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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 5-6


nanAnd Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah.,And all the days of Mahalalel were eight hundred ninety and five years; and he died.,And all the days of Enosh were nine hundred and five years; and he died.,This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;,And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years; and he died. .,And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.,And all the days of Kenan were nine hundred and ten years; and he died.,And Mahalalel lived sixty and five years, and begot Jared.,And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years; and he died.,And he called his name Noah, saying: ‘This same shall comfort us in our work and in the toil of our hands, which cometh from the ground which the LORD hath cursed.’,And Noah was five hundred years old; and Noah begot Shem, Ham, and Japheth.,And Lamech lived a hundred eighty and two years, and begot a son.,And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years.,And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years; and he died.,And Enosh lived after he begot Kenan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begot sons and daughters.,And the days of Adam after he begot Seth were eight hundred years; and he begot sons and daughters.,And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years; and he died.,And Jared lived a hundred sixty and two years, and begot Enoch.,And Methuselah lived a hundred eighty and seven years, and begot Lamech.,And Seth lived after he begot Enosh eight hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters.,And Kenan lived after he begot Mahalalel eight hundred and forty years, and begot sons and daughters.,And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth.,And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years; and he died.,And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him.,And Kenan lived seventy years, and begot Mahalalel.,And Lamech lived after he begot Noah five hundred ninety and five years, and begot sons and daughters.,And Seth lived a hundred and five years, and begot Enosh.,And Jared lived after he begot Enoch eight hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.,And Enosh lived ninety years, and begot Kenan.,And Mahalalel lived after he begot Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters.,male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.,And Methuselah lived after he begot Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begot sons and daughters.


nanAnd of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female.,The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown.,A light shalt thou make to the ark, and to a cubit shalt thou finish it upward; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.,These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God.,And I, behold, I do bring the flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; every thing that is in the earth shall perish.,And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.,that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose.,And this is how thou shalt make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.,And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,,And Noah begot three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.,Of the fowl after their kind, and of the cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive.,And the LORD said: ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth Me that I have made them.’,But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD.,Make thee an ark of gopher wood; with rooms shalt thou make the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.,And God said unto Noah: ‘The end of all flesh is come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.,Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.,And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart.,And the earth was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.,And God saw the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth. .,And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.’,But I will establish My covenant with thee; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons’wives with thee.,And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

64 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.2-3.4, 3.6 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.3. Remember me and look favorably upon me; do not punish me for my sins and for my unwitting offences and those which my fathers committed before thee. 3.4. For they disobeyed thy commandments, and thou gavest us over to plunder, captivity, and death; thou madest us a byword of reproach in all the nations among which we have been dispersed. 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me.
2. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 4.13-4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.25, 23.7-23.8, 24.1, 32.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.25. כִּי־תוֹלִיד בָּנִים וּבְנֵי בָנִים וְנוֹשַׁנְתֶּם בָּאָרֶץ וְהִשְׁחַתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם פֶּסֶל תְּמוּנַת כֹּל וַעֲשִׂיתֶם הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְהַכְעִיסוֹ׃ 23.7. לֹא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 23.8. לֹא־תְתַעֵב אֲדֹמִי כִּי אָחִיךָ הוּא לֹא־תְתַעֵב מִצְרִי כִּי־גֵר הָיִיתָ בְאַרְצוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 4.25. When thou shalt beget children, and children’s children, and ye shall have been long in the land, and shall deal corruptly, and make a graven image, even the form of any thing, and shall do that which is evil in the sight of the LORD thy God, to provoke Him;" 23.7. Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever." 23.8. Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land." 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house," 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel."
4. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 3.3, 3.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.3. וַיֹּאמְרוּ עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְמָרְדֳּכָי מַדּוּעַ אַתָּה עוֹבֵר אֵת מִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 3.8. וַיֹּאמֶר הָמָן לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ יֶשְׁנוֹ עַם־אֶחָד מְפֻזָּר וּמְפֹרָד בֵּין הָעַמִּים בְּכֹל מְדִינוֹת מַלְכוּתֶךָ וְדָתֵיהֶם שֹׁנוֹת מִכָּל־עָם וְאֶת־דָּתֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵינָם עֹשִׂים וְלַמֶּלֶךְ אֵין־שֹׁוֶה לְהַנִּיחָם׃ 3.3. Then the king’s servants, that were in the king’s gate, said unto Mordecai: ‘Why transgressest thou the king’s commandment?’" 3.8. And Haman said unto king Ahasuerus: ‘There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the peoples in all the provinces of thy kingdom; and their laws are diverse from those of every people; neither keep they the king’s laws; therefore it profiteth not the king to suffer them."
5. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 6.16-6.20, 12.40, 16.35, 32.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.16. וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת בְּנֵי־לֵוִי לְתֹלְדֹתָם גֵּרְשׁוֹן וּקְהָת וּמְרָרִי וּשְׁנֵי חַיֵּי לֵוִי שֶׁבַע וּשְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה׃ 6.17. בְּנֵי גֵרְשׁוֹן לִבְנִי וְשִׁמְעִי לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם׃ 6.18. וּבְנֵי קְהָת עַמְרָם וְיִצְהָר וְחֶבְרוֹן וְעֻזִּיאֵל וּשְׁנֵי חַיֵּי קְהָת שָׁלֹשׁ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה׃ 6.19. וּבְנֵי מְרָרִי מַחְלִי וּמוּשִׁי אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת הַלֵּוִי לְתֹלְדֹתָם׃ 16.35. וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָכְלוּ אֶת־הַמָּן אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה עַד־בֹּאָם אֶל־אֶרֶץ נוֹשָׁבֶת אֶת־הַמָּן אָכְלוּ עַד־בֹּאָם אֶל־קְצֵה אֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן׃ 32.27. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂימוּ אִישׁ־חַרְבּוֹ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ עִבְרוּ וָשׁוּבוּ מִשַּׁעַר לָשַׁעַר בַּמַּחֲנֶה וְהִרְגוּ אִישׁ־אֶת־אָחִיו וְאִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־קְרֹבוֹ׃ 6.16. And these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations: Gershon and Kohath, and Merari. And the years of the life of Levi were a hundred thirty and seven years." 6.17. The sons of Gershon: Libni and Shimei, according to their families." 6.18. And the sons of Kohath: Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel. And the years of the life of Kohath were a hundred thirty and three years." 6.19. And the sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of the Levites according to their generations." 6.20. And Amram took him Jochebed his father’s sister to wife; and she bore him Aaron and Moses. And the years of the life of Amram were a hundred and thirty and seven years." 12.40. Now the time that the children of Israel dwelt in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years." 16.35. And the children of Israel did eat the manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat the manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan." 32.27. And he said unto them: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Put ye every man his sword upon his thigh, and go to and fro from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbour.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 1.14, 1.18, 1.24, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.31, 2, 2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.21, 3, 3.1, 3.3, 3.6, 3.8, 3.9, 3.12, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.16, 4.25, 4.26, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.5, 5.21, 5.25, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 7, 7.9, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 8, 9, 9.3, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 10, 10.5, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.21, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.31-12.9, 11.32, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 14, 14.4, 15, 15.6, 15.13, 16, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.16, 17, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 17.24, 17.25, 18, 18.21, 18.22, 19, 20, 21, 21.5, 22, 23, 24, 24.4, 25, 25.8, 25.26, 26, 26.2, 26.3, 26.5, 26.12, 26.13, 26.14, 27, 28, 28.11, 28.12, 28.13, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 35.2, 35.29, 36, 37, 37.25, 38, 38.6, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 46.8, 46.11, 47, 47.9, 48, 49, 49.33, 50 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.7. וְהֵמָּה כְּאָדָם עָבְרוּ בְרִית שָׁם בָּגְדוּ בִי׃ 6.7. But they like men have transgressed the covet; There have they dealt treacherously against Me."
8. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6, 2.1, 38.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 2.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ כְּדַבֵּר אַחַת הַנְּבָלוֹת תְּדַבֵּרִי גַּם אֶת־הַטּוֹב נְקַבֵּל מֵאֵת הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֶת־הָרָע לֹא נְקַבֵּל בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־חָטָא אִיּוֹב בִּשְׂפָתָיו׃ 2.1. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתֹכָם לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה׃ 38.7. בְּרָן־יַחַד כּוֹכְבֵי בֹקֶר וַיָּרִיעוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים׃ 1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them." 2.1. Again it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD." 38.7. When the morning stars sang together, And all the sons of God shouted for joy?"
9. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.43-11.47, 17.11-17.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.43. אַל־תְּשַׁקְּצוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם וְנִטְמֵתֶם בָּם׃ 11.44. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי וְלֹא תְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.45. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי׃ 11.46. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף וְכֹל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם וּלְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶצֶת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.47. לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֹר וּבֵין הַחַיָּה הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת וּבֵין הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵאָכֵל׃ 17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.12. עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא־תֹאכַל דָּם וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם לֹא־יֹאכַל דָּם׃ 17.13. וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ־עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת־דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר׃ 17.14. כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃ 11.43. Ye shall not make yourselves detestable with any swarming thing that swarmeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby." 11.44. For I am the LORD your God; sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy; for I am holy; neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of swarming thing that moveth upon the earth." 11.45. For I am the LORD that brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God; ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy. ." 11.46. This is the law of the beast, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that swarmeth upon the earth;" 11.47. to make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the living thing that may be eaten and the living thing that may not be eaten." 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life." 17.12. Therefore I said unto the children of Israel: No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood." 17.13. And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that taketh in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust." 17.14. For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off."
10. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.16. כִּי־שָׂנֵא שַׁלַּח אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִסָּה חָמָס עַל־לְבוּשׁוֹ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם בְּרוּחֲכֶם וְלֹא תִבְגֹּדוּ׃ 2.16. For I hate putting away, Saith the LORD, the God of Israel, And him that covereth his garment with violence, Saith the LORD of hosts; Therefore take heed to your spirit, That ye deal not treacherously."
11. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 24.17, 25.1-25.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.17. אֶרְאֶנּוּ וְלֹא עַתָּה אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב דָּרַךְ כּוֹכָב מִיַּעֲקֹב וְקָם שֵׁבֶט מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמָחַץ פַּאֲתֵי מוֹאָב וְקַרְקַר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵׁת׃ 25.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 25.1. וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת אֶל־בְּנוֹת מוֹאָב׃ 25.2. וַתִּקְרֶאןָ לָעָם לְזִבְחֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וַיֹּאכַל הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 25.3. וַיִּצָּמֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח אֶת־כָּל־רָאשֵׁי הָעָם וְהוֹקַע אוֹתָם לַיהוָה נֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְיָשֹׁב חֲרוֹן אַף־יְהוָה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.5. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־שֹׁפְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִרְגוּ אִישׁ אֲנָשָׁיו הַנִּצְמָדִים לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר׃ 25.6. וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּא וַיַּקְרֵב אֶל־אֶחָיו אֶת־הַמִּדְיָנִית לְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה וּלְעֵינֵי כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֵמָּה בֹכִים פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 25.7. וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃ 25.8. וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.9. וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף׃ 25.11. פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הֵשִׁיב אֶת־חֲמָתִי מֵעַל בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקַנְאוֹ אֶת־קִנְאָתִי בְּתוֹכָם וְלֹא־כִלִּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקִנְאָתִי׃ 25.12. לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃ 25.13. וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.17. I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh; There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, And a scepter shall rise out of Israel, And shall smite through the corners of Moab, And break down all the sons of Seth." 25.1. And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab." 25.2. And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods." 25.3. And Israel joined himself unto the Baal of Peor; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel." 25.4. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take all the chiefs of the people, and hang them up unto the LORD in face of the sun, that the fierce anger of the LORD may turn away from Israel.’" 25.5. And Moses said unto the judges of Israel: ‘Slay ye every one his men that have joined themselves unto the Baal of Peor.’" 25.6. And, behold, one of the children of Israel came and brought unto his brethren a Midianitish woman in the sight of Moses, and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, while they were weeping at the door of the tent of meeting." 25.7. And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand." 25.8. And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel." 25.9. And those that died by the plague were twenty and four thousand." 25.10. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 25.11. ’Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned My wrath away from the children of Israel, in that he was very jealous for My sake among them, so that I consumed not the children of Israel in My jealousy." 25.12. Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;" 25.13. and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’"
12. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2, 105.2, 105.4-105.5, 136.5-136.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 105.2. שִׁירוּ־לוֹ זַמְּרוּ־לוֹ שִׂיחוּ בְּכָל־נִפְלְאוֹתָיו׃ 105.2. שָׁלַח מֶלֶךְ וַיַּתִּירֵהוּ מֹשֵׁל עַמִּים וַיְפַתְּחֵהוּ׃ 105.5. זִכְרוּ נִפְלְאוֹתָיו אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה מֹפְתָיו וּמִשְׁפְּטֵי־פִיו׃ 136.5. לְעֹשֵׂה הַשָּׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.6. לְרֹקַע הָאָרֶץ עַל־הַמָּיִם כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.7. לְעֹשֵׂה אוֹרִים גְּדֹלִים כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.8. אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת בַּיּוֹם כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 136.9. אֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים לְמֶמְשְׁלוֹת בַּלָּיְלָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night." 105.2. Sing unto Him, sing praises unto Him; Speak ye of all His marvellous works." 105.5. Remember His marvellous works that He hath done, His wonders, and the judgments of His mouth;" 136.5. To Him that by understanding made the heavens, for His mercy endureth for ever." 136.6. To Him that spread forth the earth above the waters, For His mercy endureth for ever." 136.7. To Him that made great lights, For His mercy endureth for ever;" 136.8. The sun to rule by day, For His mercy endureth for ever;" 136.9. The moon and stars to rule by night, For His mercy endureth for ever."
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 16.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל אַל־תַּבֵּט אֶל־מַרְאֵהוּ וְאֶל־גְּבֹהַּ קוֹמָתוֹ כִּי מְאַסְתִּיהוּ כִּי לֹא אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶה הָאָדָם כִּי הָאָדָם יִרְאֶה לַעֵינַיִם וַיהוָה יִרְאֶה לַלֵּבָב׃ 16.7. But the Lord said to Shemu᾽el, Look not on his countece, nor on the height of his stature; because I have refused him: for it is not as a man sees; for a man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart."
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 17.27-17.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.27. וַיְצַו מֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר לֵאמֹר הֹלִיכוּ שָׁמָּה אֶחָד מֵהַכֹּהֲנִים אֲשֶׁר הִגְלִיתֶם מִשָּׁם וְיֵלְכוּ וְיֵשְׁבוּ שָׁם וְיֹרֵם אֶת־מִשְׁפַּט אֱלֹהֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 17.28. וַיָּבֹא אֶחָד מֵהַכֹּהֲנִים אֲשֶׁר הִגְלוּ מִשֹּׁמְרוֹן וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּבֵית־אֵל וַיְהִי מוֹרֶה אֹתָם אֵיךְ יִירְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 17.27. Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying: ‘Carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from thence; and let them go and dwell there, and let him teach them the manner of the God of the land.’" 17.28. So one of the priests whom they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Beth-el, and taught them how they should fear the LORD."
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 40.6, 42.5-42.6, 42.21, 46.1, 55.7-55.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

40.6. קוֹל אֹמֵר קְרָא וְאָמַר מָה אֶקְרָא כָּל־הַבָּשָׂר חָצִיר וְכָל־חַסְדּוֹ כְּצִיץ הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 42.5. כֹּה־אָמַר הָאֵל יְהוָה בּוֹרֵא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנוֹטֵיהֶם רֹקַע הָאָרֶץ וְצֶאֱצָאֶיהָ נֹתֵן נְשָׁמָה לָעָם עָלֶיהָ וְרוּחַ לַהֹלְכִים בָּהּ׃ 42.6. אֲנִי יְהוָה קְרָאתִיךָ בְצֶדֶק וְאַחְזֵק בְּיָדֶךָ וְאֶצָּרְךָ וְאֶתֶּנְךָ לִבְרִית עָם לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם׃ 42.21. יְהוָה חָפֵץ לְמַעַן צִדְקוֹ יַגְדִּיל תּוֹרָה וְיַאְדִּיר׃ 46.1. כָּרַע בֵּל קֹרֵס נְבוֹ הָיוּ עֲצַבֵּיהֶם לַחַיָּה וְלַבְּהֵמָה נְשֻׂאֹתֵיכֶם עֲמוּסוֹת מַשָּׂא לַעֲיֵפָה׃ 46.1. מַגִּיד מֵרֵאשִׁית אַחֲרִית וּמִקֶּדֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נַעֲשׂוּ אֹמֵר עֲצָתִי תָקוּם וְכָל־חֶפְצִי אֶעֱשֶׂה׃ 55.7. יַעֲזֹב רָשָׁע דַּרְכּוֹ וְאִישׁ אָוֶן מַחְשְׁבֹתָיו וְיָשֹׁב אֶל־יְהוָה וִירַחֲמֵהוּ וְאֶל־אֱלֹהֵינוּ כִּי־יַרְבֶּה לִסְלוֹחַ׃ 55.8. כִּי לֹא מַחְשְׁבוֹתַי מַחְשְׁבוֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא דַרְכֵיכֶם דְּרָכָי נְאֻם יְהוָה׃ 40.6. Hark! one saith: ‘Proclaim!’ And he saith: ‘What shall I proclaim?’ ’All flesh is grass, And all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field;" 42.5. Thus saith God the LORD, He that created the heavens, and stretched them forth, He that spread forth the earth and that which cometh out of it, He that giveth breath unto the people upon it, And spirit to them that walk therein:" 42.6. I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, And have taken hold of thy hand, And kept thee, and set thee for a covet of the people, For a light of the nations;" 42.21. The LORD was pleased, for His righteousness’sake, To make the teaching great and glorious." 46.1. Bel boweth down, Nebo stoopeth; their idols are upon the beasts, and upon the cattle; the things that ye carried about are made a load, a burden to the weary beast." 55.7. Let the wicked forsake his way, And the man of iniquity his thoughts; And let him return unto the LORD, and He will have compassion upon him, And to our God, for He will abundantly pardon" 55.8. For My thoughts are not your thoughts, Neither are your ways My ways, saith the LORD."
17. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, a b c d\n0 . . \n1 1 1 1 None\n2 3 3 3 None\n3 30.1 30.1 30 1 \n4 49.22 49.22 49 22 \n5 9 9 9 None (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 1.1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.1-7.5, 9.1-9.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.1. כִּי עֶזְרָא הֵכִין לְבָבוֹ לִדְרוֹשׁ אֶת־תּוֹרַת יְהוָה וְלַעֲשֹׂת וּלְלַמֵּד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט׃ 7.1. וְאַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמַלְכוּת אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא מֶלֶךְ־פָּרָס עֶזְרָא בֶּן־שְׂרָיָה בֶּן־עֲזַרְיָה בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּה׃ 7.2. בֶּן־שַׁלּוּם בֶּן־צָדוֹק בֶּן־אֲחִיטוּב׃ 7.2. וּשְׁאָר חַשְׁחוּת בֵּית אֱלָהָךְ דִּי יִפֶּל־לָךְ לְמִנְתַּן תִּנְתֵּן מִן־בֵּית גִּנְזֵי מַלְכָּא׃ 7.3. בֶּן־אֲמַרְיָה בֶן־עֲזַרְיָה בֶּן־מְרָיוֹת׃ 7.4. בֶּן־זְרַחְיָה בֶן־עֻזִּי בֶּן־בֻּקִּי׃ 7.5. בֶּן־אֲבִישׁוּעַ בֶּן־פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הָרֹאשׁ׃ 9.1. וּכְכַלּוֹת אֵלֶּה נִגְּשׁוּ אֵלַי הַשָּׂרִים לֵאמֹר לֹא־נִבְדְּלוּ הָעָם יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹתֵיהֶם לַכְּנַעֲנִי הַחִתִּי הַפְּרִזִּי הַיְבוּסִי הָעַמֹּנִי הַמֹּאָבִי הַמִּצְרִי וְהָאֱמֹרִי׃ 9.1. וְעַתָּה מַה־נֹּאמַר אֱלֹהֵינוּ אַחֲרֵי־זֹאת כִּי עָזַבְנוּ מִצְוֺתֶיךָ׃ 9.2. כִּי־נָשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לָהֶם וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְהִתְעָרְבוּ זֶרַע הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת וְיַד הַשָּׂרִים וְהַסְּגָנִים הָיְתָה בַּמַּעַל הַזֶּה רִאשׁוֹנָה׃ 7.1. Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, Ezra the son of Seraiah, the son of Azariah, the son of Hilkiah," 7.2. the son of Shallum, the son of Zadok, the son of Ahitub," 7.3. the son of Amariah, the son of Azariah, the son of Meraioth," 7.4. the son of Zerahiah, the son of Uzzi, the son of Bukki," 7.5. the son of Abishua, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the chief priest—" 9.1. Now when these things were done, the princes drew near unto me, saying: ‘The people of Israel, and the priests and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands, doing according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites." 9.2. For they have taken of their daughters for themselves and for their sons; so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the peoples of the lands; yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been first in this faithlessness.’"
20. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.8, 9.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 9.6. אַתָּה־הוּא יְהוָה לְבַדֶּךָ את [אַתָּה] עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הַיַּמִּים וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם וְאַתָּה מְחַיֶּה אֶת־כֻּלָּם וּצְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם לְךָ מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים׃ 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading." 9.6. Thou art the LORD, even Thou alone; Thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all things that are thereon, the seas and all that is in them, and Thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth Thee."
21. Plato, Sophist, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

22. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

28a. and has no Becoming? And what is that which is Becoming always and never is Existent? Now the one of these is apprehensible by thought with the aid of reasoning, since it is ever uniformly existent; whereas the other is an object of opinion with the aid of unreasoning sensation, since it becomes and perishes and is never really existent. Again, everything which becomes must of necessity become owing to some Cause; for without a cause it is impossible for anything to attain becoming. But when the artificer of any object, in forming its shape and quality, keeps his gaze fixed on that which is uniform, using a model of this kind, that object, executed in this way, must of necessity
23. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.2-3.4, 3.6 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.3. Remember me and look favorably upon me; do not punish me for my sins and for my unwitting offences and those which my fathers committed before thee. 3.4. For they disobeyed thy commandments, and thou gavest us over to plunder, captivity, and death; thou madest us a byword of reproach in all the nations among which we have been dispersed. 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me.
24. Anon., 1 Enoch, 7.1, 8.3, 9.6-9.10, 10.11, 12.4, 15.3-15.7, 16.3, 19.1-19.2, 27.2, 32.6, 81.5-81.6, 85.4, 89.32-89.33, 89.51-89.52, 89.54, 93.4, 93.6, 98.4, 98.11, 99.2, 99.6-99.9, 106.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.1. And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charm 8.3. were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . . 9.6. things, and nothing can hide itself from Thee. Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which 9.7. men were striving to learn: And Semjaza, to whom Thou hast given authority to bear rule over his associates. And they have gone to the daughters of men upon the earth, and have slept with the 9.9. women, and have defiled themselves, and revealed to them all kinds of sins. And the women have 10.11. that each one of them will live five hundred years.' And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselve 12.4. called me -Enoch the scribe- and said to me: 'Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselve 15.3. for you: Wherefore have ye left the high, holy, and eternal heaven, and lain with women, and defiled yourselves with the daughters of men and taken to yourselves wives, and done like the children 15.4. of earth, and begotten giants (as your) sons And though ye were holy, spiritual, living the eternal life, you have defiled yourselves with the blood of women, and have begotten (children) with the blood of flesh, and, as the children of men, have lusted after flesh and blood as those also do who die 15.5. and perish. Therefore have I given them wives also that they might impregnate them, and beget 15.6. children by them, that thus nothing might be wanting to them on earth. But you were formerly 15.7. piritual, living the eternal life, and immortal for all generations of the world. And therefore I have not appointed wives for you; for as for the spiritual ones of the heaven, in heaven is their dwelling. 16.3. to them): 'You have been in heaven, but all the mysteries had not yet been revealed to you, and you knew worthless ones, and these in the hardness of your hearts you have made known to the women, and through these mysteries women and men work much evil on earth. 19.1. And Uriel said to me: 'Here shall stand the angels who have connected themselves with women, and their spirits assuming many different forms are defiling mankind and shall lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, (here shall they stand,) till the day of the great judgement in 19.2. which they shall be judged till they are made an end of. And the women also of the angels who 27.2. accursed valley between' Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered and said: 'This accursed valley is for those who are accursed for ever: Here shall all the accursed be gathered together who utter with their lips against the Lord unseemly words and of His glory speak hard things. Here shall they be gathered together, and here 32.6. I said: 'How beautiful is the tree, and how attractive is its look!' Then Raphael the holy angel, who was with me, answered me and said: 'This is the tree of wisdom, of which thy father old (in years) and thy aged mother, who were before thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were opened, and they knew that they were naked and they were driven out of the garden.' 81.5. And those seven holy ones brought me and placed me on the earth before the door of my house, and said to me: ' Declare everything to thy son Methuselah, and show to all thy children that no 81.6. flesh is righteous in the sight of the Lord, for He is their Creator. One year we will leave thee with thy son, till thou givest thy (last) commands, that thou mayest teach thy children and record (it) for them, and testify to all thy children; and in the second year they shall take thee from their midst. 85.4. the other red. And that black bull gored the red one and pursued him over the earth, and thereupon 89.32. them]: ' We are not able to stand before our Lord or to behold Him.' And that sheep which led them again ascended to the summit of that rock, but the sheep began to be blinded and to wander 89.33. from the way which he had showed them, but that sheep wot not thereof. And the Lord of the sheep was wrathful exceedingly against them, and that sheep discovered it, and went down from the summit of the rock, and came to the sheep, and found the greatest part of them blinded and fallen 89.51. And again I saw those sheep that they again erred and went many ways, and forsook that their house, and the Lord of the sheep called some from amongst the sheep and sent them to the sheep 89.52. but the sheep began to slay them. And one of them was saved and was not slain, and it sped away and cried aloud over the sheep; and they sought to slay it, but the Lord of the sheep saved it from 93.4. And after me there shall arise in the second week great wickedness, And deceit shall have sprung up; And in it there shall be the first end.And in it a man shall be saved; And after it is ended unrighteousness shall grow up, And a law shall be made for the sinners.And after that in the third week at its close A man shall be elected as the plant of righteous judgement, And his posterity shall become the plant of righteousness for evermore. 93.6. And after that in the fourth week, at its close, Visions of the holy and righteous shall be seen, And a law for all generations and an enclosure shall be made for them. 98.4. I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, as a mountain has not become a slave, And a hill does not become the handmaid of a woman, Even so sin has not been sent upon the earth, But man of himself has created it, And under a great curse shall they fall who commit it. 98.11. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who work wickedness and eat blood: Whence have ye good things to eat and to drink and to be filled From all the good things which the Lord the Most High has placed in abundance on the earth; therefore ye shall have no peace. 99.2. Woe to them who pervert the words of uprightness, And transgress the eternal law, And transform themselves into what they were not [into sinners]: They shall be trodden under foot upon the earth. 99.7. And again I swear to you, ye sinners, that sin is prepared for a day of unceasing bloodshed. And they who worship stones, and grave images of gold and silver and wood (and stone) and clay, and those who worship impure spirits and demons, and all kinds of idols not according to knowledge, shall get no manner of help from them. 99.8. And they shall become godless by reason of the folly of their hearts, And their eyes shall be blinded through the fear of their hearts And through visions in their dreams. 99.9. Through these they shall become godless and fearful; For they shall have wrought all their work in a lie, And shall have worshiped a stone: Therefore in an instant shall they perish. 10. Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech,,and said to him: 'Go to Noah and tell him in my name 'Hide thyself!' and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come,upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape,and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world.' And again the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening,in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may,not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the,Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted",through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.' And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in,battle: for length of days shall they not have. And no request that they (i.e. their fathers) make of thee shall be granted unto their fathers on their behalf; for they hope to live an eternal life, and,that each one of them will live five hundred years.' And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjaza and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves,with them in all their uncleanness. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is,for ever and ever is consummated. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and",to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all",generations. And destroy all the spirits of the reprobate and the children of the Watchers, because,they have wronged mankind. Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and let every evil work come to an end: and let the plant of righteousness and truth appear: and it shall prove a blessing; the works of righteousness and truth' shall be planted in truth and joy for evermore.",And then shall all the righteous escape, And shall live till they beget thousands of children, And all the days of their youth and their old age Shall they complete in peace.,And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and,be full of blessing. And all desirable trees shall be planted on it, and they shall plant vines on it: and the vine which they plant thereon shall yield wine in abundance, and as for all the seed which is sown thereon each measure (of it) shall bear a thousand, and each measure of olives shall yield,ten presses of oil. And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth,destroy from off the earth. And all the children of men shall become righteous, and all nations,shall offer adoration and shall praise Me, and all shall worship Me. And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement, and from all sin, and from all punishment, and from all torment, and I will never again send (them) upon it from generation to generation and for ever.
25. Anon., Jubilees, 2.13-2.14, 4.15, 4.27, 5.1, 7.20-7.39, 8.2-8.4, 10.18-10.26, 11.15, 16.13, 50.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 4.15. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week Enos took Nôâm his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name Ke. 4.27. And he was moreover with the angels of God these six jubilees of years, and they showed him everything which is on earth and in the heavens, the rule of the sun, and he wrote down everything. 5.1. And it came to pass when the children of men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born unto them 7.20. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lûbâr; Sêdêqêtêlĕbâb fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’êlâtamâ’ûk on the south; ’Adatanêsês towards the west. 7.21. And these are the sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad--this (son) was born two years after the flood--and Lud, and Aram. 7.22. The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan, Tubal and Meshech and Tiras: these are the sons of Noah. 7.23. And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordices and commandments, and all the judgments that he knew 7.24. and he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless their Creator, and honour father and mother, and love their neighbour, and guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. 7.25. For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth, namely 7.26. owing to the fornication wherein the Watchers against the law of their ordices went a whoring after the daughters of men, and took themselves wives of all which they chose: and they made the beginning of uncleanness. 7.27. And they begat sons the Nâphîdîm, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another: and the Giants slew the Nâphîl, and the Nâphîl slew the Eljô, and the Eljô mankind, and one man another. 7.28. And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 7.29. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth 7.30. and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. 7.31. And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything. 7.32. And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us into the ark 7.33. and behold I see your works before me that ye do not walk in righteousness; for in the path of destruction ye have begun to walk 7.34. and ye are parting one from another, and are envious one of another, and (so it cometh) that ye are not in harmony, my sons, each with his brother. 7.35. For I see, and behold the demons have begun (their) seductions against you and against your children 7.36. and now I fear on your behalf, that after my death ye will shed the blood of men upon the earth, and that ye, too, will be destroyed from the face of the earth. 7.37. For whoso sheddeth man's blood, and whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, will all be destroyed from the earth. 7.38. And there will not be left any man that eateth blood. Or that sheddeth the blood of man on the earth, Nor will there be left to him any seed or descendants living under heaven; 7.39. For into Sheol will they go, And into the place of condemnation will they descend. 8.2. and she bare him a son in the third year in this week, and he called his name Kâinâm. 8.3. And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a city. 8.4. And he found a writing which former (generations) had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it; for it contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they used to observe 10.19. Thus the evil. spirits were precluded from (hurting) the sons of Noah. 10.20. And he gave all that he had written to Shem, his eldest son; for he loved him exceedingly above all his sons. 10.21. And Noah slept with his fathers, and was buried on Mount Lûbâr in the land of Ararat. 10.22. Nine hundred and fifty years he completed in his life, nineteen jubilees and two weeks and five years. 10.23. And in his life on earth he excelled the children of men save Enoch because of the righteousness, wherein he was perfect. 10.24. For Enoch's office was ordained for a testimony to the generations of the world, so that he should recount all the deeds of generation unto generation, till the day of judgment. 10.25. And in the three and thirtieth jubilee, in the first year in the second week, Peleg took to himself a wife, whose name was Lômnâ the daughter of Sînâ’ar 10.26. and she bare him a son in the fourth year of this week, and he called his name Reu; 11.15. and his father taught him the researches of the Chaldees to divine and augur, according to the signs of heaven. 16.13. And, behold, it was commanded and engraven concerning all his seed, on the heavenly tables, to remove them and root them out, and to execute judgment upon them like the judgment of Sodom, and to leave no seed of the man on earth on the day of condemnation. 50.4. And the land also will keep its sabbaths while they dwell upon it, and they will know the jubilee year.
26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1, 2, 4, 4.20-5.11, 5, 7, 8, 9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, Apgen, 2.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.15-4.17, 5.7-5.12, 6.6-6.8, 8.12-8.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Dead Sea Scrolls, Genesis Apocryphon, 2.20, 2.23-2.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.9. דִּי הֵן־חֶלְמָא לָא תְהוֹדְעֻנַּנִי חֲדָה־הִיא דָתְכוֹן וּמִלָּה כִדְבָה וּשְׁחִיתָה הזמנתון [הִזְדְּמִנְתּוּן] לְמֵאמַר קָדָמַי עַד דִּי עִדָּנָא יִשְׁתַּנֵּא לָהֵן חֶלְמָא אֱמַרוּ לִי וְאִנְדַּע דִּי פִשְׁרֵהּ תְּהַחֲוֻנַּנִי׃ 2.9. that, if ye make not known unto me the dream, there is but one law for you; and ye have agreed together to speak before me lying and corrupt words, till the time be changed; only tell me the dream, and I shall know that ye can declare unto me the interpretation thereof.’"
31. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 9.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.21. How is the mighty fallen,the savior of Israel!
32. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.7, 11.1, 13.1-13.4, 13.7, 13.15-13.24, 14.3, 14.5, 14.17-14.18, 17.1-17.8, 25.9, 33.15, 39.16, 39.33, 40.8, 40.18, 40.20, 40.23-40.26, 41.4, 44.18, 45.4, 50.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.1. Whoever touches pitch will be defiled,and whoever associates with a proud man will become like him. 13.1. Do not push forward, lest you be repulsed;and do not remain at a distance, lest you be forgotten. 13.2. Do not lift a weight beyond your strength,nor associate with a man mightier and richer than you. How can the clay pot associate with the iron kettle?The pot will strike against it, and will itself be broken. 13.2. Humility is an abomination to a proud man;likewise a poor man is an abomination to a rich one. 13.3. A rich man does wrong, and he even adds reproaches;a poor man suffers wrong, and he must add apologies. 13.4. A rich man will exploit you if you can be of use to him,but if you are in need he will forsake you. 13.7. He will shame you with his foods,until he has drained you two or three times;and finally he will deride you. Should he see you afterwards, he will forsake you,and shake his head at you. 13.15. Every creature loves its like,and every person his neighbor; 13.16. all living beings associate by species,and a man clings to one like himself. 13.17. What fellowship has a wolf with a lamb?No more has a sinner with a godly man. 13.18. What peace is there between a hyena and a dog?And what peace between a rich man and a poor man? 13.19. Wild asses in the wilderness are the prey of lions;likewise the poor are pastures for the rich. 13.21. When a rich man totters, he is steadied by friends,but when a humble man falls, he is even pushed away by friends. 13.22. If a rich man slips, his helpers are many;he speaks unseemly words, and they justify him. If a humble man slips, they even reproach him;he speaks sensibly, and receives no attention. 13.23. When the rich man speaks all are silent,and they extol to the clouds what he says. When the poor man speaks they say, "Who is this fellow?" And should he stumble, they even push him down. 13.24. Riches are good if they are free from sin,and poverty is evil in the opinion of the ungodly. 14.3. Riches are not seemly for a stingy man;and of what use is property to an envious man? 14.5. If a man is mean to himself, to whom will he be generous?He will not enjoy his own riches. 14.17. All living beings become old like a garment,for the decree from of old is, "You must surely die! 14.18. Like flourishing leaves on a spreading tree which sheds some and puts forth others,so are the generations of flesh and blood:one dies and another is born. 17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds. 17.6. He made for them tongue and eyes;he gave them ears and a mind for thinking. 17.7. He filled them with knowledge and understanding,and showed them good and evil. 17.8. He set his eye upon their hearts to show them the majesty of his works. 25.9. happy is he who has gained good sense,and he who speaks to attentive listeners. 33.15. Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other. 39.16. All things are the works of the Lord, for they are very good,and whatever he commands will be done in his time. 39.33. The works of the Lord are all good,and he will supply every need in its hour. 40.8. With all flesh, both man and beast,and upon sinners seven times more 40.18. Life is sweet for the self-reliant and the worker,but he who finds treasure is better off than both. 40.23. A friend or a companion never meets one amiss,but a wife with her husband is better than both. 40.24. Brothers and help are for a time of trouble,but almsgiving rescues better than both. 40.25. Gold and silver make the foot stand sure,but good counsel is esteemed more than both. 40.26. Riches and strength lift up the heart,but the fear of the Lord is better than both. There is no loss in the fear of the Lord,and with it there is no need to seek for help. 41.4. and how can you reject the good pleasure of the Most High?Whether life is for ten or a hundred or a thousand years,there is no inquiry about it in Hades. 44.18. Everlasting covets were made with him that all flesh should not be blotted out by a flood. 45.4. He sanctified him through faithfulness and meekness;he chose him out of all mankind. 50.17. Then all the people together made haste and fell to the ground upon their faces to worship their Lord,the Almighty, God Most High.
33. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 4.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.13. Being perfected in a short time, he fulfilled long years;
34. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.1-3.92, 3.108-3.109 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.1. O THOU high-thundering blessed heavenly One 3.2. Who hast set in their place the cherubim 3.3. I, who have uttered what is all too true 3.4. Entreat thee, let me have a little rest; 3.5. 5 For my heart has grown weary from within. 3.6. But why again leaps my heart, and my soul 3.7. With a whip smitten from within constrained 3.8. To utter forth its message unto all? 3.9. But yet again will I proclaim all thing 3.10. 10 Which God commands me to proclaim to men. 3.11. O men, that in your image have a form 3.12. Fashioned of God, why do ye vainly stray 3.13. And walk not in the straight way, always mindful 3.14. of the immortal Maker? God is one 3.15. 15 Sovereign, ineffable, dwelling in heaven 3.16. The self-existent and invisible 3.17. Himself alone beholding everything; 3.18. Him sculptor's hand made not, nor is his form 3.19. Shown by man's art from gold or ivory; 3.20. 20 But he, eternal Lord, proclaims himself 3.21. As one who is and was erst and shall be 3.22. Again hereafter. For who being mortal 3.23. Can see God with his eyes? Or who shall bear 3.24. To hear the only name of heaven's great God 3.25. 25 The ruler of the world? He by his word 3.26. Created all things, even heaven and sea 3.27. And tireless sun, and full moon and bright stars 3.28. And mighty mother Tethys, springs and rivers 3.28. 28 of the Chaldeans, nor astronomize; 3.29. Imperishable fire, and days and nights. 3.29. O For these are all deceptive, in so far 3.30. 30 This is the God who formed four-lettered Adam 3.30. As foolish men go seeking day by day 3.31. The first one formed, and filling with his name 3.31. Training their souls unto no useful work; 3.32. East, west, and south, and north. The same is he 3.32. And then did they teach miserable men 3.33. Who fixed the pattern of the human form 3.33. Deceptions, whence to mortals on the earth 3.34. And made wild beasts, and creeping things, and fowls. 3.35. 35 Ye do not worship neither fear ye God 3.36. But vainly go astray and bow the knee 3.37. To serpents, and make offering to cats 3.38. And idols, and stone images of men 3.39. And sit before the doors of godless temples; 3.40. 40 Ye guard him who is God, who keeps all things 3.41. And merry with the wickedness of stone 3.42. Forget the judgment of the immortal Saviour 3.43. Who made the heaven and earth. Alas! a race 3.44. That has delight in blood, deceitful, vile 3.45. 45 Ungodly, of false, double-tongued, immoral men 3.46. Adulterous, idolous, designing fraud 3.47. An evil madness raving in their hearts 3.48. For themselves plundering, having shameless soul; 3.49. For no one who has riches will impart 3.50. 50 To another, but dire wickedness shall be 3.51. Among all mortals, and for sake of gain 3.52. Will many widows not at all keep faith 3.53. But secretly love others, and the bond 3.54. of life those who have husbands do not keep. 3.55. 55 But when Rome shall o'er Egypt also rule 3.56. Governing always, then shall there appear 3.57. The greatest kingdom of the immortal King 3.58. Over men. And a holy Lord shall come 3.59. To hold the scepter over every land 3.60. 60 Unto all ages of fast-hastening time. 3.61. And then shall come inexorable wrath 3.62. On Latin men; three shall by piteous fate 3.63. Endamage Rome. And perish shall all men 3.64. With their own houses, when from heaven shall flow 3.65. 65 A fiery cataract. Ah, wretched me! 3.66. When shall that day and when shall judgment come 3.67. of the immortal God, the mighty King? 3.68. But just now, O ye cities, ye are built 3.69. And all adorned with temples and race-grounds 3.70. 70 Markets, and images of wood, of gold 3.71. of silver and of stone, that ye may come 3.72. Unto the bitter day. For it shall come 3.73. When there shall pass among all men a stench 3.74. of brimstone. Yet each thing will I declare 3.75. 75 In all the cities where men suffer ills. 3.76. From the Sebastenes Beliar shall come 3.77. Hereafter, and the height of hills shall he 3.78. Establish, and shall make the sea stand still 3.79. And the great fiery sun and the bright moon 3.80. 80 And he shall raise the dead, and many sign 3.81. Work before men: but nothing shall be brought 3.82. By him unto completion but deceit 3.83. And many mortals shall be lead astray 3.84. Hebrews both true and choice, and lawless men 3.85. 85 Besides who never gave ear to God's word. 3.86. But when the threatenings of the mighty God 3.87. Shall draw near, and a flaming power shall come 3.88. By billow to the earth, it shall consume 3.89. Both Beliar and all the haughty men 3.90. 90 Who put their trust in him. And thereupon 3.91. Shall the whole world be governed by the hand 3.92. of a woman and obedient everywhere. 3.108. Nor spring, nor winter, nor the summer-time 3.109. Nor autumn. And then of the mighty God
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.211-2.220 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.211. For this reason the all-great Moses thought fit that all who were enrolled in his sacred polity should follow the laws of nature and meet in a solemn assembly, passing the time in cheerful joy and relaxation, abstaining from all work, and from all arts which have a tendency to the production of anything; and from all business which is connected with the seeking of the means of living, and that they should keep a complete truce, abstaining from all laborious and fatiguing thought and care, and devoting their leisure, not as some persons scoffingly assert, to sports, or exhibitions of actors and dancers, for the sake of which those who run madly after theatrical amusements suffer disasters and even encounter miserable deaths, and for the sake of these the most domit and influential of the outward senses, sight and hearing, make the soul, which should be the heavenly nature, the slave of these senses. 2.212. But, giving up their time wholly to the study of philosophy, not of that sort of philosophy which wordcatchers and sophists, seek to reduce to a system, selling doctrines and reasonings as they would any other vendible thing in the market. Men who (O you earth and sun! 2.213. Now some one disregarding this injunction, even while he yet had the sacred words of God respecting the holy seventh day still ringing in his ears, which God had uttered without the intervention of the prophet, and, what is the most wonderful thing of all, by a visible voice which affected the eyes of those who were present even more than their ears, went forth through the middle of the camp to pick up sticks, well knowing that all the people in the camp were perfectly quiet and doing nothing, and even while he was committing the iniquity was seen and detected, all disguise being impossible; 2.214. for some persons, having gone forth out of the gates to some quiet spot, that they might pray in some retired and peaceful place, seeing a most unholy spectacle, namely this man carrying a faggot of sticks, and being very indigt, were about to put him to death; but reasoning with themselves they restrained the violence of their wrath, that they might not appear, as they were only private persons, to chastise any one rather than the magistrates, and that too uncondemned; though indeed in other respects the transgression was manifest and undeniable, wishing also that no pollution arising from an execution, even though most righteously inflicted, should defile the sacred day. But they apprehended him, and led him away to the magistrate, with whom the priests were sitting as assessors; and the whole multitude collected together to hear the trial; 2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing? 2.217. On this day, then, the man who had done this deed of impiety was led away to prison; and Moses being at a loss what ought to be done to the man (for he knew that he had committed a crime worthy of death, but did not know what was the most suitable manner for the punishment to be inflicted upon him 2.218. And that Judge delivered his sentence that the man ought to die, and in no other way than being stoned, since in his case, as in that of the criminal mentioned above, his mind had been changed to a dumb stone, and he had committed the most complete of offences, in which nearly every other sin is comprised which can be committed against the laws enacted respecting the reverence due to the seventh day. 2.219. Why so? Because, not only mere handicraft trades, but also nearly all other acts and businesses, and especially all such as have reference to any providing of or seeking for the means of life, are either carried on by means of fire themselves, or, at all events, not without those instruments which are made by fire. On which account Moses, in many places, forbids any one to handle a fire on the sabbath day, inasmuch as that is the most primary and efficient source of things and the most ancient and important work; and if that is reduced to a state of tranquillity, he thought that it would be probable that all particular works would be at a stand-still likewise. 2.220. And wood is the material of fire, so that a man who is picking up wood is committing a crime which is akin to and nearly connected with that of burning fire, doubling his transgression, in fact, partly in that he was collecting what it was commanded should remain unmoved, and partly that what he was collecting was that which is the material of fire, the beginning of all arts.
36. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 9.3, 13.6, 22.1-22.3, 28.2-28.4, 29.2, 29.4-29.6, 37.5, 40.2, 40.6-40.7, 43.1 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

37. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.67, 1.73, 1.109, 10.244, 12.269 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.67. 3. Now Adam, who was the first man, and made out of the earth, (for our discourse must now be about him,) after Abel was slain, and Cain fled away, on account of his murder, was solicitous for posterity, and had a vehement desire of children, he being two hundred and thirty years old; after which time he lived other seven hundred, and then died. 1.73. For many angels of God accompanied with women, and begat sons that proved unjust, and despisers of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their own strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians call giants. 1.109. 1. Now the sons of Noah were three,—Shem, Japhet, and Ham, born one hundred years before the Deluge. These first of all descended from the mountains into the plains, and fixed their habitation there; and persuaded others who were greatly afraid of the lower grounds on account of the flood, and so were very loath to come down from the higher places, to venture to follow their examples. 10.244. —THEKEL. This signifies a weight, and means that God hath weighed thy kingdom in a balance, and finds it going down already.—PHARES. This also, in the Greek tongue, denotes a fragment. God will therefore break thy kingdom in pieces, and divide it among the Medes and Persians.” 12.269. because his fellow citizens would follow his example, and because such a procedure would make him honored by the king. But Mattathias said he would not do it; and that if all the other nations would obey the commands of Antiochus, either out of fear, or to please him, yet would not he nor his sons leave the religious worship of their country.
38. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.273 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.273. Accordingly, he did not only, in his political capacity, steal and plunder every one’s substance, nor did he only burden the whole nation with taxes, but he permitted the relations of such as were in prison for robbery, and had been laid there, either by the senate of every city, or by the former procurators, to redeem them for money; and nobody remained in the prisons as a malefactor but he who gave him nothing.
39. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.37-1.43, 2.217 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.37. and this is justly, or rather necessarily done, because every one is not permitted of his own accord to be a writer, nor is there any disagreement in what is written; they being only prophets that have written the original and earliest accounts of things as they learned them of God himself by inspiration; and others have written what hath happened in their own times, and that in a very distinct manner also. 8. 1.38. For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another [as the Greeks have], but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; 1.39. and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; 1.41. It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time; 1.42. and how firmly we have given credit to those books of our own nation, is evident by what we do; for during so many ages as have already passed, no one has been so bold as either to add any thing to them, to take any thing from them, or to make any change in them; but it becomes natural to all Jews, immediately and from their very birth, to esteem those books to contain divine doctrines, and to persist in them, and, if occasion be, willingly to die for them. 1.43. For it is no new thing for our captives, many of them in number, and frequently in time, to be seen to endure racks and deaths of all kinds upon the theatres, that they may not be obliged to say one word against our laws and the records that contain them; 2.217. And as for attempts of unjust behavior towards parents, or for impiety against God, though they be not actually accomplished, the offenders are destroyed immediately. However, the reward for such as live exactly according to the laws, is not silver or gold; it is not a garland of olive branches or of small age, nor any such public sign of commendation;
40. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. which none of the rulers of this worldhas known. For had they known it, they wouldn't have crucified the Lordof glory.
41. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.2-11.4, 11.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

42. New Testament, Acts, 8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. New Testament, Apocalypse, 18.23, 22.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.23. The light of a lamp will shine no more at all in you. The voice of the bridegroom and of the bride will be heard no more at all in you; for your merchants were the princes of the earth; for with your sorcery all the nations were deceived. 22.2. in the midst of its street. On this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruits, yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.
44. New Testament, James, 1.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom can be no variation, nor turning shadow.
45. New Testament, Galatians, 2.15-2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. We, being Jews by nature, and not Gentile sinners 2.16. yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law butthrough the faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus,that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works ofthe law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law.
46. New Testament, Romans, 7.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet.
47. New Testament, John, 4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

48. New Testament, Luke, 1.1-1.4, 3.31-3.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us 1.2. even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us 1.3. it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus; 1.4. that you might know the certainty concerning the things in which you were instructed. 3.31. the son of Melea, the son of Me, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David 3.32. the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon 3.33. the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Joram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah 3.34. the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor 3.35. the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah 3.36. the son of Cai, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech
49. New Testament, Mark, 9.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.47. If your eye causes you to stumble, cast it out. It is better for you to enter into the Kingdom of God with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire
50. New Testament, Matthew, 5.27-5.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.27. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery;' 5.28. but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart.
51. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 8.4, 8.6-8.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

52. Hermas, Mandates, 4.3.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

53. Hermas, Similitudes, 8.7.2, 9.4.2-9.4.3, 9.15.4, 9.19.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

54. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.22.2, 1.29, 1.29.1, 1.31, 1.31.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

55. Nag Hammadi, The Apocryphon of John, 5.8-5.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

56. Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics, 30, 29 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27a. כוותיה דרב פפי מסתברא דא"ר יהושע בן לוי בהכ"נ מותר לעשותו בית המדרש ש"מ,דרש בר קפרא מאי דכתיב (מלכים ב כה, ט) וישרף את בית ה' ואת בית המלך ואת כל בתי ירושלם ואת כל בית גדול שרף באש בית ה' זה בהמ"ק בית המלך אלו פלטרין של מלך ואת כל בתי ירושלם כמשמען ואת כל בית גדול שרף באש ר' יוחנן ור' יהושע בן לוי חד אמר מקום שמגדלין בו תורה וחד אמר מקום שמגדלין בו תפלה,מ"ד תורה דכתיב (ישעיהו מב, כא) ה' חפץ למען צדקו יגדיל תורה ויאדיר ומ"ד תפלה דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, ד) ספרה נא הגדולות אשר עשה אלישע ואלישע דעבד ברחמי הוא דעבד,תסתיים דר' יהושע בן לוי הוא דאמר מקום שמגדלין בו תורה דאמר ר' יהושע בן לוי בית הכנסת מותר לעשותו בית המדרש ש"מ:,אבל מכרו תורה לא יקחו ספרים וכו': איבעיא להו מהו למכור ס"ת ישן ליקח בו חדש כיון דלא מעלי ליה אסור או דלמא כיון דליכא לעלויי עילוייא אחרינא שפיר דמי,תא שמע אבל מכרו תורה לא יקחו ספרים ספרים הוא דלא הא תורה בתורה שפיר דמי מתני' דיעבד כי קא מיבעיא לן לכתחלה,ת"ש גוללין ס"ת במטפחות חומשין וחומשין במטפחות נביאים וכתובים אבל לא נביאים וכתובים במטפחות חומשין ולא חומשין במטפחות ס"ת,קתני מיהת גוללים ס"ת במטפחות חומשין מטפחות חומשין אין מטפחות ס"ת לא,אימא סיפא ולא חומשין במטפחות ס"ת הא תורה בתורה ש"ד אלא מהא ליכא למישמע מינה,תא שמע מניחין ס"ת על גבי תורה ותורה ע"ג חומשין וחומשין ע"ג נביאים וכתובים אבל לא נביאים וכתובים ע"ג חומשין ולא חומשין על גבי תורה,הנחה קאמרת שאני הנחה דלא אפשר דאי לא תימא הכי מיכרך היכי כרכינן והא קא יתיב דפא אחבריה אלא כיון דלא אפשר שרי הכא נמי כיון דלא אפשר שרי,ת"ש דאמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן משום רשב"ג לא ימכור אדם ס"ת ישן ליקח בו חדש,התם משום פשיעותא כי קאמרינן כגון דכתיב ומנח לאיפרוקי מאי,ת"ש דא"ר יוחנן משום ר"מ אין מוכרין ס"ת אלא ללמוד תורה ולישא אשה,ש"מ תורה בתורה שפיר דמי דלמא שאני תלמוד שהלמוד מביא לידי מעשה אשה נמי (ישעיהו מה, יח) לא תהו בראה לשבת יצרה אבל תורה בתורה לא,ת"ר לא ימכור אדם ס"ת אע"פ שאינו צריך לו יתר על כן ארשב"ג אפי' אין לו מה יאכל ומכר ס"ת או בתו אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם:,וכן במותריהן: אמר רבא ל"ש אלא שמכרו והותירו אבל גבו והותירו מותר,איתיביה אביי בד"א שלא התנו אבל התנו אפילו לדוכסוסיא מותר,ה"ד אילימא שמכרו והותירו כי התנו מאי הוי אלא שגבו והותירו טעמא דהתנו הא לא התנו לא,לעולם שמכרו והותירו וה"ק בד"א שלא התנו שבעה טובי העיר במעמד אנשי העיר אבל התנו שבעה טובי העיר במעמד אנשי העיר אפילו לדוכסוסיא נמי מותר,א"ל אביי לההוא מרבנן דהוה מסדר מתניתא קמיה דרב ששת מי שמיע לך מרב ששת מאי דוכסוסיא אמר ליה הכי אמר רב ששת פרשא דמתא,אמר אביי הלכך האי צורבא מרבנן דשמע ליה מילתא ולא ידע פירושא לישיילה קמיה דשכיח קמיה רבנן דלא אפשר דלא שמיע ליה מן גברא רבה,אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר"מ בני העיר שהלכו לעיר אחרת ופסקו עליהן צדקה נותנין וכשהן באין מביאין אותה עמהן ומפרנסין בה עניי עירן,תניא נמי הכי בני העיר שהלכו לעיר אחרת ופסקו עליהן צדקה נותנין וכשהן באין מביאין אותה עמהן ויחיד שהלך לעיר אחרת ופסקו עליו צדקה תנתן לעניי אותה העיר,ר"ה גזר תעניתא על לגביה רב חנה בר חנילאי וכל בני מתיה רמו עלייהו צדקה ויהבו כי בעו למיתי אמרו ליה נותבה לן מר וניזול ונפרנס בה עניי מאתין,אמר להו תנינא בד"א בשאין שם 27a. bIt stands to reasonto rule bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Pappi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: It is permittedfor ba synagogue to be madeinto ba study hall.The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from itthat the opinion of Rav Pappi is correct.,§ bBar Kappara interpreteda verse bhomiletically: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “And he burnt the house of the Lord, and the king’s house, and all the houses of Jerusalem, and every great house he burnt with fire”(II Kings 25:9)? He explained: b“The house of the Lord”; this is the Holy Temple. “The king’s house”; these are the king’s palaces [ ipalterin /i]. “And all the houses of Jerusalem”; asunderstood in bits literal sense.With regard to the final phrase: b“And every great house he burnt with fire,” Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levidisagree about the meaning of “great house”: bOneof them bsaid:It is referring to ba place where the Torah is made great,i.e., the study hall; bandthe other bone said:It is referring to ba place where prayer is made great,i.e., the synagogue.,The Gemara explains their respective opinions: bThe one who saidthat the reference is to where the bTorahis made great bases his opinion on a verse that describes Torah study as great, bas it is written: “The Lord was pleased, for His righteousness’ sake, to make Torah great and glorious”(Isaiah 42:21). bAnd the one who saidthat the reference is to where bprayeris made great bases his opinion on a verse that describes prayer as great, bas it is written: “Tell me,I pray you, all bthe great things that Elisha has done”(II Kings 8:4), band that which Elisha did,i.e., restored a boy to life, bhe did through prayer. /b,The Gemara comments: bConclude that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is the one who saidthat “great house” is referring to ba place where the Torah is made great, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidelsewhere: bIt is permittedfor ba synagogue to be madeinto ba study hall.This ruling indicates that he holds that a study hall has a higher degree of sanctity than a synagogue. It is therefore reasonable that he assumes that “great house” is referring specifically to a study hall. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from itthat he was the one who said the term is referring to a place where the Torah is made great.,§ The mishna states: bHowever,if bthey sold a Torahscroll, bthey may notuse the proceeds to bpurchase scrollsof the Prophets and the Writings. Similarly, the proceeds of the sale of any sacred item may not be used to purchase an item of a lesser degree of sanctity. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether it is permitted bto sell an old Torah scrollin order bto purchase a new one?The Gemara explains the sides of the dilemma: On the one hand, bsincethe proceeds bare not raisedto a higher degree of sanctity by doing so, maybe bit is prohibited; or, perhapsin this case, bsince there is nopossibility of braisingit to banother, higherdegree of sanctity, it bseems welland should be permitted?, bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from the mishna: bHowever, if they sold a Torahscroll, bthey may notuse the proceeds to bpurchase scrollsof the Prophets and the Writings. One may infer: bIt isonly bscrollsof the Prophets and the Writings bthat may notbe purchased with the proceeds, bbutto purchase a new bTorahscroll bwiththe proceeds of an old bTorahscroll bseems welland is permitted. The Gemara rejects this proof: bThe mishnadiscusses the ihalakhathat applies only bafter the factthat a Torah scroll was sold. Perhaps it is only in that case where the proceeds may be used to purchase another Torah scroll. bWhen the dilemma was raised to us,it was with respect to permitting the sale of one Torah scroll in order to purchase another iab initio /i. /b, bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from a ibaraita /i: bA Torah scroll may be rolled up in wrapping clothsthat are used for scrolls of bone of the fivebooks of the Torah. bAndscrolls of bone of the fivebooks of the Torah may be rolled up bin wrapping clothsthat are used for scrolls bof the Prophets or Writings,since in each case the wrapping cloths are being used for something with a greater degree of sanctity. bHowever,a scroll of bthe Prophets or Writings may notbe rolled up bin wrapping clothsthat are used for scrolls bof one of the fivebooks of the Torah, and scrolls of bone of the fivebooks of the Torah bmay notbe rolled up bin wrapping clothsthat are used bfor a Torah scroll. /b,The Gemara explains the proof: bIn any event,the ibaraita bis teaching: A Torah scroll may be rolled up in wrapping clothsthat are used for scrolls bof one of the fivebooks of the Torah. One may infer: A Torah scroll may be rolled up only in bwrapping clothsthat are used for scrolls bof one of the fivebooks of the Torah; but to roll it up in bwrapping cloths ofanother bTorah scroll, no,it is not permitted. By extension, one Torah scroll may certainly not be sold in order to purchase another.,The Gemara rejects the proof: If this inference is valid, one should be able to bsay the latter clauseand make a similar inference from it. The latter clause teaches: bAndscrolls of bone of the fivebooks of the Torah bmay notbe rolled up bin wrapping clothsthat are used for ba Torah scroll.It may be inferred from this that it is prohibited only to roll up scrolls of one of the five books of the Torah in wrapping cloths that are used for a Torah scroll, bbutto roll up one bTorahscroll binthe wrapping cloths of another bTorahscroll bseems well.By extension, one should be permitted to sell a Torah scroll to purchase another. bRather,perforce one must conclude that bnoinference beyond its basic meaning bcan be deduced fromthe ibaraita /i, as the inferences are contradictory., bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from the iTosefta( iMegilla3:12): bA Torah scroll may be placed uponanother bTorahscroll, band a Torahscroll may be placed buponscrolls of bone of the fivebooks of the Torah, bandscrolls of bone of the fivebooks of the Torah may be placed buponscrolls of bthe Prophets or Writings. However,scrolls of bthe Prophets or Writings may notbe placed buponscrolls of bone of the fivebooks of the Torah, bandscrolls of bone of the fivebooks of the Torah bmay not be placed upon a Torahscroll. From the first clause, it is apparent that one Torah scroll may be used for the sake of another. By extension, it should be permitted to sell one Torah scroll to purchase another.,The Gemara rejects this proof: Can byou saya proof from the ihalakha bof placingone Torah scroll upon another? The ihalakhaof bplacingscrolls upon one another bis different, because it is impossibleto place them in any other way, as they must be laid one atop the other when placed in the ark. bAs, if you do not say so,that it is indeed permitted when in an unavoidable situation, bhowcould we bfurla Torah scroll at all? bDoesone bsheetof parchment bnot rest upon another? Rather, since it is impossibleto furl the scroll in any other way, bit is permitted. Here too, since it is impossibleto place the scrolls in the ark in any other way, bit is permitted. /b, bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from a ibaraita /i: bAs Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: A person may not sell an old Torah scrollin order bto purchase a new one. /b,The Gemara rejects this proof. bThere,in the case of the ibaraita /i, it is prohibited bbecause ofa concern for bnegligence.The old one might be sold and a new one never bought. However, bwhen we speak,it is of a case bwherethe new scroll bisalready bwritten and waiting to be redeemedimmediately with the proceeds of the sale. Therefore, the question remains: bWhatis the ihalakhain this case?, bComeand bheara resolution to this dilemma from a ibaraita /i: bAs Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Meir: A Torah scroll may be sold onlyif the seller needs the money in order bto study Torah or to marry a woman. /b, bLearn fromthis ibaraitathat exchanging one entity of bTorah,i.e., a Torah scroll, bforanother entity of bTorah,i.e., Torah study, bseems well,and by extension, it should be permitted to sell one Torah scroll to purchase another. The Gemara rejects the proof: bPerhapsTorah bstudy is different, as the studyof Torah bleads to action,i.e., the fulfillment of the mitzvot, and perhaps it is only due to its great importance of Torah study that it is permitted to sell a Torah scroll for it. Similarly, marrying ba woman is alsoof utmost importance, as it is stated with regard to Creation: b“He created it not a waste; He formed it to be inhabited”(Isaiah 45:18). This indicates that marrying and having children fulfills a primary goal of Creation. bButselling an old bTorahin order to buy a new bTorahmight bnotbe permitted.,On the same topic, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA person may not sell a Torah scroll, even if he does not need it. Furthermore, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: Evenif a person bhas nothing to eat, andout of his need bhe sold a Torah scroll orhe sold bhis daughterto be a maidservant, bhe never sees a sign of blessingfrom the proceeds of either sale. Clearly, it is never appropriate to sell a Torah scroll for any purpose.,The mishna states: bAnd similarly,the same limitation applies btoany bsurplus fundsfrom the sale of sacred items. bRava said: They taughtthat the surplus funds have sanctity bonlyin a case bwherethe community bsolda sacred object and then used the proceeds to purchase something with a greater degree of sanctity, band there wasmoney bleft over. However, ifthe community bcollectedmoney from its members in order to purchase a sacred object, band there wasextra money bleft overbeyond the price of the object, that extra money bis permittedto be used for any purpose, as the money was never sanctified., bAbaye raised an objection toRava from a ibaraita /i: bIn whatcase bis this statementof the mishna bsaid? When they did notexplicitly bstipulatethat they would do with the surplus funds as they see fit. bHowever,if bthey madesuch ba stipulation,then bevento use the money bfor a idukhsusyais permitted.The Gemara will explain the meaning of the term idukhsusya /i.,Abaye explains the challenge: bWhat are the circumstancesof this stipulation? bIf we say that they solda sacred object bandafter using the proceeds to purchase another sacred object bthere wasmoney bleft over,then even bwhen they made a stipulation, of whatavail bis it?How can a stipulation desanctify the money? bRather,the mishna must be referring to a case bwhere they collectedmoney to purchase a sacred object band there wasmoney bleft overafter they made the purchase. In such a case, bthe reasonthat it is permitted to use the extra money for any purpose is bthat they madean explicit bstipulation. However, if they did not make a stipulation, no,it would not be permitted.,Rava rejects this argument: bActually,you can explain that the mishna is referring to a case bwhere they solda sacred object band there wasmoney bleft overafter purchasing a new one, band this is whatthe ibaraita bis saying: In whatcase bis this statementof the mishna bsaid?In a case bwhere the seven representatives of the town did notexplicitly bstipulatethat they could use the money as they see fit, bin an assembly of the residents of the town. However, if the seven representatives of the town madesuch ba stipulation in an assembly of the residents of the town,then bevento use the money bfor a idukhsusyawould also be permitted. /b, bAbaye said to one of the Sages who would arrange the Mishna before Rav Sheshet: Did you hearanything bfrom Rav Sheshetwith regard to bwhatthe meaning of the term idukhsusya /iis? bHe said to him: This is what Rav Sheshet said:It is bthe town horsemanwho would serve the townspeople as a sentry and for public dispatches.,The Gemara introduces a parenthetical comment: bAbaye said: Accordingly,one can learn from this incident that with regard to bthis young Torah scholar who has heard something and does not know the meaningof it, bhe should inquireof its meaning bbeforesomebody bwho is frequently before the Sages, as it is impossible thatsuch a person bdid not hearsomething about it bfromsome bgreat man. /b,§ bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Meir:In the case of bresidents of a town whocollectively bwent to another town and,while there, the charity collectors in that town bmade them pledgea certain sum for bcharity, they must givethe promised sum to the town’s charity collector, so as not to be suspected of reneging. bBut when they gohome, their money is returned to them, and bthey bring itback bwith them, and with it they fice the poor of theirown btown. /b,The Gemara comments: bThat is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bresidents of a town whocollectively bwent to another town and,while there, the local charity collectors bmade them pledgea certain sum for bcharity, they must givethe promised sum to the town’s charity collector. bBut when they gohome, their money is returned to them, and bthey bring itback bwith them. Butin the case of ban individual who wentfrom his hometown bto another town and,while there, the local charity collectors bmade him pledgea certain sum for bcharity, he should give it to the poor of that town. /b,The Gemara relates: bRav Hunaonce bdecreed a fast day.On the day of the fast, bRav Ḥana bar Ḥanilai and all the people of his town came toRav Huna. A certain sum of bcharity was imposed upon them and they gaveit. bWhen they wanted to gohome, bthey said toRav Huna: bMay our Master give to usthe charity that we gave, band we will goback, band with it we will fice the poor of our own town. /b, bHe said to them: It was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIn whatcase bis this statement,that the money is returned when the people leave, bsaid? When there is no /b
58. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. רבי חנניה בן (גמלא) אומר אף על הדם מן החי רבי חידקא אומר אף על הסירוס רבי שמעון אומר אף על הכישוף,רבי יוסי אומר כל האמור בפרשת כישוף בן נח מוזהר עליו (דברים יח, י) לא ימצא בך מעביר בנו ובתו באש קוסם קסמים מעונן ומנחש ומכשף וחובר חבר ושואל אוב וידעוני ודורש אל המתים וגו' ובגלל התועבות האלה ה' אלהיך מוריש אותם מפניך ולא ענש אלא אם כן הזהיר,רבי אלעזר אומר אף על הכלאים מותרין בני נח ללבוש כלאים ולזרוע כלאים ואין אסורין אלא בהרבעת בהמה ובהרכבת האילן,מנהני מילי אמר ר' יוחנן דאמר קרא (בראשית ב, טז) ויצו ה' אלהים על האדם לאמר מכל עץ הגן אכול תאכל,ויצו אלו הדינין וכן הוא אומר (בראשית יח, יט) כי ידעתיו למען אשר יצוה את בניו וגו',ה' זו ברכת השם וכן הוא אומר (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם ה' מות יומת אלהים זו עבודת כוכבים וכן הוא אומר (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על האדם זו שפיכות דמים וכן הוא אומר (בראשית ט, ו) שופך דם האדם וגו',לאמר זו גילוי עריות וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו ג, א) לאמר הן ישלח איש את אשתו והלכה מאתו והיתה לאיש אחר מכל עץ הגן ולא גזל אכל תאכל ולא אבר מן החי,כי אתא רבי יצחק תני איפכא ויצו זו עבודת כוכבים אלהים זו דינין,בשלמא אלהים זו דינין דכתיב (שמות כב, ז) ונקרב בעל הבית אל האלהים אלא ויצו זו ע"ז מאי משמע,רב חסדא ורב יצחק בר אבדימי חד אמר (שמות לב, ח) סרו מהר מן הדרך אשר צויתים עשו להם וגו' וחד אמר (הושע ה, יא) עשוק אפרים רצוץ משפט כי הואיל הלך אחרי צו,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו עכו"ם שעשה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה למאן דאמר עשו משעת עשייה מיחייב למאן דאמר כי הואיל הלך עד דאזיל בתרה ופלח לה,אמר רבא ומי איכא למאן דאמר עכו"ם שעשאה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה חייב והתניא בעכו"ם דברים שבית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליהן בן נח מוזהר עליהן אין בית דין של ישראל ממיתין עליהן אין בן נח מוזהר עליהן למעוטי מאי לאו למעוטי עכו"ם שעשה ע"ז ולא השתחוה לה,אמר רב פפא לא למעוטי גיפוף ונישוק,גיפוף ונישוק דמאי אילימא כדרכה בר קטלא הוא אלא למעוטי שלא כדרכה,דינין בני נח איפקוד והתניא עשר מצות נצטוו ישראל במרה שבע שקיבלו עליהן בני נח והוסיפו עליהן דינין ושבת וכיבוד אב ואם,דינין דכתיב (שמות טו, כה) שם שם לו חוק ומשפט שבת וכיבוד אב ואם דכתיב (דברים ה, יא) כאשר צוך ה' אלהיך ואמר רב יהודה כאשר צוך במרה,אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה לא נצרכה אלא לעדה ועדים והתראה,אי הכי מאי והוסיפו עליהן דינין,אלא אמר רבא לא נצרכה אלא לדיני קנסות אכתי והוסיפו בדינין מיבעי ליה,אלא אמר רב אחא בר יעקב לא נצרכה אלא להושיב בית דין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר והא בני נח לא איפקוד והתניא כשם שנצטוו ישראל להושיב בתי דינין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר כך נצטוו בני נח להושיב בתי דינין בכל פלך ופלך ובכל עיר ועיר,אלא אמר רבא האי תנא תנא דבי מנשה הוא דמפיק ד"ך ועייל ס"ך,דתנא דבי מנשה שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח ע"ז וגילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים גזל ואבר מן החי סירוס וכלאים,רבי יהודה אומר אדם הראשון לא נצטווה אלא על ע"ז בלבד שנאמר ויצו ה' אלהים על האדם רבי יהודה בן בתירה אומר אף על ברכת השם ויש אומרים אף על הדינים,כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב אלהים אני לא תקללוני אלהים אני לא תמירוני אלהים אני יהא מוראי עליכם כמאן כיש אומרים,תנא דבי מנשה אי דריש ויצו אפילו הנך נמי אי לא דריש ויצו הני מנא ליה,לעולם לא דריש ויצו הני כל חדא וחדא באפי נפשיה כתיבא ע"ז וגילוי עריות 56b. bRabbi Ḥaya ben Gamla says:The descendants of Noah are balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition against consuming bthe blood from a livinganimal. bRabbi Ḥideka says:They are balsocommanded bconcerning castration,i.e., they are prohibited to castrate any living animal. bRabbi Shimon says:They are balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition against engaging in bsorcery. /b, bRabbi Yosei says:With regard to beverytype of sorcery bthat is stated in the passage about sorcery,it is bprohibited for a descendant of Noah toengage in bit.This is derived from the verses: “When you come into the land that the Lord your God gives you, you shall not learn to do like the abominations of those nations. bThere shall not be found among you one who makes his son or his daughter pass through the fire, a diviner, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a warlock, or a charmer, or one who consults a necromancer and a sorcerer, or directs inquiries to the dead.For whoever does these things is an abomination to the Lord; band because of these abominations, the Lord your God is driving them out from before you”(Deuteronomy 18:9–12). Evidently, the Canaanites were punished for these practices; bandsince God bwould not have punishedthem for an action bunless Hefirst bprohibitedit, these practices are clearly prohibited to gentiles., bRabbi Elazar says:The descendants of Noah were balsocommanded bconcerningthe prohibition of bdiverse kinds.Nevertheless, it is bpermitted for the descendants of Noah to wear diverse kindsof wool and linen band to sow diverse kindsof seeds together, band they are prohibited only with regard to breedingdiverse species of banimals and graftingdiverse species of btrees. /b,§ The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these matters,the Noahide mitzvot, derived? bRabbi Yoḥa says:It is from that bwhich the verse states: “And the Lord God commanded the man, saying: of every tree of the garden you may freely eat;but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat from it, for on the day that you eat from it, you shall die” (Genesis 2:16–17).,The verse is interpreted homiletically as follows: With regard to the term b“and…commanded,” these are thecourts of bjudgment; and so it statesin another verse: b“For I have known him, to the end that he may command his childrenand his household after him, that they may keep the way of the Lord, to do righteousness and justice” (Genesis 18:19).,With regard to the term b“the Lord,” thisalludes to bblessing the nameof God; band so it statesin another verse: b“And he who blasphemes the name of the Lord…shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16). b“God,” thisalludes to bidol worship; and so it states: “You shall have no other godsbefore Me” (Exodus 20:2). b“The man,” thisalludes to bbloodshed; and so it states: “One who sheds the blood of man,by man his blood shall be shed” (Genesis 9:6).,With regard to the term b“saying,” thisalludes to bforbidden sexual relations; and so it states: “Saying, if a man sends his wife, and she goes from him and becomes another man’s… /bwill that land not be greatly polluted? But you have played the harlot with many lovers” (Jeremiah 3:1). b“of every tree of the garden”alludes to the fact that one may partake only of items that are permitted to him, as they belong to him, bandhe may bnotpartake of bstolen items. “You may freely eat”alludes to the fact that one may eat fruit, bbut not a limb from a livinganimal., bWhen Rav Yitzḥak camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe taughttwo of the expositions in bthe oppositeorder: b“And…commanded,” thisalludes to bidol worship. “God,” thisalludes to courts of bjudgment. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,the source for the exposition: b“God [ iElohim /i],” thisalludes to courts of bjudgment,is clear; bas it is written: “Then the master of the house shall come near the judges [ iha’elohim /i]”(Exodus 22:7). Evidently, judges are called ielohim /i. bButwith regard to the exposition: b“And…commanded,” thisalludes to bidol worship, from whereis this binferred? /b, bRav Ḥisda and Rav Yitzḥak bar Avdimiboth give answers to this question. bOneof them bsaysthat it is inferred from the verse: b“They have turned aside quickly out of the way that I commanded them; they have made thema molten calf” (Exodus 32:8). The word “commanded” is mentioned here in the context of idol worship. bAndthe other bone saysthat it is inferred from the verse: b“Ephraim is oppressed, crushed in justice, because he willingly went after filth [ itzav /i]”(Hosea 5:11). The word itzav /i, used in this context in reference to idol worship, is the same Hebrew word used in the phrase: “And…commanded [ ivaytzav /i].”,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthese two sources? The Gemara answers: The practical difference bbetweenthem is in the case of ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it,i.e., he has not yet worshipped it. bAccording to the one who saysthat the proof is from the verse: b“They have madethem a molten calf,” bhe is rendered liable from the time of fashioningit. bAccording to the one who saysthat the proof is from the verse: b“Because he willingly wentafter filth,” he is not liable buntil he goes after it and worships it. /b, bRava says: And is there anyone who saysthat ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it is liable? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWith regard to idol worship, matters,i.e., transgressions, bfor which a Jewish court executesa Jew who commits one of them, bare prohibited to a descendant of Noah.But with regard to transgressions bfor which a Jewish court does not executea Jew who commits one of them, ba descendant of Noah is not prohibited fromdoing bthem. To exclude whattransgressions, i.e., to determine that they do not apply to gentiles, is this stated? Is it bnot to excludethe case of ba gentile who fashioned an idol but did not bow to it?Since Jews are not executed for this transgression, gentiles should not be liable for this act either., bRav Pappa says: No,it is possible that it is stated bto exclude embracing and kissingthe idol; neither a Jew nor a gentile who embraces or kisses an idol is liable. No proof can be brought from here with regard to a gentile who fashions an idol but does not worship it.,The Gemara asks: bEmbracing and kissingan idol bin whatmanner? bIf we saythat he did so bin itsstandard bmannerof worship, i.e., that embracing and kissing is the standard method of worshipping this idol, certainly bhe is liable toreceive the bdeathpenalty. bRather,it is stated bto excludea case bwherehe did bnotdo so bin itsstandard bmannerof worship.,§ The Gemara asks with regard to the list of the Noahide mitzvot: bWere the descendants of Noah commandedto establish courts of bjudgment? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe Jewish people were commandedto observe bten mitzvotwhen they were bin Marah: Seven that the descendants of Noah accepted upon themselves, andGod badded to themthe following mitzvot: bJudgment, and Shabbat, and honoringone’s bfather and mother. /b,The mitzva of bjudgmentwas given at Marah, bas it is writtenwith regard to Marah: b“There He made for them a statute and an ordice”(Exodus 15:25). bShabbat and honoringone’s bfather and motherwere given at Marah, bas it is writtenconcerning them in the Ten Commandments: “Observe the day of Shabbat to keep it holy, bas the Lord your God commanded you”(Deuteronomy 5:12), and similarly: “Honor your father and your mother, as the Lord your God commanded you” (Deuteronomy 5:16). The phrase “as the Lord your God commanded you” indicates that they had already been commanded to observe these mitzvot previously. bAnd Rav Yehuda says: “Asthe Lord your God bcommanded you” in Marah.Apparently, the mitzva of establishing courts is not included in the seven Noahide mitzvot., bRav Naḥman saysthat bRabba bar Avuh says:Establishing courts is a Noahide mitzva. The additional mitzva that was given in Marah bwas necessary only with regard tothe details of the ihalakhotof the justice system, e.g., that a defendant in a capital case is punished only by a full panel of twenty-three judges of the bSanhedrin, andonly if there are two bwitnesseswho testify concerning him, bandonly if he was issued ba forewarningbefore his transgression.,The Gemara asks: bIf so,and the mitzva given at Marah is a specification of the ihalakhotof the justice system, bwhatis the meaning of the sentence: bAndGod badded to them: Judgment?The details of a preexisting mitzva would not be referred to as an added mitzva., bRather, Rava says:The mitzva given at Marah bwas necessary only with regard to the ihalakhotof fines.Since these are not ihalakhotthat pertain to the basic performance of justice, but rather concern an additional fine for the guilty party, they were not given to the descendants of Noah. The Gemara asks: According to this interpretation, the language of the ibaraitais bstillinaccurate, as bit should havestated: bAndGod badded to themmore ihalakhot bof judgment. /b, bRather, Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov says: It was necessary onlyfor the additional requirement bto establish a court in each and every province and in each and every city.The Gemara asks: bAnd were the descendants of Noah not commandedwith regard to bthismatter? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bJust as the Jewish people were commanded to establish courts in each and every province and in each and every city, so too, the descendants of Noah were commanded to establish courts in each and every province and in each and every city? /b, bRather, Rava says: This itanna /i,who holds that the mitzva of establishing courts of judgment is not included in the Noahide mitzvot, bisthe itannaof the school of Menashe, who removesfrom the list of the Noahide mitzvot two mitzvot whose mnemonic is idalet /i, ikaf /i,which stands for judgment [ idinim /i] and blessing the name of God [ ibirkat Hashem /i], band insertsin their place two mitzvot whose mnemonic is isamekh /i, ikaf /i,standing for castration [ iseirus /i] and diverse kinds [ ikilayim /i]., bAs the school of Menashe taught: The descendants of Noah were commandedto observe bseven mitzvot:The prohibitions of bidol worship, and forbidden sexual relations, and blood-shed,and brobbery, andeating ba limb from a livinganimal, and bcastration, and diverse kinds. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: Adam, the firstman, bwas commanded only with regard tothe prohibition of bidol worship, as it is stated: “And the Lord God commanded the man”(Genesis 2:16). bRabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says:He was balsocommanded bconcerning blessing the nameof God. bAnd some saythat he was balsocommanded bconcerningestablishing courts of bjudgment. /b,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bis that which Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says,in interpretation of the aforementioned verse: Since bI am “God,” do not curse Me;since bI am “God,” do not exchange Mewith another god; since bI am “God,” My fear shall be upon you?The Gemara answers: bIn accordance with whoseopinion? It is bin accordance withwhat bsome say,i.e., that the phrase “and the Lord God commanded the man” includes the prohibitions against cursing God’s name and idol worship, as well as the mitzva of establishing a system of law and justice, so that the fear of God will be upon the people.,The Gemara challenges: bIfthe itannaof the school of Menashe interpretsthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically, even thesemitzvot, cursing the name of God and establishing courts, should be included. And bif he does not interpretthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically, from where does hederive btheseseven mitzvot in his list?,The Gemara answers: bActually, he does not interpretthe verse b“andthe Lord God bcommanded” homiletically,but with regard to bthesemitzvot in his list, beach and every oneof them bis written separatelyin the Torah. The prohibitions of bidol worship and forbidden sexual relationsare stated
59. Nag Hammadi, The Apocalypse of Adam, 72.15-72.17, 74.8-74.16, 76.8-76.15, 85.2-85.17, 85.19-85.29 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

60. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of The Egyptians, 68.10-68.14 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

61. Origen, Against Celsus, 6.24-6.38 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.24. After the instance borrowed from the Mithraic mysteries, Celsus declares that he who would investigate the Christian mysteries, along with the aforesaid Persian, will, on comparing the two together, and on unveiling the rites of the Christians, see in this way the difference between them. Now, wherever he was able to give the names of the various sects, he was nothing loth to quote those with which he thought himself acquainted; but when he ought most of all to have done this, if they were really known to him, and to have informed us which was the sect that makes use of the diagram he has drawn, he has not done so. It seems to me, however, that it is from some statements of a very insignificant sect called Ophites, which he has misunderstood, that, in my opinion, he has partly borrowed what he says about the diagram. Now, as we have always been animated by a love of learning, we have fallen in with this diagram, and we have found in it the representations of men who, as Paul says, creep into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with sins, led away with various lusts; ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. The diagram was, however, so destitute of all credibility, that neither these easily deceived women, nor the most rustic class of men, nor those who were ready to be led away by any plausible pretender whatever, ever gave their assent to the diagram. Nor, indeed, have we ever met any individual, although we have visited many parts of the earth, and have sought out all those who anywhere made profession of knowledge, that placed any faith in this diagram. 6.25. In this diagram were described ten circles, distinct from each other, but united by one circle, which was said to be the soul of all things, and was called Leviathan. This Leviathan, the Jewish Scriptures say, whatever they mean by the expression, was created by God for a plaything; for we find in the Psalms: In wisdom have You made all things: the earth is full of Your creatures; so is this great and wide sea. There go the ships; small animals with great; there is this dragon, which You have formed to play therein. Instead of the word dragon, the term leviathan is in the Hebrew. This impious diagram, then, said of this leviathan, which is so clearly depreciated by the Psalmist, that it was the soul which had travelled through all things! We observed, also, in the diagram, the being named Behemoth, placed as it were under the lowest circle. The inventor of this accursed diagram had inscribed this leviathan at its circumference and centre, thus placing its name in two separate places. Moreover, Celsus says that the diagram was divided by a thick black line, and this line he asserted was called Gehenna, which is Tartarus. Now as we found that Gehenna was mentioned in the Gospel as a place of punishment, we searched to see whether it is mentioned anywhere in the ancient Scriptures, and especially because the Jews too use the word. And we ascertained that where the valley of the son of Ennom was named in Scripture in the Hebrew, instead of valley, with fundamentally the same meaning, it was termed both the valley of Ennom and also Geenna. And continuing our researches, we find that what was termed Geenna, or the valley of Ennom, was included in the lot of the tribe of Benjamin, in which Jerusalem also was situated. And seeking to ascertain what might be the inference from the heavenly Jerusalem belonging to the lot of Benjamin and the valley of Ennom, we find a certain confirmation of what is said regarding the place of punishment, intended for the purification of such souls as are to be purified by torments, agreeably to the saying: The Lord comes like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap: and He shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver and of gold. 6.26. It is in the precincts of Jerusalem, then, that punishments will be inflicted upon those who undergo the process of purification, who have received into the substance of their soul the elements of wickedness, which in a certain place is figuratively termed lead, and on that account iniquity is represented in Zechariah as sitting upon a talent of lead. But the remarks which might be made on this topic are neither to be made to all, nor to be uttered on the present occasion; for it is not unattended with danger to commit to writing the explanation of such subjects, seeing the multitude need no further instruction than that which relates to the punishment of sinners; while to ascend beyond this is not expedient, for the sake of those who are with difficulty restrained, even by fear of eternal punishment, from plunging into any degree of wickedness, and into the flood of evils which result from sin. The doctrine of Geenna, then, is unknown both to the diagram and to Celsus: for had it been otherwise, the framers of the former would not have boasted of their pictures of animals and diagrams, as if the truth were represented by these; nor would Celsus, in his treatise against the Christians, have introduced among the charges directed against them statements which they never uttered instead of what was spoken by some who perhaps are no longer in existence, but have altogether disappeared, or been reduced to a very few individuals, and these easily counted. And as it does not beseem those who profess the doctrines of Plato to offer a defense of Epicurus and his impious opinions, so neither is it for us to defend the diagram, or to refute the accusations brought against it by Celsus. We may therefore allow his charges on these points to pass as superfluous and useless, for we would censure more severely than Celsus any who should be carried away by such opinions. 6.27. After the matter of the diagram, he brings forward certain monstrous statements, in the form of question and answer, regarding what is called by ecclesiastical writers the seal, statements which did not arise from imperfect information; such as that he who impresses the seal is called father, and he who is sealed is called young man and son; and who answers, I have been anointed with white ointment from the tree of life,- things which we never heard to have occurred even among the heretics. In the next place, he determines even the number mentioned by those who deliver over the seal, as that of seven angels, who attach themselves to both sides of the soul of the dying body; the one party being named angels of light, the others 'archontics;' and he asserts that the ruler of those named 'archontics' is termed the 'accursed' god. Then, laying hold of the expression, he assails, not without reason, those who venture to use such language; and on that account we entertain a similar feeling of indignation with those who censure such individuals, if indeed there exist any who call the God of the Jews- who sends rain and thunder, and who is the Creator of this world, and the God of Moses, and of the cosmogony which he records - an accursed divinity. Celsus, however, appears to have had in view in employing these expressions, not a rational object, but one of a most irrational kind, arising out of his hatred towards us, which is so unlike a philosopher. For his aim was, that those who are unacquainted with our customs should, on perusing his treatise, at once assail us as if we called the noble Creator of this world an accursed divinity. He appears to me, indeed, to have acted like those Jews who, when Christianity began to be first preached, scattered abroad false reports of the Gospel, such as that Christians offered up an infant in sacrifice, and partook of its flesh; and again, that the professors of Christianity, wishing to do the 'works of darkness,' used to extinguish the lights (in their meetings), and each one to have sexual intercourse with any woman whom he chanced to meet. These calumnies have long exercised, although unreasonably, an influence over the minds of very many, leading those who are aliens to the Gospel to believe that Christians are men of such a character; and even at the present day they mislead some, and prevent them from entering even into the simple intercourse of conversation with those who are Christians. 6.28. With some such object as this in view does Celsus seem to have been actuated, when he alleged that Christians term the Creator an accursed divinity; in order that he who believes these charges of his against us, should, if possible, arise and exterminate the Christians as the most impious of mankind. Confusing, moreover, things that are distinct, he states also the reason why the God of the Mosaic cosmogony is termed accursed, asserting that such is his character, and worthy of execration in the opinion of those who so regard him, inasmuch as he pronounced a curse upon the serpent, who introduced the first human beings to the knowledge of good and evil. Now he ought to have known that those who have espoused the cause of the serpent, because he gave good advice to the first human beings, and who go far beyond the Titans and Giants of fable, and are on this account called Ophites, are so far from being Christians, that they bring accusations against Jesus to as great a degree as Celsus himself; and they do not admit any one into their assembly until he has uttered maledictions against Jesus. See, then, how irrational is the procedure of Celsus, who, in his discourse against the Christians, represents as such those who will not even listen to the name of Jesus, or omit even that He was a wise man, or a person of virtuous character! What, then, could evince greater folly or madness, not only on the part of those who wish to derive their name from the serpent as the author of good, but also on the part of Celsus, who thinks that the accusations with which the Ophites are charged, are chargeable also against the Christians! Long ago, indeed, that Greek philosopher who preferred a state of poverty, and who exhibited the pattern of a happy life, showing that he was not excluded from happiness although he was possessed of nothing, termed himself a Cynic; while these impious wretches, as not being human beings, whose enemy the serpent is, but as being serpents, pride themselves upon being called Ophites from the serpent, which is an animal most hostile to and greatly dreaded by man, and boast of one Euphrates as the introducer of these unhallowed opinions. 6.29. In the next place, as if it were the Christians whom he was calumniating, he continues his accusations against those who termed the God of Moses and of his law an accursed divinity; and imagining that it is the Christians who so speak, he expresses himself thus: What could be more foolish or insane than such senseless wisdom? For what blunder has the Jewish lawgiver committed? And why do you accept, by means, as you say, of a certain allegorical and typical method of interpretation, the cosmogony which he gives, and the law of the Jews, while it is with unwillingness, O most impious man, that you give praise to the Creator of the world, who promised to give them all things; who promised to multiply their race to the ends of the earth, and to raise them up from the dead with the same flesh and blood, and who gave inspiration to their prophets; and, again, you slander Him! When you feel the force of such considerations, indeed, you acknowledge that you worship the same God; but when your teacher Jesus and the Jewish Moses give contradictory decisions, you seek another God, instead of Him, and the Father! Now, by such statements, this illustrious philosopher Celsus distinctly slanders the Christians, asserting that, when the Jews press them hard, they acknowledge the same God as they do; but that when Jesus legislates differently from Moses, they seek another god instead of Him. Now, whether we are conversing with the Jews, or are alone with ourselves, we know of only one and the same God, whom the Jews also worshipped of old time, and still profess to worship as God, and we are guilty of no impiety towards Him. We do not assert, however, that God will raise men from the dead with the same flesh and blood, as has been shown in the preceding pages; for we do not maintain that the natural body, which is sown in corruption, and in dishonour, and in weakness, will rise again such as it was sown. On such subjects, however, we have spoken at adequate length in the foregoing pages. 6.30. He next returns to the subject of the Seven ruling Demons, whose names are not found among Christians, but who, I think, are accepted by the Ophites. We found, indeed, that in the diagram, which on their account we procured a sight of, the same order was laid down as that which Celsus has given. Celsus says that the goat was shaped like a lion, not mentioning the name given him by those who are truly the most impious of individuals; whereas we discovered that He who is honoured in holy Scripture as the angel of the Creator is called by this accursed diagram Michael the Lion-like. Again, Celsus says that the second in order is a bull; whereas the diagram which we possessed made him to be Suriel, the bull-like. Further, Celsus termed the third an amphibious sort of animal, and one that hissed frightfully; while the diagram described the third as Raphael, the serpent-like. Moreover, Celsus asserted that the fourth had the form of an eagle; the diagram representing him as Gabriel, the eagle-like. Again, the fifth, according to Celsus, had the countece of a bear; and this, according to the diagram, was Thauthabaoth, the bear-like. Celsus continues his account, that the sixth was described as having the face of a dog; and him the diagram called Erataoth. The seventh, he adds, had the countece of an ass, and was named Thaphabaoth or Onoel; whereas we discovered that in the diagram he is called Onoel, or Thartharaoth, being somewhat asinine in appearance. We have thought it proper to be exact in stating these matters, that we might not appear to be ignorant of those things which Celsus professed to know, but that we Christians, knowing them better than he, may demonstrate that these are not the words of Christians, but of those who are altogether alienated from salvation, and who neither acknowledge Jesus as Saviour, nor God, nor Teacher, nor Son of God. 6.31. Moreover, if any one would wish to become acquainted with the artifices of those sorcerers, through which they desire to lead men away by their teaching (as if they possessed the knowledge of certain secret rites), but are not at all successful in so doing, let him listen to the instruction which they receive after passing through what is termed the fence of wickedness, - gates which are subjected to the world of ruling spirits. (The following, then, is the manner in which they proceed): I salute the one-formed king, the bond of blindness, complete oblivion, the first power, preserved by the spirit of providence and by wisdom, from whom I am sent forth pure, being already part of the light of the son and of the father: grace be with me; yea, O father, let it be with me. They say also that the beginnings of the Ogdoad are derived from this. In the next place, they are taught to say as follows, while passing through what they call Ialdabaoth: You, O first and seventh, who art born to command with confidence, you, O Ialdabaoth, who art the rational ruler of a pure mind, and a perfect work to son and father, bearing the symbol of life in the character of a type, and opening to the world the gate which you closed against your kingdom, I pass again in freedom through your realm. Let grace be with me; yea, O father, let it be with me. They say, moreover, that the star Ph non is in sympathy with the lion-like ruler. They next imagine that he who has passed through Ialdabaoth and arrived at Iao ought thus to speak: You, O second Iao, who shines by night, who art the ruler of the secret mysteries of son and father, first prince of death, and portion of the innocent, bearing now my own beard as symbol, I am ready to pass through your realm, having strengthened him who is born of you by the living word. Grace be with me; father, let it be with me. They next come to Sabaoth, to whom they think the following should be addressed: O governor of the fifth realm, powerful Sabaoth, defender of the law of your creatures, who are liberated by your grace through the help of a more powerful Pentad, admit me, seeing the faultless symbol of their art, preserved by the stamp of an image, a body liberated by a Pentad. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. And after Sabaoth they come to Astaph us, to whom they believe the following prayer should be offered: O Astaph us, ruler of the third gate, overseer of the first principle of water, look upon me as one of your initiated, admit me who am purified with the spirit of a virgin, you who sees the essence of the world. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. After him comes Alo us, who is to be thus addressed: O Alo us, governor of the second gate, let me pass, seeing I bring to you the symbol of your mother, a grace which is hidden by the powers of the realms. Let grace be with me, O father, let it be with me. And last of all they name Hor us, and think that the following prayer ought to be offered to him: You who fearlessly leaped over the rampart of fire, O Hor us, who obtained the government of the first gate, let me pass, seeing you behold the symbol of your own power, sculptured on the figure of the tree of life, and formed after this image, in the likeness of innocence. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. 6.32. The supposed great learning of Celsus, which is composed, however, rather of curious trifles and silly talk than anything else, has made us touch upon these topics, from a wish to show to every one who peruses his treatise and our reply, that we have no lack of information on those subjects, from which he takes occasion to calumniate the Christians, who neither are acquainted with, nor concern themselves about, such matters. For we, too, desired both to learn and set forth these things, in order that sorcerers might not, under pretext of knowing more than we, delude those who are easily carried away by the glitter of names. And I could have given many more illustrations to show that we are acquainted with the opinions of these deluders, and that we disown them, as being alien to ours, and impious, and not in harmony with the doctrines of true Christians, of which we are ready to make confession even to the death. It must be noticed, too, that those who have drawn up this array of fictions, have, from neither understanding magic, nor discriminating the meaning of holy Scripture, thrown everything into confusion; seeing that they have borrowed from magic the names of Ialdabaoth, and Astaph us, and Hor us, and from the Hebrew Scriptures him who is termed in Hebrew Iao or Jah, and Sabaoth, and Adon us, and Elo us. Now the names taken from the Scriptures are names of one and the same God; which, not being understood by the enemies of God, as even themselves acknowledge, led to their imagining that Iao was a different God, and Sabaoth another, and Adon us, whom the Scriptures term Adonai, a third besides, and that Elo us, whom the prophets name in Hebrew Eloi, was also different 6.33. Celsus next relates other fables, to the effect that certain persons return to the shapes of the archontics, so that some are called lions, others bulls, others dragons, or eagles, or bears, or dogs. We found also in the diagram which we possessed, and which Celsus called the square pattern, the statements made by these unhappy beings concerning the gates of Paradise. The flaming sword was depicted as the diameter of a flaming circle, and as if mounting guard over the tree of knowledge and of life. Celsus, however, either would not or could not repeat the harangues which, according to the fables of these impious individuals, are represented as spoken at each of the gates by those who pass through them; but this we have done in order to show to Celsus and those who read his treatise, that we know the depth of these unhallowed mysteries, and that they are far removed from the worship which Christians offer up to God. 6.34. After finishing the foregoing, and those analogous matters which we ourselves have added, Celsus continues as follows: They continue to heap together one thing after another - discourses of prophets, and circles upon circles, and effluents from an earthly church, and from circumcision; and a power flowing from one Prunicos, a virgin and a living soul; and a heaven slain in order to live, and an earth slaughtered by the sword, and many put to death that they may live, and death ceasing in the world, when the sin of the world is dead; and, again, a narrow way, and gates that open spontaneously. And in all their writings (is mention made) of the tree of life, and a resurrection of the flesh by means of the 'tree,' because, I imagine, their teacher was nailed to a cross, and was a carpenter by craft; so that if he had chanced to have been cast from a precipice, or thrust into a pit, or suffocated by hanging, or had been a leather-cutter, or stone-cutter, or worker in iron, there would have been (invented) a precipice of life beyond the heavens, or a pit of resurrection, or a cord of immortality, or a blessed stone, or an iron of love, or a sacred leather! Now what old woman would not be ashamed to utter such things in a whisper, even when making stories to lull an infant to sleep? In using such language as this, Celsus appears to me to confuse together matters which he has imperfectly heard. For it seems likely that, even supposing that he had heard a few words traceable to some existing heresy, he did not clearly understand the meaning intended to be conveyed; but heaping the words together, he wished to show before those who knew nothing either of our opinions or of those of the heretics, that he was acquainted with all the doctrines of the Christians. And this is evident also from the foregoing words. 6.35. It is our practice, indeed, to make use of the words of the prophets, who demonstrate that Jesus is the Christ predicted by them, and who show from the prophetic writings the events in the Gospels regarding Jesus have been fulfilled. But when Celsus speaks of circles upon circles, (he perhaps borrowed the expression) from the aforementioned heresy, which includes in one circle (which they call the soul of all things, and Leviathan) the seven circles of archontic demons, or perhaps it arises from misunderstanding the preacher, when he says: The wind goes in a circle of circles, and returns again upon its circles. The expression, too, effluents of an earthly church and of circumcision, was probably taken from the fact that the church on earth was called by some an effluent from a heavenly church and a better world; and that the circumcision described in the law was a symbol of the circumcision performed there, in a certain place set apart for purification. The adherents of Valentinus, moreover, in keeping with their system of error, give the name of Prunicos to a certain kind of wisdom, of which they would have the woman afflicted with the twelve years' issue of blood to be the symbol; so that Celsus, who confuses together all sorts of opinions - Greek, Barbarian, and Heretical - having heard of her, asserted that it was a power flowing forth from one Prunicos, a virgin. The living soul, again, is perhaps mysteriously referred by some of the followers of Valentinus to the being whom they term the psychic creator of the world; or perhaps, in contradistinction to a dead soul, the living soul is termed by some, not inelegantly, the soul of him who is saved. I know nothing, however, of a heaven which is said to be slain, or of an earth slaughtered by the sword, or of many persons slain in order that they might live; for it is not unlikely that these were coined by Celsus out of his own brain. 6.36. We would say, moreover, that death ceases in the world when the sin of the world dies, referring the saying to the mystical words of the apostle, which run as follows: When He shall have put all enemies under His feet, then the last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. And also: When this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. The strait descent, again, may perhaps be referred by those who hold the doctrine of transmigration of souls to that view of things. And it is not incredible that the gates which are said to open spontaneously are referred obscurely by some to the words, Open to me the gates of righteousness, that I may go into them, and praise the Lord; this gate of the Lord, into it the righteous shall enter; and again, to what is said in the ninth psalm, You that lifts me up from the gates of death, that I may show forth all Your praise in the gates of the daughter of Zion. The Scripture further gives the name of gates of death to those sins which lead to destruction, as it terms, on the contrary, good actions the gates of Zion. So also the gates of righteousness, which is an equivalent expression to the gates of virtue, and these are ready to be opened to him who follows after virtuous pursuits. The subject of the tree of life will be more appropriately explained when we interpret the statements in the book of Genesis regarding the paradise planted by God. Celsus, moreover, has often mocked at the subject of a resurrection, - a doctrine which he did not comprehend; and on the present occasion, not satisfied with what he has formerly said, he adds, And there is said to be a resurrection of the flesh by means of the tree; not understanding, I think, the symbolic expression, that through the tree came death, and through the tree comes life, because death was in Adam, and life in Christ. He next scoffs at the tree, assailing it on two grounds, and saying, For this reason is the tree introduced, either because our teacher was nailed to a cross, or because he was a carpenter by trade; not observing that the tree of life is mentioned in the Mosaic writings, and being blind also to this, that in none of the Gospels current in the Churches is Jesus Himself ever described as being a carpenter. 6.37. Celsus, moreover, thinks that we have invented this tree of life to give an allegorical meaning to the cross; and in consequence of his error upon this point, he adds: If he had happened to be cast down a precipice, or shoved into a pit, or suffocated by hanging, there would have been invented a precipice of life far beyond the heavens, or a pit of resurrection, or a cord of immortality. And again: If the 'tree of life' were an invention, because he - Jesus - (is reported) to have been a carpenter, it would follow that if he had been a leather-cutter, something would have been said about holy leather; or had he been a stone-cutter, about a blessed stone; or if a worker in iron, about an iron of love. Now, who does not see at once the paltry nature of his charge, in thus calumniating men whom he professed to convert on the ground of their being deceived? And after these remarks, he goes on to speak in a way quite in harmony with the tone of those who have invented the fictions of lion-like, and ass-headed, and serpent-like ruling angels, and other similar absurdities, but which does not affect those who belong to the Church. of a truth, even a drunken old woman would be ashamed to chaunt or whisper to an infant, in order to lull him to sleep, any such fables as those have done who invented the beings with asses' heads, and the harangues, so to speak, which are delivered at each of the gates. But Celsus is not acquainted with the doctrines of the members of the Church, which very few have been able to comprehend, even of those who have devoted all their lives, in conformity with the command of Jesus, to the searching of the Scriptures, and have laboured to investigate the meaning of the sacred books, to a greater degree than Greek philosophers in their efforts to attain a so-called wisdom. 6.38. Our noble (friend), moreover, not satisfied with the objections which he has drawn from the diagram, desires, in order to strengthen his accusations against us, who have nothing in common with it, to introduce certain other charges, which he adduces from the same (heretics), but yet as if they were from a different source. His words are: And that is not the least of their marvels, for there are between the upper circles - those that are above the heavens - certain inscriptions of which they give the interpretation, and among others two words especially, 'a greater and a less,' which they refer to Father and Son. Now, in the diagram referred to, we found the greater and the lesser circle, upon the diameter of which was inscribed Father and Son; and between the greater circle (in which the lesser was contained) and another composed of two circles - the outer one of which was yellow, and the inner blue - a barrier inscribed in the shape of a hatchet. And above it, a short circle, close to the greater of the two former, having the inscription Love; and lower down, one touching the same circle, with the word Life. And on the second circle, which was intertwined with and included two other circles, another figure, like a rhomboid, (entitled) The foresight of wisdom. And within their point of common section was The nature of wisdom. And above their point of common section was a circle, on which was inscribed Knowledge; and lower down another, on which was the inscription, Understanding. We have introduced these matters into our reply to Celsus, to show to our readers that we know better than he, and not by mere report, those things, even although we also disapprove of them. Moreover, if those who pride themselves upon such matters profess also a kind of magic and sorcery - which, in their opinion, is the summit of wisdom - we, on the other hand, make no affirmation about it, seeing we never have discovered anything of the kind. Let Celsus, however, who has been already often convicted of false witness and irrational accusations, see whether he is not guilty of falsehood in these also, or whether he has not extracted and introduced into his treatise, statements taken from the writings of those who are foreigners and strangers to our Christian faith.
62. Epiphanius, Panarion, 39.2.1, 39.3.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

63. Anon., 4 Ezra, 14.22-14.48

14.22. If then I have found favor before thee, send the Holy Spirit into me, and I will write everything that has happened in the world from the beginning, the things which were written in thy law, that men may be able to find the path, and that those who wish to live in the last days may live. 14.23. He answered me and said, "Go and gather the people, and tell them not to seek you for forty days. 14.24. But prepare for yourself many writing tablets, and take with you Sarea, Dabria, Selemia, Ethanus, and Asiel -- these five, because they are trained to write rapidly; 14.25. and you shall come here, and I will light in your heart the lamp of understanding, which shall not be put out until what you are about to write is finished. 14.26. And when you have finished, some things you shall make public, and some you shall deliver in secret to the wise; tomorrow at this hour you shall begin to write. 14.27. Then I went as he commanded me, and I gathered all the people together, and said 14.28. Hear these words, O Israel 14.29. At first our fathers dwelt as aliens in Egypt, and they were delivered from there 14.30. and received the law of life, which they did not keep, which you also have transgressed after them. 14.31. Then land was given to you for a possession in the land of Zion; but you and your fathers committed iniquity and did not keep the ways which the Most High commanded you. 14.32. And because he is a righteous judge, in due time he took from you what he had given. 14.33. And now you are here, and your brethren are farther in the interior. 14.34. If you, then, will rule over your minds and discipline your hearts, you shall be kept alive, and after death you shall obtain mercy. 14.35. For after death the judgment will come, when we shall live again; and then the names of the righteous will become manifest, and the deeds of the ungodly will be disclosed. 14.36. But let no one come to me now, and let no one seek me for forty days. 14.37. So I took the five men, as he commanded me, and we proceeded to the field, and remained there. 14.38. And on the next day, behold, a voice called me, saying, "Ezra, open your mouth and drink what I give you to drink. 14.39. Then I opened my mouth, and behold, a full cup was offered to me; it was full of something like water, but its color was like fire. 14.40. And I took it and drank; and when I had drunk it, my heart poured forth understanding, and wisdom increased in my breast, for my spirit retained its memory; 14.41. and my mouth was opened, and was no longer closed. 14.42. And the Most High gave understanding to the five men, and by turns they wrote what was dictated, in characters which they did not know. They sat forty days, and wrote during the daytime, and ate their bread at night. 14.43. As for me, I spoke in the daytime and was not silent at night. 14.44. So during the forty days ninety-four books were written. 14.45. And when the forty days were ended, the Most High spoke to me, saying, "Make public the twenty-four books that you wrote first and let the worthy and the unworthy read them; 14.46. but keep the seventy that were written last, in order to give them to the wise among your people. 14.47. For in them is the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the river of knowledge. 14.48. And I did so.
64. Pseudo-Tertullian, Adversus Omnes Haereses, 2.7-2.9



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 3, 8, 13, 134, 276; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 28
abraham, astrologer, astronomy expert Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 126
abraham, babylonian science Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 126
abraham, call in ur Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125, 126
abraham, cultural benefactor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125, 126
abraham, discovers astrology and chaldean science Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125, 126
abraham Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 351; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 620; Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 35
abraham\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 13, 15, 17, 20, 25
accad Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124, 125
adam, condition of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 3
adam, deathbed of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 13, 135
adam, disease (illness) of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 294, 304
adam, pardoning of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8, 139, 757
adam, plight of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 294, 304
adam, yearning of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 304
adam Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 257; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 4, 8; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 28, 62
adam (human) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
adam and eve, disobedience of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51
adam and eve, in geneology of error Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
alexander polyhistor, freudenthal, j. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124
alexander polyhistor, ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124
alexander polyhistor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124
alexandria Butts and Gross, Jews and Syriac Christians: Intersections across the First Millennium. (2010) 218; Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 54; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
alien, the Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 286
allogenes, apocalypse of, (known to plotinus and porphyry Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 369
amida Butts and Gross, Jews and Syriac Christians: Intersections across the First Millennium. (2010) 213
analogy Buster, Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism (2022) 257
androgyny Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 62
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, entourage Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
angel Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 28
angelic descent, and origins of evil Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51
angelic descent, for positive aims Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51, 53, 89
angels, heavenly mansion of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 193
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 43
anger, attacking seth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 304
anger, god (lord), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 351
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 757
animal imagery Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 128, 129, 153
animals, eating Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28, 29
animals, purity of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28, 29
animals, vs. humans Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28, 29
anthropological Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 258
anthropology Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 258
antioch Butts and Gross, Jews and Syriac Christians: Intersections across the First Millennium. (2010) 218
antiochus iv epiphanes Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 294
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 260, 263, 270
apocalypse of peter Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 592
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
apostle, paul Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
apostle Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 221
aramaic, reasons for translations of hebrew bible into Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 89
aramaic targums, text-critical value of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 89
archangel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8, 276
archons, archontic Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 8
aromatic cane Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 304, 757
ascent, frightful Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 276
ascent literature, visionary/mystical Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 369
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 43
astrology Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 4, 18
astronomical book Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 54
atlas Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 129
autogenes Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 62
babel, tower of babel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 15, 20, 25
babel Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 139; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124, 125
barbelo Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 62
barbeloite, heresiological definitions Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 28
barbeloite, modern definitions Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 62
basilides (gnostic), and disciples Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 592
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
becoming Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 8
behemah (animal) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
belus, giant (kronos) Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 129
bh (biblia hebraica) series Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 379
bible, hebrew bible/old testament Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 89
biblia hebraica (bh) series Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 379
biblical referents, canonization Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 56, 57
biblical referents, in philo Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 154
bidding, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
bidding, satan, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 182
binaries, as hierarchies Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
bipartite vs. tripartite canon., of prophets Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 56
birds (of), classification of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
birds (of) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
birth, cain, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 3
birth, seth, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 13
blood, consuming Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
blood of abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8, 325
body Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 369; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 136
book of the watchers, and etiology of evil Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51, 53
book of the watchers, polysemy of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51
burial, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 13, 137
cain, name of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 138
cain, son of anger, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 3, 8, 13, 134, 135, 138, 276; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 28
cainan Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
cainites Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 193
calamus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 757
canon, as authoritative scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 89
capability (human) Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 38
careless Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 351
caution Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 214
chariot, light, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
charles r.h. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 114
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8, 137, 138, 182
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 3, 182, 276
children Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
christ, see also jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 28, 62, 196
christian/christianity Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 116, 133, 134, 135, 138, 139, 140
chronology, essene Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 114, 122, 123
chronology, patriarchal Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 122, 123
cinnamon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 304, 757
circumcision, arab Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 35
civilization, as decline Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51
classification, priestly Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28, 29
claudius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
clement of alexandria Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 369
constantine Butts and Gross, Jews and Syriac Christians: Intersections across the First Millennium. (2010) 226
contemplation Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 8, 369
coptic Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 4
covenant, disobedience to Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 351
covenant Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 351
creation, dominion and Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
creation Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 128, 129, 214; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 4, 8
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 38
creator archons, archons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 196
creator archons, yhwh ( Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 196
cultural benefactor topos, abraham Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125, 126, 129
cultural benefactor topos, ps.-eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125, 126, 129
cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 125, 126
curse, serpent, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 304
daughters, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 3
daveithe Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 62
david Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 221; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 351
day, seven Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 304
day, sixth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
day, three Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 276
death, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 294
decalogue Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 214
deceit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 13
deception Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
demetrius, chronology of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114
demiurge Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 8
demons, and idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51
demons Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
diaspora\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 25
dietary laws Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28, 29
difference, between humans and animals Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28, 29
difference, dietary law depending on Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28, 29
discoverer/inventor (heuretēs) topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 126
disease and pain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 182, 276, 294, 304
dispersed persons\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 13, 20
dispersion\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 15, 25
divination Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
divine being, angel Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
dominion Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
douglas, mary Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
dualism, dualist Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 4
dualism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 285
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 38; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 137, 304
eagles Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
earth, from (out of) the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 38
earth Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 38
east, eden, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 3
economics, property, assets, goods Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
economics, wealth Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
elect Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 258
eleleth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 62
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 62, 196
enoch, discoverer, inventor of astrology Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 126
enoch, enochic literature Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 339
enoch, otherworldly journeys of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51
enoch xviii, xix Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 43
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
enochic literature, and the torah Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
epictetus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
erech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124, 125
eschatology Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 285
ethics, morality Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
ethiopians Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
etiology\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 15, 22, 25
eupolemus, concerning the jews of assyria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124
eupolemus, cultural benefactor topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124, 125, 126, 129
eupolemus, temple idealization Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124
eupolemus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 124, 126
eusebius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
eusebona Butts and Gross, Jews and Syriac Christians: Intersections across the First Millennium. (2010) 218
eve, dream of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8, 137
eve, journey of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 135, 139
eve, sentencing of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
eve Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 4; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 62
evil, supernatural etiology of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51, 53
evil Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 128, 214
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 153
exile Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 3
exile\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 17, 25
expulsion, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
expulsion, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
expulsion, paradise, from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8, 135, 182
faithfulness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 214
fallen angels, as stars Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51
false claim Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 196
flesh Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 258
flood Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 4
forgiveness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 3, 136, 351
fragrances, offering, for Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 757
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 757
freedom Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325, 757
gaius caligula Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
galen Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
garden of eden Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 182; Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51
genealogies, selective Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 106, 107, 108
generation, in priestly creation narrative Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28
generation, of seth Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28, 29
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51, 53, 89
genesis, and etiologies of sin and evil Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 53
genesis, and jubilees Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
genesis, enoch in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
genesis, history of interpretation of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 53
genesis\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, 25
genre, contemporary genre theory Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 21
genre, importance of genre Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 21
genre Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 21
gentiles, in christian discourse Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 286
gentiles Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 285, 286
gnostic, gnosticism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 4, 369
gnostics, gnosticism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 62
gnostics and gnosticism, paraphrases and re-narrations of biblical stories Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 592
gnostics and gnosticism Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 592
god, all virtue, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
god, anger of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 351
god, authoritative one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325
god, holiness of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
god, presence of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 8
god, promise of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 3
god, rejection (refusal) of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 757
god, sounds of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 328
god, walking of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 328
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 129, 214; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 4, 8, 18
goddess, younger gods Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 8
good, the Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 8
good Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 128, 214
gospel of truth Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 592
greed Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
greek Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
greek language, other greek translations of hebrew bible and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 89
greek language, reasons for translation into greek Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 89
gruppentexte theory, the hypostasis of archons Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 592
guilt Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 133
haftarot Stern, From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season (2004) 19
ham Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 28, 196
harmozel Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 62
hayah (living being) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
health Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 294
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 276
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 140
hebrew bible/old testament, as authoritative scripture Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 89
hebrew bible/old testament, manuscript evidence for Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 89
hebrew bible/old testament Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 89
heinemann j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 112
hellenism/hellenization Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 153, 214
hellenistic, of antediluvian age Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 89
hellenistic jewish writings, letter of aristeas Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 89
herakleon (gnostic) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 592
hermas Falcetta, Early Christian Teachers: The 'Didaskaloi' From Their Origins to the Middle of the Second Century (2020) 221
hermeneutical method, dead sea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
hermeneutical method, hillel, school of Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 133
hermeneutical method, intention in law Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 133
herod\u2002, primeval history Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 13, 15, 20, 25
hierarchies, binaries as Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
high priest Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 369
historicity Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 21
historiography, biblical and jewish Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 53
historiography Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
holiness, separation as Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 29
honor Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
horaia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 28
human, existence Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 38
human, primal Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 8, 18
humans, vs. animals Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28, 29
humility Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 153
hunger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 304
identity, construction of identity Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 20, 22
identity, identify formation Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 25
idolatry, as linked to fallen angels and demons Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 51
illness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 294
image (εἰκών) Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 8, 18
image of god, and adams image Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28, 29
image of god Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 38; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 325; Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 28, 29
inheritance Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 138, 139
interpretation, biblical. see exegesis, the interpretation of knowledge Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 592
interreligiöse ehe Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 169
invisible spirit Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 8
isaac Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 620
israel/israelite Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 153, 214
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 3, 351; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 286; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 53
itinerary\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 13, 17