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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 5.1-5.2


זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֹתוֹ׃This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;


וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־קֵינָן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;


וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי־יֶרֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.


זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמָם אָדָם בְּיוֹם הִבָּרְאָם׃male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

59 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.13, 4.32, 10.1-10.5, 12.31, 28.61, 29.20, 30.10, 31.9-31.11, 31.24-31.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. וַיַּגֵּד לָכֶם אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחוֹת אֲבָנִים׃ 4.32. כִּי שְׁאַל־נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ לְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם עַל־הָאָרֶץ וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד־קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם הֲנִהְיָה כַּדָּבָר הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה אוֹ הֲנִשְׁמַע כָּמֹהוּ׃ 10.1. וְאָנֹכִי עָמַדְתִּי בָהָר כַּיָּמִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֵלַי גַּם בַּפַּעַם הַהִוא לֹא־אָבָה יְהוָה הַשְׁחִיתֶךָ׃ 10.1. בָּעֵת הַהִוא אָמַר יְהוָה אֵלַי פְּסָל־לְךָ שְׁנֵי־לֻוחֹת אֲבָנִים כָּרִאשֹׁנִים וַעֲלֵה אֵלַי הָהָרָה וְעָשִׂיתָ לְּךָ אֲרוֹן עֵץ׃ 10.2. וְאֶכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ עַל־הַלֻּחֹת הָרִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר שִׁבַּרְתָּ וְשַׂמְתָּם בָּאָרוֹן׃ 10.2. אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא אֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹד וּבוֹ תִדְבָּק וּבִשְׁמוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵעַ׃ 10.3. וָאַעַשׂ אֲרוֹן עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וָאֶפְסֹל שְׁנֵי־לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים כָּרִאשֹׁנִים וָאַעַל הָהָרָה וּשְׁנֵי הַלֻּחֹת בְּיָדִי׃ 10.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת כַּמִּכְתָּב הָרִאשׁוֹן אֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בָּהָר מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל וַיִּתְּנֵם יְהוָה אֵלָי׃ 10.5. וָאֵפֶן וָאֵרֵד מִן־הָהָר וָאָשִׂם אֶת־הַלֻּחֹת בָּאָרוֹן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי וַיִּהְיוּ שָׁם כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוַּנִי יְהוָה׃ 12.31. לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כֵן לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי כָּל־תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר שָׂנֵא עָשׂוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם כִּי גַם אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיהֶם יִשְׂרְפוּ בָאֵשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 28.61. גַּם כָּל־חֳלִי וְכָל־מַכָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא כָתוּב בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת יַעְלֵם יְהוָה עָלֶיךָ עַד הִשָּׁמְדָךְ׃ 31.9. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.11. בְּבוֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם׃ 31.24. וַיְהִי כְּכַלּוֹת מֹשֶׁה לִכְתֹּב אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה־הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר עַד תֻּמָּם׃ 31.25. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 31.26. לָקֹחַ אֵת סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֹתוֹ מִצַּד אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהָיָה־שָׁם בְּךָ לְעֵד׃ 4.13. And He declared unto you His covet, which He commanded you to perform, even the ten words; and He wrote them upon two tables of stone." 4.32. For ask now of the days past, which were before thee, since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other, whether there hath been any such thing as this great thing is, or hath been heard like it?" 10.1. At that time the LORD said unto me: ‘Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first, and come up unto Me into the mount; and make thee an ark of wood." 10.2. And I will write on the tables the words that were on the first tables which thou didst break, and thou shalt put them in the ark.’" 10.3. So I made an ark of acacia-wood, and hewed two tables of stone like unto the first, and went up into the mount, having the two tables in my hand." 10.4. And He wrote on the tables according to the first writing, the ten words, which the LORD spoke unto you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly; and the LORD gave them unto me." 10.5. And I turned and came down from the mount, and put the tables in the ark which I had made; and there they are, as the LORD commanded me.—" 12.31. Thou shalt not do so unto the LORD thy God; for every abomination to the LORD, which He hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters do they burn in the fire to their gods." 28.61. Also every sickness, and every plague, which is not written in the book of this law, them will the LORD bring upon thee, until thou be destroyed." 29.20. and the LORD shall separate him unto evil out of all the tribes of Israel, according to all the curses of the covet that is written in this book of the law." 30.10. if thou shalt hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, to keep His commandments and His statutes which are written in this book of the law; if thou turn unto the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul." 31.9. And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel." 31.10. And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles," 31.11. when all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing." 31.24. And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end of writing the words of this law in a book, until they were finished," 31.25. that Moses commanded the Levites, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, saying:" 31.26. ’Take this book of the law, and put it by the side of the ark of the covet of the LORD your God, that it may be there for a witness against thee."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 16.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.23. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה שַׁבָּתוֹן שַׁבַּת־קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה מָחָר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ בַּשֵּׁלוּ וְאֵת כָּל־הָעֹדֵף הַנִּיחוּ לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד־הַבֹּקֶר׃ 16.23. And he said unto them: ‘This is that which the LORD hath spoken: To-morrow is a solemn rest, a holy sabbath unto the LORD. Bake that which ye will bake, and seethe that which ye will seethe; and all that remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1-2.4, 1.2, 1.4, 1.7, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.22, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 2, 2.4, 2.7, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.11, 3.22, 4, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.25, 4.26, 5, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.29, 5.32, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.18, 7, 7.11, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 8, 8.1, 8.15, 8.16, 8.18, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.16, 10, 11, 12.1, 12.10, 14, 16.1, 19.24, 19.25, 25.21, 26.1, 26.27, 29.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. כִּי־שִׂפְתֵי כֹהֵן יִשְׁמְרוּ־דַעַת וְתוֹרָה יְבַקְשׁוּ מִפִּיהוּ כִּי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה־צְבָאוֹת הוּא׃ 2.7. For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, And they should seek the law at his mouth; For he is the messenger of the LORD of hosts."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.19-5.25, 15.3, 24.15-24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.19. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אִם־לֹא שָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָךְ וְאִם־לֹא שָׂטִית טֻמְאָה תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ הִנָּקִי מִמֵּי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 5.21. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁבֻעַת הָאָלָה וְאָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לָאִשָּׁה יִתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת־בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה׃ 5.22. וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃ 5.23. וְכָתַב אֶת־הָאָלֹת הָאֵלֶּה הַכֹּהֵן בַּסֵּפֶר וּמָחָה אֶל־מֵי הַמָּרִים׃ 5.24. וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים׃ 5.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה אֵת מִנְחַת הַקְּנָאֹת וְהֵנִיף אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 15.3. וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תַּעֲשֶׂה בְּיָד רָמָה מִן־הָאֶזְרָח וּמִן־הַגֵּר אֶת־יְהוָה הוּא מְגַדֵּף וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּהּ׃ 15.3. וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה עֹלָה אוֹ־זֶבַח לְפַלֵּא־נֶדֶר אוֹ בִנְדָבָה אוֹ בְּמֹעֲדֵיכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה מִן־הַבָּקָר אוֹ מִן־הַצֹּאן׃ 24.15. וַיִּשָּׂא מְשָׁלוֹ וַיֹּאמַר נְאֻם בִּלְעָם בְּנוֹ בְעֹר וּנְאֻם הַגֶּבֶר שְׁתֻם הָעָיִן׃ 24.16. נְאֻם שֹׁמֵעַ אִמְרֵי־אֵל וְיֹדֵעַ דַּעַת עֶלְיוֹן מַחֲזֵה שַׁדַּי יֶחֱזֶה נֹפֵל וּגְלוּי עֵינָיִם׃ 24.17. אֶרְאֶנּוּ וְלֹא עַתָּה אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב דָּרַךְ כּוֹכָב מִיַּעֲקֹב וְקָם שֵׁבֶט מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמָחַץ פַּאֲתֵי מוֹאָב וְקַרְקַר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵׁת׃ 5.19. And the priest shall cause her to swear, and shall say unto the woman: ‘If no man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness, being under thy husband, be thou free from this water of bitterness that causeth the curse;" 5.20. but if thou hast gone aside, being under thy husband, and if thou be defiled, and some man have lain with thee besides thy husband—" 5.21. then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman—the LORD make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the LORD doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell;" 5.22. and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’" 5.23. And the priest shall write these curses in a scroll, and he shall blot them out into the water of bitterness." 5.24. And he shall make the woman drink the water of bitterness that causeth the curse; and the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter." 5.25. And the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy out of the woman’s hand, and shall wave the meal-offering before the LORD, and bring it unto the altar." 15.3. and will make an offering by fire unto the LORD, a burnt-offering, or a sacrifice, in fulfilment of a vow clearly uttered, or as a freewill-offering, or in your appointed seasons, to make a sweet savour unto the LORD, of the herd, or of the flock;" 24.15. And he took up his parable, and said: The saying of Balaam the son of Beor, And the saying of the man whose eye is opened;" 24.16. The saying of him who heareth the words of God, And knoweth the knowledge of the Most High, Who seeth the vision of the Almighty, Fallen down, yet with opened eyes:" 24.17. I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh; There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, And a scepter shall rise out of Israel, And shall smite through the corners of Moab, And break down all the sons of Seth."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2, 8.6-8.8, 139.17-139.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8. צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃ 139.17. וְלִי מַה־יָּקְרוּ רֵעֶיךָ אֵל מֶה עָצְמוּ רָאשֵׁיהֶם׃ 139.18. אֶסְפְּרֵם מֵחוֹל יִרְבּוּן הֱקִיצֹתִי וְעוֹדִי עִמָּךְ׃ 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night." 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 8.8. Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;" 139.17. How weighty also are Thy thoughts unto me, O God! How great is the sum of them!" 139.18. If I would count them, they are more in number than the sand; Were I to come to the end of them, I would still be with Thee."
8. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 12.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.10. Then died Ivżan, and was buried at Bet-leĥem."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.10. For Ezra had set his heart to seek the law of the LORD, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and ordices."
10. Plato, Philebus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

39e. but not to the future? Pro. To the future especially. Soc. Do you say to the future especially because they are all hopes relating to the future and we are always filled with hopes all our lives? Pro. Precisely. Soc. Well, here is a further question for you to answer. Pro. What is it? Soc. A just, pious, and good man is surely a friend of the gods, is he not? Pro. Certainly. Soc. And an unjust and thoroughly bad man
11. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

40b. and the other is a forward motion due to its being dominated by the revolution of the Same and Similar; but in respect of the other five motions they are at rest and move not, so that each of them may attain the greatest possible perfection. From this cause, then, came into existence all those unwandering stars which are living creatures divine and eternal and abide for ever revolving uniformly in the same spot; and those which keep swerving and wandering have been generated in the fashion previously described. And Earth, our nurse, which is globed around the pole that stretches through all
12. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 53.4 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.1-1.2, 8.1, 85.1-85.10, 91.17, 93.1-93.3, 93.5, 93.10 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be 1.2. living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which i 8.1. And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all 85.4. the other red. And that black bull gored the red one and pursued him over the earth, and thereupon 85.5. I could no longer see that red bull. But that black bull grew and that heifer went with him, and 85.6. I saw that many oxen proceeded from him which resembled and followed him. And that cow, that first one, went from the presence of that first bull in order to seek that red one, but found him 85.7. not, and lamented with a great lamentation over him and sought him. And I looked till that first 85.8. bull came to her and quieted her, and from that time onward she cried no more. And after that she bore another white bull, and after him she bore many bulls and black cows. 85.9. And I saw in my sleep that white bull likewise grow and become a great white bull, and from Him proceeded many white bulls, and they resembled him. And they began to beget many white bulls, which resembled them, one following the other, (even) many. 91.17. And after that there will be many weeks without number for ever, And all shall be in goodness and righteousness, And sin shall no more be mentioned for ever. 93.1. And at its close shall be elected The elect righteous of the eternal plant of righteousness, To receive sevenfold instruction concerning all His creation. 93.3. And Enoch began to recount from the books and said: ' I was born the seventh in the first week, While judgement and righteousness still endured.
14. Anon., Jubilees, 2.13-2.14, 4.7-4.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 4.7. And for this reason we announce when we come before the Lord our God all the sin which is committed in heaven and on earth, and in light and in darkness, and everywhere. 4.8. And Adam and his wife mourned for Abel four weeks of years 4.9. and in the fourth year of the fifth week they became joyful, and Adam knew his wife again, and she bare him a son, and he called his name Seth; for he said "God hath raised up a second seed unto us on the earth instead of Abel; for Cain slew him. 4.10. And in the sixth week he begat his daughter ’Azûrâ. 4.11. And Cain took ’Âwân his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch at the close of the fourth jubilee. 4.12. And in the first year of the first week of the fifth jubilee, houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city, and called its name after the name of his son Enoch. 4.13. And Adam knew Eve his wife and she bare yet nine sons. 4.14. And in the fifth week of the fifth jubilee Seth took ’Azûrâ his sister to be his wife, and in the fourth (year of the sixth week) she bare him Enos. br He began to call on the name of the Lord on the earth. 4.15. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week Enos took Nôâm his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name Ke. 4.16. And at the close of the eighth jubilee Ke took Mûalêlêth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the ninth jubilee, in the first week in the third year of this week, and he called his name Mahalalel.
15. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q418, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.13-7.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃ 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him." 7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed."
17. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.3, 25.23-25.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 25.23. A dejected mind, a gloomy face,and a wounded heart are caused by an evil wife. Drooping hands and weak knees are caused by the wife who does not make her husband happy. 25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die. 25.25. Allow no outlet to water,and no boldness of speech in an evil wife.
18. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.23, 17.3, 25.24-25.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.23. for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity 17.3. For thinking that in their secret sins they were unobserved behind a dark curtain of forgetfulness,they were scattered, terribly alarmed,and appalled by specters.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 109, 108 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

108. This difficult and scarcely explicable perplexity we may escape if we adopt the inner and allegorical explanation in accordance with natural philosophy. For we say that the high priest is not a man, but is the word of God, who has not only no participation in intentional errors, but none even in those which are involuntary.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 101 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

101. On this account also the selfinstructed Isaac prays to the lover of wisdom, that he may be able to comprehend both those good things which are perceptible by the outward senses, and those which are appreciable only by the intellect. For he says, "May God give thee of the dew of heaven, and of the fatness of the Earth," a prayer equivalent, to May he in the first place pour upon thee a continual and heavenly rain appreciable by the intellect, not violently so as to wash thee away, but mildly and gently like dew, so as to benefit thee. And in the second place, may he bestow upon thee that earthly wealth which is perceptible by the outward senses, fat and fertile, having drained off its opposite, namely poverty, from the soul and from all its parts.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 31, 3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3. And his exordium, as I have already said, is most admirable; embracing the creation of the world, under the idea that the law corresponds to the world and the world to the law, and that a man who is obedient to the law, being, by so doing, a citizen of the world, arranges his actions with reference to the intention of nature, in harmony with which the whole universal world is regulated.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 118-135, 117 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. At all events, he will now penetrate into "the darkness where God Was." That is to say, into those unapproachable and invisible conceptions which are formed of the living Do. For the great Cause of all things does not exist in time, nor at all in place, but he is superior to both time and place; for, having made all created things in subjection to himself, he is surrounded by nothing, but he is superior to everything. And being superior to, and being also external to the world that he has made, he nevertheless fills the whole world with himself; for, having by his own power extended it to its utmost limits, he has connected every portion with another portion according to the principles of harmony.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.33-1.34, 1.229, 2.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.33. Therefore now the fourth element is incomprehensible, in the world of heaven, in comparison of the nature of the earth, of the water, and of the air; and the mind in man, in comparison of the body and the outward sense, and the speech, which is the interpreter of the mind; may it not be the case also, that for this reason the fourth year is described as holy and praiseworthy in the sacred scriptures? 1.34. For among created things, the heaven is holy in the world, in accordance with which body, the imperishable and indestructible natures revolve; and in man the mind is holy, being a sort of fragment of the Deity, and especially according to the statement of Moses, who says, "God breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living Soul. 1.229. What then ought we to say? There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, "I am the God (ho Theos);" but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, "He who was seen by thee in the place," not of the God (tou Theou), but simply "of God" (Theou); 2.10. Moses moreover represents two persons as leaders of these two companies. The leader of the noble and good company is the self-taught and self-instructed Isaac; for he records that he was weaned, not choosing to avail himself at all of tender, and milk-like, and childish, and infantine food, but only of such as was vigorous and perfect, inasmuch as he was formed by nature, from his very infancy, for acts of virtue, and was always in the prime and vigour of youth and energy. But the leader of the company, which yields and which is inclined to softer measures, is Joseph;
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.81, 1.149, 4.149-4.150 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.81. For if it was necessary to examine the mortal body of the priest that it ought not be imperfect through any misfortune, much more was it necessary to look into his immortal soul, which they say is fashioned in the form of the living God. Now the image of God is the Word, by which all the world was made. 1.149. And the opposite to desire is temperance, which one must endeavour, and labour, and take pains by every contrivance imaginable to acquire, as the very greatest blessing and most perfect benefit both to an individual and to the state. 4.149. There is also this commandment ordained which is of great common utility, that, "Thou shalt not move thy neighbours' landmarks which the former men have set Up."{35}{deuteronomy 19:14.} And this injunction is given, as it seems, not only with respect to inheritances, and to the boundaries of the land, in order to prohibit covetousness respecting them, but also as a guard to ancient customs; for customs are unwritten laws, being the doctrines of men of old, not engraved on pillars or written on paper which may be eaten by moths, but impressed in the souls of those living under the same constitution. 4.150. For the children ought to inherit from the father of their being the national customs in which they have been brought up, and in which they have lived from their cradle, and not to despise them merely because they are handed down without being written. For the man who obeys the written laws is not justly entitled to any praise, inasmuch as he is influenced by compulsion and the fear of punishment. But he who abides by the unwritten laws is worthy of praise, as exhibiting a spontaneous and unconstrained Virtue.{36}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Creation of Magistrates. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XXIX in the Loeb
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 101-174, 194, 51-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. For, in this fiftieth year, all the ordices which are given relating to the seventh year are repeated, and some of greater magnitude are likewise added, for instance, a resumption of a man's own possessions which he may have yielded up to others through unexpected necessity; for the law does not permit any one permanently to retain possession of the property of others, but blockades and stops up the roads to covetousness for the sake of checking desire, that treacherous passion, that cause of all evils; and, therefore, it has not permitted that the owners should be for ever deprived of their original property, as that would be punishing them for their poverty, for which we ought not to be punished, but undoubtedly to be pitied.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.48. for he was not like any ordinary compiler of history, studying to leave behind him records of ancient transactions as memorials to future ages for the mere sake of affording pleasure without any advantage; but he traced back the most ancient events from the beginning of the world, commencing with the creation of the universe, in order to make known two most necessary principles. First, that the same being was the father and creator of the world, and likewise the lawgiver of truth; secondly, that the man who adhered to these laws, and clung closely to a connection with and obedience to nature, would live in a manner corresponding to the arrangement of the universe with a perfect harmony and union, between his words and his actions and between his actions and his words.
29. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.19, 1.106 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. This is the book of the generation of heaven and earth, when they were Created." This is perfect reason, which is put in motion in accordance with the number seven, being the beginning of the creation of that mind which was arranged according to the ideas, and also of the sensation arranged according to the ideas, and perceptible only by the intellect, if one can speak in such a manner. And Moses calls the word of God a book, in which it is come to pass that the formations of other things are written down and engraved. 1.106. and consequently God calls that not merely "to die," but "to die the death;" showing that he is speaking not of common death, but of that peculiar and especial death which is the death of the soul, buried in its passions and in all kinds of evil. And we may almost say that one kind of death is opposed to the other kind. For the one is the separation of what was previously existing in combination, namely, of body and soul. But this other death, on the contrary, is a combination of them both, the inferior one, the body, having the predomice, and the superior one, the soul, being made subject to it.
30. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.79, 2.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 138-139, 115 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

115. Now these energies are especially the food of the soul, which is competent to give suck, as the lawgiver says, "Honey out of the rock, and oil out of the solid Rock," meaning by the solid rock which cannot be cut through, the wisdom of God, which is the nurse and foster-mother and educator of those who desire incorruptible food;
32. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 118-135, 117 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

117. But in the fourth year," says the scripture, "all the fruit of the tree shall be sacred, being praised by the Lord." The prophetic books appear often to dignify the number four in many places of the exposition of the law, and most especially in the account of the creation of the universe;
33. Strabo, Geography, 1.2.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.2.10. Being acquainted with Colchis, and the voyage of Jason to Aea, and also with the historical and fabulous relations concerning Circe and Medea, their enchantments and their various other points of resemblance, he feigns there was a relationship between them, notwithstanding the vast distance by which they were separated, the one dwelling in an inland creek of the Euxine, and the other in Italy, and both of them beyond the ocean. It is possible that Jason himself wandered as far as Italy, for traces of the Argonautic expedition are pointed out near the Ceraunian mountains, by the Adriatic, at the Posidonian Gulf, and the isles adjacent to Tyrrhenia. The Cyaneae, called by some the Symplegades, or Jostling Rocks, which render the passage through the Strait of Constantinople so difficult, also afforded matter to our poet. The actual existence of a place named Aea, stamped credibility upon his Aeaea; so did the Symplegades upon the Planctae, (the Jostling Rocks upon the Wandering Rocks) and the passage of Jason through the midst of them; in the same way Scylla and Charybdis accredited the passage [of Ulysses] past those rocks. In his time people absolutely regarded the Euxine as a kind of second ocean, and placed those who had crossed it in the same list with navigators who had passed the Pillars. It was looked upon as the largest of our seas, and was therefore par excellence styled the Sea, in the same way as Homer [is called] the Poet. In order therefore to be well received, it is probable he transferred the scenes from the Euxine to the ocean, so as not to stagger the general belief. And in my opinion those Solymi who possess the highest ridges of Taurus, lying between Lycia and Pisidia, and those who in their southern heights stand out most conspicuously to the dwellers on this side Taurus, and the inhabitants of the Euxine by a figure of speech, he describes as being beyond the ocean. For narrating the voyage of Ulysses in his ship, he says, But Neptune, traversing in his return From Ethiopia's sons, the mountain heights of Solyme, descried him from afar. [Od. v. 282.] It is probable he took his account of the one-eyed Cyclopae from Scythian history, for the Arimaspi, whom Aristaeus of Proconnesus describes in his Tales of the Arimaspi, are said to be distinguished by this peculiarity.
34. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 4.1, 12.1, 29.9 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

35. Mishnah, Bekhorot, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. If a cow gave birth to a species of donkey, or a donkey gave birth to a species of horse, it is exempt from [the law of] the firstling, for it is said, “the firstling of a donkey,” “the firstling of a donkey,” twice [to teach that the law of the firstling does not apply] until that which gives birth is a donkey and that which is born is a donkey. And what is the law with regard to eating them? If a clean animal gave birth to a species of unclean animal, it is permitted to be eaten. But if an unclean animal gave birth to a species of a clean animal, it is forbidden to be eaten, for that which comes out of the unclean is unclean and that which comes out of the clean is clean. If an unclean fish swallowed a clean fish, it is permitted to be eaten. But if a clean fish has swallowed an unclean fish, the latter is forbidden to be eaten, because it is not [the clean fish's] growth."
36. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]"
37. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
38. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.17-7.23, 11.3, 11.6, 11.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.20. Let eachman stay in that calling in which he was called. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 11.3. But I wouldhave you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. 11.6. For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn.But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her becovered. 11.9. for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man.
39. New Testament, 2 Peter, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.4. For if God didn't spare angels when they sinned, but cast them down to Tartarus, and committed them to pits of darkness, to be reserved to judgment;
40. New Testament, Jude, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41. New Testament, Colossians, 3.18, 3.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.18. Wives, be in subjection to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. 3.22. Servants, obey in all things those who are your masters according to the flesh, not just when they are looking, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing God.
42. New Testament, Ephesians, 6.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.5. Servants, be obedient to those who according to the flesh are your masters, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as to Christ;
43. New Testament, Romans, 3.1, 9.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart.
44. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.4, 5.26, 6.35, 6.48, 10.30, 10.38, 11.25, 14.2-14.4, 14.6, 14.9-14.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 5.26. For as the Father has life in himself, even so he gave to the Son also to have life in himself. 6.35. Jesus said to them. "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will not be hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty. 6.48. I am the bread of life. 10.30. I and the Father are one. 10.38. But if I do them, though you don't believe me, believe the works; that you may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in the Father. 11.25. Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me, though he die, yet will he live. 14.2. In my Father's house are many mansions. If it weren't so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you. 14.3. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and will receive you to myself; that where I am, you may be there also. 14.4. Where I go, you know, and you know the way. 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 14.9. Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you such a long time, and do you not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father. How do you say, 'Show us the Father?' 14.10. Don't you believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I tell you, I speak not from myself; but the Father who lives in me does his works. 14.11. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me; or else believe me for the very works' sake.
45. New Testament, Luke, 12.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.33. Sell that which you have, and give gifts to the needy. Make for yourselves purses which don't grow old, a treasure in the heavens that doesn't fail, where no thief approaches, neither moth destroys.
46. New Testament, Mark, 1.1-1.2, 12.28-12.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. 1.2. As it is written in the prophets, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, Who will prepare your way before you. 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all? 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these. 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he 12.33. and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. 12.34. When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the Kingdom of God."No one dared ask him any question after that.
47. New Testament, Matthew, 6.14, 6.19, 22.35-22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.19. Don't lay up treasures for yourselves on the earth, where moth and rust consume, and where thieves break through and steal; 22.35. One of them, a lawyer, asked him a question, testing him. 22.36. Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the law? 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 22.38. This is the first and great commandment. 22.39. A second likewise is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.
48. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 8.1, 21.3, 24.2, 24.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ (בראשית א, כו), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַח (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם, אוֹכֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו הוּא בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ה, ב): זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, דְּיוּ פַּרְצוּפִים בְּרָאוֹ, וְנִסְּרוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גַּבִּים, גַּב לְכָאן וְגַב לְכָאן. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מִתְּרֵין סִטְרוֹהִי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן, דִּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן וְלִסְטַר מַשְׁכְּנָא וגו'. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ, וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם בְּרָאוֹ, מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו'. מִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַּיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, טז): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, דְּאָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹקִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמֵר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ זְבוּב קְדָמְךָ, יַתּוּשׁ קְדָמְךָ, שִׁלְשׁוּל זֶה קְדָמְךָ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל עֳנָשִׁין. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַף בְּקִלּוּס אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קמח, א): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו', וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים קמח, ז): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הָאָרֶץ וגו' וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קמח, יא): מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים (תהלים קמח, יב): בַּחוּרִים וְגַם בְּתוּלוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקִּלּוּסוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף, כָּךְ בְּרִיָּתוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, מַה טַּעְמֵיהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו', וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וגו'. 8.1. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן טָעוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ וְאִפַּרְכוֹס שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקָרוּכִין, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה מְבַקְּשִׁין לוֹמַר לַמֶּלֶךְ דּוֹמִינוֹ, וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין אֵיזֶהוּ, מֶה עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּחָפוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לַקָּרוּכִין, וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אִפַּרְכוֹס. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, טָעוּ בּוֹ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הִפִּיל עָלָיו תַּרְדֵּמָה וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אָדָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה ב, כב): חִדְלוּ לָכֶם מִן הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נְשָׁמָה בְּאַפּוֹ כִּי בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא. 21.3. אִם יַעֲלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם שִׂיאוֹ וְרֹאשׁוֹ לָעָב יַגִּיעַ (איוב כ, ו), אִם יַעֲלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם שִׂיאוֹ, רוּמֵיהּ. וְרֹאשׁוֹ לָעָב יַגִּיעַ, עַד מָטֵי עֲנָנַיָא, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר מְלוֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, מִן הַצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, וּמִנַּיִן אַף כַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. (איוב כ, ז): כְּגֶלְּלוֹ לָנֶצַח יֹאבֵד, עַל שֶׁגָּלַל מִצְוָה קַלָּה נִטְרַד מִגַּן עֵדֶן, (איוב כ, ז): רֹאָיו יֹאמְרוּ אַיּוֹ, הוּא הָאָדָם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁטְּרָדוֹ הִתְחִיל מְקוֹנֵן עָלָיו וְאוֹמֵר הֵן הָאָדָם וגו'. 24.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם, כְּתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וְעַל סִפְרְךָ כֻּלָּם יִכָּתֵבוּ יָמִים יֻצָּרוּ וְלוֹ אֶחָד בָּהֶם, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ, מִמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי. וּמִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן עַד שֶׁאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מֻטָּל גֹּלֶם לִפְנֵי מִי שֶׁאָמַר וְהָיָה הָעוֹלָם, הֶרְאָה לוֹ דּוֹר דּוֹר וְדוֹרְשָׁיו, דּוֹר דּוֹר וַחֲכָמָיו, דּוֹר דּוֹר וְסוֹפְרָיו, דּוֹר דּוֹר וּמַנְהִיגָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ, גֹּלֶם שֶׁרָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ כְּבָר הֵם כְּתוּבִים עַל סִפְרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הֱוֵי זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדוֹת אָדָם. 24.7. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי מְנַחֵם בְּשֵׁם רַב אָמַר כָּל הָאֻמָנִיּוֹת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדָם, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (ישעיה מד, יא): וְחָרָשִׁים הֵמָּה מֵאָדָם, מֵאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. רַבָּנָן אָמְרִין אֲפִלּוּ סִרְגּוּלוֹ שֶׁל סֵפֶר, אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן לְמָדוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ה, א): זֶה סֵפֶר, הוּא וְסִרְגּוּלוֹ. (בראשית ה, א): בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, הָדָא מְסַיְּעָא לְהַהִיא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שָׁלשׁ פְּלָאִים נַעֲשׂוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נִבְרְאוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שִׁמְשׁוּ, בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הוֹצִיאוּ תּוֹלָדוֹת. בֶּן עֲזַאי אוֹמֵר זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא יט, יח): וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ, זֶה כְּלַל גָּדוֹל בַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁלֹא תֹאמַר הוֹאִיל וְנִתְבַּזֵּיתִי יִתְבַּזֶה חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי, הוֹאִיל וְנִתְקַלַּלְתִּי יִתְקַלֵּל חֲבֵרִי עִמִּי. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵּן דַּע לְמִי אַתָּה מְבַזֶּה בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ. 8.1. ... Said R’ Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne/androginos, as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created [for] him a double-face/di-prosopon/ du-par’tsufin, and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back [t]here, as it is said, “Back/achor and before/qedem You formed me” [Ps 139:5]. They objected to him: But it says, “He took one of his ribs/ts’la`ot . . . ” [Gn 2:21]! He said to them: [It means] “[one] of his sides/sit’rohi”, just as you would say, “And for the side/tsela` of the Tabernacle/ mishkan” [Ex 26:20], which they translate [in Aramaic] “for the side/seter”. R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” [Ps 139:16]. R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]..." 21.3. ...R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]." 24.2. ... R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” " 24.7. Rabbi Tanchuma said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Menachem in the name of Rav said... Ben Azzai said: “These are the generations of Adam\" is a great principle in the Torah. Rabbi Akiva said: This is a great principle of the Torah: \"You shall love your neighbor as yourself\" (Lev. 19:18). Thus, one should not say, “Since I am scorned, I should scorn my fellow as well; since I have been cursed, I will curse my fellow as well.” Rabbi Tanchumah said, if you act thus, realize who it is that you are willing to have humiliated - \"the one who was made in the likeness of God.\" Rabbi Tanchuma says, “If you do so, you should know who are you scorning — ‘in the likeness of God He created him.’”"
50. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 18.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ, זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (חבקוק א, ז): אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא. אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ בְּרָאוֹ, מִמִּזְרַח לְמַעֲרָב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, מִן הַצָּפוֹן לְדָרוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, וּמִנַּיִן אַף כַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זוֹ חַוָּה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ג, יב): וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה עִמָּדִי הִוא נָתְנָה לִּי וגו'. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה עֵשָׂו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים כז, טו): וַתִּקַּח רִבְקָה אֶת בִּגְדֵי עֵשָׂו בְּנָהּ הַגָּדֹל. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה עֹבַדְיָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק עֹבַדְיָה גֵּר אֲדוֹמִי הָיָה, וְהָיָה מִתְנַבֵּא עַל אֱדוֹם (עובדיה א, יח): וְלֹא יִהְיֶה שָׂרִיד לְבֵית עֵשָׂו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה סַנְחֵרִיב, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה לו, כ): מִי בְּכָל אֱלֹהֵי הָאֲרָצוֹת הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר הִצִילוּ אֶת אַרְצָם מִיָּדִי. מִמֶּנוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, אֵלּוּ בָּנָיו (מלכים ב יט, לז): וַיְהִי הוּא מִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה בֵּית נִסְרֹךְ אֱלֹהָיו וְאַדְרַמֶּלֶךְ וְשַׁרְאֶצֶר בָּנָיו הִכֻּהוּ בַחֶרֶב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה חִירָם מֶלֶךְ צוֹר, דִּכְתִיב (יחזקאל כח, ב): בֶּן אָדָם אֱמֹר לִנְגִיד צֹר כֹּה אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהִים יַעַן גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן מָסֹרֶת אַגָּדָה הִיא חִירָם בַּעַל אִמּוֹ שֶׁל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הָיָה, עָמַד עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל כח, יח): וָאוֹצִיא אֵשׁ מִתּוֹכְךָ הִיא אֲכָלַתְךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר (ישעיה יד, יג): וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה וגו'. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, זֶה אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ, אָמְרוּ כָּל אוֹתָן שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁעָבְרוּ עַל נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר, נָטְלוּ אֶת אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ וְהִמְלִיכוּהוּ תַּחְתָּיו, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁחָזַר נְטָלוֹ וַחֲבָשׁוֹ בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְכָל מִי שֶׁהָיָה נִכְנַס בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים בְּיָמָיו לֹא הָיָה יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יד, יז): אֲסִירָיו לֹא פָתַח בָּיְתָה. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁמֵּת חָזְרוּ עַל אֱוִיל מְרֹדַךְ לְהַמְלִיכוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶם אֵינִי שׁוֹמֵעַ לָכֶם, בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה שָׁמַעְתִּי לָכֶם נְטָלַנִּי וַחֲבָשַׁנִי בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְעַכְשָׁיו הֲרֵי הוּא הוֹרְגֵנִי, וְלֹא הֶאֱמִין לָהֶם עַד שֶׁגְּרָרוּהוּ וְהִשְׁלִיכוּהוּ לְפָנָיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה יד, יט): וְאַתָּה הָשְׁלַכְתָּ מִקִּבְרְךָ וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִינָא וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא כָּל שׂוֹנֵא וְשׂוֹנֵא שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ הָיָה בָּא וְדוֹקְרוֹ בַּחֶרֶב, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה יד, יט): לְבֻשׁ הֲרֻגִים מְטֹעֲנֵי חָרֶב. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָיֹם וְנוֹרָא הוּא, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים פב, ו): אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי אֱלֹהִים אַתֶּם. מִמֶּנּוּ מִשְׁפָּטוֹ וּשְׂאֵתוֹ יֵצֵא, שֶׁלָּקוּ בְּזִיבוּת וּבְצָרַעַת, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶן: אִישׁ כִּי יִהְיֶה זָב מִבְּשָׂרוֹ.
51. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.6.27.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

52. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.8.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

53. Nag Hammadi, The Apocryphon of John, 9.14 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

54. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, 1.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

55. Palestinian Talmud, Kilayim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

56. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20b. בניך יפיפין ביותר אמרה להן אינו מספר עמי לא בתחלת הלילה ולא בסוף הלילה אלא בחצות הלילה וכשהוא מספר מגלה טפח ומכסה טפח ודומה עליו כמי שכפאו שד,ואמרתי לו מה טעם ואמר לי כדי שלא אתן את עיני באשה אחרת ונמצאו בניו באין לידי ממזרות,לא קשיא הא במילי דתשמיש הא במילי אחרנייתא,אמר רבי יוחנן זו דברי יוחנן בן דהבאי אבל אמרו חכמים אין הלכה כיוחנן בן דהבאי אלא כל מה שאדם רוצה לעשות באשתו עושה משל לבשר הבא מבית הטבח רצה לאוכלו במלח אוכלו צלי אוכלו מבושל אוכלו שלוק אוכלו וכן דג הבא מבית הצייד,אמר אמימר מאן מלאכי השרת רבנן דאי תימא מלאכי השרת ממש אמאי אמר רבי יוחנן אין הלכה כיוחנן בן דהבאי הא אינהו בקיאי בצורת הולד טפי ואמאי קרו להו מלאכי השרת דמצייני כמלאכי השרת,ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דרבי אמרה לו רבי ערכתי לו שולחן והפכו אמר לה בתי תורה התירתך ואני מה אעשה ליך ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דרב אמרה לו רבי ערכתי לו שולחן והפכו אמר מאי שנא מן ביניתא,ולא תתורו אחרי לבבכם מכאן אמר רבי אל ישתה אדם בכוס זה ויתן עיניו בכוס אחר אמר רבינא לא נצרכא אלא דאפילו שתי נשיו,וברותי מכם המורדים והפושעים בי אמר רבי לוי אלו בני תשע מדות בני אסנ"ת משגע"ח,בני אימה בני אנוסה בני שנואה בני נידוי בני תמורה בני מריבה בני שכרות בני גרושת הלב בני ערבוביא בני חצופה,איני והאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן כל אדם שאשתו תובעתו הויין לו בנים שאפילו בדורו של משה רבינו לא היו כמותם שנאמר הבו לכם אנשים חכמים ונבונים וכתיב ואקח את ראשי שבטיכם ולא כתיב נבונים,וכתיב יששכר חמור גרם וכתיב מבני יששכר יודעי בינה לעתים,ההיא דמרציא ארצויי:, br br big strongהדרן עלך ואלו מותרין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongארבעה /strong /big נדרים התירו חכמים נדרי זרוזין ונדרי הבאי ונדרי שגגות ונדרי אונסין נדרי זרוזין כיצד היה מוכר חפץ ואמר קונם שאיני פוחת לך מן הסלע והלה אומר קונם שאיני מוסיף לך על השקל 20b. bare your children so beautiful? She said to them:My husband bdoes not converse with mewhile engaging in sexual intercourse, bneither at the beginning of the night nor at the end of the night,but brather at midnight. And when he converseswith me while engaging in sexual intercourse, bhe reveals a handbreadthof my body band covers a handbreadth, andhe covers himself up bas though he were being coerced by a demonand is covering himself out of fear., bAnd I said tomy husband: bWhat is the reasonfor this behavior? bAnd he said to me:It is bso that I will not set my eyes on another woman,i.e., think about another woman; if a man thinks about another woman during sexual intercourse with his wife, bhis children consequently comeclose btoreceiving ba imamzerstatus,i.e., the nature of their souls is tantamount to that of a imamzer /i. Therefore I engage in sexual intercourse with you at an hour when there are no people in the street, and in this manner. In any event, it can be seen from her words that a Sage conversed with his wife while engaging in sexual intercourse with her.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thispermission to converse with her is bwith regard to matters of sexual intercourse,whereas bthatrestriction of conversation is bwith regard to other mattersthat are not related to sexual intercourse., bRabbi Yoḥa said: That is the statement of Yoḥa ben Dehavai. However, the Rabbis said: The ihalakhais not in accordance withthe opinion of bYoḥa ben Dehavai. Rather, whatever a man wishes to do with his wife he may do.He may engage in sexual intercourse with her in any manner that he wishes, and need not concern himself with these restrictions. As ban allegory,it is blike meat that comes from the butcher.If bhe wants to eat it with salt, he may eat itthat way. If he wants to eat it broasted, he may eat itroasted. If he wants to eat it bcooked, he may eat itcooked. If he wants to eat it bboiled, he may eat itboiled. bAnd likewisewith regard to bfish that come from the fisherman. /b, bAmeimar said: Who are the ministering angelsthat Rabbi Yoḥa ben Dehavai mentioned? He was referring to bthe Sages,for whom he employed the honorary title: Ministering angels. bBecause if you saythat he was referring to bactual ministering angels, why did Rabbi Yoḥa saythat bthe ihalakhais not in accordance withthe opinion of bYoḥa ben Dehavai?The ministering angels bare more knowledgeable about the forming of the fetusthan people are. Clearly, if the ministering angels were the source for the ruling of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Dehavai it would have been imperative to heed his instructions. bAnd why arethe Sages bcalled ministering angels? Because they stand out like ministering angels,as they are recognized by their clothing.,The Gemara relates: bA certain woman, who came before RabbiYehuda HaNasi to complain about her husband, bsaid to him: My teacher, I set him a table,using a euphemism to say that she lay before him during intimacy, band he turned it over.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to her: My daughter, the Torah permittedhim to engage in sexual intercourse with byoueven in an atypical manner, band what can I do for youif he does so? Similarly, ba certain woman who came before Rav said to him: My teacher, I set a table for him and he turned it over. He saidto her: In bwhatway bisthis case bdifferent from a fish [ ibinnita /i]that one may eat any way he wishes?,§ The verse states: b“And that you not go about after your own heart”(Numbers 15:39). bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaidthat it is derived bfrom herethat ba man should not drink from this cup while setting his eyes on another cup,i.e., one should not engage in sexual intercourse with one woman while thinking about another woman. bRavina said:This statement is not necessary with regard to an unrelated woman. Rather, it bis necessary onlyto state bthat evenwith regard to bhisown btwo wives,he should not engage in sexual intercourse with one while thinking about the other.,The verse states: b“And I will purge out from among you the rebels, and those that transgress against Me”(Ezekiel 20:38). bRabbi Levi said: These are children ofthose who have bnine traits,who are defective from their conception and from whom rebels and transgressors emerge. The mnemonic for these nine traits is bchildren ofthe acronym ialeph /i, isamekh /i, inun /i, itav /i, imem /i, ishin /i, igimmel /i, iayin /i, iḥet /i. /b,The children of nine traits are as follows: bChildren of fear [ ieima /i],i.e., where the wife was afraid of her husband and engaged in sexual intercourse with him out of fear; bchildren of a woman who was raped [ ianusa /i]; children of a hated woman [ isenua /i],i.e., a woman who was hated by her husband; bchildren of ostracism [ iniddui /i],i.e., one of the parents was ostracized by the court; bchildren of substitution [ itemura /i],i.e., while engaging in intercourse with the woman, the man thought that she was another woman; bchildren of strife [ imeriva /i],i.e., the parents engaged in intercourse while they were quarreling; bchildren of drunkenness [ ishikhrut /i],i.e., the parents engaged in intercourse while they were drunk; bchildren of a woman who was divorced in the heart [ igerushat halev /i],i.e., the husband had already decided to divorce her when they engaged in intercourse; bchildren of mixture [ iirbuveya /i],i.e., the man did not know with which woman he was engaging in intercourse; bchildren of a shameless woman [ iḥatzufa /i]who demands of her husband that he engage in intercourse with her.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saythat bRabbi Yonatan said: Any man whose wife demands of himthat he engage in sexual intercourse with her bwill have children the likes of whom did not exist even in the generation of Moses our teacher? As it is stated: “Get you wise men, and understanding,and well known from each one of your tribes, and I will make them head over you” (Deuteronomy 1:13); band it is writtensubsequently: b“So I took the heads of your tribes,wise men, and well known” (Deuteronomy 1:15). bAnd it does not saythat they were bunderstanding.Evidently, even Moses could not find understanding men in his generation., bAndby contrast, bit is written: “Issachar is a large-boned donkey”(Genesis 49:14). The Sages transmitted a tradition that this is an allusion to the incident when Jacob came in from the field riding on a donkey, and Leah went out to greet him, saying: “You must come in to me; for I have hired you with my son’s mandrakes” (Genesis 30:16). Issachar was conceived from their subsequent sexual intercourse. bAnd it is written: “And of the children of Issachar, men that had understanding of the times”(I Chronicles 12:33). The descendants of Issachar were understanding men. It is derived from here that a woman who demands from her husband that he engage in sexual intercourse with her has a positive effect on their children.,The Gemara answers: bThat ibaraitais not referring to a woman who demands intercourse explicitly, but rather to one bwho enticesher husband, so that he understands that she wants to engage in sexual intercourse with him. They consequently have excellent children.,, strongMISHNA: /strong bThe Sages dissolved fourtypes of bvowswithout the requirement of a request to a halakhic authority: bVows of exhortation, vows of exaggeration, vows that are unintentional, and vowswhose fulfillment is impeded by bcircumstances beyondone’s bcontrol.The mishna explains: bVows of exhortationare those by which one encourages another using vow terminology that is exaggerated. bHow so? One was selling an item and said: I will not lowerthe price bfor youto less bthan a isela /i,as bthat is ikonam /i,forbidden bas ifit were ban offering,for me. bAnd the other one,the buyer, bsays: I will not raisemy payment bto youto bmore than a shekel,as bthat is ikonam /ifor me.
57. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38b. גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר' יוחנן ג' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש 38b. bhis torsowas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Babylonia, and his headwas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Eretz Yisrael,the most important land, band his limbswere fashioned from dust taken bfrom the rest of the landsin the world. With regard to bhis buttocks, Rav Aḥa says:They were fashioned from dust taken bfrom Akra De’agma,on the outskirts of Babylonia., bRabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hourslong, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the bfirst hourof the day, bhis dust was gathered.In the bsecond,an undefined bfigure was fashioned.In the bthird, his limbs were extended.In the bfourth, a soul was cast into him.In the bfifth, he stood on his legs.In the bsixth, he calledthe creatures by the bnameshe gave them. In the bseventh, Eve was paired with him.In the beighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four,i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the bninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Treeof Knowledge. In the btenth, he sinned.In the beleventh, he was judged.In the btwelfth, he was expelled and leftthe Garden of Eden, bas it is stated: “But man abides not in honor;he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night., bRami bar Ḥama saysin explanation of the end of that verse: bA wild animal does not have power over a person unlessthat person bseems tothe wild animal blike an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.” /b,The Gemara presents ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow: bAt the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them:If byou agree, let us fashion a person in our image.The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions ofthis person You suggest to create? God bsaid to them: His actions are such and such,according to human nature.,The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?”(Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God boutstretched His small finger among them and burned themwith fire. bAnd the sameoccurred with ba second groupof angels. The bthird groupof angels that He asked bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, the firsttwo groups bwho spoketheir mind bbefore You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do.God then created the first person., bWhenhistory barrived atthe time of bthe people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion,i.e., the Tower of Babel, bwhose actions were ruinous,the angels bsaid before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t thefirst set of angels bspeak appropriately before You,that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God bsaid to themconcerning humanity: b“Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you;I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman spanned bfrom one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other”(Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me”(Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him., bRabbi Elazar says:The height of bAdam the firstman bwas from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.”Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created meand laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of bthe verses contradict each other.The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: bThis and that,from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, bare one measure,i.e., the same distance., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bspoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is statedin the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: b“How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God”(Psalms 139:17)., bAnd this,i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what bReish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam”(Genesis 5:1)? This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showedAdam bevery generation and itsTorah binterpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived athis vision of bthe generation of Rabbi Akiva,Adam bwas gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by hismanner of bdeath. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,”i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bwas a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”?(Genesis 3:9), meaning, to bwhere has your heart turned,indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: He wasone who bdrew his foreskinforward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It bis written here: “And they like men [ iadam /i] have transgressed the covet”(Hosea 6:7), bandit bis written there:“And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; bhe has broken My covet”(Genesis 17:14)., bRav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principleof belief in God. It bis written here:“And they like men [ iadam /i] bhave transgressed the covet,” andit bis written there: “He has broken My covet,”and it is written in a third verse: b“And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their Godand worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ bWe learnedin a mishna bthere(Avot 2:14): bRabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic [ ila’apikoros /i]. Rabbi Yoḥa says:This was btaught onlywith regard to ba gentile heretic, butnot with regard to ba Jewish heretic,as one should not respond to him. bAll the more so,if one does respond bhe will become more heretical.His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Any placein the Bible from bwhere the hereticsattempt to bprove their heresy,i.e., that there is more than one god, bthe response to theirclaim is balongside them,i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: b“Let us make man in our image”(Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, bbut itthen bstates: “And God created man in His image”(Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: b“Come, let us go down and there confound their language”(Genesis 11:7), but it also states: b“And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower”(Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: b“There God was revealed [ iniglu /i] to himwhen he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: b“To God Who answers [ ihaoneh /i] me in the day of my distress”(Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: b“For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?”(Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, ikerovim /i, but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: b“And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?”(II Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, ihalekhu /i, but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld btill thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit”(Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, ikharsavan /i, but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed btheseinstances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is bin accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above,i.e., the angels, bas it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones”(Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This bworks out well foralmost ballthe verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but bwhat is there to sayconcerning the verse: “I beheld btill thrones were placed”?The Gemara answers: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David,i.e., the messiah, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presenceby equating God with a person? bRather,the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as bonethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis explanation bfromRabbi Yosei bordid he bnot accept it from him?The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof to the matter from what was taught in another ibaraita /i, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near,i.e., discussing, matters of iaggada /i? Go neartractates iNega’imand iOholot /i,which examine the complex ihalakhotof ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. bRather,the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, boneis bfor a throne and oneis bfor a stool.There is ba throne for God to sit upon, and a stoolthat serves bas His footstool. /b, bRav Naḥman says: This one,i.e., any person, bwho knowshow bto respond to the hereticsas effectively bas Rav Idit should respondto them, bbut ifhe does bnotknow, he bshould not respondto them. The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rav Idit:It bis writtenin the verse concerning God: b“And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord”(Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: bIt should havestated: bCome up to Me.Rav Idit bsaid to him: Thisterm, “the Lord,” in that verse bisreferring to the angel bMetatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written:“Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, bfor My name is in him”(Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: bIf so,if this angel is equated with God, bwe should worship himas we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It bis written: “Do not defy [ itammer /i] him,”which alludes to: bDo not replace Me [ itemireni /i] with him.The heretic said to him: bIf so, why do Ineed the clause b“For he will not pardon your transgression”?Rav Idit bsaid to him: We believe that we did not acceptthe angel beven as a guide [ ibefarvanka /i]for the journey, bas it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with meraise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei:It bis written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lordout of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: bIt should havestated: bFrom Himout of heaven. bA certain launderer said toRabbi Yishmael: bLeave him be; I will respond to him.This is bas it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech,hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: bIt should havebeen written: bMy wives,and not: “Wives of Lemech.” bRather, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. bHere too, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. Rabbi Yishmael bsaid tothe launderer: bFrom where did youhear bthisinterpretation? The launderer bsaid to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Gemara comments: This is bas Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third ihalakha /i, one-third iaggada /i,and bone-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had,i.e., taught, bthree hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three. /b
58. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.51 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.51. Good men he called images of the gods, and love the business of the idle. To the question what is wretched in life he replied, An old man destitute. Being asked what creature's bite is the worst, he said, of those that are wild a sycophant's; of those that are tame a flatterer's. Upon seeing two centaurs very badly painted, he asked, Which of these is Chiron? (worse man). Ingratiating speech he compared to honey used to choke you. The stomach he called livelihood's Charybdis. Hearing a report that Didymon the flute-player had been caught in adultery, his comment was, His name alone is sufficient to hang him. To the question why gold is pale, his reply was, Because it has so many thieves plotting against it. On seeing a woman carried in a litter, he remarked that the cage was not in keeping with the quarry.
59. Plotinus, Enneads, 1.6.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 291
adam, adamic fall Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
adam, cain and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246
adam, deathbed of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
adam, descent of human race Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 63
adam, forgiveness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
adam, gods handiwork, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331, 412
adam, pardoning of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
adam Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200, 204, 205, 208, 215; Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158, 159, 163; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 394, 395; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 26; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 27; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 20, 87; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
adam (human), as intersex or androgynus Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
adam (human) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28
adamas Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
akiba, rabbi Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 26
akiva, rabbi Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 238
akiva Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 126
akiva (rabbi) Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 136, 144
alphabetic culture Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 112
amalek, oracle about Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 324
androgyny, androgyne Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395
angels, elohim Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 69
angels, mediators of revelation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 69
angels, watchers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 69
angels Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 208; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 395, 412
animals, as irrational Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 163
animals, eating Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
animals, purity of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
animals, vs. humans Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 33
ante-diluvian Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
anthropology Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 27
apocalyptic Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
aquila Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200, 215
aramaic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200, 204, 205, 208; Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 26
archangel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261
archetypes, the archon Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 159
aristotle Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
asceticism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 200
authority Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 412
autogenes Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9
babylonian Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 204
balaam Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 69
barbelo Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
barbeloite, modern definitions Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
beast, attacking seth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 290
beast, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 290, 395
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 395, 412
behemah (animal) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
ben azzai (rabbi) Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 136, 144
beneficent power, philos terms for Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 35
beneficent power, quotations and allusions to Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 35, 37
beneficent power, the bible Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 35, 37
bestiality Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 238
beth-el, language of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
bible, canonical books of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
bilingual Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 204, 205
binaries, of creation Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
binyan Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 237
biography (bios), black, as ink Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 159
birds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 412
birth, seth, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 412
blessing Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 204
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 325, 331
book of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
book of the covenant, jerusalem temple, scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 324
books, of angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 291; Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
chaldean (hebrew language) Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 157
childbirth, impurity following Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291
children Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
christ, as creator McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 87
christ, see also jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
christ, symbolized in jewish bible O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 446
classification, logical Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
classification, priestly Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 27
clement of alexandria Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 200
collective humanity Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 27
contemplation Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 200
corpses, as human Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
corpses, impurity caused by Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
creation, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
creation, ancient near eastern views McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 87
creation, binaries of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
creation, dominion and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
creation, logos model Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
creation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200, 204, 205, 208
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 27
creeping things Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 412
cynics Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 200
daughters Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291
day, judgment, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
day, sixth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
death, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291, 331
demons, and demonic generation Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246
deuteronomistic history Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 324
deuteronomy, jerusalem temple, scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 324
deuteronomy, self-referential nature of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 324
dietary laws Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
difference, and disability Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
difference, and reproductive variation, tannaim on Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
difference, between humans and animals Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28
difference, between kinds Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 32, 33
difference, dietary law depending on Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
difference, generation of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
disability, and difference Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
disability, studies Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
disciples Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 204
disease and pain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291
divine, image Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 27
dominion Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 27
dyad Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
dyad and monad, the earthborn Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 159, 163
eden Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
eidos (form) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
enoch Bacchi, Uncovering Jewish Creativity in Book III of the Sibylline Oracles: Gender, Intertextuality, and Politics (2022) 100; Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37
enos, adam vs. Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 163
enos, as self-taught Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 162
enos, etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 157, 162, 163
enos, hope and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 155, 157
enos, in fourth generation Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 155
enos, unwritten law and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 162
enos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37, 91, 155, 157, 158, 159, 162, 163
etymologies, of enos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 157, 162, 163
etymologies of hebrew names O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
eve, journey of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
eve Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 395; Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
exegesis Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 35
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 153
eye Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
faith, as fulfillment of hopes Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 157
faith Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 157
famine, father, god as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 158
fantastic creatures, philo on Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 238
fathers Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246
first-born McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 87
flesh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 412
forgiveness, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290
forgiveness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331
form (tsurah) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
four, the number Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 155, 162, 163
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325, 395
gender, fixity of, questioning Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
generation, demonic Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246
generation, in priestly creation narrative Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28
generation, mineral Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246
generation, of difference Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
generation, of seth Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 32, 33
generation, paternity and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246
generation, spontaneous Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246
generation, vision and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246
genos Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
glory McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 87
gnostic, gnosticism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395
gnostic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 208
gnosticism Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 200
god, all virtue, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
god, as father Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 158
god, authoritative one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
god, father of the whole creation, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331
god, holy one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331
god, jael, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331
god, likeness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 395
god-fearers Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 144
god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 394, 395
goddess, second god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394
godlikeness Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 200
golem Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 205, 208
gomorrah, goods, kinds of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 157
gospels McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 20
grace, divine O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
greed, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 395
greek-jewish (graeco-jewish), philosophy Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 446
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 290, 331, 412
hayah (living being) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
hebrew, and chaldean Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 157
heresy Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200, 204, 205, 208
hermeneutic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 204
holy spirit, scriptural inspiration Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 63
hope, as confidence Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 157, 158
hope, as gatekeeper of virtues Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 162
hope, as uniquely human Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 155
hope, enos as lover of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 157
hope, enos representing Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 155
hope Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91
hospitality, human, as meaning of enoss name Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91
human, nature Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 27
human, primal Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 394
human form, of offspring Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32, 33
human variation Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
humanity, hope defining Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 155, 158
humanity, rational vs. irrational Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 158, 163
humans, corpses of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
humans, creation of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
humans, uniqueness of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
humans, vs. animals Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 33
humans, with disabilities, othering of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
huqim (statutes) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 238
hybrids, possibility of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 238
hyenas Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246
i am Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395
image, adam as image of god McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 87
image, of god McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 87
image Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
image (εἰκών) Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 394
image of god, and adams image Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 32, 33, 246
image of god, not exclusive to humans Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
image of god Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 27; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 290, 325, 331, 395, 412; Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 32
impurity, childbirth Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
impurity, corpses causing Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
intermarriage, Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 238
intersex Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
invisible spirit Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9
irenaeus Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
isaac, as self-taught Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 162
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), amalek, oracle about Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 324
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), book of the covenant and covenant code Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 324
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), deuteronomy and deuteronomistic history Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 324
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), in first temple period Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 324
jerusalem (yerushalmi) targum (targum pseudo-jonathan), jerusalem temple, scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 324
jesus Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 126
jews, vs. non-jews Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 238
johannine, christology Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394
johannine, prologue Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
jubilees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
justice Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 88
kelal gadol Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 137
kilayim, non-jewish use of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 238
kilayim, statutes Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 238
king, narrative Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
king as image/glory of gods McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 87
law, as punishment for sin O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
law of nature, mosaic laws consonant with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
laws, unwritten, rabbinic oral law and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 162
laws, unwritten Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 162
learning and teaching, abraham associated with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 162
life, bread of Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
life, eve Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
life, johannine concept Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
life, likeness Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9
life, mother of the Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
light McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 20
likeness, of adam Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27, 28, 32, 33, 246
likeness Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
likeness to god Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 205, 208
literal interpretation, living laws Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37
loanword Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200, 204
logos, christological Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 9, 395
logos, lord god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 155, 158, 163
logos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
logos prophorikos, philos second god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394, 395
logos prophorikos, platonic/stoic concept Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394
mamzerim (illegitimate offspring) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 246
man (anthropos) barbelo, first/immortal man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
man (anthropos) barbelo, man and son of man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
man (anthropos) barbelo, second man/son of man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
man (anthropos) barbelo, son of man (apocalyptic/new testament) Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
man (anthropos) barbelo, third man (title) Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
man (anthropos) barbelo Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 175
mankind Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 27
marriage Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 291; Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 237
matter, sensible Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 395
matthew, gospel of Maccoby, Philosophy of the Talmud (2002) 126
mediation McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 20
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261
middle platonism McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 20
midrash Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 215
mimesis, reproductive Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
minim (species), tannaitic use of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 32
minim (species) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 27
minotaurs Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 238
mirror Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394
mishna Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 200, 204, 205, 208
monism, monistic Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394
monotheism, religious revolution of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
mosaic law, law of nature and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
moths, destruction by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 159
mourning Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261
multiplicity and multiformity within, ancient near east Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
multiplicity and multiformity within, polytheism Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
names of god, father Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 91, 158
nature, god as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 162
nature, gods commands evident in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 162
nature, human Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 27
near eastern parallels, mesopotamian Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
neighbor Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 136, 137, 144
neopythagoreanism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 394; Pevarello, The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism (2013) 200
nets Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 215
neuter participle, powers and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 163
noah Bacchi, Uncovering Jewish Creativity in Book III of the Sibylline Oracles: Gender, Intertextuality, and Politics (2022) 100; Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 37
noahide laws Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 144
non-jews, intermarriage with Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 238
normate bodies, deviation from Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 33
numerology O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 197
nuptial blessings (birkat hatanim) Lorberbaum, In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism (2015) 237