoyed greater affection and He therefore advanced what would originally have come later.,After his wedding bhe went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back his wife had become infertile,as a consequence of spending many years without her husband. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Whatshould we bdo? If he will divorce her,people bwill say: This poor woman waitedand hoped bfor naught. If he will marry another womanto beget children, people bwill say: This one,who bears him children, bis his wife and that one,who lives with him, bis his mistress.Therefore, her husband bpleadedwith God bto have mercy on her and she was cured. /b, bRabbi Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai went to the study hall at the end of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai’s wedding feast.Rabbi Shimon bsaid to him: Wait for me until Ican bcome with you,after my days of celebration are over. However, since he wanted to learn Torah, bhe did not waitand bwent and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back, all the paths of his city had changed and he did not know how to go to his home. /b, bHe wentand bsat on the bank of the river and heard people calling to a certain girl: Daughter of Ḥakhinai, daughter of Ḥakhinai, fill your pitcher and come up. He said: I can conclude from this that this is our daughter,meaning his own daughter, whom he had not recognized after so many years. bHe followed herto his house. bHis wife was sitting and sifting flour. She lifted her eyes up, saw himand recognized him, band her heart flutteredwith agitation and bshe passed awayfrom the emotional stress. Rabbi Ḥaya bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the universe, is this the reward of this poor woman? He pleaded for mercy for her and she lived. /b, bRabbi Ḥama bar Bisa went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he cameback to his house, bhe said: I will not do what the son of Ḥakhinai,who came home suddenly with tragic consequences for his wife, bdid. He went and sat in the study hallin his hometown, band senta message bto his housethat he had arrived. While he was sitting there bhis son Rabbi Oshaya,whom he did not recognize, bcame and sat before him.Rabbi Oshaya basked himquestions about ihalakha /i, andRabbi Ḥama bsaw that the ihalakhotofRabbi Oshaya bwere incisive,i.e., he was very sharp. Rabbi Ḥama bwas distressed and said: If I had been hereand had taught my son bI would have had a child like this. /b,Rabbi Ḥama bwent in to his houseand bhis son went inwith him. Rabbi Ḥama then bstood up before himto honor a Torah scholar, since bhe thoughtthat bhe wanted to ask him a matter of ihalakha /i. His wife said to him: Is there a father who stands up before his son?The Gemara comments: bRami bar Ḥama readthe verse babout him: “A threefold cord is not quickly broken”(Ecclesiastes 4:12). bThisis referring to bRabbi Oshaya, son of Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa,as he represented the third generation of Torah scholars in his family.,The Gemara further relates: bRabbi Akiva was the shepherd of ben Kalba Savua,one of the wealthy residents of Jerusalem. The bdaughterof Ben Kalba Savua bsaw that he was humble and refined. She said to him: If I betroth myself to you, will you go to the study hallto learn Torah? bHe said to her: Yes. She became betrothed to him privately and sent himoff to study. bHer father heardthis and became angry. bHe removed her from his houseand took a bvowprohibiting her from bbenefiting from his property.Rabbi Akiva bwentand bsat for twelve years in the study hall. When he cameback to his house bhe brought twelve thousand studentswith him, and as he approached bhe heard an old man saying tohis wife: bFor how long /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

40. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. כל היכא דליכא אלא חמש סלעים הוא קודם לבנו מאי טעמא מצוה דגופיה עדיפא כי פליגי היכא דאיכא חמש משועבדים וחמש בני חורין,ר' יהודה סבר מלוה דכתיב בתורה ככתובה בשטר דמיא בהני חמש פריק לבריה ואזיל כהן וטריף ליה לחמש משועבדים לדידיה,ורבנן סברי מלוה דכתיב באורייתא לאו ככתובה בשטר דמיא והילכך מצוה דגופיה עדיף,ת"ר לפדות את בנו ולעלות לרגל פודה את בנו ואחר כך עולה לרגל ר' יהודה אומר עולה לרגל ואח"כ פודה את בנו שזו מצוה עוברת וזו מצוה שאינה עוברת,בשלמא לר' יהודה כדקאמר טעמא אלא רבנן מאי טעמייהו דאמר קרא (שמות לד, כ) כל בכור בניך תפדה והדר לא יראו פני ריקם,ת"ר מנין שאם היו לו חמשה בנים מחמש נשים שחייב לפדות כולן ת"ל כל בכור בניך תפדה פשיטא בפטר רחם תלא רחמנא,מהו דתימא נילף בכור בכור מנחלה מה להלן ראשית אונו אף כאן ראשית אונו קמ"ל:,ללמדו תורה: מנלן דכתיב (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם והיכא דלא אגמריה אבוה מיחייב איהו למיגמר נפשיה דכתיב ולמדתם,איהי מנלן דלא מיחייבא דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שמצווה ללמוד מצווה ללמד וכל שאינו מצווה ללמוד אינו מצווה ללמד,ואיהי מנלן דלא מיחייבה למילף נפשה דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שאחרים מצווין ללמדו מצווה ללמד את עצמו וכל שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדו אין מצווה ללמד את עצמו ומנין שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדה דאמר קרא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בנותיכם,ת"ר הוא ללמוד ובנו ללמוד הוא קודם לבנו ר' יהודה אומר אם בנו זריז וממולח ותלמודו מתקיים בידו בנו קודמו כי הא דרב יעקב בריה דרב אחא בר יעקב שדריה אבוה לקמיה דאביי כי אתא חזייה דלא הוה מיחדדין שמעתיה א"ל אנא עדיפא מינך תוב את דאיזיל אנא,שמע אביי דקא הוה אתי הוה ההוא מזיק בי רבנן דאביי דכי הוו עיילי בתרין אפי' ביממא הוו מיתזקי אמר להו לא ליתיב ליה אינש אושפיזא אפשר דמתרחיש ניסא,על בת בההוא בי רבנן אידמי ליה כתנינא דשבעה רישוותיה כל כריעה דכרע נתר חד רישיה אמר להו למחר אי לא איתרחיש ניסא סכינתין,ת"ר ללמוד תורה ולישא אשה ילמוד תורה ואח"כ ישא אשה ואם א"א לו בלא אשה ישא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה נושא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה,ר' יוחנן אמר ריחיים בצוארו ויעסוק בתורה ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו:,משתבח ליה רב חסדא לרב הונא בדרב המנונא דאדם גדול הוא א"ל כשיבא לידך הביאהו לידי כי אתא חזייה דלא פריס סודרא א"ל מאי טעמא לא פריסת סודרא א"ל דלא נסיבנא אהדרינהו לאפיה מיניה א"ל חזי דלא חזית להו לאפי עד דנסבת,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר בן עשרים שנה ולא נשא אשה כל ימיו בעבירה בעבירה סלקא דעתך אלא אימא כל ימיו בהרהור עבירה,אמר רבא וכן תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל עד כ' שנה יושב הקב"ה ומצפה לאדם מתי ישא אשה כיון שהגיע כ' ולא נשא אומר תיפח עצמותיו,אמר רב חסדא האי דעדיפנא מחבראי דנסיבנא בשיתסר ואי הוה נסיבנא בארביסר 29b. that banywhere that there are only five isela /iavailable, i.e., enough to redeem only one man, and one is obligated to redeem both himself and his son, bhe,the father, btakes precedence over his son. What is the reason?It is that bhis own mitzva is preferableto one that he performs on behalf of others. bWhen they disagreeis in a case bwhere there island worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty that has been sold, i.e., he sold this land to other people but it can be reclaimed by his prior creditor, band five iselawhich is entirely bunsoldproperty.,And the reasoning behind the dispute is as follows: bRabbi Yehuda maintainsthat ba loan that is written in the Torah,i.e., any ficial obligation that applies by Torah law, is bconsidered as though it is written in a document,and therefore it can be collected from liened property, like any loan recorded in a document. This means that the liened property worth five iselais available for one’s own redemption, but not for that of his son, as the sale of the property occurred before the birth of his firstborn. Consequently, bwith these five iselaupon which there is no lien bhe redeems his son, andthe bpriest goes and repossessesthe land worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty bfor hisown redemption. In this manner one can fulfill both mitzvot., bAnd the Rabbis maintain: A loan that is written in the Torah is not considered as though it is written in a document,since buyers will not be aware of this obligation, so that they should be aware that the land may be repossessed. bAnd thereforethere is no advantage for this man to redeem his son with the five iselaupon which there is no lien, and bhis own mitzva is preferable,which means he redeems himself with the free land. With the liened property that is left he cannot redeem his son, as the land was sold before the birth of his firstborn., bThe Sages taught:If one has money bto redeem his son and to ascend toJerusalem on bthe pilgrimage Festival, he redeems his son and then ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: He ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival and then redeems his son.His reasoning is bthat thistrip to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival is ba mitzvawhose time soon bpasses, and this,the redemption of the firstborn son, is ba mitzvawhose time does bnotsoon bpass,as it can be fulfilled later.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bas he statedin bhis reasoning,i.e., Rabbi Yehuda provided the rationale for his opinion. bBut what is the reasoning of the Rabbis,who say that he should first redeem his son? The Gemara answers that the reason is bthat the verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), bandit bthenstates, in the same verse: b“And none shall appear before me empty,”referring to the pilgrimage Festival in Jerusalem. The order of the verse indicates that one should redeem his firstborn son before traveling to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival., bThe Sages taught: From whereis it derived bthat if one had fivefirstborn bsons, from fivedifferent bwomen, he is obligated to redeem them all? The verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), and the emphasis of “all” includes any of one’s firstborn sons. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tit bobviousthis is the case? After all, bthe Merciful One madethis mitzva bdependent upon the opening of the womb,as it states: “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, whoever opens the womb” (Exodus 13:2). Since each of these sons is the firstborn of his mother, it is clear that the father is required to redeem each of them.,The Gemara answers that this ruling is necessary blest you saythat bwe should derivea verbal analogy between b“firstborn”stated here and b“firstborn” fromthe verses dealing with binheritance: Just as there,the verse describes a firstborn who receives a double portion of the inheritance as: b“The first fruit of his strength”(Deuteronomy 21:17), i.e., he is the firstborn son to his father, and not the first child born to his mother; bso too here,with regard to the redemption of the firstborn son, it is referring to the bfirst fruit of his strength,which would mean that the father need redeem only his oldest child. Therefore, this ibaraita bteaches usthat this is not the case. Rather, every firstborn son to his mother must be redeemed.,§ The ibaraitateaches that a father is obligated bto teachhis son bTorah.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this requirement? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach them [ ivelimadtem /i] to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19). bAndin a case bwhere his father did not teach him he is obligated to teach himself, as it is written,i.e., the verse can be read with a different vocalization: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i]. /b, bFrom where do wederive bthata woman bis not obligatedto teach her son Torah? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i].This indicates that bwhoever is commanded to studyTorah bis commanded to teach, and whoever is not commanded to study is not commanded to teach.Since a woman is not obligated to learn Torah, she is likewise not obligated to teach it.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat she is not obligated to teach herself?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i],which indicates that bwhoever others are commanded to teach is commanded to teach himself, and whoever others are not commanded to teach is not commanded to teach himself. And from whereis it derived bthat others are not commanded to teacha woman? bAs the verse states: “And you shall teach them to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), which emphasizes: bYour sons and not your daughters. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bonewishes bto studyTorah himself band his sonalso wants bto study, he takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: If his son is diligent and sharp, and his study will endure, his son takes precedence over him.This is blike thatanecdote bwhichis told about bRav Ya’akov, son of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, whose father sent him to Abayeto study Torah. bWhenthe son bcamehome, his father bsaw that his studies were not sharp,as he was insufficiently bright. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bsaid tohis son: bI am preferable to you,and it is better that I go and study. Therefore, byou sitand handle the affairs of the house bso that I can goand study., bAbaye heardthat Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bwas coming. There was a certain demon in the study hall of Abaye,which was so powerful bthat when twopeople would benter they would be harmed, even during the day.Abaye bsaid tothe people of the town: bDo not giveRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov blodging [ iushpiza /i]so that he will be forced to spend the night in the study hall. Since Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov is a righteous man, bperhaps a miracle will occuron his behalf and he will kill the demon.,Rav Aḥa found no place to spend the night, and bhe entered and spent the night in that study hallof bthe Sages.The demon bappeared to him like a serpentwith bseven heads.Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov began to pray, and with bevery bowthat bhe bowed oneof the demon’s bheads fell off,until it eventually died. The bnext dayRav Aḥa bsaid tothe townspeople: bIf a miracle had not occurred, you would have placed me in danger. /b, bThe Sages taught:If one has to decide whether bto study Torah or to marry a woman,which should he do first? bHe should study Torah and afterward marry a woman. And if it is impossible for himto be bwithout a wife, he should marry a woman and then study Torah. Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis that one should bmarry a woman and afterward study Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says:How can one do this? With ba millstonehanging bfrom his neck,i.e., with the responsibility of providing for his family weighing upon him, can bhe engage in Torahstudy? The Gemara comments: bAndthe iamora’im bdo not disagree; this is for us and that is for them.In other words, one statement applies to the residents of Babylonia, whereas the other is referring to those living in Eretz Yisrael.,§ With regard to marriage, the Gemara relates: bRav Ḥisda would praise Rav Hamnuna to Rav Hunaby saying bthat he is a great man.Rav Huna bsaid to him: When he comes to you, send him to me. WhenRav Hamnuna bcamebefore him, Rav Huna bsaw that he did not coverhis head with ba cloth,as Torah scholars did. Rav Huna bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat byou do not coveryour head bwith a cloth?Rav Hamnuna bsaid to him:The reason is bthat I am not married,and it was not customary for unmarried men to cover their heads with a cloth. Rav Huna bturned his face away from himin rebuke, and bhe said to him: Seeto it bthat you do not see my face until you marry. /b,The Gemara notes: bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as he says:If one is btwenty years old and has notyet bmarried a woman, all of his dayswill be bina state of bsinconcerning sexual matters. The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he will be bina state of bsinall of his days? bRather, saythat this means the following: bAll of his dayswill be bina state of bthoughts of sin,i.e., sexual thoughts. One who does not marry in his youth will become accustomed to thoughts of sexual matters, and the habit will remain with him the rest of his life., bRava said, and similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Untilone reaches the age of btwenty years the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and waits for a man,saying: bWhen will he marry a woman? Once he reachesthe age of btwenty and has not married, He says: Let his bones swell,i.e., he is cursed and God is no longer concerned about him., bRav Ḥisda said:The fact bthat I am superior to my colleaguesis bbecause I marriedat the age of bsixteen, and if I would have married atthe age of bfourteen, /b
41. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38b. גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר' יוחנן ג' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש 38b. bhis torsowas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Babylonia, and his headwas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Eretz Yisrael,the most important land, band his limbswere fashioned from dust taken bfrom the rest of the landsin the world. With regard to bhis buttocks, Rav Aḥa says:They were fashioned from dust taken bfrom Akra De’agma,on the outskirts of Babylonia., bRabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hourslong, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the bfirst hourof the day, bhis dust was gathered.In the bsecond,an undefined bfigure was fashioned.In the bthird, his limbs were extended.In the bfourth, a soul was cast into him.In the bfifth, he stood on his legs.In the bsixth, he calledthe creatures by the bnameshe gave them. In the bseventh, Eve was paired with him.In the beighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four,i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the bninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Treeof Knowledge. In the btenth, he sinned.In the beleventh, he was judged.In the btwelfth, he was expelled and leftthe Garden of Eden, bas it is stated: “But man abides not in honor;he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night., bRami bar Ḥama saysin explanation of the end of that verse: bA wild animal does not have power over a person unlessthat person bseems tothe wild animal blike an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.” /b,The Gemara presents ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow: bAt the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them:If byou agree, let us fashion a person in our image.The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions ofthis person You suggest to create? God bsaid to them: His actions are such and such,according to human nature.,The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?”(Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God boutstretched His small finger among them and burned themwith fire. bAnd the sameoccurred with ba second groupof angels. The bthird groupof angels that He asked bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, the firsttwo groups bwho spoketheir mind bbefore You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do.God then created the first person., bWhenhistory barrived atthe time of bthe people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion,i.e., the Tower of Babel, bwhose actions were ruinous,the angels bsaid before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t thefirst set of angels bspeak appropriately before You,that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God bsaid to themconcerning humanity: b“Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you;I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman spanned bfrom one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other”(Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me”(Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him., bRabbi Elazar says:The height of bAdam the firstman bwas from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.”Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created meand laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of bthe verses contradict each other.The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: bThis and that,from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, bare one measure,i.e., the same distance., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bspoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is statedin the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: b“How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God”(Psalms 139:17)., bAnd this,i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what bReish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam”(Genesis 5:1)? This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showedAdam bevery generation and itsTorah binterpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived athis vision of bthe generation of Rabbi Akiva,Adam bwas gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by hismanner of bdeath. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,”i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bwas a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”?(Genesis 3:9), meaning, to bwhere has your heart turned,indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: He wasone who bdrew his foreskinforward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It bis written here: “And they like men [ iadam /i] have transgressed the covet”(Hosea 6:7), bandit bis written there:“And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; bhe has broken My covet”(Genesis 17:14)., bRav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principleof belief in God. It bis written here:“And they like men [ iadam /i] bhave transgressed the covet,” andit bis written there: “He has broken My covet,”and it is written in a third verse: b“And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their Godand worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ bWe learnedin a mishna bthere(Avot 2:14): bRabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic [ ila’apikoros /i]. Rabbi Yoḥa says:This was btaught onlywith regard to ba gentile heretic, butnot with regard to ba Jewish heretic,as one should not respond to him. bAll the more so,if one does respond bhe will become more heretical.His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Any placein the Bible from bwhere the hereticsattempt to bprove their heresy,i.e., that there is more than one god, bthe response to theirclaim is balongside them,i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: b“Let us make man in our image”(Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, bbut itthen bstates: “And God created man in His image”(Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: b“Come, let us go down and there confound their language”(Genesis 11:7), but it also states: b“And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower”(Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: b“There God was revealed [ iniglu /i] to himwhen he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: b“To God Who answers [ ihaoneh /i] me in the day of my distress”(Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: b“For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?”(Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, ikerovim /i, but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: b“And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?”(II Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, ihalekhu /i, but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld btill thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit”(Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, ikharsavan /i, but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed btheseinstances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is bin accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above,i.e., the angels, bas it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones”(Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This bworks out well foralmost ballthe verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but bwhat is there to sayconcerning the verse: “I beheld btill thrones were placed”?The Gemara answers: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David,i.e., the messiah, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presenceby equating God with a person? bRather,the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as bonethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis explanation bfromRabbi Yosei bordid he bnot accept it from him?The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof to the matter from what was taught in another ibaraita /i, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near,i.e., discussing, matters of iaggada /i? Go neartractates iNega’imand iOholot /i,which examine the complex ihalakhotof ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. bRather,the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, boneis bfor a throne and oneis bfor a stool.There is ba throne for God to sit upon, and a stoolthat serves bas His footstool. /b, bRav Naḥman says: This one,i.e., any person, bwho knowshow bto respond to the hereticsas effectively bas Rav Idit should respondto them, bbut ifhe does bnotknow, he bshould not respondto them. The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rav Idit:It bis writtenin the verse concerning God: b“And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord”(Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: bIt should havestated: bCome up to Me.Rav Idit bsaid to him: Thisterm, “the Lord,” in that verse bisreferring to the angel bMetatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written:“Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, bfor My name is in him”(Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: bIf so,if this angel is equated with God, bwe should worship himas we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It bis written: “Do not defy [ itammer /i] him,”which alludes to: bDo not replace Me [ itemireni /i] with him.The heretic said to him: bIf so, why do Ineed the clause b“For he will not pardon your transgression”?Rav Idit bsaid to him: We believe that we did not acceptthe angel beven as a guide [ ibefarvanka /i]for the journey, bas it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with meraise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei:It bis written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lordout of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: bIt should havestated: bFrom Himout of heaven. bA certain launderer said toRabbi Yishmael: bLeave him be; I will respond to him.This is bas it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech,hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: bIt should havebeen written: bMy wives,and not: “Wives of Lemech.” bRather, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. bHere too, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. Rabbi Yishmael bsaid tothe launderer: bFrom where did youhear bthisinterpretation? The launderer bsaid to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Gemara comments: This is bas Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third ihalakha /i, one-third iaggada /i,and bone-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had,i.e., taught, bthree hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three. /b
42. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

63a. והמלוה סלע לעני בשעת דחקו עליו הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו נח, ט) אז תקרא וה' יענה תשוע ויאמר הנני:,סי' אש"ה וקרק"ע עז"ר זא"ת שת"י הברכו"ת תגר"י פחת"י: א"ר אלעזר כל אדם שאין לו אשה אינו אדם שנאמר (בראשית ה, ב) זכר ונקבה בראם ויקרא את שמם אדם ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שאין לו קרקע אינו אדם שנא' (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית ב, יח) אעשה לו עזר כנגדו זכה עוזרתו לא זכה כנגדו ואיכא דאמרי ר' אלעזר רמי כתיב כנגדו וקרינן כניגדו זכה כנגדו לא זכה מנגדתו,אשכחיה רבי יוסי לאליהו א"ל כתיב אעשה לו עזר במה אשה עוזרתו לאדם א"ל אדם מביא חיטין חיטין כוסס פשתן פשתן לובש לא נמצאת מאירה עיניו ומעמידתו על רגליו,וא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית ב, כג) זאת הפעם עצם מעצמי ובשר מבשרי מלמד שבא אדם על כל בהמה וחיה ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שבא על חוה,ואמר ר' אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ונברכו בך כל משפחות האדמה אמר ליה הקב"ה לאברהם שתי ברכות טובות יש לי להבריך בך רות המואביה ונעמה העמונית כל משפחות האדמה אפילו משפחות הדרות באדמה אין מתברכות אלא בשביל ישראל (בראשית יח, יח) כל גויי הארץ אפילו ספינות הבאות מגליא לאספמיא אינן מתברכות אלא בשביל ישראל,ואמר רבי אלעזר עתידים כל בעלי אומניות שיעמדו על הקרקע שנאמר (יחזקאל כז, כט) וירדו מאניותיהם כל תופשי משוט מלחים כל חובלי הים על הארץ יעמדו ואמר ר' אלעזר אין לך אומנות פחותה מן הקרקע שנאמר וירדו רבי אלעזר חזיא לההיא ארעא דשדי ביה כרבא לפותיא א"ל אי תשדייה לאורכיך הפוכי בעיסקא טב מינך,רב על לביני שיבלי חזנהו דקא נייפן אמר להו אי נייפת איתנופי הפוכי בעיסקא טב מינך אמר רבא מאה זוזי בעיסקא כל יומא בשרא וחמרא מאה זוזי בארעא מילחא וחפורה ולא עוד אלא מגניא ליה אארעא ומרמיא ליה תיגרי,אמר רב פפא זרע ולא תזבין אע"ג דכי הדדי נינהו הני מברכן זבין ולא תיזול הני מילי ביסתרקי אבל גלימא לא מיתרמיא ליה,טום ולא תשפיץ שפוץ ולא תיבני שכל העוסק בבנין מתמסכן קפוץ זבין ארעא מתון נסיב איתתא נחית דרגא נסיב איתתא סק דרגא בחר שושבינא,א"ר אלעזר בר אבינא אין פורענות באה לעולם אלא בשביל ישראל שנאמר (צפניה ג, ו) הכרתי גוים נשמו פנותם החרבתי חוצותם וכתיב (צפניה ג, ז) אמרתי אך תיראי אותי תקחי מוסר,רב הוה מיפטר מרבי חייא אמר ליה רחמנא ליצלך ממידי דקשה ממותא ומי איכא מידי דקשה ממותא נפק דק ואשכח (קהלת ז, כו) ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה וגו' רב הוה קא מצערא ליה דביתהו כי אמר לה עבידי לי טלופחי עבדא ליה חימצי חימצי עבדא ליה טלופחי,כי גדל חייא בריה אפיך לה אמר ליה איעליא לך אמך אמר ליה אנא הוא דקא אפיכנא לה אמר ליה היינו דקא אמרי אינשי דנפיק מינך טעמא מלפך את לא תעביד הכי שנאמר (ירמיהו ט, ד) למדו לשונם דבר שקר העוה וגו',רבי חייא הוה קא מצערא ליה דביתהו כי הוה משכח מידי צייר ליה בסודריה ומייתי ניהלה אמר ליה רב והא קא מצערא ליה למר א"ל דיינו שמגדלות בנינו ומצילות אותנו 63a. band who lends a iselato a pauper at his time of need, about him the verse states: “Then shall you call, and the Lord will answer; you shall cry, and He will say: Here I am”(Isaiah 58:9).,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicdevice for a series of statements cited in the name of Rabbi Elazar: bWoman; and land; helper; this; two; the blessings; merchants; lowly.The Gemara presents these statements: bRabbi Elazar said: Any man who does not have a wife is not a man, as it is stated: “Male and female He created them…and called their name Adam”(Genesis 5:2). bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Any man who does not havehis own bland is not a man, as it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord; but the earth He has given to the children of men”(Psalms 115:16)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthatwhich bis written: “I will make him a helpmate for him [ ikenegdo /i]”(Genesis 2:18)? If one is bworthyhis wife bhelps him;if he is bnot worthyshe is bagainst him. And some saya slightly different version: bRabbi Elazar raised a contradiction: It is writtenin the Torah with a spelling that allows it to be read: bStriking him [ ikenagdo /i], and we readit as though it said: bFor him [ ikenegdo /i].If he is bworthyshe is bfor himas his helpmate; if he is bnot worthyshe bstrikes him. /b,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yosei encountered Elijahthe prophet and bsaid to him: It is written: I will make him a helpmate. In whatmanner bdoes a woman help a man?Elijah bsaid to him:When ba man brings wheatfrom the field, does he bchewraw bwheat?When he brings home bflax,does he bwearunprocessed bflax?His wife turns the raw products into bread and clothing. Is his wife bnot foundto be the one who blights up his eyes and stands him on his feet? /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthatwhich bis written: “This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh”(Genesis 2:23)? This bteaches that Adam had intercourse with each animal and beastin his search for his mate, band his mind was not at ease,in accordance with the verse: “And for Adam, there was not found a helpmate for him” (Genesis 2:20), buntil he had intercourse with Eve. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: What isthe meaning of bthatwhich bis written: “And in you shall all the families of the earth be blessed [ inivrekhu /i]”(Genesis 12:3)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham: I have two good shoots to graft[ilehavrikh/b] bonto you: Ruth the Moabite,the ancestress of the house of David, band Naamah the Ammonite,whose marriage with Solomon led to the ensuing dynasty of the kings of Judea. b“All the families of the earth”means: bEven families that live in the earth,i.e., who have land of their own, bare blessed only due to the Jewish people.Similarly, when the verse states: b“All the nations of the earthshall be blessed in him” (Genesis 18:18), it indicates that beven ships that come from Galia to Hispania are blessed only due to the Jewish people. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: All craftsmen are destined to stand uponand work bthe land, as it is stated: “And all that handle the oar, the mariners, and all the pilots of the sea, shall come down from their ships, they shall stand upon the land”(Ezekiel 27:29). bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: There is no occupation lowlier thanworking bthe land, as it is stated: “And they shall come down,”implying that one who works the land is of lower stature than even a sailor. The Gemara similarly relates: bRabbi Elazar saw land that was plowedacross bits width. He said to it:Even bif they plow youonce more blengthwise,for further improvement, bconducting business is better thanfarming with byou,as the potential profits gained by selling merchandise are far greater than those from working the land.,The Gemara relates a similar incident: bRav entered between the sheavesin a field and bsaw them wavingin the wind. bHe said to them: If youwant to bwavego ahead and bwave,but bconducting business is better thanfarming with byou. Ravasimilarly bsaid:One who has ba hundred dinarsthat are invested bina bbusinessis able to eat bmeat and wine every day,whereas he who has ba hundred dinarsworth bof landeats only bsalt and vegetables. And what is more,working the land bcauses him to lie on the groundat night in order to guard it, bandit bdraws quarrels upon himwith other people., bRav Pappa said: Sowyour own produce band do not buyit. bEven though they are equal to each otherin value, bthesethat you sow bwill be blessed.Conversely, bbuyyour clothes brather than weave [ iteizul /i]them yourself. The Gemara comments: bThis appliesonly to bmats [ ibistarkei /i], butwith regard to the bcloakone wears, perhaps bhe will not find itprecisely to his liking, and therefore he should make his own cloak, which fits his measurements.,Rav Pappa further advised: If there is a hole in your house, bcloseit bup and do notenlarge it and then bplasterit, or at least bplasterit band do notknock it down and bbuildit again. bAs, whoever engages in construction becomes poor. Hurryto bbuy landso that you do not lose the opportunity. Be bpatient and marry a womanwho is suitable for you. bDescend a levelto bmarry a womanof lower social status, and bascend a levelto bchoose a friend [ ishushevina /i]. /b, bRabbi Elazar bar Avina said: Calamity befalls the world only due tothe sins of bthe Jewish people, as it is stated: “I have cut off nations, their corners are desolate; I have made their streets waste”(Zephaniah 3:6), band it is written: “I said: Surely you will fear Me, you will receive correction”(Zephaniah 3:7). This indicates that other nations were punished so that the Jewish people would mend their ways.,The Gemara cites more statements with regard to wives. When bRav was taking leave ofhis uncle and teacher, bRabbi Ḥiyya,upon his return from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: May the Merciful One save you from something that is worse than death.Rav was perplexed: bIs there anything that is worse than death? He went, examinedthe sources, band foundthe following verse: b“And I find more bitter than death the woman, etc.”(Ecclesiastes 7:26). Rabbi Ḥiyya was hinting at this verse, and indeed, bRav’s wife wouldconstantly baggravate him. When he would say to her: Prepare me lentils, she would prepare him peas;if he asked her for bpeas, she would prepare him lentils. /b, bWhen Ḥiyya, his son, grew up, he would reversethe requests Rav asked him to convey bto her,so that Rav would get what he wanted. Rav bsaid tohis son Ḥiyya: bYour mother has improvednow that byouconvey my requests. bHe said toRav: bIt is I who reverseyour request bto her.Rav bsaid to him: This isan example of the well-known adage bthat people say:He bwho comes from you shall teach you wisdom;I should have thought of that idea myself. bYou,however, bshould not do so,i.e., reverse my request, bas it is stated: “They have taught their tongue to speak lies, theyweary themselves to bcommit iniquity, etc.”(Jeremiah 9:4). If you attribute such a request to me, you will have uttered a falsehood.,The Gemara relates a similar story. bRabbi Ḥiyya’s wife wouldconstantly baggravate him.Nevertheless, bwhen he would find somethingshe would appreciate, bhe would wrap it in his shawl and bringit bto her. Rav said to him: Doesn’t sheconstantly baggravate you?Why do you bring her things? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: It is enough for usthat our wives braise our children and save us /b
43. Anon., 3 Enoch, 10.5

44. Anon., 4 Baruch, 6.22

6.22. And he sent his angel to me, and he told me these words which I send to you.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 291
abishag Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 82
abraham Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 82
adam, adamic fall Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
adam, deathbed of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
adam, descent of human race Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 63
adam, forgiveness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
adam, gods handiwork, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331
adam, pardoning of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
adam Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200; Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158; Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 82; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 394, 395; Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 105; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175; Samely, Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture in the Mishnah (2002) 156; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
adam (human), as intersex or androgynus Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
adam (human) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28
adamas Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
altmann, alexander Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
androgynous Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 112
androgyny, androgyne Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395
angels, elohim Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 69
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 69
angels, watchers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 69
angels O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 395
animals, eating Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
animals, purity of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
animals, vs. humans Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 33
ante-diluvian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
apocalyptic Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
aquila Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200
aramaic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200
archangel, righteous/righteousness of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 388
archangel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261
aristotle Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
autogenes Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9
balaam Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 69
barbelo Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
barbeloite, modern definitions Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
beast, attacking seth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 290
beast, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 290, 395
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 395
behemah (animal) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
beth-el, language of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
bible, canonical books of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
bible, hebrew, idea of soul in Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
bible, hebrew Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
binaries, of creation Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
binyan Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 237
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 325, 331
body, the soul and Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
books, of angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
buber, martin Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 291; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
celibacy Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
childbirth, impurity following Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291
children Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
christ, see also jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
christ, symbolized in jewish bible O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
christianity, celibacy and Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
classification, logical Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
classification, priestly Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
contemplation Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395
corpses, as human Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
corpses, impurity caused by Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
creation, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
creation, as a dialogic act Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
creation, binaries of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
creation, dominion and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
creation, logos model Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
creation, of male and female, egalitarian Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
creation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200; Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207; Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 112
creativity, as gods gift to man Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
creativity Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
cult of ištar, in priestly texts Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 56
daughters Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291
day, judgment, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
day, sixth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
dead sea sect Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
death, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291, 331
dialogue, and creation as a dialogic act Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
dialogue, difference between sexual mundane act and sanctified act of Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
dietary laws Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
difference, and disability Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
difference, and reproductive variation, tannaim on Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
difference, between humans and animals Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28
difference, between kinds Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 32, 33
difference, dietary law depending on Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
difference, generation of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
disability, and difference Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
disability, studies Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
disease and pain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291
dominion Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
dyad Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
eden Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
eidos (form) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
elazar, rabbi Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
enoch, traditions Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 38
enos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158
etymologies of hebrew names O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
eve, journey of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
eve Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 395; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
eye Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
famine, father, god as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158
flood Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 38
flood narrative, in bible Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 56
forgiveness, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
forgiveness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331
form (tsurah) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325, 395
geez Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 38
gender, fixity of, questioning Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
generation, in priestly creation narrative Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28
generation, of difference Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
generation, of seth Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 32, 33
genos Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
gnostic, gnosticism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395
god, all virtue, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
god, as father Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158
god, authoritative one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
god, father of the whole creation, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331
god, holy one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331
god, image of Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
god, intervention of Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 82
god, jael, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331
god, likeness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 395
god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 394, 395
goddess, second god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394
grace, divine O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
greece and greeks, philosophy of Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
greed, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 395
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331
hayah (living being) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
heresy Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200
holy spirit, scriptural inspiration Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 63
homily, genre definition Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 31
hope, as confidence Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158
human, primal Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 394
human form, of offspring Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
human variation Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
humanity, hope defining Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158
humanity, rational vs. irrational Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158
humans, corpses of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
humans, creation of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
humans, uniqueness of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
humans, vs. animals Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 33
humans, with disabilities, othering of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
huna Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
i am Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395
image Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
image (εἰκών) Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 394
image of god, and adams image Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 32, 33
image of god, not exclusive to humans Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 290, 325, 331, 395; Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 32
imago dei Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
impurity, childbirth Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
impurity, corpses causing Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
intersex Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
invisible spirit Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9
irenaeus Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291
johannine, christology Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394
johannine, prologue Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
jubilees Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 38; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
judah bar ilai (tanna) Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
judean calendar plaques Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 56
justice Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
king, narrative Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
laity Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
law, as punishment for sin O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
life, bread of Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
life, eve Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
life, johannine concept Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
life, likeness Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9
life, mother of the Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
likeness, of adam Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 32, 33
likeness Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
loanword Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200
logos, christological Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 395
logos, lord god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158
logos Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
logos prophorikos, philos second god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395
logos prophorikos, platonic/stoic concept Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394
lorberbaum, yair Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
man (anthropos) barbelo, first/immortal man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
man (anthropos) barbelo, man and son of man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
man (anthropos) barbelo, second man/son of man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
man (anthropos) barbelo, son of man (apocalyptic/new testament) Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
man (anthropos) barbelo, third man (title) Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
man (anthropos) barbelo Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
marriage Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 388; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291; Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 237; Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
masculinity, and feeling guilt for having vulgar structure Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
matter, sensible Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
methusaleh Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 82
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261
mimesis, reproductive Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
minim (species), tannaitic use of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
minim (species) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
mirror Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394
mishna Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200
monism, monistic Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394
monotheism, religious revolution of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
mourning Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261
multiplicity and multiformity within, ancient near east Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
multiplicity and multiformity within, polytheism Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
nahman Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
names of god, father Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158
near eastern parallels, mesopotamian Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
neopythagoreanism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394
neqevah Veltri, Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (2006) 112
noah Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 31
normate bodies, deviation from Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
numbers (biblical) Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 31
numerology O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
nuptial blessings (birkat hatanim) Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 237
observed by, image and likeness of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 32, 33
observed by, seth begotten by Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 32, 33
offspring, parental resemblance of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
offspring Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
ophians, ophites Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
othering, of people with disabilities Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
oxen, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
pagan Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200
parable, of enoch Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 69, 88
pardoning of adam Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
peru u-revu (be fruitful and multiply) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
philo of alexandria Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395
philosophy Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
planting, of righteousness/truth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
plato Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 394, 395; Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
platonic Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158
platonizing sethians Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395
praeteritio Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 82
prayer, of noah Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 38
prayers, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
pre-eminence, argument from Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158
priestly source (p), classification in Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
priestly source (p), hierarchy in Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28
priestly source (p), patrilineality in Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
priestly source (p), tannaim diverging from Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
priestly source (p) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28
progeny, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261
pseudepigraphon Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 69
ptolemy, king Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 82
ravens, woman birthing Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
rebecca Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 82
rebellion, animals, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
repentance Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 388
reproduction, as mimesis Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
reproduction, unpredictability of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
resurrection, promise of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 395
resurrection Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 395
rhetorical schools, second sophistic Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 31
righteousness/piety/truth, truth as righteousness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
romans and rome, philosophy of Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
sabbath, and halakhah, did not prohibit sex on sabbath Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sabbath, and sanctity, end of the creation passage Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sabbath, as a day of perfection and harmony Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sabbath, as passive element, but not contradict creativity Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sabbath Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sadism, against women, as part of the act of intercourse Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
safrai, shmuel Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 237
salvation/soteriology Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
samaria/samaritans Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 388
samuel (amora) Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
savior, christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
seeds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 395
septuagint, legend of the composition of, in babylonian rabbinic sources Kalmin, Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context (2014) 82
septuagint Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200; Butts and Gross, Jews and Syriac Christians: Intersections across the First Millennium. (2010) 162
seth, character Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 394
seth, generation of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 32, 33
seth Cain, Jerome and the Monastic Clergy: A Commentary on Letter 52 to Nepotian (2013) 82
sethians, sethianism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
sethians Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 394
seventh part Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 69, 88
sex, and halakhah, did not prohibit sex on sabbath Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sex, and humiliation, in the sexual act Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sex, and sadistic elements Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sex, and woman, feels as being used as an object Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sex, and woman, humiliated in Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sex, as conquering masculine act against the chaotic feminine Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sex, as dialogic act Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sex, as mundane act versus sanctified dialogic act Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sex, for scholars, to perform on friday night Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sex Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sex and sexuality Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
sexgender, as term Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
sexgender, of adam Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28
sherets (swarming creature) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
simon, uriel Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
sin, sexual Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 50
sons (sonship), adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 291
sons (sonship), seth, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
soul, individual Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9
speusippus Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158
spinoza, bubers arguments against Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 207
spirit, in humanity Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9
strength Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
submission Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 395
sugya Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200