Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 49.8-49.12


nanThe sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be.


אֹסְרִי לַגֶּפֶן עירה [עִירוֹ] וְלַשֹּׂרֵקָה בְּנִי אֲתֹנוֹ כִּבֵּס בַּיַּיִן לְבֻשׁוֹ וּבְדַם־עֲנָבִים סותה [סוּתוֹ׃]Binding his foal unto the vine, And his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; He washeth his garments in wine, And his vesture in the blood of grapes;


חַכְלִילִי עֵינַיִם מִיָּיִן וּלְבֶן־שִׁנַּיִם מֵחָלָב׃His eyes shall be red with wine, And his teeth white with milk.


יְהוּדָה אַתָּה יוֹדוּךָ אַחֶיךָ יָדְךָ בְּעֹרֶף אֹיְבֶיךָ יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אָבִיךָ׃Judah, thee shall thy brethren praise; Thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; Thy father’s sons shall bow down before thee.


גּוּר אַרְיֵה יְהוּדָה מִטֶּרֶף בְּנִי עָלִיתָ כָּרַע רָבַץ כְּאַרְיֵה וּכְלָבִיא מִי יְקִימֶנּוּ׃Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, thou art gone up. He stooped down, he couched as a lion, And as a lioness; who shall rouse him up?


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

82 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.1-7.9, 13.2, 16.6, 17.14-17.20, 18.15-18.22, 32.39, 33.17, 33.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.1. וּמְשַׁלֵּם לְשֹׂנְאָיו אֶל־פָּנָיו לְהַאֲבִידוֹ לֹא יְאַחֵר לְשֹׂנְאוֹ אֶל־פָּנָיו יְשַׁלֶּם־לוֹ׃ 7.1. כִּי יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ וְנָשַׁל גּוֹיִם־רַבִּים מִפָּנֶיךָ הַחִתִּי וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי שִׁבְעָה גוֹיִם רַבִּים וַעֲצוּמִים מִמֶּךָּ׃ 7.2. וּנְתָנָם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהִכִּיתָם הַחֲרֵם תַּחֲרִים אֹתָם לֹא־תִכְרֹת לָהֶם בְּרִית וְלֹא תְחָנֵּם׃ 7.2. וְגַם אֶת־הַצִּרְעָה יְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בָּם עַד־אֲבֹד הַנִּשְׁאָרִים וְהַנִּסְתָּרִים מִפָּנֶיךָ׃ 7.3. וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם בִּתְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לִבְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ לֹא־תִקַּח לִבְנֶךָ׃ 7.4. כִּי־יָסִיר אֶת־בִּנְךָ מֵאַחֲרַי וְעָבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וְחָרָה אַף־יְהוָה בָּכֶם וְהִשְׁמִידְךָ מַהֵר׃ 7.5. כִּי־אִם־כֹּה תַעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם מִזְבְּחֹתֵיהֶם תִּתֹּצוּ וּמַצֵּבֹתָם תְּשַׁבֵּרוּ וַאֲשֵׁירֵהֶם תְּגַדֵּעוּן וּפְסִילֵיהֶם תִּשְׂרְפוּן בָּאֵשׁ׃ 7.6. כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּךָ בָּחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לְעַם סְגֻלָּה מִכֹּל הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 7.7. לֹא מֵרֻבְּכֶם מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים חָשַׁק יְהוָה בָּכֶם וַיִּבְחַר בָּכֶם כִּי־אַתֶּם הַמְעַט מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים׃ 7.8. כִּי מֵאַהֲבַת יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם וּמִשָּׁמְרוּ אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם הוֹצִיא יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וַיִּפְדְּךָ מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים מִיַּד פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרָיִם׃ 7.9. וְיָדַעְתָּ כִּי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים הָאֵל הַנֶּאֱמָן שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מצותו [מִצְוֺתָיו] לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר׃ 13.2. כִּי־יָקוּם בְּקִרְבְּךָ נָבִיא אוֹ חֹלֵם חֲלוֹם וְנָתַן אֵלֶיךָ אוֹת אוֹ מוֹפֵת׃ 16.6. כִּי אִם־אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם תִּזְבַּח אֶת־הַפֶּסַח בָּעָרֶב כְּבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מוֹעֵד צֵאתְךָ מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 17.14. כִּי־תָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּה בָּהּ וְאָמַרְתָּ אָשִׂימָה עָלַי מֶלֶךְ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָי׃ 17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 17.18. וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃ 17.19. וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 18.15. נָבִיא מִקִּרְבְּךָ מֵאַחֶיךָ כָּמֹנִי יָקִים לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן׃ 18.16. כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁאַלְתָּ מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּחֹרֵב בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל לֵאמֹר לֹא אֹסֵף לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי וְאֶת־הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת לֹא־אֶרְאֶה עוֹד וְלֹא אָמוּת׃ 18.17. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָי הֵיטִיבוּ אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּרוּ׃ 18.18. נָבִיא אָקִים לָהֶם מִקֶּרֶב אֲחֵיהֶם כָּמוֹךָ וְנָתַתִּי דְבָרַי בְּפִיו וְדִבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּנּוּ׃ 18.19. וְהָיָה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִשְׁמַע אֶל־דְּבָרַי אֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר בִּשְׁמִי אָנֹכִי אֶדְרֹשׁ מֵעִמּוֹ׃ 18.21. וְכִי תֹאמַר בִּלְבָבֶךָ אֵיכָה נֵדַע אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־דִבְּרוֹ יְהוָה׃ 18.22. אֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר הַנָּבִיא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה הַדָּבָר וְלֹא יָבוֹא הוּא הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־דִבְּרוֹ יְהוָה בְּזָדוֹן דִּבְּרוֹ הַנָּבִיא לֹא תָגוּר מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 32.39. רְאוּ עַתָּה כִּי אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי אֲנִי אָמִית וַאֲחַיֶּה מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא וְאֵין מִיָּדִי מַצִּיל׃ 33.17. בְּכוֹר שׁוֹרוֹ הָדָר לוֹ וְקַרְנֵי רְאֵם קַרְנָיו בָּהֶם עַמִּים יְנַגַּח יַחְדָּו אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ וְהֵם רִבְבוֹת אֶפְרַיִם וְהֵם אַלְפֵי מְנַשֶּׁה׃ 33.21. וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ כִּי־שָׁם חֶלְקַת מְחֹקֵק סָפוּן וַיֵּתֵא רָאשֵׁי עָם צִדְקַת יְהוָה עָשָׂה וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.1. When the LORD thy God shall bring thee into the land whither thou goest to possess it, and shall cast out many nations before thee, the Hittite, and the Girgashite, and the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, seven nations greater and mightier than thou;" 7.2. and when the LORD thy God shall deliver them up before thee, and thou shalt smite them; then thou shalt utterly destroy them; thou shalt make no covet with them, nor show mercy unto them;" 7.3. neither shalt thou make marriages with them: thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son." 7.4. For he will turn away thy son from following Me, that they may serve other gods; so will the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and He will destroy thee quickly." 7.5. But thus shall ye deal with them: ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and hew down their Asherim, and burn their graven images with fire." 7.6. For thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God: the LORD thy God hath chosen thee to be His own treasure, out of all peoples that are upon the face of the earth." 7.7. The LORD did not set His love upon you, nor choose you, because ye were more in number than any people—for ye were the fewest of all peoples—" 7.8. but because the LORD loved you, and because He would keep the oath which He swore unto your fathers, hath the LORD brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt." 7.9. Know therefore that the LORD thy God, He is God; the faithful God, who keepeth covet and mercy with them that love Him and keep His commandments to a thousand generations;" 13.2. If there arise in the midst of thee a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams—and he give thee a sign or a wonder," 16.6. but at the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to cause His name to dwell in, there thou shalt sacrifice the passover-offering at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt." 17.14. When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein; and shalt say: ‘I will set a king over me, like all the nations that are round about me’;" 17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 17.18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites." 17.19. And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;" 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel." 18.15. A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;" 18.16. according to all that thou didst desire of the LORD thy God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying: ‘Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not.’" 18.17. And the LORD said unto me: ‘They have well said that which they have spoken." 18.18. I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee; and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." 18.19. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto My words which he shall speak in My name, I will require it of him." 18.20. But the prophet, that shall speak a word presumptuously in My name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, that same prophet shall die.’" 18.21. And if thou say in thy heart: ‘How shall we know the word which the LORD hath not spoken?’" 18.22. When a prophet speaketh in the name of the LORD, if the thing follow not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the LORD hath not spoken; the prophet hath spoken it presumptuously, thou shalt not be afraid of him." 32.39. See now that I, even I, am He, And there is no god with Me; I kill, and I make alive; I have wounded, and I heal; And there is none that can deliver out of My hand." 33.17. His firstling bullock, majesty is his; And his horns are the horns of the wild-ox; With them he shall gore the peoples all of them, even the ends of the earth; And they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, And they are the thousands of Manasseh." 33.21. And he chose a first part for himself, For there a portion of a ruler was reserved; And there came the heads of the people, He executed the righteousness of the LORD, And His ordices with Israel. ."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.1-3.8, 12.1-12.11, 15.1-15.9, 19.5, 20.5, 30.11-30.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. וְעַתָּה לְכָה וְאֶשְׁלָחֲךָ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וְהוֹצֵא אֶת־עַמִּי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 3.1. וּמֹשֶׁה הָיָה רֹעֶה אֶת־צֹאן יִתְרוֹ חֹתְנוֹ כֹּהֵן מִדְיָן וַיִּנְהַג אֶת־הַצֹּאן אַחַר הַמִּדְבָּר וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הַר הָאֱלֹהִים חֹרֵבָה׃ 3.2. וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהֹוָה אֵלָיו בְּלַבַּת־אֵשׁ מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה הַסְּנֶה בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וְהַסְּנֶה אֵינֶנּוּ אֻכָּל׃ 3.2. וְשָׁלַחְתִּי אֶת־יָדִי וְהִכֵּיתִי אֶת־מִצְרַיִם בְּכֹל נִפְלְאֹתַי אֲשֶׁר אֶעֱשֶׂה בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יְשַׁלַּח אֶתְכֶם׃ 3.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אָסֻרָה־נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה הַגָּדֹל הַזֶּה מַדּוּעַ לֹא־יִבְעַר הַסְּנֶה׃ 3.4. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי סָר לִרְאוֹת וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו אֱלֹהִים מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃ 3.5. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּקְרַב הֲלֹם שַׁל־נְעָלֶיךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶיךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עוֹמֵד עָלָיו אַדְמַת־קֹדֶשׁ הוּא׃ 3.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וַיַּסְתֵּר מֹשֶׁה פָּנָיו כִּי יָרֵא מֵהַבִּיט אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 3.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה רָאֹה רָאִיתִי אֶת־עֳנִי עַמִּי אֲשֶׁר בְּמִצְרָיִם וְאֶת־צַעֲקָתָם שָׁמַעְתִּי מִפְּנֵי נֹגְשָׂיו כִּי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת־מַכְאֹבָיו׃ 3.8. וָאֵרֵד לְהַצִּילוֹ מִיַּד מִצְרַיִם וּלְהַעֲלֹתוֹ מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא אֶל־אֶרֶץ טוֹבָה וּרְחָבָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ אֶל־מְקוֹם הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃ 12.1. וְלֹא־תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר וְהַנֹּתָר מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר בָּאֵשׁ תִּשְׂרֹפוּ׃ 12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר׃ 12.2. כָּל־מַחְמֶצֶת לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 12.2. הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה׃ 12.3. וַיָּקָם פַּרְעֹה לַיְלָה הוּא וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וְכָל־מִצְרַיִם וַתְּהִי צְעָקָה גְדֹלָה בְּמִצְרָיִם כִּי־אֵין בַּיִת אֲשֶׁר אֵין־שָׁם מֵת׃ 12.3. דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בֶּעָשֹׂר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְיִקְחוּ לָהֶם אִישׁ שֶׂה לְבֵית־אָבֹת שֶׂה לַבָּיִת׃ 12.4. וּמוֹשַׁב בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָשְׁבוּ בְּמִצְרָיִם שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 12.4. וְאִם־יִמְעַט הַבַּיִת מִהְיֹת מִשֶּׂה וְלָקַח הוּא וּשְׁכֵנוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ בְּמִכְסַת נְפָשֹׁת אִישׁ לְפִי אָכְלוֹ תָּכֹסּוּ עַל־הַשֶּׂה׃ 12.5. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן כֵּן עָשׂוּ׃ 12.5. שֶׂה תָמִים זָכָר בֶּן־שָׁנָה יִהְיֶה לָכֶם מִן־הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן־הָעִזִּים תִּקָּחוּ׃ 12.6. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה וְשָׁחֲטוּ אֹתוֹ כֹּל קְהַל עֲדַת־יִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם׃ 12.7. וְלָקְחוּ מִן־הַדָּם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת וְעַל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף עַל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר־יֹאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ בָּהֶם׃ 12.8. וְאָכְלוּ אֶת־הַבָּשָׂר בַּלַּיְלָה הַזֶּה צְלִי־אֵשׁ וּמַצּוֹת עַל־מְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ׃ 12.9. אַל־תֹּאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ נָא וּבָשֵׁל מְבֻשָּׁל בַּמָּיִם כִּי אִם־צְלִי־אֵשׁ רֹאשׁוֹ עַל־כְּרָעָיו וְעַל־קִרְבּוֹ׃ 12.11. וְכָכָה תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים נַעֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמַקֶּלְכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃ 15.2. עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת יָהּ וַיְהִי־לִי לִישׁוּעָה זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי וַאֲרֹמְמֶנְהוּ׃ 15.2. וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַתֹּף בְּיָדָהּ וַתֵּצֶאןָ כָל־הַנָּשִׁים אַחֲרֶיהָ בְּתֻפִּים וּבִמְחֹלֹת׃ 15.3. יְהוָה אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה יְהוָה שְׁמוֹ׃ 15.4. מַרְכְּבֹת פַּרְעֹה וְחֵילוֹ יָרָה בַיָּם וּמִבְחַר שָׁלִשָׁיו טֻבְּעוּ בְיַם־סוּף׃ 15.5. תְּהֹמֹת יְכַסְיֻמוּ יָרְדוּ בִמְצוֹלֹת כְּמוֹ־אָבֶן׃ 15.6. יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה נֶאְדָּרִי בַּכֹּחַ יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב׃ 15.7. וּבְרֹב גְּאוֹנְךָ תַּהֲרֹס קָמֶיךָ תְּשַׁלַּח חֲרֹנְךָ יֹאכְלֵמוֹ כַּקַּשׁ׃ 15.8. וּבְרוּחַ אַפֶּיךָ נֶעֶרְמוּ מַיִם נִצְּבוּ כְמוֹ־נֵד נֹזְלִים קָפְאוּ תְהֹמֹת בְּלֶב־יָם׃ 15.9. אָמַר אוֹיֵב אֶרְדֹּף אַשִּׂיג אֲחַלֵּק שָׁלָל תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ נַפְשִׁי אָרִיק חַרְבִּי תּוֹרִישֵׁמוֹ יָדִי׃ 19.5. וְעַתָּה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וִהְיִיתֶם לִי סְגֻלָּה מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים כִּי־לִי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 30.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 30.12. כִּי תִשָּׂא אֶת־רֹאשׁ בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְקֻדֵיהֶם וְנָתְנוּ אִישׁ כֹּפֶר נַפְשׁוֹ לַיהוָה בִּפְקֹד אֹתָם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה בָהֶם נֶגֶף בִּפְקֹד אֹתָם׃ 30.13. זֶה יִתְּנוּ כָּל־הָעֹבֵר עַל־הַפְּקֻדִים מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הַשֶּׁקֶל מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל תְּרוּמָה לַיהוָה׃ 30.14. כֹּל הָעֹבֵר עַל־הַפְּקֻדִים מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמָעְלָה יִתֵּן תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה׃ 30.15. הֶעָשִׁיר לֹא־יַרְבֶּה וְהַדַּל לֹא יַמְעִיט מִמַּחֲצִית הַשָּׁקֶל לָתֵת אֶת־תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם׃ 30.16. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־כֶּסֶף הַכִּפֻּרִים מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנָתַתָּ אֹתוֹ עַל־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהָיָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְזִכָּרוֹן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם׃ 3.1. Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he led the flock to the farthest end of the wilderness, and came to the mountain of God, unto Horeb." 3.2. And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed." 3.3. And Moses said: ‘I will turn aside now, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.’" 3.4. And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said: ‘Moses, Moses.’ And he said: ‘Here am I.’" 3.5. And He said: ‘Draw not nigh hither; put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.’" 3.6. Moreover He said: ‘I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God." 3.7. And the LORD said: ‘I have surely seen the affliction of My people that are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their pains;" 3.8. and I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite." 12.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying:" 12.2. ’This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you." 12.3. Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying: In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers’houses, a lamb for a household;" 12.4. and if the household be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbour next unto his house take one according to the number of the souls; according to every man’s eating ye shall make your count for the lamb." 12.5. Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year; ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats;" 12.6. and ye shall keep it unto the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at dusk." 12.7. And they shall take of the blood, and put it on the two side-posts and on the lintel, upon the houses wherein they shall eat it." 12.8. And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; with bitter herbs they shall eat it." 12.9. Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; its head with its legs and with the inwards thereof." 12.10. And ye shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; but that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire." 12.11. And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste—it is the LORD’s passover." 15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." 15.2. The LORD is my strength and song, And He is become my salvation; This is my God, and I will glorify Him; My father’s God, and I will exalt Him." 15.3. The LORD is a man of war, The LORD is His name." 15.4. Pharaoh’s chariots and his host hath He cast into the sea, And his chosen captains are sunk in the Red Sea." 15.5. The deeps cover them— They went down into the depths like a stone." 15.6. Thy right hand, O LORD, glorious in power, Thy right hand, O LORD, dasheth in pieces the enemy." 15.7. And in the greatness of Thine excellency Thou overthrowest them that rise up against Thee; Thou sendest forth Thy wrath, it consumeth them as stubble." 15.8. And with the blast of Thy nostrils the waters were piled up— The floods stood upright as a heap; The deeps were congealed in the heart of the sea." 15.9. The enemy said: ‘I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; My lust shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.’" 19.5. Now therefore, if ye will hearken unto My voice indeed, and keep My covet, then ye shall be Mine own treasure from among all peoples; for all the earth is Mine;" 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 30.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 30.12. ’When thou takest the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the LORD, when thou numberest them; that there be no plague among them, when thou numberest them." 30.13. This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that are numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary—the shekel is twenty gerahs—half a shekel for an offering to the LORD." 30.14. Every one that passeth among them that are numbered, from twenty years old and upward, shall give the offering of the LORD." 30.15. The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less, than the half shekel, when they give the offering of the LORD, to make atonement for your souls." 30.16. And thou shalt take the atonement money from the children of Israel, and shalt appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting, that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before the LORD, to make atonement for your souls.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 1.26-1.27, 18.1-18.10, 22.1-22.18, 25.23, 26.5, 27.27, 28.10-28.19, 31.33, 32.24-32.32, 37.26-37.27, 47.29-47.30, 48.13-48.16, 48.20, 49.1-49.9, 49.11-49.15, 49.17-49.18, 49.21-49.22, 49.25, 49.27-49.31, 49.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 18.1. וַיֹּאמֶר שׁוֹב אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וְהִנֵּה־בֵן לְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וְשָׂרָה שֹׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו׃ 18.1. וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב פֶּתַח־הָאֹהֶל כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם׃ 18.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה זַעֲקַת סְדֹם וַעֲמֹרָה כִּי־רָבָּה וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי כָבְדָה מְאֹד׃ 18.2. וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים נִצָּבִים עָלָיו וַיַּרְא וַיָּרָץ לִקְרָאתָם מִפֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה׃ 18.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־נָא יִחַר לַאדֹנָי וַאֲדַבֵּרָה אוּלַי יִמָּצְאוּן שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה אִם־אֶמְצָא שָׁם שְׁלֹשִׁים׃ 18.3. וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אַל־נָא תַעֲבֹר מֵעַל עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 18.4. יֻקַּח־נָא מְעַט־מַיִם וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשָּׁעֲנוּ תַּחַת הָעֵץ׃ 18.5. וְאֶקְחָה פַת־לֶחֶם וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם אַחַר תַּעֲבֹרוּ כִּי־עַל־כֵּן עֲבַרְתֶּם עַל־עַבְדְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃ 18.6. וַיְמַהֵר אַבְרָהָם הָאֹהֱלָה אֶל־שָׂרָה וַיֹּאמֶר מַהֲרִי שְׁלֹשׁ סְאִים קֶמַח סֹלֶת לוּשִׁי וַעֲשִׂי עֻגוֹת׃ 18.7. וְאֶל־הַבָּקָר רָץ אַבְרָהָם וַיִּקַּח בֶּן־בָּקָר רַךְ וָטוֹב וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־הַנַּעַר וַיְמַהֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹתוֹ׃ 18.8. וַיִּקַּח חֶמְאָה וְחָלָב וּבֶן־הַבָּקָר אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם וְהוּא־עֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם תַּחַת הָעֵץ וַיֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 18.9. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו אַיֵּה שָׂרָה אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה בָאֹהֶל׃ 22.1. וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃ 22.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת לִשְׁחֹט אֶת־בְּנוֹ׃ 22.2. וַיֹּאמֶר קַח־נָא אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ אֲשֶׁר־אָהַבְתָּ אֶת־יִצְחָק וְלֶךְ־לְךָ אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָּה וְהַעֲלֵהוּ שָׁם לְעֹלָה עַל אַחַד הֶהָרִים אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ׃ 22.2. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֻּגַּד לְאַבְרָהָם לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה יָלְדָה מִלְכָּה גַם־הִוא בָּנִים לְנָחוֹר אָחִיךָ׃ 22.3. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם אַבְרָהָם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיַּחֲבֹשׁ אֶת־חֲמֹרוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־שְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו אִתּוֹ וְאֵת יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיְבַקַּע עֲצֵי עֹלָה וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־אָמַר־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 22.4. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וַיִּשָּׂא אַבְרָהָם אֶת־עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא אֶת־הַמָּקוֹם מֵרָחֹק׃ 22.5. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֶל־נְעָרָיו שְׁבוּ־לָכֶם פֹּה עִם־הַחֲמוֹר וַאֲנִי וְהַנַּעַר נֵלְכָה עַד־כֹּה וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנָשׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 22.6. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־עֲצֵי הָעֹלָה וַיָּשֶׂם עַל־יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיִּקַּח בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־הָאֵשׁ וְאֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו׃ 22.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יִצְחָק אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אָבִיו וַיֹּאמֶר אָבִי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֶּנִּי בְנִי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה הָאֵשׁ וְהָעֵצִים וְאַיֵּה הַשֶּׂה לְעֹלָה׃ 22.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהִים יִרְאֶה־לּוֹ הַשֶּׂה לְעֹלָה בְּנִי וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו׃ 22.9. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אָמַר־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּבֶן שָׁם אַבְרָהָם אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיַּעֲרֹךְ אֶת־הָעֵצִים וַיַּעֲקֹד אֶת־יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתוֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִמַּעַל לָעֵצִים׃ 22.11. וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃ 22.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֶל־הַנַּעַר וְאַל־תַּעַשׂ לוֹ מְאוּמָּה כִּי עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי־יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ מִמֶּנִּי׃ 22.13. וַיִּשָּׂא אַבְרָהָם אֶת־עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה־אַיִל אַחַר נֶאֱחַז בַּסְּבַךְ בְּקַרְנָיו וַיֵּלֶךְ אַבְרָהָם וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הָאַיִל וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ לְעֹלָה תַּחַת בְּנוֹ׃ 22.14. וַיִּקְרָא אַבְרָהָם שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא יְהוָה יִרְאֶה אֲשֶׁר יֵאָמֵר הַיּוֹם בְּהַר יְהוָה יֵרָאֶה׃ 22.15. וַיִּקְרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָהָם שֵׁנִית מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 22.16. וַיֹּאמֶר בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידֶךָ׃ 22.17. כִּי־בָרֵךְ אֲבָרֶכְךָ וְהַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכַחוֹל אֲשֶׁר עַל־שְׂפַת הַיָּם וְיִרַשׁ זַרְעֲךָ אֵת שַׁעַר אֹיְבָיו׃ 22.18. וְהִתְבָּרֲכוּ בְזַרְעֲךָ כֹּל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקֹלִי׃ 25.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לָהּ שְׁנֵי גיים [גוֹיִם] בְּבִטְנֵךְ וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ וּלְאֹם מִלְאֹם יֶאֱמָץ וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר׃ 26.5. עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקֹלִי וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי מִצְוֺתַי חֻקּוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי׃ 27.27. וַיִּגַּשׁ וַיִּשַּׁק־לוֹ וַיָּרַח אֶת־רֵיחַ בְּגָדָיו וַיְבָרֲכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר רְאֵה רֵיחַ בְּנִי כְּרֵיחַ שָׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר בֵּרֲכוֹ יְהוָה׃ 28.11. וַיִּפְגַּע בַּמָּקוֹם וַיָּלֶן שָׁם כִּי־בָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וַיִּקַּח מֵאַבְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם וַיָּשֶׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיִּשְׁכַּב בַּמָּקוֹם הַהוּא׃ 28.12. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ׃ 28.13. וְהִנֵּה יְהוָה נִצָּב עָלָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ וֵאלֹהֵי יִצְחָק הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה שֹׁכֵב עָלֶיהָ לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 28.14. וְהָיָה זַרְעֲךָ כַּעֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וּפָרַצְתָּ יָמָּה וָקֵדְמָה וְצָפֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וְנִבְרֲכוּ בְךָ כָּל־מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה וּבְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 28.15. וְהִנֵּה אָנֹכִי עִמָּךְ וּשְׁמַרְתִּיךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּלֵךְ וַהֲשִׁבֹתִיךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה הַזֹּאת כִּי לֹא אֶעֱזָבְךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם־עָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ׃ 28.16. וַיִּיקַץ יַעֲקֹב מִשְּׁנָתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אָכֵן יֵשׁ יְהוָה בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא יָדָעְתִּי׃ 28.17. וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה־נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין זֶה כִּי אִם־בֵּית אֱלֹהִים וְזֶה שַׁעַר הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 28.18. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם יַעֲקֹב בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר־שָׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתָהּ מַצֵּבָה וַיִּצֹק שֶׁמֶן עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ׃ 28.19. וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא בֵּית־אֵל וְאוּלָם לוּז שֵׁם־הָעִיר לָרִאשֹׁנָה׃ 32.24. וַיִּקָּחֵם וַיַּעֲבִרֵם אֶת־הַנָּחַל וַיַּעֲבֵר אֶת־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 32.25. וַיִּוָּתֵר יַעֲקֹב לְבַדּוֹ וַיֵּאָבֵק אִישׁ עִמּוֹ עַד עֲלוֹת הַשָּׁחַר׃ 32.26. וַיַּרְא כִּי לֹא יָכֹל לוֹ וַיִּגַּע בְּכַף־יְרֵכוֹ וַתֵּקַע כַּף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּהֵאָבְקוֹ עִמּוֹ׃ 32.27. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׁלְּחֵנִי כִּי עָלָה הַשָּׁחַר וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֲשַׁלֵּחֲךָ כִּי אִם־בֵּרַכְתָּנִי׃ 32.28. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַה־שְּׁמֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב׃ 32.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יַעֲקֹב יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שִׁמְךָ כִּי אִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים וְעִם־אֲנָשִׁים וַתּוּכָל׃ 32.31. וַיִּקְרָא יַעֲקֹב שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם פְּנִיאֵל כִּי־רָאִיתִי אֱלֹהִים פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים וַתִּנָּצֵל נַפְשִׁי׃ 32.32. וַיִּזְרַח־לוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָבַר אֶת־פְּנוּאֵל וְהוּא צֹלֵעַ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ׃ 37.26. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה אֶל־אֶחָיו מַה־בֶּצַע כִּי נַהֲרֹג אֶת־אָחִינוּ וְכִסִּינוּ אֶת־דָּמוֹ׃ 37.27. לְכוּ וְנִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִים וְיָדֵנוּ אַל־תְּהִי־בוֹ כִּי־אָחִינוּ בְשָׂרֵנוּ הוּא וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶחָיו׃ 47.29. וַיִּקְרְבוּ יְמֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לָמוּת וַיִּקְרָא לִבְנוֹ לְיוֹסֵף וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ שִׂים־נָא יָדְךָ תַּחַת יְרֵכִי וְעָשִׂיתָ עִמָּדִי חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת אַל־נָא תִקְבְּרֵנִי בְּמִצְרָיִם׃ 48.13. וַיִּקַּח יוֹסֵף אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֶת־אֶפְרַיִם בִּימִינוֹ מִשְּׂמֹאל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־מְנַשֶּׁה בִשְׂמֹאלוֹ מִימִין יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּגֵּשׁ אֵלָיו׃ 48.14. וַיִּשְׁלַח יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־יְמִינוֹ וַיָּשֶׁת עַל־רֹאשׁ אֶפְרַיִם וְהוּא הַצָּעִיר וְאֶת־שְׂמֹאלוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ מְנַשֶּׁה שִׂכֵּל אֶת־יָדָיו כִּי מְנַשֶּׁה הַבְּכוֹר׃ 48.15. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֶת־יוֹסֵף וַיֹּאמַר הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר הִתְהַלְּכוּ אֲבֹתַי לְפָנָיו אַבְרָהָם וְיִצְחָק הָאֱלֹהִים הָרֹעֶה אֹתִי מֵעוֹדִי עַד־הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 48.16. הַמַּלְאָךְ הַגֹּאֵל אֹתִי מִכָּל־רָע יְבָרֵךְ אֶת־הַנְּעָרִים וְיִקָּרֵא בָהֶם שְׁמִי וְשֵׁם אֲבֹתַי אַבְרָהָם וְיִצְחָק וְיִדְגּוּ לָרֹב בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃ 49.1. לֹא־יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו עַד כִּי־יָבֹא שילה [שִׁילוֹ] וְלוֹ יִקְּהַת עַמִּים׃ 49.1. וַיִּקְרָא יַעֲקֹב אֶל־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר הֵאָסְפוּ וְאַגִּידָה לָכֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא אֶתְכֶם בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים׃ 49.2. מֵאָשֵׁר שְׁמֵנָה לַחְמוֹ וְהוּא יִתֵּן מַעֲדַנֵּי־מֶלֶךְ׃ 49.2. הִקָּבְצוּ וְשִׁמְעוּ בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב וְשִׁמְעוּ אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבִיכֶם׃ 49.3. בַּמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׂדֵה הַמַּכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי־מַמְרֵא בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן אֲשֶׁר קָנָה אַבְרָהָם אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה מֵאֵת עֶפְרֹן הַחִתִּי לַאֲחֻזַּת־קָבֶר׃ 49.3. רְאוּבֵן בְּכֹרִי אַתָּה כֹּחִי וְרֵאשִׁית אוֹנִי יֶתֶר שְׂאֵת וְיֶתֶר עָז׃ 49.4. פַּחַז כַּמַּיִם אַל־תּוֹתַר כִּי עָלִיתָ מִשְׁכְּבֵי אָבִיךָ אָז חִלַּלְתָּ יְצוּעִי עָלָה׃ 49.5. שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי אַחִים כְּלֵי חָמָס מְכֵרֹתֵיהֶם׃ 49.6. בְּסֹדָם אַל־תָּבֹא נַפְשִׁי בִּקְהָלָם אַל־תֵּחַד כְּבֹדִי כִּי בְאַפָּם הָרְגוּ אִישׁ וּבִרְצֹנָם עִקְּרוּ־שׁוֹר׃ 49.7. אָרוּר אַפָּם כִּי עָז וְעֶבְרָתָם כִּי קָשָׁתָה אֲחַלְּקֵם בְּיַעֲקֹב וַאֲפִיצֵם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 49.8. יְהוּדָה אַתָּה יוֹדוּךָ אַחֶיךָ יָדְךָ בְּעֹרֶף אֹיְבֶיךָ יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אָבִיךָ׃ 49.9. גּוּר אַרְיֵה יְהוּדָה מִטֶּרֶף בְּנִי עָלִיתָ כָּרַע רָבַץ כְּאַרְיֵה וּכְלָבִיא מִי יְקִימֶנּוּ׃ 49.11. אֹסְרִי לַגֶּפֶן עירה [עִירוֹ] וְלַשֹּׂרֵקָה בְּנִי אֲתֹנוֹ כִּבֵּס בַּיַּיִן לְבֻשׁוֹ וּבְדַם־עֲנָבִים סותה [סוּתוֹ׃] 49.12. חַכְלִילִי עֵינַיִם מִיָּיִן וּלְבֶן־שִׁנַּיִם מֵחָלָב׃ 49.13. זְבוּלֻן לְחוֹף יַמִּים יִשְׁכֹּן וְהוּא לְחוֹף אֳנִיּוֹת וְיַרְכָתוֹ עַל־צִידֹן׃ 49.14. יִשָּׂשכָר חֲמֹר גָּרֶם רֹבֵץ בֵּין הַמִּשְׁפְּתָיִם׃ 49.15. וַיַּרְא מְנֻחָה כִּי טוֹב וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ כִּי נָעֵמָה וַיֵּט שִׁכְמוֹ לִסְבֹּל וַיְהִי לְמַס־עֹבֵד׃ 49.17. יְהִי־דָן נָחָשׁ עֲלֵי־דֶרֶךְ שְׁפִיפֹן עֲלֵי־אֹרַח הַנֹּשֵׁךְ עִקְּבֵי־סוּס וַיִּפֹּל רֹכְבוֹ אָחוֹר׃ 49.18. לִישׁוּעָתְךָ קִוִּיתִי יְהוָה׃ 49.21. נַפְתָּלִי אַיָּלָה שְׁלֻחָה הַנֹּתֵן אִמְרֵי־שָׁפֶר׃ 49.22. בֵּן פֹּרָת יוֹסֵף בֵּן פֹּרָת עֲלֵי־עָיִן בָּנוֹת צָעֲדָה עֲלֵי־שׁוּר׃ 49.25. מֵאֵל אָבִיךָ וְיַעְזְרֶךָּ וְאֵת שַׁדַּי וִיבָרְכֶךָּ בִּרְכֹת שָׁמַיִם מֵעָל בִּרְכֹת תְּהוֹם רֹבֶצֶת תָּחַת בִּרְכֹת שָׁדַיִם וָרָחַם׃ 49.27. בִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב יִטְרָף בַּבֹּקֶר יֹאכַל עַד וְלָעֶרֶב יְחַלֵּק שָׁלָל׃ 49.28. כָּל־אֵלֶּה שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר וְזֹאת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר כְּבִרְכָתוֹ בֵּרַךְ אֹתָם׃ 49.29. וַיְצַו אוֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי נֶאֱסָף אֶל־עַמִּי קִבְרוּ אֹתִי אֶל־אֲבֹתָי אֶל־הַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׂדֵה עֶפְרוֹן הַחִתִּי׃ 49.31. שָׁמָּה קָבְרוּ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וְאֵת שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ שָׁמָּה קָבְרוּ אֶת־יִצְחָק וְאֵת רִבְקָה אִשְׁתּוֹ וְשָׁמָּה קָבַרְתִּי אֶת־לֵאָה׃ 49.33. וַיְכַל יַעֲקֹב לְצַוֺּת אֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֶּאֱסֹף רַגְלָיו אֶל־הַמִּטָּה וַיִּגְוַע וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל־עַמָּיו׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 18.1. And the LORD appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day;" 18.2. and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood over against him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed down to the earth," 18.3. and said: ‘My lord, if now I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant." 18.4. Let now a little water be fetched, and wash your feet, and recline yourselves under the tree." 18.5. And I will fetch a morsel of bread, and stay ye your heart; after that ye shall pass on; forasmuch as ye are come to your servant.’ And they said: ‘So do, as thou hast said.’" 18.6. And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said: ‘Make ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes.’" 18.7. And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good, and gave it unto the servant; and he hastened to dress it." 18.8. And he took curd, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat." 18.9. And they said unto him: ‘Where is Sarah thy wife?’ And he said: ‘Behold, in the tent.’" 18.10. And He said: ‘I will certainly return unto thee when the season cometh round; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son.’ And Sarah heard in the tent door, which was behind him.—" 22.1. And it came to pass after these things, that God did prove Abraham, and said unto him: ‘Abraham’; and he said: ‘Here am I.’" 22.2. And He said: ‘Take now thy son, thine only son, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.’" 22.3. And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son; and he cleaved the wood for the burnt-offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him." 22.4. On the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off." 22.5. And Abraham said unto his young men: ‘Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the lad will go yonder; and we will worship, and come back to you.’" 22.6. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife; and they went both of them together." 22.7. And Isaac spoke unto Abraham his father, and said: ‘My father.’ And he said: ‘Here am I, my son.’ And he said: ‘Behold the fire and the wood; but where is the lamb for a burnt-offering?’" 22.8. And Abraham said: ‘God will aprovide Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son.’ So they went both of them together." 22.9. And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built the altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar, upon the wood." 22.10. And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son." 22.11. And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said: ‘Abraham, Abraham.’ And he said: ‘Here am I.’" 22.12. And he said: ‘Lay not thy hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him; for now I know that thou art a God-fearing man, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, from Me.’" 22.13. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in the thicket by his horns. And Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son." 22.14. And Abraham called the name of that place Adonai-jireh; as it is said to this day: ‘In the mount where the LORD is seen.’" 22.15. And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven," 22.16. and said: ‘By Myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son," 22.17. that in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the seashore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies;" 22.18. and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast hearkened to My voice.’" 25.23. And the LORD said unto her: Two nations are in thy womb, And two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels; And the one people shall be stronger than the other people; And the elder shall serve the younger." 26.5. because that Abraham hearkened to My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws.’" 27.27. And he came near, and kissed him. And he smelled the smell of his raiment, and blessed him, and said: See, the smell of my son Is as the smell of a field which the LORD hath blessed." 28.10. And Jacob went out from Beer-sheba, and went toward Haran." 28.11. And he lighted upon the place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took one of the stones of the place, and put it under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep." 28.12. And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it." 28.13. And, behold, the LORD stood beside him, and said: ‘I am the LORD, the God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac. The land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed." 28.14. And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south. And in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed." 28.15. And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee whithersoever thou goest, and will bring thee back into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.’" 28.16. And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said: ‘Surely the LORD is in this place; and I knew it not.’" 28.17. And he was afraid, and said: ‘How full of awe is this place! this is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.’" 28.18. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it." 28.19. And he called the name of that place Beth-el, but the name of the city was Luz at the first." 32.24. And he took them, and sent them over the stream, and sent over that which he had." 32.25. And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day." 32.26. And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was strained, as he wrestled with him." 32.27. And he said: ‘Let me go, for the day breaketh.’ And he said: ‘I will not let thee go, except thou bless me.’" 32.28. And he said unto him: ‘What is thy name?’ And he said: ‘Jacob.’" 32.29. And he said: ‘Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel; for thou hast striven with God and with men, and hast prevailed.’" 32.30. And Jacob asked him, and said: ‘Tell me, I pray thee, thy name.’ And he said: ‘Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name?’ And he blessed him there." 32.31. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: ‘for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.’" 32.32. And the sun rose upon him as he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh." 37.26. And Judah said unto his brethren: ‘What profit is it if we slay our brother and conceal his blood?" 37.27. Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother, our flesh.’ And his brethren hearkened unto him." 47.29. And the time drew near that Israel must die; and he called his son Joseph, and said unto him: ‘If now I have found favour in thy sight, put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh, and deal kindly and truly with me; bury me not, I pray thee, in Egypt." 47.30. But when I sleep with my fathers, thou shalt carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in their burying-place.’ And he said: ‘I will do as thou hast said.’" 48.13. And Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, and brought them near unto him." 48.14. And Israel stretched out his right hand, and laid it upon Ephraim’s head, who was the younger, and his left hand upon Manasseh’s head, guiding his hands wittingly; for Manasseh was the first-born." 48.15. And he blessed Joseph, and said: ‘The God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the God who hath been my shepherd all my life long unto this day," 48.16. the angel who hath redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named in them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.’" 48.20. And he blessed them that day, saying: ‘By thee shall Israel bless, saying: God make thee as Ephraim and as Manasseh.’ And he set Ephraim before Manasseh." 49.1. And Jacob called unto his sons, and said: ‘Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the end of days." 49.2. Assemble yourselves, and hear, ye sons of Jacob; And hearken unto Israel your father." 49.3. Reuben, thou art my first-born, My might, and the first-fruits of my strength; The excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power." 49.4. Unstable as water, have not thou the excellency; Because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed; Then defiledst thou it—he went up to my couch." 49.5. Simeon and Levi are brethren; Weapons of violence their kinship." 49.6. Let my soul not come into their council; Unto their assembly let my glory not be not united; For in their anger they slew men, And in their self-will they houghed oxen." 49.7. Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce, And their wrath, for it was cruel; I will divide them in Jacob, And scatter them in Israel" 49.8. Judah, thee shall thy brethren praise; Thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; Thy father’s sons shall bow down before thee." 49.9. Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, thou art gone up. He stooped down, he couched as a lion, And as a lioness; who shall rouse him up?" 49.11. Binding his foal unto the vine, And his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; He washeth his garments in wine, And his vesture in the blood of grapes;" 49.12. His eyes shall be red with wine, And his teeth white with milk." 49.13. Zebulun shall dwell at the shore of the sea, And he shall be a shore for ships, And his flank shall be upon Zidon." 49.14. Issachar is a large-boned ass, Couching down between the sheep-folds." 49.15. For he saw a resting-place that it was good, And the land that it was pleasant; And he bowed his shoulder to bear, And became a servant under task-work" 49.17. Dan shall be a serpent in the way, A horned snake in the path, That biteth the horse’s heels, So that his rider falleth backward." 49.18. I wait for Thy salvation, O Lord." 49.21. Naphtali is a hind let loose: He giveth goodly words." 49.22. Joseph is a fruitful vine, A fruitful vine by a fountain; Its branches run over the wall. ." 49.25. Even by the God of thy father, who shall help thee, And by the Almighty, who shall bless thee, With blessings of heaven above, Blessings of the deep that coucheth beneath, Blessings of the breasts, and of the womb." 49.27. Benjamin is a wolf that raveneth; In the morning he devoureth the prey, And at even he divideth the spoil.’" 49.28. All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is it that their father spoke unto them and blessed them; every one according to his blessing he blessed them." 49.29. And be charged them, and said unto them: ‘I am to be gathered unto my people; bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite," 49.30. in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite for a possession of a burying-place." 49.31. There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah." 49.33. And when Jacob made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and expired, and was gathered unto his people."
4. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.11-1.14, 2.12-2.13, 3.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.11. כִּי מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ וְעַד־מְבוֹאוֹ גָּדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מָקוֹם מֻקְטָר מֻגָּשׁ לִשְׁמִי וּמִנְחָה טְהוֹרָה כִּי־גָדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.12. וְאַתֶּם מְחַלְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן אֲדֹנָי מְגֹאָל הוּא וְנִיבוֹ נִבְזֶה אָכְלוֹ׃ 1.13. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם הִנֵּה מַתְּלָאָה וְהִפַּחְתֶּם אוֹתוֹ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וַהֲבֵאתֶם גָּזוּל וְאֶת־הַפִּסֵּחַ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלֶה וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַאֶרְצֶה אוֹתָהּ מִיֶּדְכֶם אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 1.14. וְאָרוּר נוֹכֵל וְיֵשׁ בְּעֶדְרוֹ זָכָר וְנֹדֵר וְזֹבֵחַ מָשְׁחָת לַאדֹנָי כִּי מֶלֶךְ גָּדוֹל אָנִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּשְׁמִי נוֹרָא בַגּוֹיִם׃ 2.12. יַכְרֵת יְהוָה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂנָּה עֵר וְעֹנֶה מֵאָהֳלֵי יַעֲקֹב וּמַגִּישׁ מִנְחָה לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 2.13. וְזֹאת שֵׁנִית תַּעֲשׂוּ כַּסּוֹת דִּמְעָה אֶת־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה מֵאֵין עוֹד פְּנוֹת אֶל־הַמִּנְחָה וְלָקַחַת רָצוֹן מִיֶּדְכֶם׃ 3.23. הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ לָכֶם אֵת אֵלִיָּה הַנָּבִיא לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃ 1.11. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same My name is great among the nations; And in every place offerings are presented unto My name, Even pure oblations; For My name is great among the nations, Saith the LORD of hosts." 1.12. But ye profane it, In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is polluted, And the fruit thereof, even the food thereof, is contemptible.’" 1.13. Ye say also: ‘Behold, what a weariness is it!’ And ye have snuffed at it, Saith the LORD of hosts; And ye have brought that which was taken by violence, And the lame, and the sick; Thus ye bring the offering; Should I accept this of your hand? Saith the LORD." 1.14. But cursed be he that dealeth craftily, Whereas he hath in his flock a male, And voweth, and sacrificeth unto the Lord a blemished thing; For I am a great King, Saith the LORD of hosts, And My name is feared among the nations." 2.12. May the LORD cut off to the man that doeth this, Him that calleth and him that answereth out of the tents of Jacob, And him that offereth an offering unto the LORD of hosts." 2.13. And this further ye do: Ye cover the altar of the LORD with tears, With weeping, and with sighing, Insomuch that He regardeth not the offering any more, Neither receiveth it with good will at your hand." 3.23. Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet Before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.7, 21.18, 24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.7. לֹא־כֵן עַבְדִּי מֹשֶׁה בְּכָל־בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא׃ 21.18. בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃ 24.17. אֶרְאֶנּוּ וְלֹא עַתָּה אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב דָּרַךְ כּוֹכָב מִיַּעֲקֹב וְקָם שֵׁבֶט מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמָחַץ פַּאֲתֵי מוֹאָב וְקַרְקַר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵׁת׃ 12.7. My servant Moses is not so; he is trusted in all My house;" 21.18. The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;" 24.17. I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh; There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, And a scepter shall rise out of Israel, And shall smite through the corners of Moab, And break down all the sons of Seth."
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.23-8.30, 9.1-9.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 9.1. חָכְמוֹת בָּנְתָה בֵיתָהּ חָצְבָה עַמּוּדֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה׃ 9.1. תְּחִלַּת חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת קְדֹשִׁים בִּינָה׃ 9.2. טָבְחָה טִבְחָהּ מָסְכָה יֵינָהּ אַף עָרְכָה שֻׁלְחָנָהּ׃ 9.3. שָׁלְחָה נַעֲרֹתֶיהָ תִקְרָא עַל־גַּפֵּי מְרֹמֵי קָרֶת׃ 9.4. מִי־פֶתִי יָסֻר הֵנָּה חֲסַר־לֵב אָמְרָה לּוֹ׃ 9.5. לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחֲמִי וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי׃ 9.6. עִזְבוּ פְתָאיִם וִחְיוּ וְאִשְׁרוּ בְּדֶרֶךְ בִּינָה׃ 9.7. יֹסֵר לֵץ לֹקֵחַ לוֹ קָלוֹן וּמוֹכִיחַ לְרָשָׁע מוּמוֹ׃ 9.8. אַל־תּוֹכַח לֵץ פֶּן־יִשְׂנָאֶךָּ הוֹכַח לְחָכָם וְיֶאֱהָבֶךָּ׃ 9.9. תֵּן לְחָכָם וְיֶחְכַּם־עוֹד הוֹדַע לְצַדִּיק וְיוֹסֶף לֶקַח׃ 9.11. כִּי־בִי יִרְבּוּ יָמֶיךָ וְיוֹסִיפוּ לְּךָ שְׁנוֹת חַיִּים׃ 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 9.1. Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars;" 9.2. She hath prepared her meat, she hath mingled her wine; she hath also furnished her table." 9.3. She hath sent forth her maidens, she calleth, upon the highest places of the city:" 9.4. ’Whoso is thoughtless, let him turn in hither’; as for him that lacketh understanding, she saith to him:" 9.5. 'Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled." 9.6. Forsake all thoughtlessness, and live; and walk in the way of understanding." 9.7. He that correcteth a scorner getteth to himself shame, and he that reproveth a wicked man, it becometh unto him a blot." 9.8. Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee; reprove a wise man, and he will love thee." 9.9. Give to a wise man, and he will be yet wiser; teach a righteous man, and he will increase in learning." 9.10. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom, and the knowledge of the All-holy is understanding." 9.11. For by me thy days shall be multiplied, and the years of thy life shall be increased."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.9, 21.2, 60.9, 84.10, 95.10, 108.9, 110.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.9. תְּרֹעֵם בְּשֵׁבֶט בַּרְזֶל כִּכְלִי יוֹצֵר תְּנַפְּצֵם׃ 21.2. יְהוָה בְּעָזְּךָ יִשְׂמַח־מֶלֶךְ וּבִישׁוּעָתְךָ מַה־יגיל [יָּגֶל] מְאֹד׃ 60.9. לִי גִלְעָד וְלִי מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם מָעוֹז רֹאשִׁי יְהוּדָה מְחֹקְקִי׃ 108.9. לִי גִלְעָד לִי מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם מָעוֹז רֹאשִׁי יְהוּדָה מְחֹקְקִי׃ 110.4. נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה־כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל־דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק׃ 2.9. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; Thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.'" 21.2. O LORD, in Thy strength the king rejoiceth; and in Thy salvation how greatly doth he exult!" 60.9. Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is mine; Ephraim also is the defence of my head; Judah is my sceptre." 84.10. Behold, O God our shield, and look upon the face of Thine anointed." 95.10. For forty years was I wearied with that generation, And said: It is a people that do err in their heart, And they have not known My ways;" 108.9. Gilead is mine, Manasseh is mine; Ephraim also is the defence of my head; Judah is my sceptre." 110.4. The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent: 'Thou art a priest for ever After the manner of Melchizedek.'"
8. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 3.8-3.11, 3.13, 3.16-3.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.8. לָכֵן חַכּוּ־לִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה לְיוֹם קוּמִי לְעַד כִּי מִשְׁפָּטִי לֶאֱסֹף גּוֹיִם לְקָבְצִי מַמְלָכוֹת לִשְׁפֹּךְ עֲלֵיהֶם זַעְמִי כֹּל חֲרוֹן אַפִּי כִּי בְּאֵשׁ קִנְאָתִי תֵּאָכֵל כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.9. כִּי־אָז אֶהְפֹּךְ אֶל־עַמִּים שָׂפָה בְרוּרָה לִקְרֹא כֻלָּם בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה לְעָבְדוֹ שְׁכֶם אֶחָד׃ 3.11. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא תֵבוֹשִׁי מִכֹּל עֲלִילֹתַיִךְ אֲשֶׁר פָּשַׁעַתְּ בִּי כִּי־אָז אָסִיר מִקִּרְבֵּךְ עַלִּיזֵי גַּאֲוָתֵךְ וְלֹא־תוֹסִפִי לְגָבְהָה עוֹד בְּהַר קָדְשִׁי׃ 3.13. שְׁאֵרִית יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־יַעֲשׂוּ עַוְלָה וְלֹא־יְדַבְּרוּ כָזָב וְלֹא־יִמָּצֵא בְּפִיהֶם לְשׁוֹן תַּרְמִית כִּי־הֵמָּה יִרְעוּ וְרָבְצוּ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃ 3.16. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵאָמֵר לִירוּשָׁלִַם אַל־תִּירָאִי צִיּוֹן אַל־יִרְפּוּ יָדָיִךְ׃ 3.17. יְהוָה אֱלֹהַיִךְ בְּקִרְבֵּך גִּבּוֹר יוֹשִׁיעַ יָשִׂישׂ עָלַיִךְ בְּשִׂמְחָה יַחֲרִישׁ בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ יָגִיל עָלַיִךְ בְּרִנָּה׃ 3.8. Therefore wait ye for Me, saith the LORD, Until the day that I rise up to the prey; For My determination is to gather the nations, That I may assemble the kingdoms, To pour upon them Mine indignation, Even all My fierce anger; For all the earth shall be devoured With the fire of My jealousy." 3.9. For then will I turn to the peoples A pure language, That they may all call upon the name of the LORD, To serve Him with one consent." 3.10. From beyond the rivers of Ethiopia Shall they bring My suppliants, Even the daughter of My dispersed, As Mine offering." 3.11. In that day shalt thou not be ashamed for all thy doings, Wherein thou hast transgressed against Me; For then I will take away out of the midst of thee Thy proudly exulting ones, And thou shalt no more be haughty In My holy mountain." 3.13. The remt of Israel shall not do iniquity, Nor speak lies, Neither shall a deceitful tongue be found in their mouth; For they shall feed and lie down, And none shall make them afraid." 3.16. In that day it shall be said to Jerusalem: ‘Fear thou not; O Zion, let not thy hands be slack." 3.17. The LORD thy God is in the midst of thee, A Mighty One who will save; He will rejoice over thee with joy, He will be silent in His love, He will joy over thee with singing.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3.1, 9.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.1. וַיִּיטַב הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינֵי אֲדֹנָי כִּי שָׁאַל שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 3.1. וַיִּתְחַתֵּן שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ מִצְרָיִם וַיִּקַּח אֶת־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה וַיְבִיאֶהָ אֶל־עִיר דָּוִד עַד כַּלֹּתוֹ לִבְנוֹת אֶת־בֵּיתוֹ וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה וְאֶת־חוֹמַת יְרוּשָׁלִַם סָבִיב׃ 9.16. פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם עָלָה וַיִּלְכֹּד אֶת־גֶּזֶר וַיִּשְׂרְפָהּ בָּאֵשׁ וְאֶת־הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַיֹּשֵׁב בָּעִיר הָרָג וַיִּתְּנָהּ שִׁלֻּחִים לְבִתּוֹ אֵשֶׁת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 3.1. And Solomon became allied to Pharaoh king of Egypt by marriage, and took Pharaoh’s daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about." 9.16. Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up, and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city, and given it for a portion unto his daughter, Solomon’s wife."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.24, 3.1, 3.20, 24.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.24. וַתַּעֲלֵהוּ עִמָּהּ כַּאֲשֶׁר גְּמָלַתּוּ בְּפָרִים שְׁלֹשָׁה וְאֵיפָה אַחַת קֶמַח וְנֵבֶל יַיִן וַתְּבִאֵהוּ בֵית־יְהוָה שִׁלוֹ וְהַנַּעַר נָעַר׃ 3.1. וַיָּבֹא יְהוָה וַיִּתְיַצַּב וַיִּקְרָא כְפַעַם־בְּפַעַם שְׁמוּאֵל שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל דַּבֵּר כִּי שֹׁמֵעַ עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 3.1. וְהַנַּעַר שְׁמוּאֵל מְשָׁרֵת אֶת־יְהוָה לִפְנֵי עֵלִי וּדְבַר־יְהוָה הָיָה יָקָר בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֵין חָזוֹן נִפְרָץ׃ 24.7. וַיֹּאמֶר לַאֲנָשָׁיו חָלִילָה לִּי מֵיהוָה אִם־אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לַאדֹנִי לִמְשִׁיחַ יְהוָה לִשְׁלֹחַ יָדִי בּוֹ כִּי־מְשִׁיחַ יְהוָה הוּא׃ 1.24. And when she had weaned him, she took him up with her, with three bullocks, and one efa of flour, and a bottle of wine, and brought him to the house of the Lord in Shilo: and the child was young." 3.1. And the child Shemu᾽el ministered to the Lord before ῾Eli. And the word of the Lord was precious in those days; there was no frequent vision." 24.7. And he said to his men, The Lord forbid that I should do this thing to my master, the Lord’s anointed, to stretch forth my hand against him, seeing he is the anointed of the Lord."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 6.12-6.14, 7.12-7.14, 12.1-12.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.12. וַיֻּגַּד לַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד לֵאמֹר בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־בֵּית עֹבֵד אֱדֹם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ בַּעֲבוּר אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִד וַיַּעַל אֶת־אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים מִבֵּית עֹבֵד אֱדֹם עִיר דָּוִד בְּשִׂמְחָה׃ 6.13. וַיְהִי כִּי צָעֲדוּ נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן־יְהוָה שִׁשָּׁה צְעָדִים וַיִּזְבַּח שׁוֹר וּמְרִיא׃ 6.14. וְדָוִד מְכַרְכֵּר בְּכָל־עֹז לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְדָוִד חָגוּר אֵפוֹד בָּד׃ 7.12. כִּי יִמְלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ וְשָׁכַבְתָּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִי אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ׃ 7.13. הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 12.1. וְעַתָּה לֹא־תָסוּר חֶרֶב מִבֵּיתְךָ עַד־עוֹלָם עֵקֶב כִּי בְזִתָנִי וַתִּקַּח אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 12.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוָה אֶת־נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד וַיָּבֹא אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים הָיוּ בְּעִיר אֶחָת אֶחָד עָשִׁיר וְאֶחָד רָאשׁ׃ 12.2. לְעָשִׁיר הָיָה צֹאן וּבָקָר הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 12.2. וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵהָאָרֶץ וַיִּרְחַץ וַיָּסֶךְ וַיְחַלֵּף שמלתו [שִׂמְלֹתָיו] וַיָּבֹא בֵית־יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיָּבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיִּשְׁאַל וַיָּשִׂימוּ לוֹ לֶחֶם וַיֹּאכַל׃ 12.3. וַיִּקַּח אֶת־עֲטֶרֶת־מַלְכָּם מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ וּמִשְׁקָלָהּ כִּכַּר זָהָב וְאֶבֶן יְקָרָה וַתְּהִי עַל־רֹאשׁ דָּוִד וּשְׁלַל הָעִיר הוֹצִיא הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 12.3. וְלָרָשׁ אֵין־כֹּל כִּי אִם־כִּבְשָׂה אַחַת קְטַנָּה אֲשֶׁר קָנָה וַיְחַיֶּהָ וַתִּגְדַּל עִמּוֹ וְעִם־בָּנָיו יַחְדָּו מִפִּתּוֹ תֹאכַל וּמִכֹּסוֹ תִשְׁתֶּה וּבְחֵיקוֹ תִשְׁכָּב וַתְּהִי־לוֹ כְּבַת׃ 12.4. וַיָּבֹא הֵלֶךְ לְאִישׁ הֶעָשִׁיר וַיַּחְמֹל לָקַחַת מִצֹּאנוֹ וּמִבְּקָרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לָאֹרֵחַ הַבָּא־לוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־כִּבְשַׂת הָאִישׁ הָרָאשׁ וַיַּעֲשֶׂהָ לָאִישׁ הַבָּא אֵלָיו׃ 12.5. וַיִּחַר־אַף דָּוִד בָּאִישׁ מְאֹד וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־נָתָן חַי־יְהוָה כִּי בֶן־מָוֶת הָאִישׁ הָעֹשֶׂה זֹאת׃ 12.6. וְאֶת־הַכִּבְשָׂה יְשַׁלֵּם אַרְבַּעְתָּיִם עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְעַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־חָמָל׃ 12.7. וַיֹּאמֶר נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד אַתָּה הָאִישׁ כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָנֹכִי מְשַׁחְתִּיךָ לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָנֹכִי הִצַּלְתִּיךָ מִיַּד שָׁאוּל׃ 12.8. וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־בֵּית אֲדֹנֶיךָ וְאֶת־נְשֵׁי אֲדֹנֶיךָ בְּחֵיקֶךָ וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה וְאִם־מְעָט וְאֹסִפָה לְּךָ כָּהֵנָּה וְכָהֵנָּה׃ 12.9. מַדּוּעַ בָּזִיתָ אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בעינו [בְּעֵינַי] אֵת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי הִכִּיתָ בַחֶרֶב וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ לָקַחְתָּ לְּךָ לְאִשָּׁה וְאֹתוֹ הָרַגְתָּ בְּחֶרֶב בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 12.11. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי מֵקִים עָלֶיךָ רָעָה מִבֵּיתֶךָ וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶת־נָשֶׁיךָ לְעֵינֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי לְרֵעֶיךָ וְשָׁכַב עִם־נָשֶׁיךָ לְעֵינֵי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ הַזֹּאת׃ 12.12. כִּי אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ בַסָּתֶר וַאֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 12.13. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־נָתָן חָטָאתִי לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד גַּם־יְהוָה הֶעֱבִיר חַטָּאתְךָ לֹא תָמוּת׃ 12.14. אֶפֶס כִּי־נִאֵץ נִאַצְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֵי יְהוָה בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה גַּם הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד לְךָ מוֹת יָמוּת׃ 12.15. וַיֵּלֶךְ נָתָן אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיִּגֹּף יְהוָה אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה אֵשֶׁת־אוּרִיָּה לְדָוִד וַיֵּאָנַשׁ׃ 6.12. And it was told king David, saying, The Lord has blessed the house of ῾Oved-edom, and all that he has, because of the ark of God. So David went and brought up the ark of God from the house of ῾Oved-edom into the city of David with gladness." 6.13. And when they that bore the ark of the Lord had gone six paces, he sacrificed an ox and a fatling." 6.14. And David leaped about before the Lord with all his might; and David was girded with a linen efod." 7.12. And when the days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall issue from thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom." 7.13. He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever." 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:" 12.1. And the Lord sent Natan to David. And he came to him, and said to him, There were two men in one city; the one rich, and the other poor." 12.2. The rich man had very many flocks and herds:" 12.3. but the poor man had nothing, except one little ewe lamb, which he had bought and reared: and it grew up together with him, and with his children; it did eat of his own bread, and drank of his own cup, and lay in his bosom, and was like a daughter to him." 12.4. And there came a traveller to the rich man, and he spared to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare it for the wayfaring man that was come to him; but took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him." 12.5. And David’s anger burned greatly against the man; and he said to Natan, As the Lord lives, the man that has done this is worthy to die:" 12.6. and he shall restore the lamb fourfold, because he did this thing, and because he had no pity." 12.7. And Natan said to David, Thou art the man. Thus says the Lord God of Yisra᾽el, I anointed thee king over Yisra᾽el, and I delivered thee out of the hand of Sha᾽ul;" 12.8. and I gave thee thy master’s house, and thy master’s wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Yisra᾽el and of Yehuda; and if that had been too little, I would moreover have given thee as much again." 12.9. Why hast thou despised the commandment of the Lord, to do evil in his sight? thou hast killed Uriyya the Ĥittite with the sword, and hast taken his wife to be thy wife, and hast slain him with the sword of the children of ῾Ammon." 12.10. Now therefore the sword shall never depart from thy house; because thou hast despised me, and hast taken the wife of Uriyya the Ĥittite to be thy wife." 12.11. Thus says the Lord, Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thy own house, and I will take thy wives before thy eyes, and give them to thy neighbour, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this sun." 12.12. For thou didst it secretly: but I will do this thing before all Yisra᾽el, and before the sun." 12.13. And David said to Natan, I have sinned against the Lord. And Natan said to David, The Lord also has commuted thy sin; thou shalt not die." 12.14. Howbeit because by this deed thou hast greatly blasphemed the Lord, the child also that is born to thee shall surely die." 12.15. And Natan departed to his house. And the Lord struck the child that Uriyya’s wife bore to David, and it was very sick."
12. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 8.11-8.12 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

8.11. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ לֹא־רָעָב לַלֶּחֶם וְלֹא־צָמָא לַמַּיִם כִּי אִם־לִשְׁמֹעַ אֵת דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה׃ 8.12. וְנָעוּ מִיָּם עַד־יָם וּמִצָּפוֹן וְעַד־מִזְרָח יְשׁוֹטְטוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־דְּבַר־יְהוָה וְלֹא יִמְצָאוּ׃ 8.11. Behold, the days come, saith the Lord GOD, That I will send a famine in the land, Not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, But of hearing the words of the LORD." 8.12. And they shall wander from sea to sea, And from the north even to the east; They shall run to and fro to seek the word of the LORD, And shall not find it."
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5.2, 6.10, 7.10-7.14, 11.1, 28.11, 54.9-54.16, 60.1-60.6, 61.1-61.10, 65.18-65.24, 66.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.2. הוֹי הָאֹמְרִים לָרַע טוֹב וְלַטּוֹב רָע שָׂמִים חֹשֶׁךְ לְאוֹר וְאוֹר לְחֹשֶׁךְ שָׂמִים מַר לְמָתוֹק וּמָתוֹק לְמָר׃ 5.2. וַיְעַזְּקֵהוּ וַיְסַקְּלֵהוּ וַיִּטָּעֵהוּ שֹׂרֵק וַיִּבֶן מִגְדָּל בְּתוֹכוֹ וְגַם־יֶקֶב חָצֵב בּוֹ וַיְקַו לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 7.11. שְׁאַל־לְךָ אוֹת מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הַעְמֵק שְׁאָלָה אוֹ הַגְבֵּהַּ לְמָעְלָה׃ 7.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אָחָז לֹא־אֶשְׁאַל וְלֹא־אֲנַסֶּה אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 7.13. וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁמְעוּ־נָא בֵּית דָּוִד הַמְעַט מִכֶּם הַלְאוֹת אֲנָשִׁים כִּי תַלְאוּ גַּם אֶת־אֱלֹהָי׃ 7.14. לָכֵן יִתֵּן אֲדֹנָי הוּא לָכֶם אוֹת הִנֵּה הָעַלְמָה הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ עִמָּנוּ אֵל׃ 11.1. וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה׃ 11.1. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ יִשַׁי אֲשֶׁר עֹמֵד לְנֵס עַמִּים אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ וְהָיְתָה מְנֻחָתוֹ כָּבוֹד׃ 28.11. כִּי בְּלַעֲגֵי שָׂפָה וּבְלָשׁוֹן אַחֶרֶת יְדַבֵּר אֶל־הָעָם הַזֶּה׃ 54.9. כִּי־מֵי נֹחַ זֹאת לִי אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מֵעֲבֹר מֵי־נֹחַ עוֹד עַל־הָאָרֶץ כֵּן נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מִקְּצֹף עָלַיִךְ וּמִגְּעָר־בָּךְ׃ 54.11. עֲנִיָּה סֹעֲרָה לֹא נֻחָמָה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מַרְבִּיץ בַּפּוּךְ אֲבָנַיִךְ וִיסַדְתִּיךְ בַּסַּפִּירִים׃ 54.12. וְשַׂמְתִּי כַּדְכֹד שִׁמְשֹׁתַיִךְ וּשְׁעָרַיִךְ לְאַבְנֵי אֶקְדָּח וְכָל־גְּבוּלֵךְ לְאַבְנֵי־חֵפֶץ׃ 54.13. וְכָל־בָּנַיִךְ לִמּוּדֵי יְהוָה וְרַב שְׁלוֹם בָּנָיִךְ׃ 54.14. בִּצְדָקָה תִּכּוֹנָנִי רַחֲקִי מֵעֹשֶׁק כִּי־לֹא תִירָאִי וּמִמְּחִתָּה כִּי לֹא־תִקְרַב אֵלָיִךְ׃ 54.15. הֵן גּוֹר יָגוּר אֶפֶס מֵאוֹתִי מִי־גָר אִתָּךְ עָלַיִךְ יִפּוֹל׃ 54.16. הן [הִנֵּה] אָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי חָרָשׁ נֹפֵחַ בְּאֵשׁ פֶּחָם וּמוֹצִיא כְלִי לְמַעֲשֵׂהוּ וְאָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי מַשְׁחִית לְחַבֵּל׃ 60.1. וּבָנוּ בְנֵי־נֵכָר חֹמֹתַיִךְ וּמַלְכֵיהֶם יְשָׁרְתוּנֶךְ כִּי בְקִצְפִּי הִכִּיתִיךְ וּבִרְצוֹנִי רִחַמְתִּיךְ׃ 60.1. קוּמִי אוֹרִי כִּי בָא אוֹרֵךְ וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה עָלַיִךְ זָרָח׃ 60.2. לֹא־יָבוֹא עוֹד שִׁמְשֵׁךְ וִירֵחֵךְ לֹא יֵאָסֵף כִּי יְהוָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ לְאוֹר עוֹלָם וְשָׁלְמוּ יְמֵי אֶבְלֵךְ׃ 60.2. כִּי־הִנֵּה הַחֹשֶׁךְ יְכַסֶּה־אֶרֶץ וַעֲרָפֶל לְאֻמִּים וְעָלַיִךְ יִזְרַח יְהוָה וּכְבוֹדוֹ עָלַיִךְ יֵרָאֶה׃ 60.3. וְהָלְכוּ גוֹיִם לְאוֹרֵךְ וּמְלָכִים לְנֹגַהּ זַרְחֵךְ׃ 60.4. שְׂאִי־סָבִיב עֵינַיִךְ וּרְאִי כֻּלָּם נִקְבְּצוּ בָאוּ־לָךְ בָּנַיִךְ מֵרָחוֹק יָבֹאוּ וּבְנֹתַיִךְ עַל־צַד תֵּאָמַנָה׃ 60.5. אָז תִּרְאִי וְנָהַרְתְּ וּפָחַד וְרָחַב לְבָבֵךְ כִּי־יֵהָפֵךְ עָלַיִךְ הֲמוֹן יָם חֵיל גּוֹיִם יָבֹאוּ לָךְ׃ 60.6. שִׁפְעַת גְּמַלִּים תְּכַסֵּךְ בִּכְרֵי מִדְיָן וְעֵיפָה כֻּלָּם מִשְּׁבָא יָבֹאוּ זָהָב וּלְבוֹנָה יִשָּׂאוּ וּתְהִלֹּת יְהוָה יְבַשֵּׂרוּ׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃ 61.3. לָשׂוּם לַאֲבֵלֵי צִיּוֹן לָתֵת לָהֶם פְּאֵר תַּחַת אֵפֶר שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן תַּחַת אֵבֶל מַעֲטֵה תְהִלָּה תַּחַת רוּחַ כֵּהָה וְקֹרָא לָהֶם אֵילֵי הַצֶּדֶק מַטַּע יְהוָה לְהִתְפָּאֵר׃ 61.4. וּבָנוּ חָרְבוֹת עוֹלָם שֹׁמְמוֹת רִאשֹׁנִים יְקוֹמֵמוּ וְחִדְּשׁוּ עָרֵי חֹרֶב שֹׁמְמוֹת דּוֹר וָדוֹר׃ 61.5. וְעָמְדוּ זָרִים וְרָעוּ צֹאנְכֶם וּבְנֵי נֵכָר אִכָּרֵיכֶם וְכֹרְמֵיכֶם׃ 61.6. וְאַתֶּם כֹּהֲנֵי יְהוָה תִּקָּרֵאוּ מְשָׁרְתֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ יֵאָמֵר לָכֶם חֵיל גּוֹיִם תֹּאכֵלוּ וּבִכְבוֹדָם תִּתְיַמָּרוּ׃ 61.7. תַּחַת בָּשְׁתְּכֶם מִשְׁנֶה וּכְלִמָּה יָרֹנּוּ חֶלְקָם לָכֵן בְּאַרְצָם מִשְׁנֶה יִירָשׁוּ שִׂמְחַת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה לָהֶם׃ 61.8. כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֹהֵב מִשְׁפָּט שֹׂנֵא גָזֵל בְּעוֹלָה וְנָתַתִּי פְעֻלָּתָם בֶּאֱמֶת וּבְרִית עוֹלָם אֶכְרוֹת לָהֶם׃ 61.9. וְנוֹדַע בַּגּוֹיִם זַרְעָם וְצֶאֱצָאֵיהֶם בְּתוֹךְ הָעַמִּים כָּל־רֹאֵיהֶם יַכִּירוּם כִּי הֵם זֶרַע בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה׃ 65.18. כִּי־אִם־שִׂישׂוּ וְגִילוּ עֲדֵי־עַד אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי בוֹרֵא כִּי הִנְנִי בוֹרֵא אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם גִּילָה וְעַמָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ׃ 65.19. וְגַלְתִּי בִירוּשָׁלִַם וְשַׂשְׂתִּי בְעַמִּי וְלֹא־יִשָּׁמַע בָּהּ עוֹד קוֹל בְּכִי וְקוֹל זְעָקָה׃ 65.21. וּבָנוּ בָתִּים וְיָשָׁבוּ וְנָטְעוּ כְרָמִים וְאָכְלוּ פִּרְיָם׃ 65.22. לֹא יִבְנוּ וְאַחֵר יֵשֵׁב לֹא יִטְּעוּ וְאַחֵר יֹאכֵל כִּי־כִימֵי הָעֵץ יְמֵי עַמִּי וּמַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵיהֶם יְבַלּוּ בְחִירָי׃ 65.23. לֹא יִיגְעוּ לָרִיק וְלֹא יֵלְדוּ לַבֶּהָלָה כִּי זֶרַע בְּרוּכֵי יְהוָה הֵמָּה וְצֶאֱצָאֵיהֶם אִתָּם׃ 65.24. וְהָיָה טֶרֶם־יִקְרָאוּ וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה עוֹד הֵם מְדַבְּרִים וַאֲנִי אֶשְׁמָע׃ 66.6. קוֹל שָׁאוֹן מֵעִיר קוֹל מֵהֵיכָל קוֹל יְהוָה מְשַׁלֵּם גְּמוּל לְאֹיְבָיו׃ 5.2. And he digged it, and cleared it of stones, And planted it with the choicest vine, And built a tower in the midst of it, And also hewed out a vat therein; And he looked that it should bring forth grapes, And it brought forth wild grapes. ." 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’" 7.10. And the LORD spoke again unto Ahaz, saying:" 7.11. ’Ask thee a sign of the LORD thy God: ask it either in the depth, or in the height above.’" 7.12. But Ahaz said: ‘I will not ask, neither will I try the LORD.’" 7.13. And he said: ‘Hear ye now, O house of David: Is it a small thing for you to weary men, that ye will weary my God also?" 7.14. Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel." 11.1. And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, And a twig shall grow forth out of his roots." 28.11. For with stammering lips and with a strange tongue Shall it be spoken to this people;" 54.9. For this is as the waters of Noah unto Me; for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee." 54.10. For the mountains may depart, and the hills be removed; but My kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall My covet of peace be removed, saith the LORD that hath compassion on thee." 54.11. O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will set thy stones in fair colours, And lay thy foundations with sapphires." 54.12. And I will make thy pinnacles of rubies, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy border of precious stones." 54.13. And all thy children shall be taught of the LORD; and great shall be the peace of thy children." 54.14. In righteousness shalt thou be established; be thou far from oppression, for thou shalt not fear, And from ruin, for it shall not come near thee." 54.15. Behold, they may gather together, but not by Me; Whosoever shall gather together against thee shall fall because of thee." 54.16. Behold, I have created the smith That bloweth the fire of coals, And bringeth forth a weapon for his work; And I have created the waster to destroy." 60.1. Arise, shine, for thy light is come, And the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee." 60.2. For, behold, darkness shall cover the earth, And gross darkness the peoples; But upon thee the LORD will arise, And His glory shall be seen upon thee." 60.3. And nations shall walk at thy light, And kings at the brightness of thy rising." 60.4. Lift Up thine eyes round about, and see: They all are gathered together, and come to thee; Thy sons come from far, And thy daughters are borne on the side." 60.5. Then thou shalt see and be radiant, And thy heart shall throb and be enlarged; Because the abundance of the sea shall be turned unto thee, The wealth of the nations shall come unto thee." 60.6. The caravan of camels shall cover thee, And of the young camels of Midian and Ephah, All coming from Sheba; They shall bring gold and incense, And shall proclaim the praises of the LORD." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;" 61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;" 61.3. To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, To give unto them a garland for ashes, The oil of joy for mourning, The mantle of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they might be called terebinths of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, wherein He might glory." 61.4. And they shall build the old wastes, They shall raise up the former desolations, And they shall renew the waste cities, The desolations of many generations." 61.5. And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, And aliens shall be your plowmen and your vinedressers." 61.6. But ye shall be named the priests of the LORD, Men shall call you the ministers of our God; Ye shall eat the wealth of the nations, And in their splendour shall ye revel." 61.7. For your shame which was double, And for that they rejoiced: ‘Confusion is their portion’; Therefore in their land they shall possess double, Everlasting joy shall be unto them." 61.8. For I the LORD love justice, I hate robbery with iniquity; And I will give them their recompense in truth, And I will make an everlasting covet with them." 61.9. And their seed shall be known among the nations, And their offspring among the peoples; All that see them shall acknowledge them, That they are the seed which the LORD hath blessed." 61.10. I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels." 65.18. But be ye glad and rejoice for ever In that which I create; For, behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, And her people a joy." 65.19. And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, And joy in My people; And the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, Nor the voice of crying." 65.20. There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man, That hath not filled his days; For the youngest shall die a hundred years old, And the sinner being a hundred years old shall be accursed." 65.21. And they shall build houses, and inhabit them; And they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them." 65.22. They shall not build, and another inhabit, They shall not plant, and another eat; For as the days of a tree shall be the days of My people, And Mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands." 65.23. They shall not labour in vain, Nor bring forth for terror; For they are the seed blessed of the LORD, And their offspring with them." 65.24. And it shall come to pass that, before they call, I will answer, And while they are yet speaking, I will hear." 66.6. Hark! an uproar from the city, Hark! it cometh from the temple, Hark! the LORD rendereth recompense to His enemies."
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 31.31-31.33, 38.33-38.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33. כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;" 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD." 31.33. But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;"
15. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 5.10, 5.13-5.15, 10.12-10.13, 23.2, 24.1-24.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.13. וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּירִיחוֹ וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדּוֹ וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִם־לְצָרֵינוּ׃ 5.14. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי אֲנִי שַׂר־צְבָא־יְהוָה עַתָּה בָאתִי וַיִּפֹּל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־פָּנָיו אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מָה אֲדֹנִי מְדַבֵּר אֶל־עַבְדּוֹ׃ 5.15. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׂר־צְבָא יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שַׁל־נַעַלְךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹמֵד עָלָיו קֹדֶשׁ הוּא וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כֵּן׃ 10.12. אָז יְדַבֵּר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לַיהוָה בְּיוֹם תֵּת יְהוָה אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֵינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמֶשׁ בְּגִבְעוֹן דּוֹם וְיָרֵחַ בְּעֵמֶק אַיָּלוֹן׃ 10.13. וַיִּדֹּם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵחַ עָמָד עַד־יִקֹּם גּוֹי אֹיְבָיו הֲלֹא־הִיא כְתוּבָה עַל־סֵפֶר הַיָּשָׁר וַיַּעֲמֹד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בַּחֲצִי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְלֹא־אָץ לָבוֹא כְּיוֹם תָּמִים׃ 23.2. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לִזְקֵנָיו וּלְרָאשָׁיו וּלְשֹׁפְטָיו וּלְשֹׁטְרָיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי בָּאתִי בַּיָּמִים׃ 24.1. וְלֹא אָבִיתִי לִשְׁמֹעַ לְבִלְעָם וַיְבָרֶךְ בָּרוֹךְ אֶתְכֶם וָאַצִּל אֶתְכֶם מִיָּדוֹ׃ 24.1. וַיֶּאֶסֹף יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־כָּל־שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁכֶמָה וַיִּקְרָא לְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּלְרָאשָׁיו וּלְשֹׁפְטָיו וּלְשֹׁטְרָיו וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 24.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר יָשְׁבוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם מֵעוֹלָם תֶּרַח אֲבִי אַבְרָהָם וַאֲבִי נָחוֹר וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃ 24.2. כִּי תַעַזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהֵי נֵכָר וְשָׁב וְהֵרַע לָכֶם וְכִלָּה אֶתְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר־הֵיטִיב לָכֶם׃ 5.10. And the children of Israel encamped in Gilgal; and they kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the month at even in the plains of Jericho." 5.13. And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, there stood a man over against him with his sword drawn in his hand; and Joshua went unto him, and said unto him: ‘Art thou for us, or for our adversaries?’ ." 5.14. And he said: ‘Nay, but I am captain of the host of the LORD; I am now come.’ And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and bowed down, and said unto him: ‘What saith my lord unto his servant?’" 5.15. And the captain of the LORD’S host said unto Joshua: ‘Put off thy shoe from off thy foot; for the place whereon thou standest is holy.’ And Joshua did so." 10.12. Then spoke Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel; and he said in the sight of Israel: ‘Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; And thou, Moon, in the valley of Aijalon.’" 10.13. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, Until the nation had avenged themselves of their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jashar? And the sun stayed in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day." 23.2. that Joshua called for all Israel, for their elders and for their heads, and for their judges and for their officers, and said unto them: ‘I am old and well stricken in years." 24.1. And Joshua gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem, and called for the elders of Israel, and for their heads, and for their judges, and for their officers; and they presented themselves before God." 24.2. And Joshua said unto all the people: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Your fathers dwelt of old time beyond the River, even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nahor; and they served other gods."
16. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.9, 5.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.9. לִבִּי לְחוֹקְקֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמִּתְנַדְּבִים בָּעָם בָּרֲכוּ יְהוָה׃ 5.14. מִנִּי אֶפְרַיִם שָׁרְשָׁם בַּעֲמָלֵק אַחֲרֶיךָ בִנְיָמִין בַּעֲמָמֶיךָ מִנִּי מָכִיר יָרְדוּ מְחֹקְקִים וּמִזְּבוּלֻן מֹשְׁכִים בְּשֵׁבֶט סֹפֵר׃ 5.9. My heart goes out to the governors of Yisra᾽el, that offered themselves willingly among the people. Bless the Lord!" 5.14. From Efrayim came they, but rooted in ῾Amaleq, beyond thee, Binyamin with thy tribes; from Makhir came down leaders, and from Zevulun, those that handle the marshal’s staff."
17. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 19.11, 37.1-37.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.11. וַיִּהְיוּ־לָהּ מַטּוֹת עֹז אֶל־שִׁבְטֵי מֹשְׁלִים וַתִּגְבַּהּ קוֹמָתוֹ עַל־בֵּין עֲבֹתִים וַיֵּרָא בְגָבְהוֹ בְּרֹב דָּלִיֹּתָיו׃ 37.1. וְהִנַּבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּנִי וַתָּבוֹא בָהֶם הָרוּחַ וַיִּחְיוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ עַל־רַגְלֵיהֶם חַיִל גָּדוֹל מְאֹד־מְאֹד׃ 37.1. הָיְתָה עָלַי יַד־יְהוָה וַיּוֹצִאֵנִי בְרוּחַ יְהוָה וַיְנִיחֵנִי בְּתוֹךְ הַבִּקְעָה וְהִיא מְלֵאָה עֲצָמוֹת׃ 37.2. וְהָיוּ הָעֵצִים אֲ‍שֶׁר־תִּכְתֹּב עֲלֵיהֶם בְּיָדְךָ לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 37.2. וְהֶעֱבִירַנִי עֲלֵיהֶם סָבִיב סָבִיב וְהִנֵּה רַבּוֹת מְאֹד עַל־פְּנֵי הַבִּקְעָה וְהִנֵּה יְבֵשׁוֹת מְאֹד׃ 37.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הֲתִחְיֶינָה הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וָאֹמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה יָדָעְתָּ׃ 37.4. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא עַל־הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם הָעֲצָמוֹת הַיְבֵשׁוֹת שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃ 37.5. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה הִנֵּה אֲנִי מֵבִיא בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם׃ 37.6. וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עוֹר וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 37.7. וְנִבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צֻוֵּיתִי וַיְהִי־קוֹל כְּהִנָּבְאִי וְהִנֵּה־רַעַשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּ עֲצָמוֹת עֶצֶם אֶל־עַצְמוֹ׃ 37.8. וְרָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה־עֲלֵיהֶם גִּדִים וּבָשָׂר עָלָה וַיִּקְרַם עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹר מִלְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ אֵין בָּהֶם׃ 37.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא אֶל־הָרוּחַ הִנָּבֵא בֶן־אָדָם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־הָרוּחַ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מֵאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת בֹּאִי הָרוּחַ וּפְחִי בַּהֲרוּגִים הָאֵלֶּה וְיִחְיוּ׃ 37.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה כָּל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה הִנֵּה אֹמְרִים יָבְשׁוּ עַצְמוֹתֵינוּ וְאָבְדָה תִקְוָתֵנוּ נִגְזַרְנוּ לָנוּ׃ 37.12. לָכֵן הִנָּבֵא וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנֵּה אֲנִי פֹתֵחַ אֶת־קִבְרוֹתֵיכֶם וְהַעֲלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרוֹתֵיכֶם עַמִּי וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אַדְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 37.13. וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּפִתְחִי אֶת־קִבְרוֹתֵיכֶם וּבְהַעֲלוֹתִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרוֹתֵיכֶם עַמִּי׃ 37.14. וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 19.11. And she had strong rods To be sceptres for them that bore rule; And her stature was exalted Among the thick branches, And she was seen in her height With the multitude of her tendrils." 37.1. The hand of the LORD was upon me, and the LORD carried me out in a spirit, and set me down in the midst of the valley, and it was full of bones;" 37.2. and He caused me to pass by them round about, and, behold, there were very many in the open valley; and, lo, they were very dry." 37.3. And He said unto me: ‘Son of man, can these bones live?’ And I answered: ‘O Lord GOD, Thou knowest.’" 37.4. Then He said unto me: ‘Prophesy over these bones, and say unto them: O ye dry bones, hear the word of the LORD:" 37.5. Thus saith the Lord GOD unto these bones: Behold, I will cause breath to enter into you, and ye shall live." 37.6. And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; and ye shall know that I am the LORD.’" 37.7. So I prophesied as I was commanded; and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold a commotion, and the bones came together, bone to its bone." 37.8. And I beheld, and, lo, there were sinews upon them, and flesh came up, and skin covered them above; but there was no breath in them." 37.9. Then said He unto me: ‘Prophesy unto the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.’" 37.10. So I prophesied as He commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they lived, and stood up upon their feet, an exceeding great host." 37.11. Then He said unto me: ‘Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel; behold, they say: Our bones are dried up, and our hope is lost; we are clean cut off." 37.12. Therefore prophesy, and say unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, O My people; and I will bring you into the land of Israel." 37.13. And ye shall know that I am the LORD, when I have opened your graves, and caused you to come up out of your graves, O My people." 37.14. And I will put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I will place you in your own land; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken, and performed it, saith the LORD.’"
18. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 11.1-11.7 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.1. וַיִּקָּבְצוּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־דָּוִיד חֶבְרוֹנָה לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה עַצְמְךָ וּבְשָׂרְךָ אֲנָחְנוּ׃ 11.1. וְאֵלֶּה רָאשֵׁי הַגִּבּוֹרִים אֲשֶׁר לְדָוִיד הַמִּתְחַזְּקִים עִמּוֹ בְמַלְכוּתוֹ עִם־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַמְלִיכוֹ כִּדְבַר יְהוָה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 11.2. וְאַבְשַׁי אֲחִי־יוֹאָב הוּא הָיָה רֹאשׁ הַשְּׁלוֹשָׁה וְהוּא עוֹרֵר אֶת־חֲנִיתוֹ עַל־שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת חָלָל ולא־[וְלוֹ־] שֵׁם בַּשְּׁלוֹשָׁה׃ 11.2. גַּם־תְּמוֹל גַּם־שִׁלְשׁוֹם גַּם בִּהְיוֹת שָׁאוּל מֶלֶךְ אַתָּה הַמּוֹצִיא וְהַמֵּבִיא אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ אַתָּה תִרְעֶה אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאַתָּה תִּהְיֶה נָגִיד עַל עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 11.3. וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ חֶבְרוֹנָה וַיִּכְרֹת לָהֶם דָּוִיד בְּרִית בְּחֶבְרוֹן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיִּמְשְׁחוּ אֶת־דָּוִיד לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּדְבַר יְהוָה בְּיַד־שְׁמוּאֵל׃ 11.3. מַהְרַי הַנְּטֹפָתִי חֵלֶד בֶּן־בַּעֲנָה הַנְּטוֹפָתִי׃ 11.4. וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִיד וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל יְרוּשָׁלִַם הִיא יְבוּס וְשָׁם הַיְבוּסִי יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.4. עִירָא הַיִּתְרִי גָּרֵב הַיִּתְרִי׃ 11.5. וַיֹּאמְרוּ יֹשְׁבֵי יְבוּס לְדָוִיד לֹא תָבוֹא הֵנָּה וַיִּלְכֹּד דָּוִיד אֶת־מְצֻדַת צִיּוֹן הִיא עִיר דָּוִיד׃ 11.6. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד כָּל־מַכֵּה יְבוּסִי בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה יִהְיֶה לְרֹאשׁ וּלְשָׂר וַיַּעַל בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה יוֹאָב בֶּן־צְרוּיָה וַיְהִי לְרֹאשׁ׃ 11.7. וַיֵּשֶׁב דָּוִיד בַּמְצָד עַל־כֵּן קָרְאוּ־לוֹ עִיר דָּוִיד׃ 11.1. Then all Israel gathered themselves to David unto Hebron, saying: ‘Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh." 11.2. In times past, even when Saul was king, it was thou that didst lead out and bring in Israel; and the LORD thy God said unto thee: Thou shalt feed My people Israel, and thou shalt be prince over My people Israel.’" 11.3. So all the elders of Israel came to the king to Hebron; and David made a covet with them in Hebron before the LORD; and they anointed David king over Israel, according to the word of the LORD by the hand of Samuel." 11.4. And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem—the same is Jebus—and the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, were there." 11.5. And the inhabitants of Jebus said to David: ‘Thou shalt not come in hither.’ Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion; the same is the city of David." 11.6. And David said: ‘Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first shall be chief and captain.’ And Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first, and was made chief." 11.7. And David dwelt in the stronghold; therefore they called it the city of David."
19. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 2.3-2.16, 8.11 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.3. הִנֵּה אֲנִי בוֹנֶה־בַּיִת לְשֵׁם יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי לְהַקְדִּישׁ לוֹ לְהַקְטִיר לְפָנָיו קְטֹרֶת־סַמִּים וּמַעֲרֶכֶת תָּמִיד וְעֹלוֹת לַבֹּקֶר וְלָעֶרֶב לַשַּׁבָּתוֹת וְלֶחֳדָשִׁים וּלְמוֹעֲדֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְעוֹלָם זֹאת עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 2.5. וּמִי יַעֲצָר־כֹּחַ לִבְנוֹת־לוֹ בַיִת כִּי הַשָּׁמַיִם וּשְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם לֹא יְכַלְכְּלֻהוּ וּמִי אֲנִי אֲשֶׁר אֶבְנֶה־לּוֹ בַיִת כִּי אִם־לְהַקְטִיר לְפָנָיו׃ 2.11. וַיֹּאמֶר חוּרָם בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לְדָוִיד הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּן חָכָם יוֹדֵעַ שֵׂכֶל וּבִינָה אֲשֶׁר יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לַיהוָה וּבַיִת לְמַלְכוּתוֹ׃ 2.12. וְעַתָּה שָׁלַחְתִּי אִישׁ־חָכָם יוֹדֵעַ בִּינָה לְחוּרָם אָבִי׃ 2.13. בֶּן־אִשָּׁה מִן־בְּנוֹת דָּן וְאָבִיו אִישׁ־צֹרִי יוֹדֵעַ לַעֲשׂוֹת בַּזָּהָב־וּבַכֶּסֶף בַּנְּחֹשֶׁת בַּבַּרְזֶל בָּאֲבָנִים וּבָעֵצִים בָּאַרְגָּמָן בַּתְּכֵלֶת וּבַבּוּץ וּבַכַּרְמִיל וּלְפַתֵּחַ כָּל־פִּתּוּחַ וְלַחְשֹׁב כָּל־מַחֲשָׁבֶת אֲשֶׁר יִנָּתֶן־לוֹ עִם־חֲכָמֶיךָ וְחַכְמֵי אֲדֹנִי דָּוִיד אָבִיךָ׃ 2.14. וְעַתָּה הַחִטִּים וְהַשְּׂעֹרִים הַשֶּׁמֶן וְהַיַּיִן אֲשֶׁר אָמַר אֲדֹנִי יִשְׁלַח לַעֲבָדָיו׃ 2.15. וַאֲנַחְנוּ נִכְרֹת עֵצִים מִן־הַלְּבָנוֹן כְּכָל־צָרְכֶּךָ וּנְבִיאֵם לְךָ רַפְסֹדוֹת עַל־יָם יָפוֹ וְאַתָּה תַּעֲלֶה אֹתָם יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 2.16. וַיִּסְפֹּר שְׁלֹמֹה כָּל־הָאֲנָשִׁים הַגֵּירִים אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַסְּפָר אֲשֶׁר סְפָרָם דָּוִיד אָבִיו וַיִּמָּצְאוּ מֵאָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים אֶלֶף וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וְשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת׃ 8.11. וְאֶת־בַּת־פַּרְעֹה הֶעֱלָה שְׁלֹמֹה מֵעִיר דָּוִיד לַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה־לָהּ כִּי אָמַר לֹא־תֵשֵׁב אִשָּׁה לִי בְּבֵית דָּוִיד מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־קֹדֶשׁ הֵמָּה אֲשֶׁר־בָּאָה אֲלֵיהֶם אֲרוֹן יְהוָה׃ 2.3. Behold, I am about to build a house for the name of the LORD my God, to dedicate it to Him, and to burn before Him incense of sweet spices, and for the continual showbread, and for the burnt-offerings morning and evening, on the sabbaths, and on the new moons, and on the appointed seasons of the LORD our God. This is an ordice for ever to Israel." 2.5. But who is able to build Him a house, seeing the heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain Him? who am I then, that I should build Him a house, save only to offer before Him?" 2.11. Huram said moreover: ‘Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel, that made heaven and earth, who hath given to David the king a wise son, endued with discretion and understanding, that should build a house for the LORD, and a house for his kingdom." 2.12. And now I have sent a skilful man, endued with understanding, even Huram my master craftsman," 2.13. the son of a woman of the daughters of Dan, and his father was a man of Tyre, skilful to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson; also to grave any manner of graving, and to devise any device; to do whatever may be set before him, with thy skilful men, and with the skilful men of my lord David thy father." 2.14. Now therefore the wheat and the barley, the oil and the wine, which my lord hath spoken of, let him send unto his servants;" 2.15. and we will cut wood out of Lebanon, as much as thou shalt need; and we will bring it to thee in floats by sea to Joppa; and thou shalt carry it up to Jerusalem.’" 2.16. And Solomon numbered all the strangers that were in the land of Israel, after the numbering wherewith David his father had numbered them; and they were found a hundred and fifty thousand and three thousand and six hundred." 8.11. And Solomon brought up the daughter of Pharaoh out of the city of David unto the house that he had built for her; for he said: ‘No wife of mine shall dwell in the house of David king of Israel, because the places are holy, whereunto the ark of the LORD hath come.’"
20. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 10.32 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.32. וְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ הַמְבִיאִים אֶת־הַמַּקָּחוֹת וְכָל־שֶׁבֶר בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לִמְכּוֹר לֹא־נִקַּח מֵהֶם בַּשַּׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם קֹדֶשׁ וְנִטֹּשׁ אֶת־הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִית וּמַשָּׁא כָל־יָד׃ 10.32. and if the peoples of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath day to sell, that we would not buy of them on the sabbath, or on a holy day; and that we would forego the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt."
21. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 9.8-9.12, 9.14-9.15 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.9. גִּילִי מְאֹד בַּת־צִיּוֹן הָרִיעִי בַּת יְרוּשָׁלִַם הִנֵּה מַלְכֵּךְ יָבוֹא לָךְ צַדִּיק וְנוֹשָׁע הוּא עָנִי וְרֹכֵב עַל־חֲמוֹר וְעַל־עַיִר בֶּן־אֲתֹנוֹת׃ 9.11. גַּם־אַתְּ בְּדַם־בְּרִיתֵךְ שִׁלַּחְתִּי אֲסִירַיִךְ מִבּוֹר אֵין מַיִם בּוֹ׃ 9.12. שׁוּבוּ לְבִצָּרוֹן אֲסִירֵי הַתִּקְוָה גַּם־הַיּוֹם מַגִּיד מִשְׁנֶה אָשִׁיב לָךְ׃ 9.14. וַיהוָה עֲלֵיהֶם יֵרָאֶה וְיָצָא כַבָּרָק חִצּוֹ וַאדֹנָי יְהֹוִה בַּשּׁוֹפָר יִתְקָע וְהָלַךְ בְּסַעֲרוֹת תֵּימָן׃ 9.15. יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת יָגֵן עֲלֵיהֶם וְאָכְלוּ וְכָבְשׁוּ אַבְנֵי־קֶלַע וְשָׁתוּ הָמוּ כְּמוֹ־יָיִן וּמָלְאוּ כַּמִּזְרָק כְּזָוִיּוֹת מִזְבֵּחַ׃ 9.9. Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion, Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; Behold, thy king cometh unto thee, He is triumphant, and victorious, Lowly, and riding upon an ass, Even upon a colt the foal of an ass." 9.10. And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, And the horse from Jerusalem, And the battle bow shall be cut off, And he shall speak peace unto the nations; And his dominion shall be from sea to sea, And from the River to the ends of the earth." 9.11. As for thee also, because of the blood of thy covet I send forth thy prisoners out of the pit Wherein is no water." 9.12. Return to the stronghold, Ye prisoners of hope; Even to-day do I declare That I will render double unto thee." 9.14. And the LORD shall be seen over them, And His arrow shall go forth as the lightning; And the Lord GOD will blow the horn, And will go with whirlwinds of the south." 9.15. The LORD of hosts will defend them; And they shall devour, and shall tread down the sling-stones; And they shall drink, and make a noise as through wine; And they shall be filled like the basins, like the corners of the altar."
22. Anon., Testament of Issachar, 5.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Anon., Testament of Levi, 8.2-8.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.2. And I saw seven men in white raiment saying unto me: Arise, put on the robe of the priesthood, and the crown of righteousness, and the breastplate of understanding, and the garment of truth, and the plate of faith, and the turban of the head, and the ephod of prophecy. 8.3. And they severally carried (these things) and put (them,) on me, and said unto me: From henceforth become a priest of the Lord, thou and thy seed for ever. 8.4. And the first anointed me with holy oil, and gave to me the staff of judgment. 8.5. The second washed me with pure water, and fed me with bread and wine (even) the most holy things, and clad me with a holy and glorious robe. 8.6. The third clothed me with a linen vestment like an ephod. 8.7. The, fourth put round me a girdle like unto purple. 8.8. The fifth gave me a branch of rich olive. 8.9. The sixth placed a crown on my head.
24. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 5.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.3. And we all of us ran together, and Levi laid hold of the sun, and Judah outstripped the others and seized the moon, and they were both of them lifted up with them.
25. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 6.5-6.8, 6.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.5. Therefore, then I say unto you, ye will be jealous against the sons of Levi, and will seek to be exalted over them; but ye shall not be able. 6.6. For God will avenge them, and ye shall die by an evil death. 6.7. For to Levi God gave the sovereignty [and to Judah with him and to me also, and to Dan and Joseph, that we should be for rulers]. 6.8. Therefore I command you to hearken to Levi, because he shall know the law of the Lord, and shall give ordices for judgement and shall sacrifice for all Israel until the consummation of the times, as the anointed High Priest, of whom the Lord spake
26. Anon., Testament of Judah, 21.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 4.8, 6.14, 6.18, 6.20, 13.6, 13.11-13.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 4.8, 6.14, 6.18, 6.20, 13.6, 13.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 5.8-5.10, 5.21, 6.13-6.23, 9.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 6.3-6.4, 6.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 6.3-6.4, 6.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.32, 3.1-3.27, 4.16, 7.3, 7.13-7.14, 7.25, 9.24-9.27, 12.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.32. הוּא צַלְמָא רֵאשֵׁהּ דִּי־דְהַב טָב חֲדוֹהִי וּדְרָעוֹהִי דִּי כְסַף מְעוֹהִי וְיַרְכָתֵהּ דִּי נְחָשׁ׃ 3.1. אנתה [אַנְתְּ] מַלְכָּא שָׂמְתָּ טְּעֵם דִּי כָל־אֱנָשׁ דִּי־יִשְׁמַע קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְסַנְתֵּרִין וסיפניה [וְסוּפֹּנְיָה] וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא׃ 3.1. נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא עֲבַד צְלֵם דִּי־דְהַב רוּמֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁתִּין פְּתָיֵהּ אַמִּין שִׁת אֲקִימֵהּ בְּבִקְעַת דּוּרָא בִּמְדִינַת בָּבֶל׃ 3.2. וּנְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא שְׁלַח לְמִכְנַשׁ לַאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא אֲדַרְגָּזְרַיָּא גְדָבְרַיָּא דְּתָבְרַיָּא תִּפְתָּיֵא וְכֹל שִׁלְטֹנֵי מְדִינָתָא לְמֵתֵא לַחֲנֻכַּת צַלְמָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.2. וּלְגֻבְרִין גִּבָּרֵי־חַיִל דִּי בְחַיְלֵהּ אֲמַר לְכַפָּתָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ לְמִרְמֵא לְאַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.3. בֵּאדַיִן מַלְכָּא הַצְלַח לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ בִּמְדִינַת בָּבֶל׃ 3.3. בֵּאדַיִן מִתְכַּנְּשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא אֲדַרְגָּזְרַיָּא גְדָבְרַיָּא דְּתָבְרַיָּא תִּפְתָּיֵא וְכֹל שִׁלְטֹנֵי מְדִינָתָא לַחֲנֻכַּת צַלְמָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא וקאמין [וְקָיְמִין] לָקֳבֵל צַלְמָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר׃ 3.4. וְכָרוֹזָא קָרֵא בְחָיִל לְכוֹן אָמְרִין עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַּיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא׃ 3.5. בְּעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרוס [קַתְרוֹס] סַבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין סוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.6. וּמַן־דִּי־לָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָא יִתְרְמֵא לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.7. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה בֵּהּ־זִמְנָא כְּדִי שָׁמְעִין כָּל־עַמְמַיָּא קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְטֵרִין וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא נָפְלִין כָּל־עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא סָגְדִין לְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.8. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה בֵּהּ־זִמְנָא קְרִבוּ גֻּבְרִין כַּשְׂדָּאִין וַאֲכַלוּ קַרְצֵיהוֹן דִּי יְהוּדָיֵא׃ 3.9. עֲנוֹ וְאָמְרִין לִנְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא מַלְכָּא לְעָלְמִין חֱיִי׃ 3.11. וּמַן־דִּי־לָא יִפֵּל וְיִסְגֻּד יִתְרְמֵא לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.12. אִיתַי גֻּבְרִין יְהוּדָאיִן דִּי־מַנִּיתָ יָתְהוֹן עַל־עֲבִידַת מְדִינַת בָּבֶל שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ לָא־שָׂמוּ עליך [עֲלָךְ] מַלְכָּא טְעֵם לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא סָגְדִין׃ 3.13. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר בִּרְגַז וַחֲמָה אֲמַר לְהַיְתָיָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הֵיתָיוּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא׃ 3.14. עָנֵה נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר וְאָמַר לְהוֹן הַצְדָּא שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ לֵאלָהַי לָא אִיתֵיכוֹן פָּלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימֶת לָא סָגְדִין׃ 3.15. כְּעַן הֵן אִיתֵיכוֹן עֲתִידִין דִּי בְעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין וְסוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצַלְמָא דִי־עַבְדֵת וְהֵן לָא תִסְגְּדוּן בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָה תִתְרְמוֹן לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמַן־הוּא אֱלָהּ דֵּי יְשֵׁיזְבִנְכוֹן מִן־יְדָי׃ 3.16. עֲנוֹ שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לָא־חַשְׁחִין אֲנַחְנָה עַל־דְּנָה פִּתְגָם לַהֲתָבוּתָךְ׃ 3.17. הֵן אִיתַי אֱלָהַנָא דִּי־אֲנַחְנָא פָלְחִין יָכִל לְשֵׁיזָבוּתַנָא מִן־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמִן־יְדָךְ מַלְכָּא יְשֵׁיזִב׃ 3.18. וְהֵן לָא יְדִיעַ לֶהֱוֵא־לָךְ מַלְכָּא דִּי לאלהיך [לֵאלָהָךְ] לָא־איתינא [אִיתַנָא] פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא נִסְגֻּד׃ 3.19. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הִתְמְלִי חֱמָא וּצְלֵם אַנְפּוֹהִי אשתנו [אֶשְׁתַּנִּי] עַל־שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ עָנֵה וְאָמַר לְמֵזֵא לְאַתּוּנָא חַד־שִׁבְעָה עַל דִּי חֲזֵה לְמֵזְיֵהּ׃ 3.21. בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ כְּפִתוּ בְּסַרְבָּלֵיהוֹן פטישיהון [פַּטְּשֵׁיהוֹן] וְכַרְבְּלָתְהוֹן וּלְבֻשֵׁיהוֹן וּרְמִיו לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 3.22. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה מִן־דִּי מִלַּת מַלְכָּא מַחְצְפָה וְאַתּוּנָא אֵזֵה יַתִּירָא גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ דִּי הַסִּקוּ לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ קַטִּל הִמּוֹן שְׁבִיבָא דִּי נוּרָא׃ 3.23. וְגֻבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ תְּלָתֵּהוֹן שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ נְפַלוּ לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן־נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא מְכַפְּתִין׃ 3.24. אֱדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא תְּוַהּ וְקָם בְּהִתְבְּהָלָה עָנֵה וְאָמַר לְהַדָּבְרוֹהִי הֲלָא גֻבְרִין תְּלָתָא רְמֵינָא לְגוֹא־נוּרָא מְכַפְּתִין עָנַיִן וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא יַצִּיבָא מַלְכָּא׃ 3.25. עָנֵה וְאָמַר הָא־אֲנָה חָזֵה גֻּבְרִין אַרְבְּעָה שְׁרַיִן מַהְלְכִין בְּגוֹא־נוּרָא וַחֲבָל לָא־אִיתַי בְּהוֹן וְרֵוֵהּ דִּי רביעיא [רְבִיעָאָה] דָּמֵה לְבַר־אֱלָהִין׃ 3.26. בֵּאדַיִן קְרֵב נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לִתְרַע אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא עָנֵה וְאָמַר שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד־נְגוֹ עַבְדוֹהִי דִּי־אֱלָהָא עליא [עִלָּאָה] פֻּקוּ וֶאֱתוֹ בֵּאדַיִן נָפְקִין שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ מִן־גּוֹא נוּרָא׃ 3.27. וּמִתְכַּנְּשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא וְהַדָּבְרֵי מַלְכָּא חָזַיִן לְגֻבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ דִּי לָא־שְׁלֵט נוּרָא בְּגֶשְׁמְהוֹן וּשְׂעַר רֵאשְׁהוֹן לָא הִתְחָרַךְ וְסָרְבָּלֵיהוֹן לָא שְׁנוֹ וְרֵיחַ נוּר לָא עֲדָת בְּהוֹן׃ 4.16. אֱדַיִן דָּנִיֵּאל דִּי־שְׁמֵהּ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר אֶשְׁתּוֹמַם כְּשָׁעָה חֲדָה וְרַעְיֹנֹהִי יְבַהֲלֻנֵּהּ עָנֵה מַלְכָּא וְאָמַר בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר חֶלְמָא וּפִשְׁרֵא אַל־יְבַהֲלָךְ עָנֵה בֵלְטְשַׁאצַּר וְאָמַר מראי [מָרִי] חֶלְמָא לשנאיך [לְשָׂנְאָךְ] וּפִשְׁרֵהּ לעריך [לְעָרָךְ׃] 7.3. וְאַרְבַּע חֵיוָן רַבְרְבָן סָלְקָן מִן־יַמָּא שָׁנְיָן דָּא מִן־דָּא׃ 7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃ 7.25. וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃ 9.24. שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעִים נֶחְתַּךְ עַל־עַמְּךָ וְעַל־עִיר קָדְשֶׁךָ לְכַלֵּא הַפֶּשַׁע ולחתם [וּלְהָתֵם] חטאות [חַטָּאת] וּלְכַפֵּר עָוֺן וּלְהָבִיא צֶדֶק עֹלָמִים וְלַחְתֹּם חָזוֹן וְנָבִיא וְלִמְשֹׁחַ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים׃ 9.25. וְתֵדַע וְתַשְׂכֵּל מִן־מֹצָא דָבָר לְהָשִׁיב וְלִבְנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם עַד־מָשִׁיחַ נָגִיד שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעָה וְשָׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם תָּשׁוּב וְנִבְנְתָה רְחוֹב וְחָרוּץ וּבְצוֹק הָעִתִּים׃ 9.26. וְאַחֲרֵי הַשָּׁבֻעִים שִׁשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם יִכָּרֵת מָשִׁיחַ וְאֵין לוֹ וְהָעִיר וְהַקֹּדֶשׁ יַשְׁחִית עַם נָגִיד הַבָּא וְקִצּוֹ בַשֶּׁטֶף וְעַד קֵץ מִלְחָמָה נֶחֱרֶצֶת שֹׁמֵמוֹת׃ 9.27. וְהִגְבִּיר בְּרִית לָרַבִּים שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וַחֲצִי הַשָּׁבוּעַ יַשְׁבִּית זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה וְעַל כְּנַף שִׁקּוּצִים מְשֹׁמֵם וְעַד־כָּלָה וְנֶחֱרָצָה תִּתַּךְ עַל־שֹׁמֵם׃ 12.7. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים אֲשֶׁר מִמַּעַל לְמֵימֵי הַיְאֹר וַיָּרֶם יְמִינוֹ וּשְׂמֹאלוֹ אֶל־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיִּשָּׁבַע בְּחֵי הָעוֹלָם כִּי לְמוֹעֵד מוֹעֲדִים וָחֵצִי וּכְכַלּוֹת נַפֵּץ יַד־עַם־קֹדֶשׁ תִּכְלֶינָה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃ 2.32. As for that image, its head was of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of brass," 3.1. Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was threescore cubits, and the breadth thereof six cubits; he set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon." 3.2. Then Nebuchadnezzar the king sent to gather together the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, to come to the dedication of the image which Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up." 3.3. Then the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, were gathered together unto the dedication of the image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up; and they stood before the image that Nebuchadnezzar had set up." 3.4. And the herald cried aloud: ‘To you it is commanded, O peoples, nations, and languages," 3.5. that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up;" 3.6. and whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall the same hour be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.’" 3.7. Therefore at that time, when all the peoples heard the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and all kinds of music, all the peoples, the nations, and the languages, fell down and worshipped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up." 3.8. Wherefore at that time certain Chaldeans came near, and brought accusation against the Jews." 3.9. They spoke and said to Nebuchadnezzar the king: ‘O king, live for ever!" 3.10. Thou, O king, hast made a decree, that every man that shall hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, shall fall down and worship the golden image;" 3.11. and whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace." 3.12. There are certain Jews whom thou hast appointed over the affairs of the province of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; these men, O king, have not regarded thee: they serve not thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’" 3.13. Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage and fury commanded to bring Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego. Then were these men brought before the king." 3.14. Nebuchadnezzar spoke and said unto them: ‘Is it true, O Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, that ye serve not my gods, nor worship the golden image which I have set up?" 3.15. Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made, well; but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who is the god that shall deliver you out of my hands?’" 3.16. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, answered and said to the king: ‘O Nebuchadnezzar, we have no need to answer thee in this matter." 3.17. If our God whom we serve is able to deliver us, He will deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and out of thy hand, O king." 3.18. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.’" 3.19. Then was Nebuchadnezzar filled with fury, and the form of his visage was changed, against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; he spoke, and commanded that they should heat the furnace seven times more than it was wont to be heated." 3.20. And he commanded certain mighty men that were in his army to bind Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, and to cast them into the burning fiery furnace." 3.21. Then these men were bound in their cloaks, their tunics, and their robes, and their other garments, and were cast into the midst of the burning fiery furnace." 3.22. Therefore because the king’s commandment was peremptory, and the furnace exceeding hot, the flame of the fire slew those men that took up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego." 3.23. And these three men, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, fell down bound into the midst of the burning fiery furnace." 3.24. Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was alarmed, and rose up in haste; he spoke and said unto his ministers: ‘Did not we cast three men bound into the midst of the fire?’ They answered and said unto the king: ‘True, O king.’" 3.25. He answered and said: ‘Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the appearance of the fourth is like a son of the gods.’" 3.26. Then Nebuchadnezzar came near to the mouth of the burning fiery furnace; he spoke and said: ‘Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, ye servants of God Most High, come forth, and come hither.’ Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, came forth out of the midst of the fire." 3.27. And the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, and the king’s ministers, being gathered together, saw these men, that the fire had no power upon their bodies, nor was the hair of their head singed, neither were their cloaks changed, nor had the smell of fire passed on them." 4.16. Then Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, was appalled for a while, and his thoughts affrighted him. The king spoke and said: ‘Belteshazzar, let not the dream, or the interpretation, affright thee.’ Belteshazzar answered and said: ‘My lord, the dream be to them that hate thee, and the interpretation thereof to thine adversaries." 7.3. And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another." 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him." 7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed." 7.25. And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time." 9.24. Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sin, and to forgive iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal vision and prophet, and to anoint the most holy place." 9.25. Know therefore and discern, that from the going forth of the word to restore and to build Jerusalem unto one anointed, a prince, shall be seven weeks; and for threescore and two weeks, it shall be built again, with broad place and moat, but in troublous times." 9.26. And after the threescore and two weeks shall an anointed one be cut off, and be no more; and the people of a prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; but his end shall be with a flood; and unto the end of the war desolations are determined." 9.27. And he shall make a firm covet with many for one week; and for half of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the offering to cease; and upon the wing of detestable things shall be that which causeth appalment; and that until the extermination wholly determined be poured out upon that which causeth appalment.’" 12.7. And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he lifted up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and swore by Him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when they have made an end of breaking in pieces the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished."
33. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.49-2.70 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.49. Now the days drew near for Mattathias to die, and he said to his sons: "Arrogance and reproach have now become strong; it is a time of ruin and furious anger. 2.50. Now, my children, show zeal for the law, and give your lives for the covet of our fathers. 2.51. Remember the deeds of the fathers, which they did in their generations; and receive great honor and an everlasting name. 2.52. Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness? 2.53. Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and became lord of Egypt. 2.54. Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covet of everlasting priesthood. 2.55. Joshua, because he fulfilled the command, became a judge in Israel. 2.56. Caleb, because he testified in the assembly, received an inheritance in the land. 2.57. David, because he was merciful, inherited the throne of the kingdom for ever. 2.58. Elijah because of great zeal for the law was taken up into heaven. 2.59. Haniah, Azariah, and Mishael believed and were saved from the flame. 2.60. Daniel because of his innocence was delivered from the mouth of the lions. 2.61. And so observe, from generation to generation, that none who put their trust in him will lack strength. 2.62. Do not fear the words of a sinner, for his splendor will turn into dung and worms. 2.63. Today he will be exalted, but tomorrow he will not be found, because he has returned to the dust, and his plans will perish. 2.64. My children, be courageous and grow strong in the law, for by it you will gain honor. 2.65. Now behold, I know that Simeon your brother is wise in counsel; always listen to him; he shall be your father. 2.66. Judas Maccabeus has been a mighty warrior from his youth; he shall command the army for you and fight the battle against the peoples. 2.67. You shall rally about you all who observe the law, and avenge the wrong done to your people. 2.68. Pay back the Gentiles in full, and heed what the law commands. 2.69. Then he blessed them, and was gathered to his fathers. 2.70. He died in the one hundred and forty-sixth year and was buried in the tomb of his fathers at Modein. And all Israel mourned for him with great lamentation.
34. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 10.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.5. The success of a man is in the hands of the Lord,and he confers his honor upon the person of the scribe. 10.5. Many kings have had to sit on the ground,but one who was never thought of has worn a crown.
35. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 89-91, 82 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

82. Then one, indeed, takes up the holy volume and reads it, and another of the men of the greatest experience comes forward and explains what is not very intelligible, for a great many precepts are delivered in enigmatical modes of expression, and allegorically, as the old fashion was;
36. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.210, 15.22, 15.31-15.39, 15.41, 15.368, 15.371-15.379, 17.271-17.276, 17.278-17.284, 17.345-17.348, 18.11, 18.18, 18.20, 18.23, 20.247-20.249 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.22. He also did other things, in order to secure his government, which yet occasioned a sedition in his own family; for being cautious how he made any illustrious person the high priest of God, he sent for an obscure priest out of Babylon, whose name was Aelus, and bestowed the high priesthood upon him. 15.22. She would also expose his mother and his sister openly, on account of the meanness of their birth, and would speak unkindly of them, insomuch that there was before this a disagreement and unpardonable hatred among the women, and it was now come to greater reproaches of one another than formerly 15.31. 7. When Herod had thus excused himself to Antony, he resolved that he would not entirely permit the child or Alexandra to be treated dishonorably; but his wife Mariamne lay vehemently at him to restore the high priesthood to her brother; and he judged it was for his advantage so to do, because if he once had that dignity, he could not go out of the country. So he called his friends together, and told them that Alexandra 15.31. He also took care that they might not be hurt by the dangers of winter, since they were in great want of clothing also, by reason of the utter destruction and consumption of their sheep and goats, till they had no wool to make use of, nor any thing else to cover themselves withal. 15.32. privately conspired against his royal authority, and endeavored, by the means of Cleopatra, so to bring it about, that he might be deprived of the government, and that by Antony’s means this youth might have the management of public affairs in his stead; 15.32. There was one Simon, a citizen of Jerusalem, the son of one Boethus, a citizen of Alexandria, and a priest of great note there; this man had a daughter, who was esteemed the most beautiful woman of that time; 15.33. and that this procedure of hers was unjust, since she would at the same time deprive her daughter of the dignity she now had, and would bring disturbances upon the kingdom, for which he had taken a great deal of pains, and had gotten it with extraordinary hazards; 15.33. The apology which he made to the Jews for these things was this: That all was done, not out of his own inclinations, but by the commands and injunctions of others, in order to please Caesar and the Romans, as though he had not the Jewish customs so much in his eye as he had the honor of those Romans, while yet he had himself entirely in view all the while, and indeed was very ambitious to leave great monuments of his government to posterity; whence it was that he was so zealous in building such fine cities, and spent such vast sums of money upon them. 15.34. that yet, while he well remembered her wicked practices, he would not leave off doing what was right himself, but would even now give the youth the high priesthood; and that he formerly set up Aelus, because Aristobulus was then so very young a child. 15.34. nay, the very subterranean vaults and cellars had no less of architecture bestowed on them than had the buildings above ground. Some of these vaults carried things at even distances to the haven and to the sea; but one of them ran obliquely, and bound all the rest together, that both the rain and the filth of the citizens were together carried off with ease, and the sea itself, upon the flux of the tide from without, came into the city, and washed it all clean. 15.35. Now when he had said this, not at random, but as he thought with the best discretion he had, in order to deceive the women, and those friends whom he had taken to consult withal, Alexandra, out of the great joy she had at this unexpected promise, and out of fear from the suspicions she lay under, fell a weeping; and made the following apology for herself; 15.35. Now Agrippa was [about this time] sent to succeed Caesar in the government of the countries beyond the Ionian Sea, upon whom Herod lighted when he was wintering about Mitylene, for he had been his particular friend and companion, and then returned into Judea again. 15.36. and said, that as to the [high] priesthood, she was very much concerned for the disgrace her son was under, and so did her utmost endeavors to procure it for him; but that as to the kingdom, she had made no attempts, and that if it were offered her [for her son], she would not accept it; and that now she would be satisfied with her son’s dignity, while he himself held the civil government, and she had thereby the security that arose from his peculiar ability in governing to all the remainder of her family; 15.36. o Caesar bestowed his country, which was no small one, upon Herod; it lay between Trachon and Galilee, and contained Ulatha, and Paneas, and the country round about. He also made him one of the procurators of Syria, and commanded that they should do every thing with his approbation; 15.37. that she was now overcome by his benefits, and thankfully accepted of this honor showed by him to her son, and that she would hereafter be entirely obedient. And she desired him to excuse her, if the nobility of her family, and that freedom of acting which she thought that allowed her, had made her act too precipitately and imprudently in this matter. 15.37. He endeavored also to persuade Pollio the Pharisee, and Sameas, and the greatest part of their scholars, to take the oath; but these would neither submit so to do, nor were they punished together with the rest, out of the reverence he bore to Pollio. 15.38. So when they had spoken thus to one another, they came to an agreement, and all suspicions, so far as appeared, were vanished away. 15.38. 1. And now Herod, in the eighteenth year of his reign, and after the acts already mentioned, undertook a very great work, that is, to build of himself the temple of God, and make it larger in compass, and to raise it to a most magnificent altitude, as esteeming it to be the most glorious of all his actions, as it really was, to bring it to perfection; and that this would be sufficient for an everlasting memorial of him; 15.39. but got ready a thousand waggons, that were to bring stones for the building, and chose out ten thousand of the most skillful workmen, and bought a thousand sacerdotal garments for as many of the priests, and had some of them taught the arts of stone-cutters, and others of carpenters, and then began to build; but this not till every thing was well prepared for the work. 15.39. 1. So king Herod immediately took the high priesthood away from Aelus, who, as we said before, was not of this country, but one of those Jews that had been carried captive beyond Euphrates; for there were not a few ten thousands of this people that had been carried captives, and dwelt about Babylonia 15.41. 5. Now in the western quarters of the enclosure of the temple there were four gates; the first led to the king’s palace, and went to a passage over the intermediate valley; two more led to the suburbs of the city; and the last led to the other city, where the road descended down into the valley by a great number of steps, and thence up again by the ascent for the city lay over against the temple in the manner of a theater, and was encompassed with a deep valley along the entire south quarter; 15.41. It was Antiochus Epiphanes who first brake that law, and deprived Jesus, and made his brother Onias high priest in his stead. Aristobulus was the second that did so, and took that dignity from his brother [Hyrcanus]; and this Herod was the third, who took that high office away [from Arianflus], and gave it to this young man, Aristobulus, in his stead. 15.368. and as for those that could no way be reduced to acquiesce under his scheme of government, he prosecuted them all manner of ways; but for the rest of the multitude, he required that they should be obliged to take an oath of fidelity to him, and at the same time compelled them to swear that they would bear him good-will, and continue certainly so to do, in his management of the government; 15.371. The Essenes also, as we call a sect of ours, were excused from this imposition. These men live the same kind of life as do those whom the Greeks call Pythagoreans, concerning whom I shall discourse more fully elsewhere. 15.372. However, it is but fit to set down here the reasons wherefore Herod had these Essenes in such honor, and thought higher of them than their mortal nature required; nor will this account be unsuitable to the nature of this history, as it will show the opinion men had of these Essenes. 15.373. 5. Now there was one of these Essenes, whose name was Manahem, who had this testimony, that he not only conducted his life after an excellent manner, but had the foreknowledge of future events given him by God also. This man once saw Herod when he was a child, and going to school, and saluted him as king of the Jews; 15.374. but he, thinking that either he did not know him, or that he was in jest, put him in mind that he was but a private man; but Manahem smiled to himself, and clapped him on his backside with his hand, and said, “However that be, thou wilt be king, and wilt begin thy reign happily, for God finds thee worthy of it. And do thou remember the blows that Manahem hath given thee, as being a signal of the change of thy fortune. 15.375. And truly this will be the best reasoning for thee, that thou love justice [towards men], and piety towards God, and clemency towards thy citizens; yet do I know how thy whole conduct will be, that thou wilt not be such a one 15.376. for thou wilt excel all men in happiness, and obtain an everlasting reputation, but wilt forget piety and righteousness; and these crimes will not be concealed from God, at the conclusion of thy life, when thou wilt find that he will be mindful of them, and punish time for them.” 15.377. Now at that time Herod did not at all attend to what Manahem said, as having no hopes of such advancement; but a little afterward, when he was so fortunate as to be advanced to the dignity of king, and was in the height of his dominion, he sent for Manahem, and asked him how long he should reign. 15.378. Manahem did not tell him the full length of his reign; wherefore, upon that silence of his, he asked him further, whether he should reign ten years or not? He replied, “Yes, twenty, nay, thirty years;” but did not assign the just determinate limit of his reign. Herod was satisfied with these replies, and gave Manahem his hand, and dismissed him; and from that time he continued to honor all the Essenes. 15.379. We have thought it proper to relate these facts to our readers, how strange soever they be, and to declare what hath happened among us, because many of these Essenes have, by their excellent virtue, been thought worthy of this knowledge of divine revelations. 17.271. 5. There was also Judas, the son of that Ezekias who had been head of the robbers; which Ezekias was a very strong man, and had with great difficulty been caught by Herod. This Judas, having gotten together a multitude of men of a profligate character about Sepphoris in Galilee, made an assault upon the palace [there,] and seized upon all the weapons that were laid up in it, and with them armed every one of those that were with him, and carried away what money was left there; 17.272. and he became terrible to all men, by tearing and rending those that came near him; and all this in order to raise himself, and out of an ambitious desire of the royal dignity; and he hoped to obtain that as the reward not of his virtuous skill in war, but of his extravagance in doing injuries. 17.273. 6. There was also Simon, who had been a slave of Herod the king, but in other respects a comely person, of a tall and robust body; he was one that was much superior to others of his order, and had had great things committed to his care. This man was elevated at the disorderly state of things, and was so bold as to put a diadem on his head 17.274. while a certain number of the people stood by him, and by them he was declared to be a king, and thought himself more worthy of that dignity than any one else. He burnt down the royal palace at Jericho, and plundered what was left in it. He also set fire to many other of the king’s houses in several places of the country, and utterly destroyed them, and permitted those that were with him to take what was left in them for a prey; 17.275. and he would have done greater things, unless care had been taken to repress him immediately; for Gratus, when he had joined himself to some Roman soldiers, took the forces he had with him, and met Simon 17.276. and after a great and a long fight, no small part of those that came from Perea, who were a disordered body of men, and fought rather in a bold than in a skillful manner, were destroyed; and although Simon had saved himself by flying away through a certain valley, yet Gratus overtook him, and cut off his head. 17.278. 7. But because Athronges, a person neither eminent by the dignity of his progenitors, nor for any great wealth he was possessed of, but one that had in all respects been a shepherd only, and was not known by any body; yet because he was a tall man, and excelled others in the strength of his hands, he was so bold as to set up for king. This man thought it so sweet a thing to do more than ordinary injuries to others, that although he should be killed, he did not much care if he lost his life in so great a design. 17.279. He had also four brethren, who were tall men themselves, and were believed to be superior to others in the strength of their hands, and thereby were encouraged to aim at great things, and thought that strength of theirs would support them in retaining the kingdom. Each of these ruled over a band of men of their own; for those that got together to them were very numerous. 17.281. And this man retained his power a great while; he was also called king, and had nothing to hinder him from doing what he pleased. He also, as well as his brethren, slew a great many both of the Romans and of the king’s forces, an managed matters with the like hatred to each of them. The king’s forces they fell upon, because of the licentious conduct they had been allowed under Herod’s government; and they fell upon the Romans, because of the injuries they had so lately received from them. 17.282. But in process of time they grew more cruel to all sorts of men, nor could any one escape from one or other of these seditions, since they slew some out of the hopes of gain, and others from a mere custom of slaying men. They once attacked a company of Romans at Emmaus, who were bringing corn and weapons to the army, and fell upon Arius, the centurion, who commanded the company, and shot forty of the best of his foot soldiers; 17.283. but the rest of them were affrighted at their slaughter, and left their dead behind them, but saved themselves by the means of Gratus, who came with the king’s troops that were about him to their assistance. Now these four brethren continued the war a long while by such sort of expeditions, and much grieved the Romans; but did their own nation also a great deal of mischief. 17.284. Yet were they afterwards subdued; one of them in a fight with Gratus, another with Ptolemy; Archelaus also took the eldest of them prisoner; while the last of them was so dejected at the other’s misfortune, and saw so plainly that he had no way now left to save himself, his army being worn away with sickness and continual labors, that he also delivered himself up to Archelaus, upon his promise and oath to God [to preserve his life.] But these things came to pass a good while afterward. 17.345. 3. Now, before Archelaus was gone up to Rome upon this message, he related this dream to his friends: That he saw ears of corn, in number ten, full of wheat, perfectly ripe, which ears, as it seemed to him, were devoured by oxen. 17.346. And when he was awake and gotten up, because the vision appeared to be of great importance to him, he sent for the diviners, whose study was employed about dreams. And while some were of one opinion, and some of another, (for all their interpretations did not agree,) Simon, a man of the sect of the Essenes, desired leave to speak his mind freely, and said that the vision denoted a change in the affairs of Archelaus, and that not for the better; 17.347. that oxen, because that animal takes uneasy pains in his labors, denoted afflictions, and indeed denoted, further, a change of affairs, because that land which is ploughed by oxen cannot remain in its former state; and that the ears of corn being ten, determined the like number of years, because an ear of corn grows in one year; and that the time of Archelaus’s government was over. And thus did this man expound the dream. 17.348. Now on the fifth day after this dream came first to Archelaus, the other Archelaus, that was sent to Judea by Caesar to call him away, came hither also. 18.11. 2. The Jews had for a great while had three sects of philosophy peculiar to themselves; the sect of the Essenes, and the sect of the Sadducees, and the third sort of opinions was that of those called Pharisees; of which sects, although I have already spoken in the second book of the Jewish War, yet will I a little touch upon them now. 18.11. However, he fell in love with Herodias, this last Herod’s wife, who was the daughter of Aristobulus their brother, and the sister of Agrippa the Great. This man ventured to talk to her about a marriage between them; which address, when she admitted, an agreement was made for her to change her habitation, and come to him as soon as he should return from Rome: one article of this marriage also was this, that he should divorce Aretas’s daughter. 18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for; 18.18. Now Antonia was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, from the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus’s wife, and from her eminent chastity; for though she was still a young woman, she continued in her widowhood, and refused all other matches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to somebody else; yet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach. 18.23. 6. But of the fourth sect of Jewish philosophy, Judas the Galilean was the author. These men agree in all other things with the Pharisaic notions; but they have an inviolable attachment to liberty, and say that God is to be their only Ruler and Lord. They also do not value dying any kinds of death, nor indeed do they heed the deaths of their relations and friends, nor can any such fear make them call any man lord. 18.23. Now the centurion who was set to keep Agrippa, when he saw with what haste Marsyas came, and what joy Agrippa had from what he said, he had a suspicion that his words implied some great innovation of affairs, and he asked them about what was said. 20.247. Herod was then made king by the Romans, but did no longer appoint high priests out of the family of Asamoneus; but made certain men to be so that were of no eminent families, but barely of those that were priests, excepting that he gave that dignity to Aristobulus; 20.248. for when he had made this Aristobulus, the grandson of that Hyrcanus who was then taken by the Parthians, and had taken his sister Mariarmne to wife, he thereby aimed to win the good-will of the people, who had a kind remembrance of Hyrcanus [his grandfather]. Yet did he afterward, out of his fear lest they should all bend their inclinations to Aristobulus, put him to death, and that by contriving how to have him suffocated as he was swimming at Jericho, as we have already related that matter; 20.249. but after this man he never intrusted the priesthood to the posterity of the sons of Asamoneus. Archelaus also, Herod’s son, did like his father in the appointment of the high priests, as did the Romans also, who took the government over the Jews into their hands afterward.
37. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.112-2.113, 2.119, 2.136, 2.140, 2.154-2.157, 6.312-6.315 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.112. But the report goes, that before he was sent for by Caesar, he seemed to see nine ears of corn, full and large, but devoured by oxen. When, therefore, he had sent for the diviners, and some of the Chaldeans, and inquired of them what they thought it portended; 2.113. and when one of them had one interpretation, and another had another, Simon, one of the sect of Essenes, said that he thought the ears of corn denoted years, and the oxen denoted a mutation of things, because by their ploughing they made an alteration of the country. That therefore he should reign as many years as there were ears of corn; and after he had passed through various alterations of fortune, should die. Now five days after Archelaus had heard this interpretation he was called to his trial. 2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.136. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body; and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers. 2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155. but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 2.156. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.157. whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death; and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. 6.312. But now, what did most elevate them in undertaking this war, was an ambiguous oracle that was also found in their sacred writings, how, “about that time, one from their country should become governor of the habitable earth.” 6.313. The Jews took this prediction to belong to themselves in particular, and many of the wise men were thereby deceived in their determination. Now, this oracle certainly denoted the government of Vespasian, who was appointed emperor in Judea. 6.314. However, it is not possible for men to avoid fate, although they see it beforehand. 6.315. But these men interpreted some of these signals according to their own pleasure, and some of them they utterly despised, until their madness was demonstrated, both by the taking of their city and their own destruction.
38. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.5, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. You also, as living stones, are built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. 2.9. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God's own possession, that you may show forth the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light:
39. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

40. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41. New Testament, Acts, 3.22, 3.25, 7.2, 8.30-8.34, 11.26, 12.22, 13.26, 26.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.22. For Moses indeed said to the fathers, 'The Lord God will raise up a prophet to you from among your brothers, like me. You shall listen to him in all things whatever he says to you. 3.25. You are the sons of the prophets, and of the covet which God made with our fathers, saying to Abraham, 'In your seed will all the families of the earth be blessed.' 7.2. He said, "Brothers and fathers, listen. The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran 8.30. Philip ran to him, and heard him reading Isaiah the prophet, and said, "Do you understand what you are reading? 8.31. He said, "How can I, unless someone explains it to me?" He begged Philip to come up and sit with him. 8.32. Now the passage of the Scripture which he was reading was this, "He was led as a sheep to the slaughter. As a lamb before his shearer is silent, So he doesn't open his mouth. 8.33. In his humiliation, his judgment was taken away. Who will declare His generations? For his life is taken from the earth. 8.34. The eunuch answered Philip, "Please tell who the prophet is talking about: about himself, or about some other? 11.26. When he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. It happened, that even for a whole year they were gathered together with the assembly, and taught many people. The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch. 12.22. The people shouted, "The voice of a god, and not of a man! 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 26.28. Agrippa said to Paul, "With a little persuasion are you trying to make me a Christian?
42. New Testament, Apocalypse, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.5. One of the elders said to me, "Don't weep. Behold, the Lion who is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has overcome; he who opens the book and its seven seals.
43. New Testament, James, 2.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.21. Wasn't Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son on the altar?
44. New Testament, Galatians, 2.11-2.14, 3.7, 3.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do? 3.7. Know therefore that those whoare of faith, the same are sons of Abraham. 3.29. If you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise.
45. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.16, 3.7-4.11, 4.14-7.28, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.5, 7.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. For most assuredly, not to angels does he give help, but he gives help to the seed of Abraham.
46. New Testament, Romans, 4.12, 4.16, 9.1-9.13, 11.1, 11.13-11.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.12. The father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had in uncircumcision. 4.16. For this cause it is of faith, that it may be according to grace, to the end that the promise may be sure to all the seed, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. 9.1. I tell the truth in Christ. I am not lying, my conscience testifying with me in the Holy Spirit 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.9. For this is a word of promise, "At the appointed time I will come, and Sarah will have a son. 9.10. Not only so, but Rebecca also conceived by one, by our father Isaac. 9.11. For being not yet born, neither having done anything good or bad, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him who calls 9.12. it was said to her, "The elder will serve the younger. 9.13. Even as it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated. 11.1. I ask then, Did God reject his people? May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 11.14. if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh, and may save some of them. 11.15. For if the rejection of them is the reconciling of the world, what would their acceptance be, but life from the dead? 11.16. If the first fruit is holy, so is the lump. If the root is holy, so are the branches. 11.17. But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree; 11.18. don't boast over the branches. But if you boast, it is not you who support the root, but the root supports you. 11.19. You will say then, "Branches were broken off, that I might be grafted in. 11.20. True; by their unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by your faith. Don't be conceited, but fear; 11.21. for if God didn't spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. 11.22. See then the goodness and severity of God. Toward those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in his goodness; otherwise you also will be cut off. 11.23. They also, if they don't continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11.24. For if you were cut out of that which is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more will these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? 11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in 11.26. and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, "There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. 11.27. This is my covet to them, When I will take away their sins. 11.28. Concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sake. 11.29. For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. 11.30. For as you in time past were disobedient to God, but now have obtained mercy by their disobedience 11.31. even so these also have now been disobedient, that by the mercy shown to you they may also obtain mercy. 11.32. For God has shut up all to disobedience, that he might have mercy on all.
47. New Testament, John, 1.1, 1.3, 1.14, 1.51, 8.33, 8.37, 8.39, 8.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.51. He said to him, "Most assuredly, I tell you, hereafter you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man. 8.33. They answered him, "We are Abraham's seed, and have never been in bondage to anyone. How do you say, 'You will be made free?' 8.37. I know that you are Abraham's seed, yet you seek to kill me, because my word finds no place in you. 8.39. They answered him, "Our father is Abraham."Jesus said to them, "If you were Abraham's children, you would do the works of Abraham. 8.53. Are you greater than our father, Abraham, who died? The prophets died. Who do you make yourself out to be?
48. New Testament, Luke, 1.55, 1.73, 3.8, 19.9, 22.42, 23.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.55. As he spoke to our fathers, To Abraham and his seed forever. 1.73. The oath which he spoke to Abraham, our father 3.8. Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and don't begin to say among yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father;' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones! 19.9. Jesus said to him, "Today, salvation has come to this house, because he also is a son of Abraham. 22.42. saying, "Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done. 23.8. Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad, for he had wanted to see him for a long time, because he had heard many things about him. He hoped to see some miracle done by him.
49. New Testament, Mark, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.3. Isn't this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? Aren't his sisters here with us?" They were offended at him.
50. New Testament, Matthew, 1.23, 2.15, 2.18, 2.23, 3.9, 4.14-4.16, 13.55, 24.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.23. Behold, the virgin shall be with child, And shall bring forth a son. They shall call his name Immanuel;" Which is, being interpreted, "God with us. 2.15. and was there until the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, "Out of Egypt I called my son. 2.18. A voice was heard in Ramah, Lamentation, weeping and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children; She wouldn't be comforted, Because they are no more. 2.23. and came and lived in a city called Nazareth; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets: "He will be called a Nazarene. 3.9. Don't think to yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father,' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones. 4.14. that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying 4.15. The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, Toward the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles 4.16. The people who sat in darkness saw a great light, To those who sat in the region and shadow of death, To them light has dawned. 13.55. Isn't this the carpenter's son? Isn't his mother called Mary, and his brothers, James, Joses, Simon, and Judas? 24.15. When, therefore, you see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand)
51. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 8.3, 12.4, 16.1, 18.5, 21.1, 21.5, 23.5, 30.5, 32.2-32.3, 40.2, 43.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

52. Suetonius, Vespasianus, 5, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

53. Tacitus, Annals, 15.44.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

54. Tacitus, Histories, 5.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.13.  Prodigies had indeed occurred, but to avert them either by victims or by vows is held unlawful by a people which, though prone to superstition, is opposed to all propitiatory rites. Contending hosts were seen meeting in the skies, arms flashed, and suddenly the temple was illumined with fire from the clouds. of a sudden the doors of the shrine opened and a superhuman voice cried: "The gods are departing": at the same moment the mighty stir of their going was heard. Few interpreted these omens as fearful; the majority firmly believed that their ancient priestly writings contained the prophecy that this was the very time when the East should grow strong and that men starting from Judea should possess the world. This mysterious prophecy had in reality pointed to Vespasian and Titus, but the common people, as is the way of human ambition, interpreted these great destinies in their own favour, and could not be turned to the truth even by adversity. We have heard that the total number of the besieged of every age and both sexes was six hundred thousand; there were arms for all who could use them, and the number ready to fight was larger than could have been anticipated from the total population. Both men and women showed the same determination; and if they were to be forced to change their home, they feared life more than death. Such was the city and people against which Titus Caesar now proceeded; since the nature of the ground did not allow him to assault or employ any sudden operations, he decided to use earthworks and mantlets; the legions were assigned to their several tasks, and there was a respite of fighting until they made ready every device for storming a town that the ancients had ever employed or modern ingenuity invented.
55. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.4, 1.6, 2.4, 8.8-8.9, 24.4, 35.2, 85.1, 85.9, 98.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.4. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'. 1.6. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן פָּתַח (דניאל ב, כב): הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא. הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא, זוֹ גֵּיהִנֹּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ט, יח): וְלֹא יָדַע כִּי רְפָאִים שָׁם, וְאוֹמֵר (ישעיה ל, לג): הֶעְמִיק הִרְחִב. וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, זוֹ גַּן עֵדֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ד, ו): לְמַחְסֶה וּלְמִסְתּוֹר מִזֶּרֶם וּמִמָּטָר, וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים לא, כא): תַּסְתִּירֵם בְּסֵתֶר פָּנֶיךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): הוֹי הַמַּעֲמִיקִים מֵה'. וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): לַסְתִּר עֵצָה. (דניאל ב, כב): יָדַע מָה בַחֲשׁוֹכָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): וְהָיָה בְמַחְשָׁךְ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם. (דניאל ב' כב): וּנְהוֹרָא עִמֵּהּ שְׁרֵא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, דִּכְתִיב (משלי ד, יח): וְאֹרַח צַדִּיקִים כְּאוֹר נֹגַהּ, וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים צז, יא): אוֹר זָרֻעַ לַצַּדִּיק וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא סָרוֹנְגַיָא, וּנְהוֹרָא עִמֵּהּ שְׁרֵא, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ס, א): קוּמִי אוֹרִי וגו'. בִּפְסִיקְתָּא, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן מִתְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הוּא גָּלֵא עֲמִיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים וגו', וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ לְהַלָּן (ישעיה מ, כב): הַנּוֹטֶה כַדֹּק שָׁמַיִם. וְאֶת הָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ לְהַלָּן (איוב לז, ו): כִּי לַשֶּׁלֶג יֹאמַר הֱוֵא אָרֶץ (איוב לח, לח): בְּצֶקֶת עָפָר לַמּוּצָק וגו'. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר, וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ (תהלים קד, ב): עֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַֹּׂלְמָה. 2.4. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ פָּתַר קְרָיָא בַּגָּלֻיּוֹת, וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ד, כט): רָאִיתִי אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה תֹהוּ. וָבֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת מָדַי (אסתר ו, יד): וַיַּבְהִלוּ לְהָבִיא אֶת הָמָן. וְחשֶׁךְ, זֶה גָּלוּת יָוָן, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְזֵרוֹתֵיהֶן, שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם, כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם, זֶה גָּלוּת מַמְלֶכֶת הָרְשָׁעָה, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵקֶר כְּמוֹ הַתְּהוֹם, מַה הַתְּהוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין לוֹ חֵקֶר, אַף הָרְשָׁעִים כֵּן. וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', בְּאֵיזוֹ זְכוּת מְמַשְׁמֶשֶׁת וּבָאָה, הַמְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, בִּזְכוּת הַתְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלָה כַּמַּיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ב, יט): שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ. רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי פְּדָת אָמַר, בְּרִית כְּרוּתָה לַמַּיִם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת שָׁרָב רוּחָה שַׁיְיפָה, וּכְבָר הָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן זוֹמָא יוֹשֵׁב וְתוֹהֶא, וְעָבַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְשָׁאַל בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ, פַּעַם וּשְׁתַּיִם וְלֹא הֵשִׁיבוֹ, בַּשְׁלִישִׁית הֵשִׁיבוֹ בִּבְהִילוּת, אָמַר לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם, אָמַר לוֹ מְעַיֵּן הָיִיתִי, אָמַר לוֹ מֵעִיד אֲנִי עָלַי שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁתּוֹדִיעֵנִי מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם. אָמַר לוֹ מִסְתַּכֵּל הָיִיתִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, וְלֹא הָיָה בֵּין מַיִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַמַּיִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים אֶלָּא כִּשְׁתַּיִם וְשָׁלשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת, וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְנַשֶּׁבֶת אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא מְרַחֶפֶת, כָּעוֹף הַזֶּה שֶׁהוּא מְרַפְרֵף בִּכְנָפָיו וּכְנָפָיו נוֹגְעוֹת וְאֵינָן נוֹגְעוֹת. נֶהְפַּךְ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאָמַר לְתַלְמִידָיו, הָלַךְ לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא, וְלֹא שָׁהוּ יָמִים מֻעָטִים וּבֶן זוֹמָא בָּעוֹלָם. 8.8. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה משֶׁה כּוֹתֵב אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, הָיָה כּוֹתֵב מַעֲשֵׂה כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לַפָּסוּק הַזֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים מָה אַתָּה נוֹתֵן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לַמִּינִים, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר לוֹ כְּתֹב, וְהָרוֹצֶה לִטְעוֹת יִטְעֶה. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, משֶׁה, הָאָדָם הַזֶּה שֶׁבָּרָאתִי, לֹא גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאִם יָבוֹא הַגָּדוֹל לִטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַקָּטָן מִמֶּנוּ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר מָה אֲנִי צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַקָּטָן מִמֶּנִּי, וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים לוֹ לְמַד מִבּוֹרְאֶךָ, שֶׁהוּא בָּרָא אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְאֶת הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּא לִבְרֹאת אֶת הָאָדָם נִמְלַךְ בְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לֵית הָכָא מַלְכוּ, אֶלָּא מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה מְטַיֵּל בְּפֶתַח פָּלָטִין שֶׁלּוֹ, וְרָאָה בְּלוֹרִין אַחַת מוּשְׁלֶכֶת, אָמַר מַה נַּעֲשֶׂה בָהּ, מֵהֶן אוֹמְרִים דִּימוּסִיּוֹת, וּמֵהֶן אוֹמְרִים פְּרִיבְטָאוֹת, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אִינְדַרְטִין אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ, מִי מְעַכֵּב. 8.9. שָׁאֲלוּ הַמִּינִים אֶת רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי, כַּמָּה אֱלֹהוֹת בָּרְאוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם. אָמַר לָהֶם אֲנִי וְאַתֶּם נִשְׁאַל לְיָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים לְמִן הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, אֲשֶׁר בָּרְאוּ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב: בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, אָמַר לָהֶם בָּרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לַמִּינִים, אַתָּה מוֹצֵא תְּשׁוּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵּין דִּכְתִיב: נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ. אָמַר לָהֶם קִרְאוּן מַה דְּבַתְרֵיהּ, וַיִּבְרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמֵיהֶם, לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיָּצְאוּ אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, רַבִּי, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִית בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתְּ מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, לְשֶׁעָבַר אָדָם נִבְרָא מִן הָאֲדָמָה, חַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מִן הָאָדָם, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, לֹא אִישׁ בְּלֹא אִשָּׁה וְלֹא אִשָּׁה בְּלֹא אִישׁ וְלֹא שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּלֹא שְׁכִינָה. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ, מַה דֵּין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כב, כב): אֵל אֱלֹהִים ה' וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם הֵם יוֹדְעִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא (יהושע כב, כב): הוּא יֹדֵעַ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִיתָ בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתָּה מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן שֵׁם אֱלֹהִים הֵן. כְּאֵינַשׁ דַּאֲמַר, בְּסִילוּגוּס קֵיסָר, אֲגוּסְטוּס קֵיסָר. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ לוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כד, יט): כִּי אֱלֹהִים קְדשִׁים הוּא, אָמַר לָהֶן, קְדשִׁים הֵמָּה אֵין כְּתִיב, אֶלָּא קְדשִׁים הוּא. 35.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים זֹאת אוֹת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וגו' לְדֹרֹת עוֹלָם (בראשית ט, יב), אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן לְדֹרֹת כְּתִיב, פְּרַט לִשְׁנֵי דוֹרוֹת, לְדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל חִזְקִיָּהוּ וּלְדוֹרוֹ שֶׁל אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָּה מוֹצִיא דוֹרָן שֶׁל אַנְשֵׁי כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה וּמֵבִיא דוֹרוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי. אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי הֲווֹן יָתְבִין תָּנְיִן בַּחֲדָא, מְטוֹן שְׁמוּעָה מִן דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, אָמְרֵי הָא מָרָא דִשְׁמַעְתָּא נֵיעוֹל וְנִישַׁיְילֵיה, עָל אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב לְגַבֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָן עִמָּךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ גְּדוֹל הַדּוֹר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ נִרְאֲתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בְּיָמָיו, אֲמַר לֵיהּ הֵן, אָמַר אִם נִרְאָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בְּיָמָיו לֵית הוּא כְּדַאי לְמֶחֱמֵי סְבַר אַפָּאי. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר, כָּךְ אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, בִּקְעָה בִּקְעָה אִימָלְאִי דִּינָרֵי זָהָב, וְנִתְמַלְּאָה. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר כָּךְ אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, אִי בָּעֵי אַבְרָהָם לְמִקְרָבֵי מִן גַּבֵּיהּ וְעַד גַּבִּי, וַאֲנָא מְקָרֵב מִגַּבִּי עַד מַלְכָּא מְשִׁיחָא, וְאִין לָא בָּעֵי יִצְטָרֵף אֲחִיָה הַשִּׁילוֹנִי עִמִּי וַאֲנַן מְקָרְבִין מִן אַבְרָהָם עַד מַלְכָּא מְשִׁיחָא. רַבִּי חִזְקִיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר כָּךְ אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, אֵין הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בְּפָחוֹת מִשְׁלשִׁים צַדִּיקִים כְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, אִי תְּלָתִין אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי תְּרֵי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם עֶשְׂרִים אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם עֲשָׂרָה אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם חֲמִשָּׁה אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי מִנְּהוֹן, וְאִם תְּרֵין אִינּוּן אֲנָא וּבְרִי הֵן, וְאִם חַד הוּא אֲנָא הוּא. 85.1. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא וַיֵּרֶד יְהוּדָה מֵאֵת אֶחָיו (בראשית לח, א), (מלאכי ב, יא): בָּגְדָה יְהוּדָה וְתוֹעֵבָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה וגו', אֲמַר לֵיהּ כָּפַרְתְּ יְהוּדָה שְׁקַרְתְּ יְהוּדָה, וְתוֹעֵבָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, יְהוּדָה נַעֲשָׂה חֻלִּין, (מלאכי ב, יא): כִּי חִלֵּל יְהוּדָה קֹדֶשׁ ה' אֲשֶׁר אָהֵב. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִיא, (מיכה א, טו): עֹד הַיֹּרֵשׁ אָבִיא לָךְ יוֹשֶׁבֶת מָרֵשָׁה עַד עֲדֻלָּם יָבוֹא, מַלְכָּן וּקְדוֹשָׁן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד עֲדֻלָּם יָבוֹא כְּבוֹדָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד עֲדֻלָּם יָבוֹא, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לח, א): וַיֵּט עַד אִישׁ עֲדֻלָּמִי. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא, רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן פָּתַח (ירמיה כט, יא): כִּי אָנֹכִי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת הַמַּחֲשָׁבֹת, שְׁבָטִים הָיוּ עֲסוּקִין בִּמְכִירָתוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף, וְיוֹסֵף הָיָה עָסוּק בְּשַׂקּוֹ וּבְתַעֲנִיתוֹ, רְאוּבֵן הָיָה עָסוּק בְּשַׂקּוֹ וְתַעֲנִיתוֹ, וְיַעֲקֹב הָיָה עָסוּק בְּשַׂקּוֹ וּבְתַעֲנִיתוֹ, וִיהוּדָה הָיָה עָסוּק לִקַּח לוֹ אִשָּׁה, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָיָה עוֹסֵק בּוֹרֵא אוֹרוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִיא וַיֵּרֶד יְהוּדָה. (ישעיה סו, ז): בְּטֶרֶם תָּחִיל יָלָדָה, קֹדֶם שֶׁלֹא נוֹלַד מְשַׁעְבֵּד הָרִאשׁוֹן נוֹלַד גּוֹאֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן, וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא, מַה כְּתִיב לְמַעְלָה מִן הָעִנְיָן, וְהַמְּדָנִים מָכְרוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל מִצְרַיִם. 85.1. סוּמְכוּס אוֹמֵר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין הָעֻבָּר נִכָּר בִּמְעֵי הָאִשָּׁה אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים, מֵהָכָא (בראשית לח, כד): וַיְהִי כְּמִשְׁלשׁ חֳדָשִׁים, רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי לֹא סוֹף שְׁלשָׁה שְׁלֵמִים, אֶלָּא רֻבּוֹ שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן וְרֻבּוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרוֹן וְאֶמְצָעִי שָׁלֵם, וְלֹא סוֹף דָּבָר שְׁלשָׁה שְׁלֵמִים. (בראשית לח, כד): וְגַם הִנֵּה הָרָה לִזְנוּנִים, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיְתָה מְטַפַּחַת עַל כְּרֵסָהּ וְאוֹמֶרֶת מְלָכִים אֲנִי מְעֻבֶּרֶת, גּוֹאֲלִים אֲנִי מְעֻבֶּרֶת. (בראשית לח, כד): הוֹצִיאוּהָ וְתִשָֹּׂרֵף, אֶפְרַיִם מַקְשָׁאָה תַּלְמִידוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי מֵאִיר אָמַר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, תָּמָר בִּתּוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁם הָיְתָה, דִּכְתִיב (ויקרא כא, ט): וּבַת אִישׁ כֹּהֵן, לְפִיכָךְ הוֹצִיאוּהָ וְתִשָֹּׂרֵף. 85.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מָה הָעֵרָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר אֶתֶּן וגו' (בראשית לח, יח), אָמַר רַבִּי חוּנְיָא נִצְנְצָה בָּהּ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, חוֹתָמְךָ, זוֹ מַלְכוּת, הֵיאךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שיר השירים ח, ו): שִׂימֵנִי כַחוֹתָם עַל לִבֶּךָ, (ירמיה כב, כד): כִּי אִם יִהְיֶה כָּנְיָהוּ בֶן יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה חוֹתָם עַל יַד יְמִינִי. וּפְתִילֶךָ, זוֹ סַנְהֶדְרִין, שֶׁהֵן מְצֻיָּנִין בִּפְתִיל, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות לט, לא): פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת. וּמַטְּךָ, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, א): וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֶּזַע יִשָּׁי, (תהלים קי, ב): מַטֵּה עֻזְךָ יִשְׁלַח ה' מִצִּיּוֹן. וַיִּתֶּן לָהּ וגו' וַתַּהַר לוֹ, גִּבּוֹרִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ וְצַדִּיקִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ. (בראשית לח, כ): וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוּדָה וגו', יְהוּדָה בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (משלי ח, ל לא): מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ, מְשַׂחֶקֶת לְפָנָיו בְּכָל עֵת, הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁהִיא מְשַׂחֶקֶת עַל הַבְּרִיּוֹת. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִיהוּדָה אַתָּה רִמִּיתָ בְּאָבִיךָ בִּגְדִי עִזִּים, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁתָּמָר מְרַמָּה בְּךָ בִּגְדִי עִזִּים. 98.8. לֹא יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה, זֶה מָכִיר וגו' וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו (בראשית מט, י), שֶׁבָּא וְנִתְחַבֵּט לִפְנֵי רַגְלָיו. עַד כִּי יָבֹא שִׁילֹה, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ. וְלוֹ יִקְהַת עַמִּים, שֶׁהוּא בָּא וּמַקְהֶה שִׁנֵּיהֶם שֶׁל עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לֹא יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה, זוֹ סַנְהֶדְּרִין שֶׁהִיא מַכָּה וְרוֹדָה. וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו, אֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי סוֹפְרֵי הַדַּיָּנִים שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹמְדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם אֶחָד מִימִין וְאֶחָד מִשְׂמֹאל. עַד כִּי יָבֹא שִׁילֹה, נִמְנוּ וְאָמְרוּ הִלֵּל מִשֶּׁל מִי, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מְגִלַּת יֻחָסִים מָצְאוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם וּכְתִיב בָּהּ הִלֵּל מִדָּוִד. רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה מִן דִּשְׁפַטְיָה בֶּן אֲבִיטָל. דְּבֵית כַּלְבָּא שָׂבוֹעַ מִדְּכָלֵב. דְּבֵית צִיצִית הַכַּסָּת, מִן דְּאַבְנֵר. דְּבֵית כּוֹבְשִׁין, מִן דְּאַחְאָב. דְּבֵית יָצְאָה, מִן דְּאָסָף. דְּבֵית יֵהוּא, מִן צִפּוֹרִין. דְּבֵית יַנַּאי, מִן דְּעֵלִי. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא, מִן דְּיוֹנָדָב בֶּן רֵכָב. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, מִדִּנְחֶמְיָה הַתִּרְשָׁתָא. 1.4. \"In the beginning of God's creating...\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way.\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old etc.\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \"May his name exist forever etc. [his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun].\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \"Before the mountains were birthed,\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \"You turned man to contrition etc.\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old.\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \"Take this ink and pen for my son.\" They said: \"He does not have a son.\" He replied: \"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \"Command the children of Israel\" or \"Speak to the children of Israel.\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \"He saw a first part for himself.\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \"In the beginning God created\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \"The beginning of your doughs.\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \"The beginning of your grains.\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\"" 1.6. Rabbi Yehudah Bar Simon opened with (Daniel 2:22): \"He reveals the deep and secret. He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him.\" \"He reveals the deep\"--this is Hell, as it says (Proverbs 9:18): \"He does not know there are spirits there,\" and it says (Isaiah 30:33): \"deep and large\". \"And secret\"--this is Paradise, as it says (Isaiah 4:6): \"for a cover and refuge from storm and rain,\" and it says (Psalms 31:21): \"You hide them in the cover of Your presence.\" Alternatively, \"he reveals the deep and secret\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as it says (Isaiah 29:15): \"Woe to the ones who seek deep from God to make their counsel secret.\" \"And secret\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as the verse states. \"He knows what is in the dark\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as it says in Isaiah: \"Their acts are in the dark.\" \"The light dwells with Him\"--these are the acts of the righteous, as it is written (Proverbs 4:18): \"The path of the righteous is like the light at dawn,\" and it says (Psalms 97:11): \"Light is sown for the righteous.\" Rabbi Abba Srungia said: \"The light dwells with Him\"--this is the Messiah, as it says (Isaiah 60:1): \"Arise, shine, for your light has come.\" Rabbi Yehudah Bar Simon said: From the beginning of the creation of the world, \"he revealed the dark and secret\". \"In the beginning God created the heavens,\" but it is not explained. Where is it explained? Here (Isaiah 40:22): \"He stretches out the heavens like a curtain.\" \"And the land,\" but it is not explained. Where is it explained? Here (Job 37:6): \"For He says to the snow: 'Fall on the earth.'\" and (Job 38:38) \"When the dust runs into a mass, and the clods cleave together.\" \"And God said: 'Let there be light,'\" and it is not explained. Where is it explained? (Psalms 104:2) \"You cover Yourself with light like a garment.\"" 8.8. ... “if a great person . . . says, ‘Why do I need to take permission from one lesser than me?’ . . . they say to him: Learn from your Creator, for He created upper ones and lower ones, and when He came to create the human, He ruled with the ministering angels.”" 8.9. ... [R’ Simlai] said to them: In the past Adam was created from the adamah and Chavah was created from the adam. From here and onward, “in our image as our likeness”—not man without woman and not woman without man, and not both of them without Shekhinah (God’s presence)." 85.9. 'And he said what is the guarantee that I shall give etc.' - Rabbi Hunya said: The Ruach HaKodesh [prophetic spirit] glimmered within her, your seal is Royalty, as it is said (Song of Songs 8:6): \"Set me as a seal upon thy heart\". (Jeremiah 22:24) \"As I live, saith the LORD, though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were the signet upon My right hand\". \"And thy cord\", that is the Sanhedrin, who are found in the cord, as it is said (Exodus 39:31) \"A cord of blue\". \"And thy staff\", that is the Messiah, as it is said (Isaiah 11:1): \"And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse\". (Psalms 110:2) \"The rod of Thy strength the LORD will send out of Zion\". \"And he gave them to her etc\". \"And she conceived by him\", Heroes like so, and Righteous ones like so. \"And Judah sent etc.\" Yehuda Bar Nachman said in the name of Reish Lakish (Proverbs 8:31): \"Playing in His habitable earth\" (Proverbs 8:30) \"Playing always before Him\", the Torah, that delights his creations. The Holy One Blessed be He said to Judah: You lied to your father, with a goat kid, so too, Tamar lies to you with a goat kid. " 98.8. ... “…and to him will be a gathering of peoples.” (Genesis 49:10) This refers to Jerusalem, which in the future will blunt the teeth of the nations of the world, as it says “And it shall come to pass on that day that I will make Jerusalem a stone of burden for all peoples…” (Zechariah 12:3)"
56. Anon., Tchacos 3 Gospel of Judas, 46.7, 53.15-53.16, 53.24, 55.10-55.11 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

57. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 1.21 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

58. Heliodorus, Ethiopian Story, 1.18 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

59. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.8.2, 5.8.30, 9.22, 9.25 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.22. Now the doctrine of the resurrection has also derived support among these; for they acknowledge both that the flesh will rise again, and that it will be immortal, in the same manner as the soul is already imperishable. And they maintain that the soul, when separated in the present life, (departs) into one place, which is well ventilated and lightsome, where, they say, it rests until judgment. And this locality the Greeks were acquainted with by hearsay, and called it Isles of the Blessed. And there are other tenets of these which many of the Greeks have appropriated, and thus have from time to time formed their own opinions. For the disciplinary system in regard of the Divinity, according to these (Jewish sects), is of greater antiquity than that of all nations. And so it is that the proof is at hand, that all those (Greeks) who ventured to make assertions concerning God, or concerning the creation of existing things, derived their principles from no other source than from Jewish legislation. And among these may be particularized Pythagoras especially, and the Stoics, who derived (their systems) while resident among the Egyptians, by having become disciples of these Jews. Now they affirm that there will be both a judgment and a conflagration of the universe, and that the wicked will be eternally punished. And among them is cultivated the practice of prophecy, and the prediction of future events. 9.25. Since, therefore, we have explained even the diversities among the Jews, it seems expedient likewise not to pass over in silence the system of their religion. The doctrine, therefore, among all Jews on the subject of religion is fourfold-theological, natural, moral, and ceremonial. And they affirm that there is one God, and that He is Creator and Lord of the universe: that He has formed all these glorious works which had no previous existence; and this, too, not out of any coeval substance that lay ready at hand, but His Will - the efficient cause- was to create, and He did create. And (they maintain) that there are angels, and that these have been brought into being for ministering unto the creation; but also that there is a sovereign Spirit that always continues beside God, for glory and praise. And that all things in the creation are endued with sensation, and that there is nothing iimate. And they earnestly aim at serious habits and a temperate life, as one may ascertain from their laws. Now these matters have long ago been strictly defined by those who in ancient times have received the divinely-appointed law; so that the reader will find himself astonished at the amount of temperance, and of diligence, lavished on customs legally enacted in reference to man. The ceremonial service, however, which has been adapted to divine worship in a manner befitting the dignity of religion, has been practised among them with the highest degree of elaboration. The superiority of their ritualism it is easy for those who wish it to ascertain, provided they read the book which furnishes information on these points. They will thus perceive how that with solemnity and sanctity the Jewish priests offer unto God the first-fruits of the gifts bestowed by Him for the rise and enjoyment of men; how they fulfil their ministrations with regularity and steadfastness, in obedience to His commandments. There are, however, some (liturgical usages adopted) by these, which the Sadducees refuse to recognise, for they are not disposed to acquiesce in the existence of angels or spirits. Still all parties alike expect Messiah, inasmuch as the Law certainly, and the prophets, preached beforehand that He was about to be present on earth. Inasmuch, however, as the Jews were not cognizant of the period of His advent, there remains the supposition that the declarations (of Scripture) concerning His coming have not been fulfilled. And so it is, that up to this day they continue in anticipation of the future coming of the Christ, - from the fact of their not discerning Him when He was present in the world. And (yet there can be little doubt but) that, on beholding the signs of the times of His having been already among us, the Jews are troubled; and that they are ashamed to confess that He has come, since they have with their own hands put Him to death, because they were stung with indignation in being convicted by Himself of not having obeyed the laws. And they affirm that He who was thus sent forth by God is not this Christ (whom they are looking for); but they confess that another Messiah will come, who as yet has no existence; and that he will usher in some of the signs which the law and the prophets have shown beforehand, whereas, regarding the rest (of these indications), they suppose that they have fallen into error. For they say that his generation will be from the stock of David, but not from a virgin and the Holy Spirit, but from a woman and a man, according as it is a rule for all to be procreated from seed. And they allege that this Messiah will be King over them - a warlike and powerful individual, who, after having gathered together the entire people of the Jews, and having done battle with all the nations, will restore for them Jerusalem the royal city. And into this city He will collect together the entire Hebrew race, and bring it back once more into the ancient customs, that it may fulfil the regal and sacerdotal functions, and dwell in confidence for periods of time of sufficient duration. After this repose, it is their opinion that war would next be waged against them after being thus congregated; that in this conflict Christ would fall by the edge of the sword; and that, after no long time, would next succeed the termination and conflagration of the universe; and that in this way their opinions concerning the resurrection would receive completion, and a recompense be rendered to each man according to his works.
60. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.9.2, 3.11.8, 3.19.3, 3.21.10, 3.22.3, 4.9.2, 4.20.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

61. Justin, First Apology, 32.4-32.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Moses then, who was the first of the prophets, spoke in these very words: The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until He come for whom it is reserved; and He shall be the desire of the nations, binding His foal to the vine, washing His robe in the blood of the grape. Genesis 49:10 It is yours to make accurate inquiry, and ascertain up to whose time the Jews had a lawgiver and king of their own. Up to the time of Jesus Christ, who taught us, and interpreted the prophecies which were not yet understood, [they had a lawgiver] as was foretold by the holy and divine Spirit of prophecy through Moses, that a ruler would not fail the Jews until He should come for whom the kingdom was reserved (for Judah was the forefather of the Jews, from whom also they have their name of Jews); and after He (i.e., Christ) appeared, you began to rule the Jews, and gained possession of all their territory. And the prophecy, He shall be the expectation of the nations, signified that there would be some of all nations who should look for Him to come again. And this indeed you can see for yourselves, and be convinced of by fact. For of all races of men there are some who look for Him who was crucified in Jud a, and after whose crucifixion the land was straightway surrendered to you as spoil of war. And the prophecy, binding His foal to the vine, and washing His robe in the blood of the grape, was a significant symbol of the things that were to happen to Christ, and of what He was to do. For the foal of an ass stood bound to a vine at the entrance of a village, and He ordered His acquaintances to bring it to Him then; and when it was brought, He mounted and sat upon it, and entered Jerusalem, where was the vast temple of the Jews which was afterwards destroyed by you. And after this He was crucified, that the rest of the prophecy might be fulfilled. For this washing His robe in the blood of the grape was predictive of the passion He was to endure, cleansing by His blood those who believe in Him. For what is called by the Divine Spirit through the prophet His robe, are those men who believe in Him in whom abides the seed of God, the Word. And what is spoken of as the blood of the grape, signifies that He who should appear would have blood, though not of the seed of man, but of the power of God. And the first power after God the Father and Lord of all is the Word, who is also the Son; and of Him we will, in what follows, relate how He took flesh and became man. For as man did not make the blood of the vine, but God, so it was hereby intimated that the blood should not be of human seed, but of divine power, as we have said above. And Isaiah, another prophet, foretelling the same things in other words, spoke thus: A star shall rise out of Jacob, and a flower shall spring from the root of Jesse; and His arm shall the nations trust. Isaiah 11:1 And a star of light has arisen, and a flower has sprung from the root of Jesse - this Christ. For by the power of God He was conceived by a virgin of the seed of Jacob, who was the father of Judah, who, as we have shown, was the father of the Jews; and Jesse was His forefather according to the oracle, and He was the son of Jacob and Judah according to lineal descent.
62. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 11.5, 52.4, 120.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

63. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

64. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. מה להלן שאין על גביו אלא ה' אלהיו אף נשיא שאין על גביו אלא ה' אלהיו,בעא מיניה רבי מרבי חייא כגון אני מהו בשעיר אמר ליה הרי צרתך בבבל איתיביה מלכי ישראל ומלכי בית דוד אלו מביאים לעצמם ואלו מביאים לעצמם אמר ליה התם לא כייפי אהדדי הכא אנן כייפינן להו לדידהו,רב ספרא מתני הכי בעא מיניה רבי מרבי חייא כגון אני מהו בשעיר א"ל התם שבט הכא מחוקק ותניא (בראשית מט, י) לא יסור שבט מיהודה זה ראש גולה שבבבל שרודה את ישראל במקל (בראשית מט, י) ומחוקק מבין רגליו אלו בני בניו של הלל שמלמדים תורה לישראל ברבים:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואיזהו המשיח המשוח בשמן המשחה לא המרובה בבגדים אין בין כהן המשוח בשמן המשחה למרובה בגדים אלא פר הבא על כל המצות,ואין בין כהן משמש לכהן שעבר אלא פר יוה"כ ועשירית האיפה,זה וזה שוים בעבודת יוה"כ ומצווים על הבתולה ואסורים על האלמנה ואינם מטמאים בקרוביהם ולא פורעים ולא פורמים ומחזירין הרוצח:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר שמן המשחה שעשה משה במדבר היו שולקים בו את העיקרים דברי רבי יהודה רבי יוסי אומר והלא לסוך את העקרים אינו סופק אלא שורין את העקרים במים ומציף עליו שמן וקולט את הריח וקפחו,אמר לו רבי יהודה וכי נס אחד נעשה בשמן המשחה והלא תחלתו שנים עשר לוגין וממנו היה נמשח משכן וכליו אהרן ובניו כל שבעת ימי המלואים וכולו קיים לעתיד לבוא שנאמר (שמות ל, לא) שמן משחת קדש יהיה זה לי לדורותיכם,תניא אידך (ויקרא ח, י) ויקח משה את שמן המשחה וימשח [את] המשכן [ואת] כל אשר בו רבי יהודה אומר שמן המשחה שעשה משה במדבר כמה נסים נעשו בו מתחלה ועד סוף תחלתו לא היה אלא שנים עשר לוגין ראה כמה יורה בולעת וכמה עקרים בולעים וכמה האור שורף ובו נמשח משכן וכליו ואהרן ובניו כל שבעת ימי המלואים ובו נמשחו כהנים גדולים ומלכים,ואפילו כהן גדול בן כהן גדול טעון משיחה ואין מושחים מלך בן מלך ואם תאמר מפני מה משחו את שלמה מפני מחלוקתו של אדוניה ואת יואש מפני עתליה ואת יהואחז מפני יהויקים שהיה גדול ממנו שתי שנים ואותו שמן קיים לעתיד לבוא שנאמר שמן משחת קדש יהיה זה לי לדורותיכם זה בגימטריא שנים עשר לוגין הוו,אמר מר ואפילו כהן גדול בן כהן גדול טעון משיחה מנלן דכתיב (ויקרא ו, טו) והכהן המשיח תחתיו מבניו נימא קרא והכהן מתחתיו מבניו מאי המשיח קמ"ל דמבניו דכהן גדול אי הוי משיח הוי כהן גדול ואי לא לא הוי כהן גדול,אמר מר ואין מושחין מלך בן מלך מנלן אמר רב אחא בר יעקב דכתיב (דברים יז, כ) למען יאריך ימים על ממלכתו וגו' ירושה היא לכם ומנלן דכי איכא מחלוקת בעי משיחה ולאו כל דבעי מלכא מורית מלכותא לבניה אמר רב פפא אמר קרא הוא ובניו בקרב ישראל בזמן ששלום בישראל קרינא ביה הוא ובניו ואפילו בלא משיחה,תנא אף יהוא בן נמשי לא נמשח אלא מפני מחלוקתו של יורם ותיפוק ליה משום דראשון הוא חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני מלכי בית דוד משוחין מלכי ישראל אין משוחין מנלן אמר רבא אמר קרא (שמואל א טז, יב) קום משחהו כי זה וגו' זה טעון משיחה ואין אחר טעון משיחה,אמר מר אף יהוא בן נמשי לא נמשח אלא מפני מחלוקתו של יורם ומשום מחלוקתו של יורם בן אחאב נמעול בשמן כדאמר רב פפא באפרסמא דכיא ה"נ באפרסמא דכיא,ואת יהואחז מפני יהויקים שהיה גדול ממנו שתי שנים ומי קשיש מיניה והכתיב (דברי הימים א ג, טו) ובני יאשיהו הבכור יוחנן השני יהויקים השלישי צדקיהו הרביעי שלום וא"ר יוחנן הוא שלום הוא צדקיהו הוא יוחנן הוא יהואחז לעולם יהויקים קשיש ומאי בכור בכור למלכות,ומי מלכי זוטרי מקמי קשישי והא כתיב (דברי הימים ב כא, ג) ואת הממלכה נתן ליהורם כי הוא הבכור יהורם ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה יהויקים לאו ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה,אמר מר הוא שלום הוא צדקיהו הוא יוחנן הוא יהואחז והא חד חד קא חשיב דכתי' (דברי הימים א ג, טו) השלישי הרביעי מאי שלישי שלישי לבנים ומאי רביעי רביעי למלכות דמעיקרא מלך יהואחז ולבסוף יהויקים ולבסוף יכניה ולבסוף צדקיהו,ת"ר הוא שלום הוא צדקיהו ולמה נקרא שמו שלום שהיה משולם במעשיו איכא דאמרי שלום ששלמה מלכות בית דוד בימיו ומה שמו מתניה שמו שנאמר (מלכים ב כד, יז) וימלך מלך בבל את מתניה דודו תחתיו ויסב את שמו צדקיהו א"ל יה יצדיק עליך את הדין אם תמרוד בי (שנאמר (מלכים ב כה, ז) ויביאהו בבלה) וכתיב (דברי הימים ב לו, יג) וגם במלך נבוכדנצר מרד אשר השביעו באלהים 11b. bJust as there,in the passage with regard to the king, the reference is to one bover whom there is only the Lord his God, so too,with regard to ba inasi /i,the reference is to one bover whom there is only the Lord his God. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya:In a case bwhere Iperform an unwitting transgression, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i: Would I be liable to atone bwith a goatas a sin-offering because I am the iNasi /i, or is my atonement with a ewe or a female goat, like a commoner, because I am not the king? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: Your rival,the Exilarch bin Babylonia,is as great as you; therefore, you are not akin to a king. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi braised an objection toRabbi Ḥiyya from a ibaraita /i: If bkings ofthe kingdom of bIsrael and kings of the house of Davidperform an unwitting transgression, bthese bringa sin-offering bfor themselvesas kings, band those bringa sin-offering bfor themselvesas kings. This indicates that even if a king has a counterpart who is as powerful as he is, he brings a male goat as his sin-offering. Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bThere,the kings bwere not subject to each other’s authority. Here,in Eretz Yisrael, bwe are subject to their authority,as the authority of the Exilarch is greater than the authority of the iNasi /i., bRav Safra taughtthe exchange in bthismanner: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya:In a case bwhere Iperform an unwitting transgression, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i: Would I be liable to atone bwith a male goatas a sin-offering because I am the iNasi /i, or is my atonement with a ewe or a female goat, like a commoner, because I am not the king? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: There,the Exilarch has authority that is represented by ba scepter; here,in Eretz Yisrael, we have lesser authority, which is represented by ba staff. And it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“The scepter shall not depart from Judah”(Genesis 49:10); bthisis a reference to bthe Exilarch in Babylonia, who reigns over the Jewish people with a rod,as he is authorized by the gentile monarchy to impose his will. b“Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet”(Genesis 49:10); bthese are the descendants of Hillel, whoserve in the role of the iNasiand bteach Torah to the Jewish people in public,but who are not authorized by the government to impose their will., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnd who is the anointedpriest? It is the High Priest bwho is anointed with the anointing oil, not theHigh Priest consecrated by donning bmultiple garments,i.e., one who served after the anointing oil had been sequestered, toward the end of the First Temple period. bThe difference betweena High bPriest anointed with the anointing oil andone consecrated by donning bmultiple garmentsunique to the High Priest bis onlythat the latter does not bring the bbull that comes forthe transgression of bany of the mitzvot. /b, bAnd the difference betweena High bPriestcurrently bservingin that capacity band a formerHigh bPriestwho had temporarily filled that position while the High Priest was unfit for service bis onlywith regard to the bbullbrought by the High Priest on bYom Kippur and the tenth of an ephahmeal-offering brought by the High Priest daily. Each of these offerings is brought only by the current High Priest, and not by a former High Priest.,Both bthisHigh Priest currently serving band thatformer High Priest bare equal with regard toperforming the rest of bthe Yom Kippur service, and they areboth bcommanded with regard tomarrying ba virgin(see Leviticus 21:13), bandit is bprohibitedfor both btomarry ba widow(see Leviticus 21:14), band they may not render themselves impurewith impurity imparted by a corpse even binthe event that one of btheir relativesdies (see Leviticus 21:11), band they may not growtheir hair blong and they may not rendtheir garments as expressions of mourning (see Leviticus 21:10), bandwhen they die bthey restore theunwitting bmurdererto his home from the city of refuge (see Numbers 35:25)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught:To blend bthe anointing oil that Moses prepared in the wilderness, they would boil inthe oil bthe rootsof the spices in the quantities enumerated in the verse; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says: But isn’tthat amount of oil binsufficienteven bto smear on the rootsof those spices, as the oil would be absorbed into the roots? How then could the roots be boiled in the oil? bRather, they soak the roots in water.Once the roots are waterlogged, they do not absorb the oil. The fragrance of the spices gradually rises band they float oil onthe water bandthe oil babsorbs the fragrance. Andat that point, bone removedthe oil b[ ivekippeḥo /i]from the water, and that was the anointing oil., bRabbi Yehuda said to him: And wasit merely bone miraclethat was bperformed with regard to the anointing oil? But wasn’t it initiallyonly btwelve ilog /i, and from it the Tabernacle, and its vessels, Aaron, and his sonswere banointedfor the bentire seven days of inauguration, and all of itremains bin existence for the future, as it is stated: “This shall be a sacred anointing oil unto Me throughout your generations”(Exodus 30:31)? Since the entire existence of the anointing oil is predicated on miracles, it is no wonder that its preparation also involved a miracle., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“And Moses took the anointing oil, and anointed the Tabernacle and all that was in itand sanctified them” (Leviticus 8:10). bRabbi Yehuda says:With regard to bthe anointing oil that Moses prepared in the wilderness, how many miracles were performed in itsregard continuously, bfrom beginning to end? Initially it was only twelve ilog /i. Consider how muchoil ba pot absorbs, and how muchoil is babsorbed by the roots, and how muchoil bthe fire burns, andyet bthe Tabernacle, and its vessels, Aaron, and his sonswere banointed with itfor the bentire seven days of inauguration, and High Priests and kings were anointed with itthroughout the generations.,Apropos the anointing oil, the ibaraitacontinues: bAnd even a High Priest, son of a High Priest, requires anointing, but one does not anoint a king, son of a king. And if you say: For whatreason bdid they anoint King Solomon(see I Kings, chapter 1), who was the son of a king? It was bdue to the challenge of Adonijah,who sought to succeed their father David as king. bAndthey anointed bJoash due to Athaliah(see II Kings, chapter 11). bAndthey anointed bJehoahaz due to Jehoiakim, who was two years older than hewas (see II Kings 23:30). In all these cases, it was necessary to underscore that these men were crowned king. bAnd that oil remains in existence for the future, as it is stated: “This [ izeh /i] shall be a sacred anointing oil unto Me throughout your generations”(Exodus 30:31). bThe numerical value of izehis twelve ilog /i,indicating that this amount of oil remains intact despite its use.,§ The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said: And even a High Priest, son of a High Priest, requires anointing.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this ihalakha /i? It is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “And the anointed priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons”(Leviticus 6:15). bLet the verse sayonly: bThe priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons. Whatis the reason that it says: b“The anointedpriest”? The Torah bteaches us thateven bfrom among the sons of a High Priest, if he is anointedwith oil bhe is a High Priest, and if not, he is not a High Priest. /b, bThe Master said: But one does not anoint a king, son of a king.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this ihalakha /i? bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov saidthat it is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “So that he may prolong his days in his kingdom,he and his sons, in the midst of Israel” (Deuteronomy 17:20). His children are mentioned in the verse in order to teach them: The kingdom bis an inheritance for you.The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat when there is a disputewith regard to succession, the king brequires anointing, andit is bnotthat bwhenever the king wisheshe can bbequeath the kingdom to his sonwithout anointing him? bRav Pappa saidthat bthe verse states: “He and his sons, in the midst of Israel.” When there is peace in Israel we read concerning him: “He and his sons,” even without anointing;but when there is dispute, anointing is required.,It is btaught: Even Jehu, son of Nimshi,king of Israel, bwas anointed only due to the challenge of Joram(see II Kings 9:1–14). The Sages challenge: bAnd let him derivethat Jehu was anointed bdue tothe fact bthat hewas the bfirstof his dynasty and was not the son of a king. The Gemara answers: The ibaraita bis incomplete and thisis what bit is teaching: Kings of the house of David are anointed; kings of Israel are not anointed.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bRava saidthat bthe verse states: “Arise, anoint him, for thisis he” (I Samuel 16:12), from which it is derived: bThisking, David, brequires anointing, but anotherking bdoes not require anointing. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said: Even Jehu, son of Nimshi,king of Israel, bwas anointed only due to the challenge of Joram.The Gemara asks: bAnd due to the challenge of Joram, son of Ahab, shall we misuse consecrated anointing oiland anoint a king of Israel, who does not require anointing? The Gemara answers that it is blikethat bwhich Rav Pappa saidin another context: They anointed him bwith pure balsamoil, not with anointing oil. bSo too,with regard to Jehu, they anointed him bwith pure balsamoil, not with anointing oil.,The ibaraitateaches: bAndthey anointed bJehoahaz due to Jehoiakim, who was two years older than hewas. The Gemara asks: bAnd wasJehoiakim bolder thanJehoahaz? bBut isn’t it written: “And the sons of Josiah: The firstborn Joha, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum”(I Chronicles 3:15), band Rabbi Yoḥa says: He is Shallum, he is Zedekiah;these are two names for one person. Likewise, bhe is Joha, he is Jehoahaz,who is mentioned in the book of Kings. Since Jehoahaz was the eldest, why was it necessary to anoint him? The Gemara answers: bActually, Jehoiakimwas bolderthan Jehoahaz. bAnd whatis the meaning of the term b“firstborn”written with regard to Jehoahaz? It means that his status was like that of ba firstbornin terms of ascent bto the kingship. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd do youngersons brule before eldersons? bBut isn’t it written: “And the kingdom he gave to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn”(II Chronicles 21:3). The Gemara answers: bJehoram was a surrogate for his ancestorsas he was suited to serve as king, so since he was firstborn, he ascended to the throne. bJehoiakim was not a surrogate for his ancestors;he was not suited to serve as king. Therefore, his brother ascended to the throne before him., bThe Master said: He is Shallum, he is Zedekiah; he is Joha, he is Jehoahaz.The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’tthe verse benumerate them individually, as it is written: “The thirdZedekiah, bthe fourthShallum,” indicating that they are two people? The Gemara answers: bWhatis the meaning of bthird?It means the bthird among the sons. And whatis the meaning of bfourth?It means the bfourthto ascend bto the kingship.How so? bInitially, Jehoahaz reigned, and ultimately,after him, bJehoiakim, and ultimately,after him, bJeconiah,son of Jehoiakim, band ultimately,after him, bZedekiah,who was fourth to the kingship., bThe Sages taught: He is Shallum, he is Zedekiah. And why was he called Shallum?It is bdue tothe fact bthat he was perfect [ imeshullam /i] is his actions. Some say:He was called bShallum because the kingdom of the house of David was concluded [ isheshalema /i] during his days. And whatwas bhisactual bname? Mattaniahwas bhis name, as it is stated: “And the king of Babylon crowned Mattaniah his uncle in his stead, and changed his name to Zedekiah”(II Kings 24:17). Why did Nebuchadnezzar call him Zedekiah? bHe said to him: God will justify the judgment against you if you rebel against me; and it is written: “And he also rebelled against King Nebuchadnezzar, who had imposed upon him an oath by God”(II Chronicles 36:13).
65. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

62b. אכולהו והא ששה חדשים קאמר אינו דומה מי שיש לו פת בסלו למי שאין לו פת בסלו,א"ל רבה בר רב חנן לאביי חמר ונעשה גמל מאי א"ל רוצה אשה בקב ותיפלות מעשרה קבין ופרישות:,הספנים אחת לששה חדשים דברי ר' אליעזר: אמר רב ברונא אמר רב הלכה כר"א אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמר רב זו דברי ר' אליעזר אבל חכמים אומרים התלמידים יוצאין לת"ת ב' וג' שנים שלא ברשות אמר רבא סמכו רבנן אדרב אדא בר אהבה ועבדי עובדא בנפשייהו,כי הא דרב רחומי הוה שכיח קמיה דרבא במחוזא הוה רגיל דהוה אתי לביתיה כל מעלי יומא דכיפורי יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא הוה מסכיא דביתהו השתא אתי השתא אתי לא אתא חלש דעתה אחית דמעתא מעינה הוה יתיב באיגרא אפחית איגרא מתותיה ונח נפשיה,עונה של תלמידי חכמים אימת אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מע"ש לע"ש (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו אמר רב יהודה ואיתימא רב הונא ואיתימא רב נחמן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,יהודה בריה דר' חייא חתניה דר' ינאי הוה אזיל ויתיב בבי רב וכל בי שמשי הוה אתי לביתיה וכי הוה אתי הוה קא חזי קמיה עמודא דנורא יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא כיון דלא חזי ההוא סימנא אמר להו רבי ינאי כפו מטתו שאילמלי יהודה קיים לא ביטל עונתו הואי (קהלת י, ה) כשגגה שיוצא מלפני השליט ונח נפשיה,רבי איעסק ליה לבריה בי רבי חייא כי מטא למיכתב כתובה נח נפשה דרביתא אמר רבי ח"ו פסולא איכא יתיבו ועיינו במשפחות רבי אתי משפטיה בן אביטל ורבי חייא אתי משמעי אחי דוד,אזיל איעסק ליה לבריה בי ר' יוסי בן זימרא פסקו ליה תרתי סרי שנין למיזל בבי רב אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו ניהוו שית שנין אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו איכניס והדר איזיל הוה קא מכסיף מאבוה א"ל בני דעת קונך יש בך,מעיקרא כתיב (שמות טו, יז) תביאמו ותטעמו ולבסוף כתיב (שמות כה, ח) ועשו לי מקדש ושכנתי בתוכם,אזיל יתיב תרתי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתא איעקרא דביתהו אמר רבי היכי נעביד נגרשה יאמרו ענייה זו לשוא שימרה נינסיב איתתא אחריתי יאמרו זו אשתו וזו זונתו בעי עלה רחמי ואיתסיאת:,רבי חנניה בן חכינאי הוה קאזיל לבי רב בשילהי הלוליה דר"ש בן יוחאי א"ל איעכב לי עד דאתי בהדך לא איעכבא ליה אזל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתי אישתנו שבילי דמתא ולא ידע למיזל לביתיה,אזל יתיב אגודא דנהרא שמע לההיא רביתא דהוו קרו לה בת חכינאי בת חכינאי מלי קולתך ותא ניזיל אמר ש"מ האי רביתא דידן אזל בתרה הוה יתיבא דביתהו קא נהלה קמחא דל עינה חזיתיה סוי לבה פרח רוחה אמר לפניו רבש"ע ענייה זו זה שכרה בעא רחמי עלה וחייה,רבי חמא בר ביסא אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי מדרשא כי אתא אמר לא איעביד כדעביד בן חכינאי עייל יתיב במדרשא שלח לביתיה אתא ר' אושעיא בריה יתיב קמיה הוה קא משאיל ליה שמעתא חזא דקא מתחדדי שמעתיה חלש דעתיה אמר אי הואי הכא הוה לי זרע כי האי,על לביתיה על בריה קם קמיה הוא סבר למשאליה שמעתתא קא בעי אמרה ליה דביתהו מי איכא אבא דקאים מקמי ברא קרי עליה רמי בר חמא (קהלת ד, יב) החוט המשולש לא במהרה ינתק זה ר' אושעיא בנו של רבי חמא בר ביסא,ר"ע רעיא דבן כלבא שבוע הוה חזיתיה ברתיה דהוה צניע ומעלי אמרה ליה אי מקדשנא לך אזלת לבי רב אמר לה אין איקדשא ליה בצינעה ושדרתיה שמע אבוה אפקה מביתיה אדרה הנאה מנכסיה אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שנין בבי רב כי אתא אייתי בהדיה תרי סרי אלפי תלמידי שמעיה לההוא סבא דקאמר לה עד כמה 62b. the itannataught us a ihalakha bwith regard to all of them,not only a man of leisure or a laborer. He asked him: bButwith regard to a sailor bit saidthat the set interval for conjugal relations is bsix months;why, then, should he have to divorce her if he vowed to forbid these relations for only a week? He answered him: It is well known that bone who has bread in his basket is not comparable to one who does not have bread in his basket.On a fast day, one who does not have bread available in his basket suffers more than one who does have bread available and knows that he will be able to eat later. In this case as well, when a woman knows that marital relations are forbidden to her due to a vow, her suffering from waiting for her husband to return is increased., bRabba bar Rav Ha said to Abaye: If a donkey driverwho is already married wants to bbecome a camel driver, whatis the ihalakha /i? Is he permitted to change his profession in order to earn more money from his work, even though this will mean he reduces the frequency with which he engages in conjugal relations with his wife? bHe answered him: A woman prefers a ikav /i,i.e., modest means, bwith conjugal relations to ten ikavwith abstinence.Consequently, he is not allowed to change his profession without her permission.,§ The mishna stated: For bsailors,the set interval for conjugal relations is bonce every six months. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Berona saidthat bRav said:The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer. Rav Adda bar Ahava saidthat bRav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer, but the Rabbis say: Students may leavetheir homes bto study Torahfor as long as btwo or three years without permissionfrom their wives. bRava said: The Sages relied on Rabbi Adda bar Ahava’sopinion band performed an actionlike this bthemselves,but the results were sometimes fatal.,This is basit is related babout Rav Reḥumi, who would commonlystudy bbefore Rava in Meḥoza: He was accustomed to comeback bto his home everyyear on the beve of Yom Kippur. One day he wasparticularly bengrossed inthe ihalakha /ihe was studying, and so he remained in the study hall and did not go home. bHis wife was expecting himthat day and continually said to herself: bNow he is coming, now he is coming.But in the end, bhe did not come. She was distressedby this and ba tear fell from her eye.At that exact moment, Rav Reḥumi bwas sitting on the roof. The roof collapsed under him and he died.This teaches how much one must be careful, as he was punished severely for causing anguish to his wife, even inadvertently.,§ bWhenis btheideal btime for Torah scholarsto fulfill their conjugal obligations? bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:The appropriate time for them is bfrom Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve,i.e., on Friday nights. Similarly, it is stated with regard to the verse b“that brings forth its fruit in its season”(Psalms 1:3): bRav Yehuda said, and some saythat it was bRav Huna, and some saythat it was bRav Naḥman: Thisis referring to one bwho engages in marital relations,bringing forth his fruit, bfrom Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve. /b,It is related further that bYehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyyaand bson-in-law of Rabbi Yannai, would go and sit in the study hall, and everyShabbat eve bat twilight he would come to his house. When he would come,Rabbi Yannai bwould see a pillar of fire preceding himdue to his sanctity. bOne day he was engrossed inthe ihalakha /ihe was studying, and he stayed in the study hall and did not return home. bWhen Rabbi Yannai did not see that signpreceding him, bhe said tothe family: bTurn his bed over,as one does at times of mourning, since he must have died, reasoning that bif Yehuda were alive he would not have missed his set intervalfor conjugal relations and would certainly have come home. What he said bbecame “like an error that proceeds from a ruler”(Ecclesiastes 10:5), bandYehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, bdied. /b,It is related further that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi barranged for his sonto marry a daughter of bthe household of Rabbi Ḥiyya. When he came to write the marriage contract, the girl died. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Is there, Heaven forbid, some disqualificationin these families, as it appears that God prevented this match from taking place? bThey sat and looked into the families’ancestry and found that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas descended from Shefatya ben Avital,the wife of David, whereas bRabbi Ḥiyya was descended from Shimi, David’s brother. /b, bHe went and arranged for his sonto marry a daughter bof the household of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra. They agreed for himthat they would support him for btwelve years to go to study in the study hall.It was assumed that he would first go to study and afterward get married. bThey passedthe girl bin front ofthe groom and when he saw her bhe said: Let it bejust bsix years. They passed her in front of himagain and bhe said to them: I will marry hernow band then goto study. bHe wasthen bashamedto see bhis father,as he thought he would reprimand him because when he saw the girl he desired her and could not wait. His father placated him and bsaid to him: My son, you have your Maker’s perception,meaning you acted the same way that God does.,The proof for this is that binitially it is written: “You bring them and plant themin the mountain of Your inheritance, the place that You, O Lord, have made for You to dwell in” (Exodus 15:17), which indicates that God’s original intention was to build a Temple for the Jewish people after they had entered Eretz Yisrael. bAnd ultimately it is written: “And let them make Me a Sanctuary, that I may dwell among them”(Exodus 25:8), i.e., even while they were still in the desert, which indicates that due to their closeness to God, they enjoyed greater affection and He therefore advanced what would originally have come later.,After his wedding bhe went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back his wife had become infertile,as a consequence of spending many years without her husband. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Whatshould we bdo? If he will divorce her,people bwill say: This poor woman waitedand hoped bfor naught. If he will marry another womanto beget children, people bwill say: This one,who bears him children, bis his wife and that one,who lives with him, bis his mistress.Therefore, her husband bpleadedwith God bto have mercy on her and she was cured. /b, bRabbi Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai went to the study hall at the end of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai’s wedding feast.Rabbi Shimon bsaid to him: Wait for me until Ican bcome with you,after my days of celebration are over. However, since he wanted to learn Torah, bhe did not waitand bwent and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back, all the paths of his city had changed and he did not know how to go to his home. /b, bHe wentand bsat on the bank of the river and heard people calling to a certain girl: Daughter of Ḥakhinai, daughter of Ḥakhinai, fill your pitcher and come up. He said: I can conclude from this that this is our daughter,meaning his own daughter, whom he had not recognized after so many years. bHe followed herto his house. bHis wife was sitting and sifting flour. She lifted her eyes up, saw himand recognized him, band her heart flutteredwith agitation and bshe passed awayfrom the emotional stress. Rabbi Ḥaya bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the universe, is this the reward of this poor woman? He pleaded for mercy for her and she lived. /b, bRabbi Ḥama bar Bisa went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he cameback to his house, bhe said: I will not do what the son of Ḥakhinai,who came home suddenly with tragic consequences for his wife, bdid. He went and sat in the study hallin his hometown, band senta message bto his housethat he had arrived. While he was sitting there bhis son Rabbi Oshaya,whom he did not recognize, bcame and sat before him.Rabbi Oshaya basked himquestions about ihalakha /i, andRabbi Ḥama bsaw that the ihalakhotofRabbi Oshaya bwere incisive,i.e., he was very sharp. Rabbi Ḥama bwas distressed and said: If I had been hereand had taught my son bI would have had a child like this. /b,Rabbi Ḥama bwent in to his houseand bhis son went inwith him. Rabbi Ḥama then bstood up before himto honor a Torah scholar, since bhe thoughtthat bhe wanted to ask him a matter of ihalakha /i. His wife said to him: Is there a father who stands up before his son?The Gemara comments: bRami bar Ḥama readthe verse babout him: “A threefold cord is not quickly broken”(Ecclesiastes 4:12). bThisis referring to bRabbi Oshaya, son of Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa,as he represented the third generation of Torah scholars in his family.,The Gemara further relates: bRabbi Akiva was the shepherd of ben Kalba Savua,one of the wealthy residents of Jerusalem. The bdaughterof Ben Kalba Savua bsaw that he was humble and refined. She said to him: If I betroth myself to you, will you go to the study hallto learn Torah? bHe said to her: Yes. She became betrothed to him privately and sent himoff to study. bHer father heardthis and became angry. bHe removed her from his houseand took a bvowprohibiting her from bbenefiting from his property.Rabbi Akiva bwentand bsat for twelve years in the study hall. When he cameback to his house bhe brought twelve thousand studentswith him, and as he approached bhe heard an old man saying tohis wife: bFor how long /b
66. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

110a. וסתרתה למזיה כל דאתא חזיה הדר אדהכי והכי אבלעו להו,איתתיה דקרח אמרה ליה חזי מאי קעביד משה איהו הוה מלכא לאחוה שוויה כהנא רבא לבני אחוהי שוינהו סגני דכהנא אי אתיא תרומה אמר תיהוי לכהן אי אתו מעשר דשקילתו אתון אמר הבו חד מי' לכהן ועוד דגייז ליה למזייכו ומיטלל לכו כי כופתא עינא יהב במזייכו אמר לה הא איהו נמי קא עביד אמרה ליה כיון דכולהו רבותא דידיה אמר איהו נמי (שופטים טז, ל) תמות נפשי עם פלשתים,ועוד דקאמר לכו עבדיתו תכלתא אי ס"ד תכלתא חשיבא [מצוה] אפיק גלימי דתכלתא וכסינהו לכולהו מתיבתך היינו דכתיב (משלי יד, א) חכמות נשים בנתה ביתה זו אשתו של און בן פלת ואולת בידה תהרסנה זו אשתו של קרח,(במדבר טז, ב) ויקומו לפני משה ואנשים מבני ישראל חמשים ומאתים מיוחדים שבעדה קריאי מועד שהיו יודעים לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים אנשי שם שהיה להם שם בכל העולם,(במדבר טז, ד) וישמע משה ויפול על פניו מה שמועה שמע אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן שחשדוהו מאשת איש שנאמר (תהלים קו, טז) ויקנאו למשה במחנה א"ר שמואל בר יצחק מלמד שכל אחד ואחד קנא את אשתו ממשה שנאמר (שמות לג, ז) ומשה יקח את האהל ונטה לו מחוץ למחנה,(במדבר טז, כה) ויקם משה וילך אל דתן ואבירם אמר ר"ל מכאן שאין מחזיקין במחלוקת דאמר רב כל המחזיק במחלוקת עובר בלאו שנאמר (במדבר יז, ה) ולא יהיה כקרח וכעדתו,רב אשי אמר ראוי ליצטרע כתיב הכא ביד משה לו וכתיב התם (שמות ד, ו) ויאמר ה' לו עוד הבא נא ידך בחיקך,אמר ר' יוסי כל החולק על מלכות בית דוד ראוי להכישו נחש כתיב הכא (מלכים א א, ט) ויזבח אדוניהו צאן ובקר ומריא עם אבן הזוחלת וכתיב התם (דברים לב, כד) עם חמת זוחלי עפר,אמר רב חסדא כל החולק על רבו כחולק על השכינה שנאמר (במדבר כו, ט) בהצותם על ה' א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא כל העושה מריבה עם רבו כעושה עם שכינה שנאמר (במדבר כ, יג) המה מי מריבה אשר רבו בני ישראל (על) [את] ה',א"ר חנינא בר פפא כל המתרעם על רבו כאילו מתרעם על השכינה שנאמר (שמות טז, ח) לא עלינו תלונותיכם כי (אם) על ה' א"ר אבהו כל המהרהר אחר רבו כאילו מהרהר אחר שכינה שנאמר (במדבר כא, ה) וידבר העם באלהים ובמשה,(קהלת ה, יב) עושר שמור לבעליו לרעתו אמר ר"ל זה עושרו של קרח (דברים יא, ו) ואת כל היקום אשר ברגליהם א"ר אלעזר זה ממונו של אדם שמעמידו על רגליו ואמר רבי לוי משוי ג' מאות פרדות לבנות היו מפתחות של בית גנזיו של קרח וכולהו אקלידי וקילפי דגילדא,א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא ג' מטמוניות הטמין יוסף במצרים אחת נתגלתה לקרח ואחת נתגלתה לאנטונינוס בן אסוירוס ואחת גנוזה לצדיקים לעתיד לבא,וא"ר יוחנן קרח לא מן הבלועים ולא מן השרופין לא מן הבלועין דכתיב (במדבר טז, לב) ואת כל האדם אשר לקרח ולא קרח ולא מן השרופים דכתיב (במדבר כו, י) באכול האש את חמשים ומאתים איש ולא קרח,במתניתא תנא קרח מן השרופין ומן הבלועין מן הבלועים דכתיב (במדבר כו, י) ותבלע אותם ואת קרח מן השרופין דכתיב (במדבר טז, לה) (ותצא אש מלפני ה') [ואש יצאה מאת ה'] ותאכל את חמשים ומאתים איש וקרח בהדייהו,אמר רבא מאי דכתיב (חבקוק ג, יא) שמש ירח עמד זבולה לאור חציך יהלכו מלמד שעלו שמש וירח לזבול אמרו לפניו רבש"ע אם אתה עושה דין לבן עמרם נצא ואם לאו לא נצא עד שזרק בהם חצים אמר להן בכבודי לא מחיתם בכבוד בשר ודם מחיתם והאידנא לא נפקי עד דמחו להו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (במדבר טז, ל) ואם בריאה יברא ה' ופצתה האדמה את פיה אמר משה לפני הקב"ה אם בריאה גיהנם מוטב ואם לאו יברא ה' למאי אילימא למבריה ממש והא (קהלת א, ט) אין כל חדש תחת השמש אלא לקרובי פיתחא,(במדבר כו, יא) ובני קרח לא מתו תנא משום רבינו אמרו מקום נתבצר להם בגיהנם וישבו עליו ואמרו שירה אמר רבה בר בר חנה זימנא חדא הוה קאזלינא באורחא אמר לי ההוא טייעא תא ואחוי לך בלועי דקרח אזיל חזא תרי בזעי דהוה קא נפק קיטרא מנייהו שקל גבבא דעמרא אמשיי' מיא ואותביה בריש רומחיה ואחלפי' התם איחרך א"ל אצית מה שמעת ושמעית דהוו קאמרי הכי משה ותורתו אמת והן בדאים 110a. band exposed her hairas though she were bathing. bAnyone who cameand bsaw herstepped bback. In the meantimethe assembly of Korah bwas swallowedinto the ground, and On, son of Peleth, was spared., bKorah’s wife said to him: See what Moses is doing. He is the king, he appointed his brother High Priest,and bhe appointed his brother’s sons deputy priests. If iterumacomes, he says: Let it be for the priest; ifthe first btithe comes, which youas Levites btake, he says: Give one tenth to the priest. And furthermore, he shears your hair and waves youas if you are as insignificant bas excrement(see Numbers 8:5–11), as though bhe sethis bsights on your hairand wishes you to be shaven and unsightly. Korah bsaid to her: But didn’t he also do so;he shaved his hair like the rest of the Levites? bShe said to him: Since it is alldone bfor his own prominence, he also saidmetaphorically: b“Let me die with the Philistines”(Judges 16:30); he was willing to humiliate himself in order to humiliate you.,She said to him: bAnd furthermore,with regard to that bwhich he said to you, to prepare sky-blue dyefor your ritual fringes, one could respond to him: bIf it enters your mind,Moses, that using bsky-blue dye is considered a mitzva, take out robesthat are made entirely bofmaterial colored with bsky-blue dye, and dress allthe students bof your academyin sky-blue robes without ritual fringes; why could one not fulfill the mitzva in that manner? Clearly, Moses is fabricating all this. bThis isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The wisdom of women builds her house”(Proverbs 14:1); bthisis referring to bthe wife of On, son of Peleth.And: b“Folly plucks it down with her hands”(Proverbs 14:1); bthisis referring to bthe wife of Korah. /b,It is written: b“And they arose before Moses, with men from the children of Israel, two hundred and fiftyprinces of the congregation, the elect men of the assembly, men of renown” (Numbers 16:2). These men were bthe distinctive people of the assembly. “The elect men of the assembly [ ikeri’ei moed /i]”is referring to those bwho knewhow bto intercalate the years and establish the monthsin order to determine the time for each Festival [ imoed /i]. b“Men of renown [ ishem /i],”is referring to those bwho had a reputation [ ishem /i] throughout the world. /b,With regard to the verse: b“And Moses heard and he fell on his face”(Numbers 16:4), the Gemara asks: bWhat report did he hearthat elicited that reaction? bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:He heard bthat they suspected himof adultery bwith a married woman, as it is stated: “And they were jealous of Moses in the camp”(Psalms 106:16). bRabbi Shmuel bar Yitzḥak says:This bteaches that each and everyman bwarned his wifeto distance herself bfrom Mosesand not enter into seclusion with him, bas it is stated: “And Moses would take the tent and pitch it outside the camp”(Exodus 33:7). It was due to this slander that he withdrew from the camp.,§ With regard to the verse: b“And Moses arose and went to Dathan and Abiram”(Numbers 16:25), bReish Lakish says: From herewe derive bthat one may not perpetuate a dispute, as Rav says: Anyone who perpetuates a dispute violates a prohibition, as it is stated: “And he will not be like Korah and his assembly,as the Lord spoke by the hand of Moses to him” (Numbers 17:5). Even the aggrieved party must seek to end the dispute. Dathan and Abiram accused Moses and by right should have initiated the reconciliation. Nevertheless, Moses was not insistent on this; he went to them., bRav Ashi says:One who perpetuates a dispute bis fit to be afflicted with leprosy. It is written here: “By the hand of Moses to him,” and it is written there: “And the Lord said furthermore to him: Put now your hand into your bosom.And he put his hand into his bosom; and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous, as white as snow” (Exodus 4:6). Based on the verbal analogy based on the term “to him” written in both verses, it is derived that the punishment for perpetuating a dispute is leprosy.,Apropos the prohibition of perpetuating a dispute, bRabbi Yosei says:With regard to banyone who disputes the reign of the house of David, it is fitting for a snake to bite him.As bit is written here: “And Adonijah slaughtered sheep and cattle and fatlings by the stone of Zoheleth”(I Kings 1:9); band it is written there: “With the poison of crawling things [ izoḥalei /i] of the dust”(Deuteronomy 32:24). Adonijah, who rebelled against his father, King David, was fit to be bitten by a snake., bRav Ḥisda says: Anyone who disagrees with his teacher is like one who disagrees with the Divine Presence, as it is statedwith regard to Dathan and Abiram: b“When they strove against the Lord”(Numbers 26:9), although their dispute was with Moses. bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Anyone who initiates a quarrel [ imeriva /i] with his teacher is like one who initiates a quarrel with the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “These are the waters of Meribah, where the children of Israel quarreled with the Lord”(Numbers 20:13), although their quarrel was with Moses., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says: Anyone who expresses resentment against his teacherfor wronging him, bit is as though he is expressing resentment against the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “Your murmurings are not against us, but against the Lord”(Exodus 16:8). bRabbi Abbahu says: Anyone who suspects his teacherof wrongdoing, bit is as though he suspects the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “And the people spoke against God, and against Moses”(Numbers 21:5). The verse likens God and Moses with regard to this matter.,§ With regard to the verse: b“Wealth is kept for the owner to his detriment”(Ecclesiastes 5:12), bReish Lakish says: Thisis referring to bthe wealth of Korah,which was of no use to him. The fact that Korah was wealthy is derived from the verse: b“And all the substance that was at their feet”(Deuteronomy 11:6), as bRabbi Elazar says: Thisis referring to ba person’s property, which stands him on his feet. And Rabbi Levi says: The keysalone bto Korah’s treasury were a burdenrequiring bthree hundred white mulesto transport them, bandmoreover, ball the keys [ iaklidei /i] and locks were of leather.This conveys the vastness of his wealth., bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Joseph concealed three buried treasures in Egyptthat he accumulated from the sale of grain during the years of famine. The location of bone was revealed to Korah, andthe location of bone was revealed to Antoninus, son of Asveirus,emperor of Rome, band oneremains bhidden for the righteous in the future,i.e., in the messianic era., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: Korah was neither among the swallowed nor among the burned;he died in a plague. He was bneither among the swallowed, as it is written:“And the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them and their houses band all the men who were with Korah”(Numbers 16:32), from which it is inferred: bBut not Korahhimself. bNorwas he bamong the burned, as it is written: “When the fire consumed two hundred and fifty men”(Numbers 26:10), bbut not Korah. /b,It bwas taught in a ibaraita /i: Korah wasboth bamong the burned and among the swallowed.He was bamong the swallowed, as it is written:“And the earth opened its mouth band swallowed them with Korah”(Numbers 26:10). He was bamong the burned, as it is written: “And fire came forth from the Lord, and devoured the two hundred and fifty menthat burned the incense” (Numbers 16:35), band Korah was with them. /b, bRava says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The sun and moon stand still in their habitation [ izevula /i], at the light of Your arrows as they go”(Habakkuk 3:11)? This bteaches that the sun and moon ascended to izevul /i,one of the seven firmaments, in which the upper Temple stands. bThey said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, if You perform justice forMoses, bthe son of Amram,and prove his righteousness, bwe will emergeand illuminate the world. bAnd if not, we will not emerge.They did not emerge buntilGod bfired arrows at themand bsaid to them: You did not protest with regard to My honor,as people would see the sun and the moon each day and worship them, but byou protested for the honor of flesh and blood? And today,the sun and the moon bdo not emerge until they are struck,as in deference to God they hesitate to emerge., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “But if the Lord creates a new creation and the earth opens its mouth”(Numbers 16:30)? bMoses said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: If Gehenna isalready bcreated, good, but if not, God should createit now. The Gemara asks: bFor whatwas Moses asking? bIf we saythat his request was for God bto actually createGehenna, bbut isn’tit written: b“There is nothing new under the sun”(Ecclesiastes 1:9)? There are no new creations after the six days of Creation. bRather,Moses asked God bto bring the openingof Gehenna bcloseto there, so that the assembly of Korah would be buried alive.,With regard to the verse: b“And the sons of Korah did not die”(Numbers 26:11), it is btaughtin a ibaraitathat bin the name of our teacher,the Sages bsaid: A place was fortified for them in Gehenna and they sat upon it and recited songsof praise. bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: One time I was walking on the path,and ba certain Arab said to me: Come and I will show you thosefrom the assembly bof Korahwho were bswallowed. I wentand bI saw two fissuresin the ground bfrom which smoke was emerging.That Arab btook a woolen fleeceand bdampened it with water and placed it on the tip of his spear and passedit over the fissures bthere.The fleece bwas singed,indicating the level of heat there. bHe said to me: Listen; what do you hear? And I heard that thisis what bthey were saying: Moses and his Torah are truth, and they,referring to themselves, bare liars. /b
67. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. בני שמואל חטאו אינו אלא טועה שנאמר (שמואל א ח, ג) ויהי (כי זקן שמואל ובניו לא הלכו) בדרכיו בדרכיו הוא דלא הלכו מיחטא נמי לא חטאו,אלא מה אני מקיים (שמואל א ח, ג) ויטו אחרי הבצע שלא עשו כמעשה אביהם שהיה שמואל הצדיק מחזר בכל מקומות ישראל ודן אותם בעריהם שנאמר (שמואל א ז, טז) והלך מדי שנה בשנה וסבב בית אל והגלגל והמצפה ושפט את ישראל והם לא עשו כן אלא ישבו בעריהם כדי להרבות שכר לחזניהן ולסופריהן,כתנאי ויטו אחרי הבצע ר' מאיר אומר חלקם שאלו בפיהם רבי יהודה אומר מלאי הטילו על בעלי בתים ר' עקיבא אומר קופה יתירה של מעשר נטלו בזרוע ר' יוסי אומר מתנות נטלו בזרוע:,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל האומר דוד חטא אינו אלא טועה שנאמר (שמואל א יח, יד) ויהי דוד לכל דרכיו משכיל וה' עמו וגו' אפשר חטא בא לידו ושכינה עמו,אלא מה אני מקיים (שמואל ב יב, ט) מדוע בזית את דבר ה' לעשות הרע שביקש לעשות ולא עשה,אמר רב רבי דאתי מדוד מהפך ודריש בזכותיה דדוד מדוע בזית את דבר ה' לעשות הרע רבי אומר משונה רעה זו מכל רעות שבתורה שכל רעות שבתורה כתיב בהו ויעש וכאן כתיב לעשות שביקש לעשות ולא עשה,(שמואל ב יב, ט) את אוריה החתי הכית בחרב שהיה לך לדונו בסנהדרין ולא דנת ואת אשתו לקחת לך לאשה ליקוחין יש לך בה,דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל היוצא למלחמת בית דוד כותב גט כריתות לאשתו שנאמר (שמואל א יז, יח) ואת עשרת חריצי החלב האלה תביא לשר האלף ואת אחיך תפקוד לשלום ואת ערובתם תקח,מאי ערובתם תני רב יוסף דברים המעורבים בינו לבינה,(שמואל ב יב, ט) ואותו הרגת בחרב בני עמון מה חרב בני עמון אי אתה נענש עליו אף אוריה החתי אי אתה נענש עליו,מאי טעמא מורד במלכות הוה דאמר ליה (שמואל ב יא, יא) ואדוני יואב ועבדי אדוני על פני השדה חונים,אמר רב כי מעיינת ביה בדוד לא משכחת ביה בר מדאוריה דכתיב (מלכים א טו, ה) רק בדבר אוריה החתי,אביי קשישא רמי דרב אדרב מי אמר רב הכי והאמר רב קיבל דוד לשון הרע קשיא,גופא רב אמר קיבל דוד לשון הרע דכתיב (שמואל ב ט, ד) ויאמר לו המלך איפוא הוא ויאמר ציבא אל המלך הנה הוא בית מכיר בן עמיאל (בלא) דבר וכתיב וישלח המלך ויקחהו מבית מכיר בן עמיאל (מלא) דבר,מכדי חזייה דשקרא הוא כי הדר אלשין עילויה מ"ט קיבלה מיניה דכתיב (שמואל ב טז, ב) ויאמר המלך (אל ציבא איה) בן אדוניך ויאמר ציבא אל המלך הנה (הוא) יושב בירושלים וגו' ומנא לן דקיבל מיניה דכתיב (שמואל ב טז, ב) ויאמר המלך הנה לך כל אשר למפיבושת ויאמר ציבא השתחויתי אמצא חן (בעיני) המלך,ושמואל אמר לא קיבל דוד לשון הרע דברים הניכרים חזא ביה דכתיב (שמואל ב יט, כה) ומפיבושת בן שאול ירד (לפני) המלך ולא עשה רגליו ולא עשה שפמו ואת בגדיו לא כיבס וגו' וכתיב ויהי כי בא ירושלים לקראת המלך ויאמר לו המלך למה לא הלכת עמי מפיבושת ויאמר אדוני המלך עבדי רמני כי אמר עבדך אחבשה לי החמור וארכב עליה ואלך את המלך כי פסח 56a. bthat the sons of Samuel sinned is nothing other than mistaken, as it is stated: “And it came to pass, when Samuel was oldthat he made his sons judges over Israel… bAnd his sons walked not in his waysbut sought after unjust gain, and took bribes, and perverted justice” (I Samuel 8:1–3). By inference: bIn his ways they did not walk,however, bthey did not sin either.They were not the equals of their father, but they were not sinners., bHowever, howthen bdo I establishthe meaning of the verse: b“And they sought after unjust gain,”indicating that they were sinners? It means bthat they did not conductthemselves bin accordance with the actions of their father. As Samuel the righteous would travel to all placeswhere the people of bIsraelwere located bandsit in bjudgment in their towns, as it is stated: “And he went from year to year in circuit from Beth-El, and Gilgal, and Mitzpa, and judged Israelin all those places” (I Samuel 7:16). bAnd,however, bthey did not do soand travel from place to place. bRather, they sat in theirown bcities in order to enhance the feescollected bby their attendants and scribes.Therefore, the verse ascribes to them liability as if they sinned by seeking ill-gotten gains and bribes.,The Gemara notes that this matter is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i.As it was taught in a ibaraitathat the verse states: b“And they sought after unjust gain.” Rabbi Meir says:This means that bthey vocally demanded their portionsof the tithe due them as Levites, abusing their position to the detriment of other Levites. bRabbi Yehuda says: They imposedupon local bhomeownersto sell their bmerchandiseand support them. bRabbi Akiva says: They took an extra basket of tithes,beyond that which was their due, bby force. Rabbi Yosei says: They tookonly bthe giftsdue them; however, they took them bby force.They acted improperly, as a Levite is required to wait until he is given his gifts and may not take them., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who says that David sinnedwith Bathsheba bis nothing other than mistaken, as it is stated: “And David succeeded in all his ways; and the Lord was with him”(I Samuel 18:14). bIs it possible that sin came to his hand andnevertheless bthe Divine Presence was with him? /b, bHowever, howthen bdo I establishthe meaning of the rebuke of the prophet Nathan: b“Why have you despised the word of the Lord, to do that which is evilin My sight? Uriah the Hittite you have smitten with the sword, and his wife you have taken to be your wife, and him you have slain with the sword of the children of Ammon” (II Samuel 12:9), indicating that David sinned? The Gemara answers: David bsought to doevil and have relations with Bathsheba while she was still married to Uriah bbut did not doso., bRav said: RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bwho descends fromthe house of bDavid, seeks to teachthe verse bin favor of David.With regard to that which is written: b“Why have you despised the commandment of the Lord to do evil,” RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: This evilmentioned with regard to David bis different from allother bevils in the Torah; as with regard to allother bevils in the Torah, it is written: And he didevil, band here it is written: To do evil.This unique phrase indicates that David bsought to doevil bbut did notactually bdoso. His intentions were improper; however, his actions were proper.,That which is written: b“Uriah the Hittite you have smitten with the sword,”means bthat you could have judged him before the Sanhedrinas one guilty of treason against the throne, band you did not judgehim in that manner. Instead, you had him executed in a manner that deviated from the generally accepted principles of judgment. With regard to that which is written: b“And his wife you have taken to be your wife”;it means that byou haverights of bmarriage with her,as by law Bathsheba was already divorced from Uriah., bAs Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who goes to a warwaged by the royal bhouse of David writes aconditional bbill of divorce to his wife.That was done to prevent a situation in which the soldier’s wife would be unable to remarry because the soldier did not return from battle and there were no witnesses to his fate. The conditional bill of divorce accorded her the status of a divorcee and freed her to remarry. bAs it is stated: “And carry these ten cheeses to the captain of their thousand, and to your brothers bring greetings and take their pledge [ iarubatam /i] /b” (I Samuel 17:18)., bWhat isthe meaning of iarubatam /i? Rav Yosef taught:It refers to bmatters that are shared [ ihame’oravim /i] between him,the husband, band her,the wife, i.e., marriage. The verse should be read: Take the bill of divorce that determines the status of the relationship between husband and wife. As, apparently, it was customary for men at war to send their wives a conditional divorce, since Uriah later died, Bathsheba retroactively assumed divorced status from the time that he set out to war. She was not forbidden to David.,With regard to that which is written: b“And him you have slain with the sword of the children of Ammon,”it means: bJust as you are not punished forsoldiers killed by bthe sword of the children of Ammonin the course of the war, bso too you are not punished forthe death of bUriah the Hittite. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat David was not liable for the death of Uriah? Because Uriah bwas a traitor against the throne. As he said toDavid: b“And my lord Joab and the servants of my lord are encamped in the open fields”(II Samuel 11:11). In the presence of the king, one may not refer to another as his lord. Doing so is treason., bRav said: When you analyzethe matter of bDavid, nosin that he committed bis found in hislifetime, bexcept for thatinvolving bUriah. As it is written /b: “Because David did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord, and turned not aside from any thing that He commanded him all the days of his life, bsave only in the matter of Uriah the Hittite”(I Kings 15:5)., bAbaye the Elder raised a contradiction betweenone statement bof Rav andanother statement bof Rav: Did Ravactually bsay this? Didn’t Rav say: David accepted aslanderous breport?Just as it is prohibited to relate a slanderous report, it is similarly prohibited to accept it. This contradiction remains unresolved, and it is bdifficult. /b,The Gemara now examines bthe matter itselfwith regard to Rav’s statement cited in the course of the previous discussion. bRav said: David accepted a slanderous report, as it is writtenwith regard to David’s search for a surviving son of Jonathan: b“And the king said to him,to Ziba, Saul’s slave: bWhere is he? And Ziba said to the king: Behold, he is in the house of Machir, the son of Ammiel, in Lo-Devar [ ibelo devar /i]”(II Samuel 9:4). Ziba indicated to David that Jonathan’s son was inconsequential, lacking any matter [ ilo devar /i] of Torah. bAnd it is written: “Then KingDavid bsent, and fetched him out of the house of Machir, the son of Ammiel, from Lo-Devar [ imilo devar /i]”(II Samuel 9:5). That verse can be read that after sending for him, David found him filled with matters [ imelo devar /i] of Torah., bNow, afterDavid bsaw thatZiba bwas a liar, whenZiba bonce again slanderedJonathan’s son, Mephibosheth, bwhy did David accepthis report? bAs it is writtenthat when David fled from Absalom, he met Ziba: b“And the king said: And where is your master’s son? And Ziba said to the king: Behold, he is staying in Jerusalem,as he said: Today shall the house of Israel restore to me the kingdom of my father” (II Samuel 16:3). bAnd from where do wederive bthat David acceptedZiba’s slanderous report? bAs it is written: “Then said the kingto Ziba: bBehold, all that belongs to Mephibosheth is yours. And Ziba said: I humbly beseech you that I may find favor in your sight,my lord, bO king /b” (II Samuel 16:4)., bAnd Shmuel said: David did not acceptZiba’s bslanderous reportwithout substantiation. Rather, bhehimself bsaw conspicuous matters inMephibosheth that indicated that Ziba was right. bAs it is written: “And Mephibosheth, the son of Saul, came down to meet the king, and he had neither dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothesfrom the day the king departed until the day he came back in peace” (II Samuel 19:25). David thought that he was mourning the fact that he had returned in peace. bAnd it is written: “And it came to pass, when he came to Jerusalem to meet the king, and the king said to him: Why did you not go with me, Mephibosheth? And he answered: My lord, O king, my servant deceived me; for your servant said: I will saddle me a donkey, and I will ride on it, and go to the king; because lame is /b
68. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.129 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.129. Neither do they think that the divergence of opinion between philosophers is any reason for abandoning the study of philosophy, since at that rate we should have to give up life altogether: so Posidonius in his Exhortations. Chrysippus allows that the ordinary Greek education is serviceable.It is their doctrine that there can be no question of right as between man and the lower animals, because of their unlikeness. Thus Chrysippus in the first book of his treatise On Justice, and Posidonius in the first book of his De officio. Further, they say that the wise man will feel affection for the youths who by their countece show a natural endowment for virtue. So Zeno in his Republic, Chrysippus in book i. of his work On Modes of Life, and Apollodorus in his Ethics.
69. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 1.6.1, 1.6.3-1.6.5, 2.23.3-2.23.4, 2.23.8, 2.23.10, 2.23.12, 2.23.14, 2.23.18, 3.11-3.12, 3.19, 3.20.1, 3.32.3-3.32.6, 4.22.4, 4.22.7 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

1.6.1. When Herod, the first ruler of foreign blood, became King, the prophecy of Moses received its fulfillment, according to which there should not be wanting a prince of Judah, nor a ruler from his loins, until he come for whom it is reserved. The latter, he also shows, was to be the expectation of the nations. 1.6.3. This Antipater, having been taken a prisoner while a boy by Idumean robbers, lived with them, because his father, being a poor man, was unable to pay a ransom for him. Growing up in their practices he was afterward befriended by Hyrcanus, the high priest of the Jews. A son of his was that Herod who lived in the times of our Saviour. 1.6.4. When the Kingdom of the Jews had devolved upon such a man the expectation of the nations was, according to prophecy, already at the door. For with him their princes and governors, who had ruled in regular succession from the time of Moses came to an end. 1.6.5. Before their captivity and their transportation to Babylon they were ruled by Saul first and then by David, and before the kings leaders governed them who were called Judges, and who came after Moses and his successor Jesus. 2.23.3. The manner of James' death has been already indicated by the above-quoted words of Clement, who records that he was thrown from the pinnacle of the temple, and was beaten to death with a club. But Hegesippus, who lived immediately after the apostles, gives the most accurate account in the fifth book of his Memoirs. He writes as follows: 2.23.4. James, the brother of the Lord, succeeded to the government of the Church in conjunction with the apostles. He has been called the Just by all from the time of our Saviour to the present day; for there were many that bore the name of James. 2.23.8. Now some of the seven sects, which existed among the people and which have been mentioned by me in the Memoirs, asked him, 'What is the gate of Jesus?' and he replied that he was the Saviour. 2.23.10. Therefore when many even of the rulers believed, there was a commotion among the Jews and Scribes and Pharisees, who said that there was danger that the whole people would be looking for Jesus as the Christ. Coming therefore in a body to James they said, 'We entreat you, restrain the people; for they are gone astray in regard to Jesus, as if he were the Christ. We entreat you to persuade all that have come to the feast of the Passover concerning Jesus; for we all have confidence in you. For we bear you witness, as do all the people, that you are just, and do not respect persons. 2.23.12. The aforesaid Scribes and Pharisees therefore placed James upon the pinnacle of the temple, and cried out to him and said: 'You just one, in whom we ought all to have confidence, forasmuch as the people are led astray after Jesus, the crucified one, declare to us, what is the gate of Jesus.' 2.23.14. And when many were fully convinced and gloried in the testimony of James, and said, 'Hosanna to the Son of David,' these same Scribes and Pharisees said again to one another, 'We have done badly in supplying such testimony to Jesus. But let us go up and throw him down, in order that they may be afraid to believe him.' 2.23.18. And one of them, who was a fuller, took the club with which he beat out clothes and struck the just man on the head. And thus he suffered martyrdom. And they buried him on the spot, by the temple, and his monument still remains by the temple. He became a true witness, both to Jews and Greeks, that Jesus is the Christ. And immediately Vespasian besieged them. 3.20.1. of the family of the Lord there were still living the grandchildren of Jude, who is said to have been the Lord's brother according to the flesh. 3.32.3. But there is nothing like hearing the historian himself, who writes as follows: Certain of these heretics brought accusation against Symeon, the son of Clopas, on the ground that he was a descendant of David and a Christian; and thus he suffered martyrdom, at the age of one hundred and twenty years, while Trajan was emperor and Atticus governor. 3.32.4. And the same writer says that his accusers also, when search was made for the descendants of David, were arrested as belonging to that family. And it might be reasonably assumed that Symeon was one of those that saw and heard the Lord, judging from the length of his life, and from the fact that the Gospel makes mention of Mary, the wife of Clopas, who was the father of Symeon, as has been already shown. 3.32.5. The same historian says that there were also others, descended from one of the so-called brothers of the Saviour, whose name was Judas, who, after they had borne testimony before Domitian, as has been already recorded, in behalf of faith in Christ, lived until the same reign. 3.32.6. He writes as follows: They came, therefore, and took the lead of every church as witnesses and as relatives of the Lord. And profound peace being established in every church, they remained until the reign of the Emperor Trajan, and until the above-mentioned Symeon, son of Clopas, an uncle of the Lord, was informed against by the heretics, and was himself in like manner accused for the same cause before the governor Atticus. And after being tortured for many days he suffered martyrdom, and all, including even the proconsul, marveled that, at the age of one hundred and twenty years, he could endure so much. And orders were given that he should be crucified. 4.22.4. The same author also describes the beginnings of the heresies which arose in his time, in the following words: And after James the Just had suffered martyrdom, as the Lord had also on the same account, Symeon, the son of the Lord's uncle, Clopas, was appointed the next bishop. All proposed him as second bishop because he was a cousin of the Lord.Therefore, they called the Church a virgin, for it was not yet corrupted by vain discourses. 4.22.7. And he wrote of many other matters, which we have in part already mentioned, introducing the accounts in their appropriate places. And from the Syriac Gospel according to the Hebrews he quotes some passages in the Hebrew tongue, showing that he was a convert from the Hebrews, and he mentions other matters as taken from the unwritten tradition of the Jews.
70. Nag Hammadi, Eugnostos The Blessed, 75.17-75.18 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

71. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 125.5-125.6 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

72. Nag Hammadi, The Hypostasis of The Archons, 97.4-97.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

73. Nag Hammadi, The Sophia of Jesus Christ, 99.17-99.19 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

74. Nag Hammadi, The Tripartite Tractate, 100.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

75. Origen, Against Celsus, 3.23, 4.17 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.23. But we, in proving the facts related of our Jesus from the prophetic Scriptures, and comparing afterwards His history with them, demonstrate that no dissoluteness on His part is recorded. For even they who conspired against Him, and who sought false witnesses to aid them, did not find even any plausible grounds for advancing a false charge against Him, so as to accuse Him of licentiousness; but His death was indeed the result of a conspiracy, and bore no resemblance to the death of Æsculapius by lightning. And what is there that is venerable in the madman Dionysus, and his female garments, that he should be worshipped as a god? And if they who would defend such beings betake themselves to allegorical interpretations, we must examine each individual instance, and ascertain whether it is well founded, and also in each particular case, whether those beings can have a real existence, and are deserving of respect and worship who were torn by the Titans, and cast down from their heavenly throne. Whereas our Jesus, who appeared to the members of His own troop - for I will take the word that Celsus employs - did really appear, and Celsus makes a false accusation against the Gospel in saying that what appeared was a shadow. And let the statements of their histories and that of Jesus be carefully compared together. Will Celsus have the former to be true, but the latter, although recorded by eye-witnesses who showed by their acts that they clearly understood the nature of what they had seen, and who manifested their state of mind by what they cheerfully underwent for the sake of His Gospel, to be inventions? Now, who is there that, desiring to act always in conformity with right reason, would yield his assent at random to what is related of the one, but would rush to the history of Jesus, and without examination refuse to believe what is recorded of Him? 4.17. But will not those narratives, especially when they are understood in their proper sense, appear far more worthy of respect than the story that Dionysus was deceived by the Titans, and expelled from the throne of Jupiter, and torn in pieces by them, and his remains being afterwards put together again, he returned as it were once more to life, and ascended to heaven? Or are the Greeks at liberty to refer such stories to the doctrine of the soul, and to interpret them figuratively, while the door of a consistent explanation, and one everywhere in accord and harmony with the writings of the Divine Spirit, who had His abode in pure souls, is closed against us? Celsus, then, is altogether ignorant of the purpose of our writings, and it is therefore upon his own acceptation of them that he casts discredit, and not upon their real meaning; whereas, if he had reflected on what is appropriate to a soul which is to enjoy an everlasting life, and on the opinion which we are to form of its essence and principles, he would not so have ridiculed the entrance of the immortal into a mortal body, which took place not according to the metempsychosis of Plato, but agreeably to another and higher view of things. And he would have observed one descent, distinguished by its great benevolence, undertaken to convert (as the Scripture mystically terms them) the lost sheep of the house of Israel, which had strayed down from the mountains, and to which the Shepherd is said in certain parables to have gone down, leaving on the mountains those which had not strayed.
76. Origen, On First Principles, 4.1.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

77. Augustine, De Diversis Quaestionibus Ad Simplicianum, 1.2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

78. Julian (Emperor), Against The Galileans, 62 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

79. Jerome, Altercatio Luciferiani Et Orthodoxi (Dialogus Contra Luciferianos.), 23 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

80. Proclus, Hymni, 7.11 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

81. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 578, 327

82. Sozomenus, Ecclesiastical History, 1.1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron, high priest Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 313
abraham, patriarch Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 76
abraham Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93; Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 166; Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 207; Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 118
africanus, julius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 124, 125, 126, 128
ages (aetates) scheme O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 208
agrippa i Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 664
albert, ann oravetz Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 237, 340
alexandrian versus antiochene exegesis, philological, pedagogic, and problem-oriented nature of antiochene exegesis Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 743
alexandrian versus antiochene exegesis Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 743
allegro, j. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 127
amram Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
angels Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
annunciation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
antoninus pius Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 661
apocalypse Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297
apocalyptic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 227
apology (tertullian), 1 apology (justin martyr) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 552
aquila Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 661, 663
archelaus (king of cappadocia), and dream interpretation Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 126
aristobulus ii Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125
ark Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297
asceticism, and essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
athronges Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 126
bar kokhba Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 239
benjamin Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 240
bible, as prophecy O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 208
bible, literal and figurative interpretation of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 208
bible Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297
biblical, texts Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
biblical interpretation, christian proof from prophecy Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 667, 668
blood Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 49
boethus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 128
boethusians (baytosim) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 128
brooke, g. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 127
cairo and damascus versions, scriptural interpretation at qumran and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 261
christ, divinity of Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
christ, symbolized in jewish bible O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 207, 208
christian exegesis, in second century Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 552
christian exegesis, septuagint, critical consideration of text of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 552
christians Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
christology, proof from scripture Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 667, 668
chronology, primitive christian Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 141
city of david Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297
clement of alexandria, hebrew bible/old testament, exegesis of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 552
codex ottobianus McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 152
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46
conquests\n, of jerusalem (by david) Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297
constantine Butts and Gross, Jews and Syriac Christians: Intersections across the First Millennium. (2010) 174
constantinople Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
covenant Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
crusades Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297
cyril of jerusalem Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 96
daniel, book of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 141
dathan and abiram Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 313
david, davidic origin / descent Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 292, 293
david, king Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297
david Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 94, 96; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 292, 293
de hoop, r. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 124, 126
dead sea and area Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
dead sea scrolls, groningen hypothesis Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
dead sea scrolls Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102
death of Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 76
deathbed scenes Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 76
descendants Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
dialogue with trypho (justin martyr) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 552
diaspora Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
dionysus deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 165, 166
divine Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 274
divine speech, enigmatic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 227
elchai Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
elchasites Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
elders Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 274
elijah Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 240
enigmatic speech, biblical and jewish oracular and prophetic Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 227
epiphanius, and essene identity Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
epiphanius, and the seven schools model Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
epiphanius, description of the herodians Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125
epiphanius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
eponym Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 166
esau Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 103
essenes, and asceticism of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
essenes, and christian interpretation of judaism Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
essenes, and second temple judaism Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
essenes, and usage of the term sect Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
essenes, as a marginalized group Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
essenes, as a root of christianity Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
essenes, groningen hypotheses and Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
essenes, historically verifiable essene features Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
essenes, view as isolationist monastic order Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
ethnicity, ethnography Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 76
etymologies of hebrew names O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 207, 208
eucharist, of bread and water McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 152
eupolemus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 308
eusebius, writings on herod the great (africanus) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125, 126, 128, 130
eusebius of caesarea Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 94
exilarch, role of, in jewish judicial system Mokhtarian, Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran (2021) 113
exilarch Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 292
exile/exilic Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 55
exile Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
false prophet Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 274
feast, days Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
fides Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 35
figurative/allegorical exegesis, defined Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 743
four empires Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 49
fremde götter Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 166
fremdgötterverehrung Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 166
fullness of time Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 141
genealogy Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 240
genesis, legitimation of herods rule in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125, 128, 184
genesis, qumran pesharim Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
genesis Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 124, 125
genre Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
gnosticism, valentinian gnosticism, jewish thought in Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 118
god, of israel Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
god, of the old testament Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
gods Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
grace, divine O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 207
hairesis Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 106
hananel Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 128
hanin, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 239
harnack, adolf von McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 152
hasmonean dynasty, essene opposition to Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
hasmonean dynasty Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
healing, medicines and the essenes, in josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
healing and medicines, and jesus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
hebrew bible/old testament, julian the apostate on Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 767
hegesippus, schema of stages of heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 92, 93, 94, 105, 106
hegesippus Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 92, 93, 94, 105, 106
hellenistic jewish writings, eupolemus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 308
hellenistic jewish writings Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 308
hemerobaptists Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
heresy, alterity/otherness/exteriority of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 105, 106
heresy, division/multiplicity of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 105, 106
heresy, exclusion of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 106
heresy, novelty of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 94
herman, geoff rey Mokhtarian, Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran (2021) 113
herod of ascalon Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125
herod the great, aristobulus drowning of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 128
herod the great, as messiah Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 126, 127, 184
herod the great, essene endorsement and gifts Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 128, 130, 200
herod the great, in eusebius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 124, 125
herod the great, legitimation of his rule Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125, 128
herod the great, menahems prediction Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125, 200
herodian dynasty, essenes and Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 128, 130
herodians, use of term, and christian messianic supposition Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125, 126, 128
herodians, use of term, and translation Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
herodians, use of term, as interpreters of the law Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
herodians, use of term, as marks invention Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
herodians, use of term, as the predictors of herods rule Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125
herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
herodians, use of term, in epiphanius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
herodians, use of term, in john africanus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 124, 125
herodians, use of term, linguistic root of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
herodians, use of term Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
hillel Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 240; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 94, 96
history, prophetic history O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 208
hiyya rabbah, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 240
holy spirit, and liturgy Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
holy week Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
hypomnemata Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 94
hyrcanus ii Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125
idumaea Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125
incarnation Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
inspiration, divine Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46, 55
interreligiöse ehe Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 166
intertextuality Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 129
irenaeus of lyons, hebrew bible/old testament, exegesis of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 552
isaac Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 207
israel Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
jacob, son of isaac Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297
jacob Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 55; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 207, 208
jerusalem, symbolism of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 208
jerusalem Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 166; Butts and Gross, Jews and Syriac Christians: Intersections across the First Millennium. (2010) 174; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 274; Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 136
jerusalem talmud Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
jerusalem temple Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
jesus McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 152; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 292, 293
jesus christ Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 35
jesus of nazareth, and his disciples (christianoi) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
jesus of nazareth Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
jewish, roots Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
jewish law/legal schools, epiphanius seven schools Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
jewish succession, as origin of heresies Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 92, 93, 105, 106
jewish succession, listing of sects of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 94
jewish succession Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 105
jonah Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 240
joseph Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
josephus, and judaisms three schools of law Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
josephus Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 96
josephus essenes, gifts and favours from herod Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 128, 200
josephus essenes, judaism of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 128, 200
josephus essenes, medicines and healing Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
josephus essenes, temple practices Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 128
josephus essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
judaea, region of, enochic Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
judah Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93; Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297; Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 118
judah (patriarch) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 129
judaism, definition of orthodoxy against Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 92
judaism, rabbinic judaism Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 292, 293
judaism, second temple Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 200
judas, as abraham-like figure Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 118
judas iscariot Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 129
judas of gamala, rebellions of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 126
judges, in jewish babylonia, public experts Mokhtarian, Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran (2021) 113
judges Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 274
julian, emperor Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 35
julian (the apostate, roman emperor) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 767, 769
justin martyr, dialogue with trypho Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 552
justin martyr, hebrew bible/old testament, exegesis of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 552
justin martyr, on allegorical exegesisnan Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 552
justin martyr McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 152
kohärenzstörung Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 166
law, isaac represents O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 207
law Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
laws Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
levi, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 240
lord, referring to christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
maccabees, rulers Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 278
maccabees (books) Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 663
mareotis, lake, mark, gospel of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
mareotis, lake, use of the word herodian Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
martyr, justin Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 106
martyrdom Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 93
mary Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 106
masoretic text Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 55
matrilineal Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 292
melchisedek Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 659
melchizedek Klein and Wienand, City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity (2022) 297
menahem (manaemos) the essene, prediction of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125, 126, 128, 130, 200
menahem (manaemos) the essene Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 124
messiah, chronology Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 850, 851, 852
messiah, prediction of coming, and herod the great Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 126, 127
messiah, prediction of coming, davidic line and Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 126, 127, 128
messiah, prediction of coming, shiloh, use of term Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 126, 127
messiah, prediction of coming Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125, 126
messiah Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 278; Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 136; Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 49; Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 292, 293
messianism Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 239
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 55
midrash Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93
military discourse Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 313
minim, not always christians in rashi Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 522, 528
mithraism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 165
mithras, cult of McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 152
monotheism Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
montanists Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 94
moses Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 93; Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 313; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 274; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360; deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 165
nabataea/nabataeans Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
nahmanides, rabbi Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner, Interaction Between Judaism and Christianity in History, Religion, Art, and Literature (2009) 214
nahor Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 166
nasaraeans Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
nasi Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 66
nautin, pierre Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 105
nazirite Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 239
nebuchadnezzar Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 662
neusner, jacob Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 94
new testament, julian the apostate on Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 767, 769
new testament Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 313
old testament Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
onan Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 166
origen Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 96
ossaeans Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
papyri vs. classical mss. Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 850
patriarch Witter et al., Torah, Temple, Land: Constructions of Judaism in Antiquity (2021) 292, 293
patriarchs Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 662
paul O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 207
pauline epistles, pagan critiques of Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 769
perfection Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 106
perushim Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
peshat Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 240
pharisees, and josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
pharisees, in epiphanius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 184
pharisees, in the new testament gospels Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 130
pharisees Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 659; Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 92, 93
plagiarism deJauregui, Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity (2010), 165, 166
platonism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 106
pompey Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 125
praise, of god Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
prayer Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 76; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 55
prayers, daily Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
priest, priesthood Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 102
priest Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 313
priesthood Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 278
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46
prince from judah Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
prokeimena Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
prophecy, biblical Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 227
prophecy Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 274
prophet Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 274
prophetic Najman, The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity (2010) 32
prophetologion, arabic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
prophetologion Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
prophets, ot Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer, Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity (2022) 458
prophets Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 360
qedushta shir ha-shirim (anonymous) Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 136
qumran, ideological interpretation Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 261
qumran, plain-sense interpretation Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 261
qumran, scriptural interpretation at Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 261
qumran, techniques used Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 261
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46, 55