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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 47.29


וַיִּקְרְבוּ יְמֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לָמוּת וַיִּקְרָא לִבְנוֹ לְיוֹסֵף וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ שִׂים־נָא יָדְךָ תַּחַת יְרֵכִי וְעָשִׂיתָ עִמָּדִי חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת אַל־נָא תִקְבְּרֵנִי בְּמִצְרָיִם׃And the time drew near that Israel must die; and he called his son Joseph, and said unto him: ‘If now I have found favour in thy sight, put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh, and deal kindly and truly with me; bury me not, I pray thee, in Egypt.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 47.30, 48.13-48.14, 49.1-49.12, 49.21, 49.27-49.31, 49.33, 50.1, 50.7, 50.9-50.13, 50.15-50.18, 50.20-50.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

48.13. וַיִּקַּח יוֹסֵף אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֶת־אֶפְרַיִם בִּימִינוֹ מִשְּׂמֹאל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־מְנַשֶּׁה בִשְׂמֹאלוֹ מִימִין יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּגֵּשׁ אֵלָיו׃ 48.14. וַיִּשְׁלַח יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־יְמִינוֹ וַיָּשֶׁת עַל־רֹאשׁ אֶפְרַיִם וְהוּא הַצָּעִיר וְאֶת־שְׂמֹאלוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ מְנַשֶּׁה שִׂכֵּל אֶת־יָדָיו כִּי מְנַשֶּׁה הַבְּכוֹר׃ 49.1. לֹא־יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו עַד כִּי־יָבֹא שילה [שִׁילוֹ] וְלוֹ יִקְּהַת עַמִּים׃ 49.1. וַיִּקְרָא יַעֲקֹב אֶל־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר הֵאָסְפוּ וְאַגִּידָה לָכֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא אֶתְכֶם בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים׃ 49.2. מֵאָשֵׁר שְׁמֵנָה לַחְמוֹ וְהוּא יִתֵּן מַעֲדַנֵּי־מֶלֶךְ׃ 49.2. הִקָּבְצוּ וְשִׁמְעוּ בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב וְשִׁמְעוּ אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבִיכֶם׃ 49.3. בַּמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׂדֵה הַמַּכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי־מַמְרֵא בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן אֲשֶׁר קָנָה אַבְרָהָם אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה מֵאֵת עֶפְרֹן הַחִתִּי לַאֲחֻזַּת־קָבֶר׃ 49.3. רְאוּבֵן בְּכֹרִי אַתָּה כֹּחִי וְרֵאשִׁית אוֹנִי יֶתֶר שְׂאֵת וְיֶתֶר עָז׃ 49.4. פַּחַז כַּמַּיִם אַל־תּוֹתַר כִּי עָלִיתָ מִשְׁכְּבֵי אָבִיךָ אָז חִלַּלְתָּ יְצוּעִי עָלָה׃ 49.5. שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי אַחִים כְּלֵי חָמָס מְכֵרֹתֵיהֶם׃ 49.6. בְּסֹדָם אַל־תָּבֹא נַפְשִׁי בִּקְהָלָם אַל־תֵּחַד כְּבֹדִי כִּי בְאַפָּם הָרְגוּ אִישׁ וּבִרְצֹנָם עִקְּרוּ־שׁוֹר׃ 49.7. אָרוּר אַפָּם כִּי עָז וְעֶבְרָתָם כִּי קָשָׁתָה אֲחַלְּקֵם בְּיַעֲקֹב וַאֲפִיצֵם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 49.8. יְהוּדָה אַתָּה יוֹדוּךָ אַחֶיךָ יָדְךָ בְּעֹרֶף אֹיְבֶיךָ יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אָבִיךָ׃ 49.9. גּוּר אַרְיֵה יְהוּדָה מִטֶּרֶף בְּנִי עָלִיתָ כָּרַע רָבַץ כְּאַרְיֵה וּכְלָבִיא מִי יְקִימֶנּוּ׃ 49.11. אֹסְרִי לַגֶּפֶן עירה [עִירוֹ] וְלַשֹּׂרֵקָה בְּנִי אֲתֹנוֹ כִּבֵּס בַּיַּיִן לְבֻשׁוֹ וּבְדַם־עֲנָבִים סותה [סוּתוֹ׃] 49.12. חַכְלִילִי עֵינַיִם מִיָּיִן וּלְבֶן־שִׁנַּיִם מֵחָלָב׃ 49.21. נַפְתָּלִי אַיָּלָה שְׁלֻחָה הַנֹּתֵן אִמְרֵי־שָׁפֶר׃ 49.27. בִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב יִטְרָף בַּבֹּקֶר יֹאכַל עַד וְלָעֶרֶב יְחַלֵּק שָׁלָל׃ 49.28. כָּל־אֵלֶּה שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר וְזֹאת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם וַיְבָרֶךְ אוֹתָם אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר כְּבִרְכָתוֹ בֵּרַךְ אֹתָם׃ 49.29. וַיְצַו אוֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי נֶאֱסָף אֶל־עַמִּי קִבְרוּ אֹתִי אֶל־אֲבֹתָי אֶל־הַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׂדֵה עֶפְרוֹן הַחִתִּי׃ 49.31. שָׁמָּה קָבְרוּ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וְאֵת שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ שָׁמָּה קָבְרוּ אֶת־יִצְחָק וְאֵת רִבְקָה אִשְׁתּוֹ וְשָׁמָּה קָבַרְתִּי אֶת־לֵאָה׃ 49.33. וַיְכַל יַעֲקֹב לְצַוֺּת אֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֶּאֱסֹף רַגְלָיו אֶל־הַמִּטָּה וַיִּגְוַע וַיֵּאָסֶף אֶל־עַמָּיו׃ 50.1. וַיָּבֹאוּ עַד־גֹּרֶן הָאָטָד אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן וַיִּסְפְּדוּ־שָׁם מִסְפֵּד גָּדוֹל וְכָבֵד מְאֹד וַיַּעַשׂ לְאָבִיו אֵבֶל שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 50.1. וַיִּפֹּל יוֹסֵף עַל־פְּנֵי אָבִיו וַיֵּבְךְּ עָלָיו וַיִּשַּׁק־לוֹ׃ 50.11. וַיַּרְא יוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי אֶת־הָאֵבֶל בְּגֹרֶן הָאָטָד וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵבֶל־כָּבֵד זֶה לְמִצְרָיִם עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שְׁמָהּ אָבֵל מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן׃ 50.12. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בָנָיו לוֹ כֵּן כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּם׃ 50.13. וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֹתוֹ בָנָיו אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֹתוֹ בִּמְעָרַת שְׂדֵה הַמַּכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר קָנָה אַבְרָהָם אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה לַאֲחֻזַּת־קֶבֶר מֵאֵת עֶפְרֹן הַחִתִּי עַל־פְּנֵי מַמְרֵא׃ 50.15. וַיִּרְאוּ אֲחֵי־יוֹסֵף כִּי־מֵת אֲבִיהֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוּ יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ יוֹסֵף וְהָשֵׁב יָשִׁיב לָנוּ אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר גָּמַלְנוּ אֹתוֹ׃ 50.17. כֹּה־תֹאמְרוּ לְיוֹסֵף אָנָּא שָׂא נָא פֶּשַׁע אַחֶיךָ וְחַטָּאתָם כִּי־רָעָה גְמָלוּךָ וְעַתָּה שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע עַבְדֵי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ וַיֵּבְךְּ יוֹסֵף בְּדַבְּרָם אֵלָיו׃ 50.18. וַיֵּלְכוּ גַּם־אֶחָיו וַיִּפְּלוּ לְפָנָיו וַיֹּאמְרוּ הִנֶּנּוּ לְךָ לַעֲבָדִים׃ 50.21. וְעַתָּה אַל־תִּירָאוּ אָנֹכִי אֲכַלְכֵּל אֶתְכֶם וְאֶת־טַפְּכֶם וַיְנַחֵם אוֹתָם וַיְדַבֵּר עַל־לִבָּם׃ 50.22. וַיֵּשֶׁב יוֹסֵף בְּמִצְרַיִם הוּא וּבֵית אָבִיו וַיְחִי יוֹסֵף מֵאָה וָעֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים׃ 50.23. וַיַּרְא יוֹסֵף לְאֶפְרַיִם בְּנֵי שִׁלֵּשִׁים גַּם בְּנֵי מָכִיר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה יֻלְּדוּ עַל־בִּרְכֵּי יוֹסֵף׃ 50.24. וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹסֵף אֶל־אֶחָיו אָנֹכִי מֵת וֵאלֹהִים פָּקֹד יִפְקֹד אֶתְכֶם וְהֶעֱלָה אֶתְכֶם מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב׃ 50.25. וַיַּשְׁבַּע יוֹסֵף אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר פָּקֹד יִפְקֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶתְכֶם וְהַעֲלִתֶם אֶת־עַצְמֹתַי מִזֶּה׃ 50.26. וַיָּמָת יוֹסֵף בֶּן־מֵאָה וָעֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים וַיַּחַנְטוּ אֹתוֹ וַיִּישֶׂם בָּאָרוֹן בְּמִצְרָיִם׃ 47.30. But when I sleep with my fathers, thou shalt carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in their burying-place.’ And he said: ‘I will do as thou hast said.’" 48.13. And Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, and brought them near unto him." 48.14. And Israel stretched out his right hand, and laid it upon Ephraim’s head, who was the younger, and his left hand upon Manasseh’s head, guiding his hands wittingly; for Manasseh was the first-born." 49.1. And Jacob called unto his sons, and said: ‘Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the end of days." 49.2. Assemble yourselves, and hear, ye sons of Jacob; And hearken unto Israel your father." 49.3. Reuben, thou art my first-born, My might, and the first-fruits of my strength; The excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power." 49.4. Unstable as water, have not thou the excellency; Because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed; Then defiledst thou it—he went up to my couch." 49.5. Simeon and Levi are brethren; Weapons of violence their kinship." 49.6. Let my soul not come into their council; Unto their assembly let my glory not be not united; For in their anger they slew men, And in their self-will they houghed oxen." 49.7. Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce, And their wrath, for it was cruel; I will divide them in Jacob, And scatter them in Israel" 49.8. Judah, thee shall thy brethren praise; Thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; Thy father’s sons shall bow down before thee." 49.9. Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, thou art gone up. He stooped down, he couched as a lion, And as a lioness; who shall rouse him up?" 49.10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be." 49.11. Binding his foal unto the vine, And his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; He washeth his garments in wine, And his vesture in the blood of grapes;" 49.12. His eyes shall be red with wine, And his teeth white with milk." 49.21. Naphtali is a hind let loose: He giveth goodly words." 49.27. Benjamin is a wolf that raveneth; In the morning he devoureth the prey, And at even he divideth the spoil.’" 49.28. All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is it that their father spoke unto them and blessed them; every one according to his blessing he blessed them." 49.29. And be charged them, and said unto them: ‘I am to be gathered unto my people; bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite," 49.30. in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite for a possession of a burying-place." 49.31. There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah." 49.33. And when Jacob made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and expired, and was gathered unto his people." 50.1. And Joseph fell upon his father’s face, and wept upon him, and kissed him." 50.10. And they came to the threshing-floor of Atad, which is beyond the Jordan, and there they wailed with a very great and sore wailing; and he made a mourning for his father seven days." 50.11. And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning in the floor of Atad, they said: ‘This is a grievous amourning to the Egyptians.’ Wherefore the name of it was called Abel-mizraim, which is beyond the Jordan." 50.12. And his sons did unto him according as he commanded them." 50.13. For his sons carried him into the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which Abraham bought with the field, for a possession of a burying-place, of Ephron the Hittite, in front of Mamre." 50.15. And when Joseph’s brethren saw that their father was dead, they said: ‘It may be that Joseph will hate us, and will fully requite us all the evil which we did unto him.’" 50.17. So shall ye say unto Joseph: Forgive, I pray thee now, the transgression of thy brethren, and their sin, for that they did unto thee evil. And now, we pray thee, forgive the transgression of the servants of the God of thy father.’ And Joseph wept when they spoke unto him." 50.18. And his brethren also went and fell down before his face; and they said: ‘Behold, we are thy bondmen.’" 50.20. And as for you, ye meant evil against me; but God meant it for good, to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save much people alive." 50.21. Now therefore fear ye not; I will sustain you, and your little ones.’ And he comforted them, and spoke kindly unto them." 50.22. And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, and his father’s house; and Joseph lived a hundred and ten years." 50.23. And Joseph saw Ephraim’s children of the third generation; the children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were born upon Joseph’s knees." 50.24. And Joseph said unto his brethren: ‘I die; but God will surely remember you, and bring you up out of this land unto the land which He swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.’" 50.25. And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying: ‘God will surely remember you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence.’" 50.26. So Joseph died, being a hundred and ten years old. And they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.12. אַל־נָא תְהִי כַּמֵּת אֲשֶׁר בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵרֶחֶם אִמּוֹ וַיֵּאָכֵל חֲצִי בְשָׂרוֹ׃ 12.12. Let her not, I pray, be as one dead, of whom the flesh is half consumed when he cometh out of his mother’s womb.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 23.2, 24.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.2. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לִזְקֵנָיו וּלְרָאשָׁיו וּלְשֹׁפְטָיו וּלְשֹׁטְרָיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי בָּאתִי בַּיָּמִים׃ 24.1. וְלֹא אָבִיתִי לִשְׁמֹעַ לְבִלְעָם וַיְבָרֶךְ בָּרוֹךְ אֶתְכֶם וָאַצִּל אֶתְכֶם מִיָּדוֹ׃ 24.1. וַיֶּאֶסֹף יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־כָּל־שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁכֶמָה וַיִּקְרָא לְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּלְרָאשָׁיו וּלְשֹׁפְטָיו וּלְשֹׁטְרָיו וַיִּתְיַצְּבוּ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 23.2. that Joshua called for all Israel, for their elders and for their heads, and for their judges and for their officers, and said unto them: ‘I am old and well stricken in years." 24.1. And Joshua gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem, and called for the elders of Israel, and for their heads, and for their judges, and for their officers; and they presented themselves before God."
5. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.49-2.70 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.49. Now the days drew near for Mattathias to die, and he said to his sons: "Arrogance and reproach have now become strong; it is a time of ruin and furious anger. 2.50. Now, my children, show zeal for the law, and give your lives for the covet of our fathers. 2.51. Remember the deeds of the fathers, which they did in their generations; and receive great honor and an everlasting name. 2.52. Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness? 2.53. Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and became lord of Egypt. 2.54. Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covet of everlasting priesthood. 2.55. Joshua, because he fulfilled the command, became a judge in Israel. 2.56. Caleb, because he testified in the assembly, received an inheritance in the land. 2.57. David, because he was merciful, inherited the throne of the kingdom for ever. 2.58. Elijah because of great zeal for the law was taken up into heaven. 2.59. Haniah, Azariah, and Mishael believed and were saved from the flame. 2.60. Daniel because of his innocence was delivered from the mouth of the lions. 2.61. And so observe, from generation to generation, that none who put their trust in him will lack strength. 2.62. Do not fear the words of a sinner, for his splendor will turn into dung and worms. 2.63. Today he will be exalted, but tomorrow he will not be found, because he has returned to the dust, and his plans will perish. 2.64. My children, be courageous and grow strong in the law, for by it you will gain honor. 2.65. Now behold, I know that Simeon your brother is wise in counsel; always listen to him; he shall be your father. 2.66. Judas Maccabeus has been a mighty warrior from his youth; he shall command the army for you and fight the battle against the peoples. 2.67. You shall rally about you all who observe the law, and avenge the wrong done to your people. 2.68. Pay back the Gentiles in full, and heed what the law commands. 2.69. Then he blessed them, and was gathered to his fathers. 2.70. He died in the one hundred and forty-sixth year and was buried in the tomb of his fathers at Modein. And all Israel mourned for him with great lamentation.
6. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.1-3.15, 7.8-7.9, 7.11-7.14, 45.9-45.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. Listen to me your father, O children;and act accordingly, that you may be kept in safety. 3.1. Do not glorify yourself by dishonoring your father,for your fathers dishonor is no glory to you. 3.2. For the Lord honored the father above the children,and he confirmed the right of the mother over her sons. 3.2. For great is the might of the Lord;he is glorified by the humble. 3.3. Whoever honors his father atones for sins 3.3. Water extinguishes a blazing fire:so almsgiving atones for sin. 3.4. and whoever glorifies his mother is like one who lays up treasure. 3.5. Whoever honors his father will be gladdened by his own children,and when he prays he will be heard. 3.6. Whoever glorifies his father will have long life,and whoever obeys the Lord will refresh his mother; 3.7. he will serve his parents as his masters. 3.8. Honor your father by word and deed,that a blessing from him may come upon you. 3.9. For a fathers blessing strengthens the houses of the children,but a mothers curse uproots their foundations. 3.11. For a mans glory comes from honoring his father,and it is a disgrace for children not to respect their mother. 3.12. O son, help your father in his old age,and do not grieve him as long as he lives; 3.13. even if he is lacking in understanding, show forbearance;in all your strength do not despise him. 3.14. For kindness to a father will not be forgotten,and against your sins it will be credited to you; 3.15. in the day of your affliction it will be remembered in your favor;as frost in fair weather, your sins will melt away. 7.8. Do not commit a sin twice;even for one you will not go unpunished. 7.9. Do not say, "He will consider the multitude of my gifts,and when I make an offering to the Most High God he will accept it. 7.11. Do not ridicule a man who is bitter in soul,for there is One who abases and exalts. 7.12. Do not devise a lie against your brother,nor do the like to a friend. 7.13. Refuse to utter any lie,for the habit of lying serves no good. 7.14. Do not prattle in the assembly of the elders,nor repeat yourself in your prayer. 45.9. And he encircled him with pomegranates,with very many golden bells round about,to send forth a sound as he walked,to make their ringing heard in the temple as a reminder to the sons of his people; 45.11. with twisted scarlet, the work of a craftsman;with precious stones engraved like signets,in a setting of gold, the work of a jeweler,for a reminder, in engraved letters,according to the number of the tribes of Israel; 45.12. with a gold crown upon his turban,inscribed like a signet with "Holiness," a distinction to be prized, the work of an expert,the delight of the eyes, richly adorned. 45.13. Before his time there never were such beautiful things. No outsider ever put them on,but only his sons and his descendants perpetually. 45.14. His sacrifices shall be wholly burned twice every day continually. 45.15. Moses ordained him,and anointed him with holy oil;it was an everlasting covet for him and for his descendants all the days of heaven,to minister to the Lord and serve as priest and bless his people in his name. 45.16. He chose him out of all the living to offer sacrifice to the Lord,incense and a pleasing odor as a memorial portion,to make atonement for the people. 45.17. In his commandments he gave him authority and statutes and judgments,to teach Jacob the testimonies,and to enlighten Israel with his law. 45.18. Outsiders conspired against him,and envied him in the wilderness,Dathan and Abiram and their men and the company of Korah, in wrath and anger. 45.19. The Lord saw it and was not pleased,and in the wrath of his anger they were destroyed;he wrought wonders against them to consume them in flaming fire. 45.21. for they eat the sacrifices to the Lord,which he gave to him and his descendants. 45.22. But in the land of the people he has no inheritance,and he has no portion among the people;for the Lord himself is his portion and inheritance. 45.23. Phinehas the son of Eleazar is the third in glory,for he was zealous in the fear of the Lord,and stood fast, when the people turned away,in the ready goodness of his soul,and made atonement for Israel. 45.24. Therefore a covet of peace was established with him,that he should be leader of the sanctuary and of his people,that he and his descendants should have the dignity of the priesthood for ever. 45.25. A covet was also established with David,the son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah:the heritage of the king is from son to son only;so the heritage of Aaron is for his descendants. 45.26. May the Lord grant you wisdom in your heart to judge his people in righteousness,so that their prosperity may not vanish,and that their glory may endure throughout their generations.
7. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 96 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

8. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

103a. מאי למקום שאמה שמעת מינה בת אצל האם לא שנא גדולה ולא שנא קטנה:,לא יאמרו שניהם וכו':,ההוא גברא דאוגר ליה ריחיא לחבריה לטחינה לסוף איעתר זבין ריחיא וחמרא,אמר ליה עד האידנא הוה טחיננא גבך השתא הב לי אגרא א"ל מיטחן טחיננא לך,סבר רבינא למימר היינו מתניתין לא יאמרו שניהם הרי אנו זנין אותה כאחד אלא אחד זנה ואחד נותן לה דמי מזונות,א"ל רב עוירא מי דמי התם חד כריסא אית לה תרתי כריסתא לית לה הכא מצי א"ל טחון וזבין טחון ואותיב,ולא אמרן אלא דלית ליה טחינא לריחיא אבל אית ליה טחינא לריחיא כגון זו כופין אותו על מדת סדום:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אלמנה שאמרה אי אפשי לזוז מבית בעלי אין היורשין יכולין לומר לה לכי לבית אביך ואנו זנין אותך אלא זנין אותה ונותנין לה מדור לפי כבודה,אמרה אי אפשי לזוז מבית אבא יכולין היורשין לומר לה אם את אצלנו יש ליך מזונות ואם אין את אצלנו אין ליך מזונות,אם היתה טוענת מפני שהיא ילדה והן ילדים זנין אותה והיא בבית אביה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן משתמשת במדור כדרך שמשתמשת בחיי בעלה בעבדים ושפחות כדרך שמשתמשת בחיי בעלה בכרים וכסתות כדרך שמשתמשת בחיי בעלה בכלי כסף ובכלי זהב כדרך שמשתמשת בחיי בעלה שכך כתב לה ואת תהא יתבת בביתי ומיתזנא מנכסי כל ימי מגר ארמלותיך בביתי,תני רב יוסף בביתי ולא בבקתי,אמר רב נחמן יתומים שמכרו מדור אלמנה לא עשו ולא כלום,ומ"ש מדרבי אסי א"ר יוחנן דא"ר אסי אמר ר' יוחנן יתומים שקדמו ומכרו בנכסים מועטין מה שמכרו מכרו,התם לא משתעבדי לה מחיים הכא משתעבדי לה מחיים,אמר אביי נקיטינן מדור אלמנה שנפל אין היורשין חייבין לבנותו,תניא נמי הכי מדור אלמנה שנפל אין היורשין חייבין לבנותו ולא עוד אלא אפילו היא אומרת הניחוני ואבננו משלי אין שומעין לה,בעי אביי שיפצה מאי תיקו:,אמרה אי אפשי:,וליתבו לה כי יתבה התם מסייע ליה לרב הונא דאמר רב הונא ברכת הבית ברובה,וליתבו לה לפי ברכת הבית ה"נ,אמר רב הונא לשון חכמים ברכה לשון חכמים עושר לשון חכמים מרפא ברכה הא דאמרן,עושר דתנן המוכר פירות לחבירו משך ולא מדד קנה מדד ולא משך לא קנה ואם היה פקח שוכר את מקומו,מרפא דתנן לא ילעוס אדם חטין ויניח על גבי מכתו בפסח מפני שמחמיצות,ת"ר בשעת פטירתו של רבי אמר לבני אני צריך נכנסו בניו אצלו אמר להם הזהרו בכבוד אמכם נר יהא דלוק במקומו שולחן יהא ערוך במקומו מטה תהא מוצעת במקומה יוסף חפני שמעון אפרתי הם שמשוני בחיי והם ישמשוני במותי:,הזהרו בכבוד אמכם: דאורייתא היא דכתיב (שמות כ, יא) כבד את אביך ואת אמך אשת אב הואי,אשת אב נמי דאורייתא היא דתניא כבד את אביך ואת אמך את אביך זו אשת אביך ואת אמך זו בעל אמך וי"ו יתירה לרבות את אחיך הגדול,הני מילי מחיים אבל לאחר מיתה לא:,נר יהא דלוק במקומו שולחן יהא ערוך במקומו מטה תהא מוצעת במקומה: מאי טעמא כל בי שמשי הוה אתי לביתיה,ההוא בי שמשא אתאי שבבתא קא קריה אבבא אמרה אמתיה שתיקו דרבי יתיב כיון דשמע שוב לא אתא שלא להוציא לעז על צדיקים הראשונים:,יוסף חפני שמעון אפרתי הם שמשוני בחיי והם ישמשוני במותי: סבור מינה בהדין עלמא הוא דקאמר כיון דחזו דקדים ערסייהו לערסיה אמרי שמע מינה לההוא עלמא הוא דקאמר,והאי דאמר הכי דלא לימרו מילתא הואי להו ועד האידנא נמי זכותו דרבי הוא דאהניא להו,אמר להן לחכמי ישראל אני צריך נכנסו אצלו חכמי ישראל אמר להן אל תספדוני בעיירות 103a. bWhatis the purpose of emphasizing: bTo the place where her motherlives? bConclude from herethat a bdaughterlives bwithher bmother;it is bno differentif she is ban adult woman, andit is bno differentif she is ba minor girl. /b,§ It was taught in the mishna that if two men are obligated to support this girl, bboth of them may notjointly bsaythat they will be partners in her support. Rather, each one fulfills his obligation independently.,The Gemara relates that there was ba certain man who rented out a millstone to another forthe price of bgrinding,i.e., the one who rented the millstone was to pay the cost of the rental by grinding whatever the owner needed to be ground. bIn the end,the owner of the millstone bbecame rich,and bhe purchasedanother bmillstone and a donkey,and he no longer required the services of the renter to grind things for him.,The owner of the millstone bsaid tothe renter: bUntil now I wouldhave what I needed bground by you,and the service that you provided was in place of payment for the rental of the millstone. bNow,since I no longer require this service, bgive me paymentfor the millstone. The renter bsaidback bto him: I will grind for youbecause that is what I agreed to, but I did not agree to have to pay money., bRavina thought to saythat bthis is the same as the mishnathat states that bboth of them may notjointly bsay: We will sustainthe girl bas onein a partnership. bRather, one sustains her,providing her with food, while bthe other gives her the monetaryvalue bof the sustece.In that case, although the original condition was to provide the girl with support in the form of food, when circumstances changed, the previous husband became obligated to pay her support in the form of money. So too here, due to the change in circumstances, the renter should pay the owner of the millstone with money., bRav Avira said toRavina: bAre thetwo cases bcomparable? There,in the case of the girl, bshe hasonly bone stomach; she does not have two stomachs.Therefore, it is impossible for both of them to support her with food. bHere,in the case of the millstone, the renter bis able to say to him: Grind and sell, grind and storefor later use, i.e., the owner of the millstone can use his new millstone to grind for others at a profit, and at the same time the renter will continue grinding the owner’s grain as per their agreement. Therefore, the renter is not obligated to change the terms of the original agreement.,The Gemara notes: bWe saidthis bonlyin a case bwherethe renter bdoes not haveany other bgrindingto do bwith the millstoneand without the grinding that the renter does for the owner the mill will remain inoperative. bHowever,if bhe hasother bgrindingto do bwith the millstone,i.e., instead of grinding the owner’s grain he can grind the grain of others for a fee and thereby pay money for his rental, in a case bsuch as this one forces himto cease his bconductcharacteristic bof Sodomand to pay his rental fee in the form of money., strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of ba widow who said: I do not want to move from my husband’s house,but instead I wish to remain there, bthe heirs are not able to say to her: Go to your father’s house and we will sustain you. Rather, they sustain herin her husband’s house band they give her living quarters befitting her dignity. /b,However, if bshe said: I do not want to move from my father’s house,and you should bring me my support there, bthe heirs are able to say to her: If you areliving bwith us, youwill bhave sustecefrom us, bbut if you are notliving bwith us, youwill bnot have sustecefrom us., bIf she arguedthat she does not wish to live in her deceased husband’s house bbecause she is young, and they,the heirs, barealso byoung,and it is improper for them to be living in the same house together, then bthey sustain her and shestays bin her father’s house. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught:A widow that remains in her husband’s house buses the living quarters in thesame bmanner that shewould busethem bin her husband’s lifetime.She uses bthe slaves and the maidservants in thesame bmanner that shewould busethem bin her husband’s lifetime, the pillows and the sheets in thesame bmanner that shewould busethem bin her husband’s lifetime,and bthe silver utensils and gold utensils in thesame bmanner that shewould busethem bin her husband’s lifetime.She maintains all the rights she had during her husband’s lifetime bbecause thisis what bhe wrote to herin the text of the marriage contract: bAnd you will reside in my house and be sustained from my property all the days that you live in my house as a widow. /b, bRav Yosef taught:The husband stipulated in the marriage contract: You will reside bin my house,with the implication: bAnd not in my hut.Therefore, if the house is too small, she cannot obligate the heirs to allow her to live in the house with them., bRav Naḥman said: Orphans who sold the living quarters of a widow did not do anything,i.e., the sale is invalid.,The Gemara asks: bAndin bwhatway is this case bdifferent from that which Rabbi Asisaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said? As Rabbi Asi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:With regard to borphans who preemptively sold from the small quantity of propertyleft to them by their father before the court appropriated it for the purpose of providing for female children, who do not inherit, bwhat they sold is sold,even though they acted improperly. Why, then, is the sale of a widow’s living quarters invalid?,The Gemara answers: bThere,in the case of orphans selling property that according to ihalakhashould be retained in order to support the orphaned daughters, the property bis not mortgaged tothe orphaned daughters bfromthe blifetimeof their father, since the lien on the property arising from the obligation to provide support for the daughters occurs only after the father’s death. bHere,in the case of the widow’s living quarters, the property is bmortgaged to her fromthe blifetimeof her husband, who was obligated even while he was alive to provide her with a place to live., bAbaye said: We holdon the authority of tradition that in the case of ba widow’s living quarters that collapsed, the heirs are not obligated to rebuild it,since they are obligated to maintain her in the residence that was mortgaged to her and are not required to provide her with a place to live., bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba widow’s living quarters that collapsed, the heirs are not obligated to rebuild it. And not onlythis, bbuteven bif she says: Leave mebe band I will rebuild it from my ownfunds, bone does not listen to her,and the heirs do not have to let her rebuild it., bAbaye raised a dilemma:If bshe repairedthe house, bwhatis the ihalakha /i? Is it as though the house collapsed and was rebuilt, in which case she no longer has rights to it, or may she stay in the house as long as it remains standing? The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved.,§ We learned in the mishna: If bshe said: I do not wantto move from my father’s house and you should bring me my support there, the heirs are not obligated to support her.,The Gemara asks: bAndwhy is this so? bThey should give hersupport just basthey would if bshe were living there,i.e., in her husband’s house. The Gemara answers: This bsupportsthe view of bRav Huna, as Rav Huna said: The blessing of the house is in its abundanceof residents. This means that the amount of blessing in a home is proportionate to the number of people who live there. When there are many people living together in one home, the expenses per capita are decreased. The heirs can say to her that if she stays with them in the house, the expense of her upkeep will be less than if she lives on her own.,The Gemara asks: bAnd they should give herthe support in her father’s house baccording to the blessing of the house,i.e., according to the amount they would be required to pay if she lived with them. The Gemara answers: bIndeed,the intent of the mishna is that they may pay her this amount, not that they may entirely avoid supporting her., bRav Huna said:The blanguage of the Sagesteaches bblessing,the blanguage of the Sagesteaches bwealth,and the blanguage of the Sagesteaches bhealing.One can learn important lessons about these matters from the manner in which the Sages formulated their halakhic rulings. How is this so? With regard to bblessing,it is bthat which we saidabove about the blessings of the home.,The language of the Sages teaches about bwealth, as we learnedin a mishna ( iBava Batra84b): bOne who sells produce to another,if the buyer bpulledthe produce as an act of acquisition bbut did not measureit, bhe has acquiredthe produce. If bhe measuredthe produce bbut did not pullit, bhe has not acquiredit. bAnd ifthe buyer bwas perspicaciousand wanted to ensure that the seller would not back out of the deal, he would brent the placewhere the produce was located, and he would thereby acquire the produce immediately from the time he measures it. This mishna teaches good counsel in money-related matters.,The language of the Sages teaches about bhealing, as we learnedin a mishna ( iPesaḥim39b): bA person should not chew wheat andthen bplace it on his wound during Passover becausethe wheat bwill become leavenedas a result. This comment of the Sages indicates that chewed wheat is beneficial for treating a wound.,§ bThe Sages taught: At the time of the passing of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bhe said: I need my sons. His sons entered hisroom. bHe said to themas a last will and testament: bBe careful with the honor of your mother.He said further: My blamp should be lit in itsusual bplace,my btable should be set in itsusual bplace,and bthe bed should be arranged in itsusual bplace. Yosef Ḥeifaniand bShimon Efrati; they served me during my lifetime and they will serve me in my death. /b,The Gemara clarifies the various requests that he made of his sons: bBe careful with the honor of your mother.The Gemara asks: Why would he need to say this? After all, bthisis required bby Torahlaw, bas it is written: “Honor your father and your mother”(Exodus 20:11)? The Gemara answers: bShe wastheir bfather’s wife.She was not their mother, but their stepmother, and he therefore needed to caution them concerning her honor.,The Gemara asks: Honoring ba father’s wife is alsorequired bby Torahlaw, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bHonor your father [ iet avikha /i] and your mother [ ive’et immekha /i].The preposition ietin the phrase: bYour father; thisteaches that you must honor byour father’s wife.Similarly, the preposition ietin the phrase: bAnd your mother; thisteaches that you must honor byour mother’s husband.And bthe extraletter ivav /i,which is appended as a prefix in the phrase “ ive’et immekha /i” is included in order bto add your older brotherto those who must be honored.,The Gemara answers: bThis ihalakha /i, that one is obligated by Torah law to respect his father’s wife, bappliesonly bduringhis father’s blifetime.While the father is alive, out of respect for him, his wife must also be treated with respect. bHowever, followinghis bdeath, no,there is no longer any obligation to honor a stepmother. It was for this reason that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had to caution his sons in this matter.,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi commanded his sons: My blamp should be lit in itsusual bplace,my btable should be set in itsusual bplace,and bthe bed should be arranged in itsusual bplace.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonhe made these requests? The Gemara explains: bEvery Shabbat eve,even after his passing, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bwould come to his houseas he had done during his lifetime, and he therefore wished for everything to be set up as usual.,The Gemara relates the following incident: It happened on ba certain Shabbat evethat a bneighbor cameby and bcalledand knocked bat the door. His maidservant saidto her: bBe quiet, for RabbiYehuda HaNasi bis sitting. When he heardhis maidservant reveal his presence to the neighbor, bhe did not come again, so as not to cast aspersions on earlier righteousindividuals who did not appear to their families following their death.,The Gemara elaborates on Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s statement: bYosef Ḥeifaniand bShimon Efrati, they served me during my lifetime and they will serve me in my death.It was bunderstood fromthis statement that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bwas speaking of this world,that these two should serve him in his death and administer his burial. However, bwhen they saw that their biers preceded his bier,i.e., they died before him, bthey said: Conclude from here that he was speaking of that world.They will attend to him in the World-to-Come., bAnd thereason bhe said thiswas so that bpeople should not say: There was somethingwrong bwith them, and until now, too, it was the merit of RabbiYehuda HaNasi bthat benefited themand prevented them from dying due to their sins. Now that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is dying, his merit no longer protects them. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi therefore clarified that the reason for their deaths was in order to enable them to escort him in death as in life.,§ Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaidfurther btohis attendants: bI need the Sages of Israel. The Sages of Israel entered hisroom. bHe said to them: Do not eulogize me in thesmall btowns /b
9. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

112b. שאין כל אצבעות שוות,מצוה וגוף גדול אוכל פירות ולא שכר מצוה וגוף טהור נושא אשה ולו בנים,ארבעה דברים צוה רבינו הקדוש את בניו אל תדור בשכנציב משום דליצני הוו ומשכו לך בליצנותא,ואל תשב על מטת ארמית איכא דאמרי דלא תיגני בלא קרית שמע ואיכא דאמרי דלא תינסב גיורתא,ואיכא דאמרי ארמאית ממש ומשום מעשה דרב פפא,ואל תבריח עצמך מן המכס דילמא משכחו לך ושקלי מנך כל דאית לך ואל תעמוד בפני השור בשעה שעולה מן האגם מפני שהשטן מרקד בין קרניו אמר רבי שמואל בשור שחור וביומי ניסן,תני רב אושעיא מרחיקין משור תם חמשים אמה משור מועד כמלא עיניו,תנא משמיה דרבי מאיר ריש תורא בדיקולא סק לאיגרא ושדי דרגא מתותך אמר רב ניזהא דתורא הן הן ניזהא דאריה זה זה ניזהא דגמלא דא דא ניזהא דארבא הילני הייא הילא והילוק הוליא,אמר אביי עור דג וכוס חמין וביצים וכנים לבנים כולן קשין לדבר אחר עור מאן דגני אמשכא דצלא דג שיבוטא ביומי ניסן כוס שיורי כסא דהרסנא חמין חמימי דחמימי משדרו עילויה ביצים מאן דמדרך אקליפים כינים לבנים מאן דמחוור לבושיה ולא נטיר ליה תמניא יומי והדר לבוש לה בריין הנך כינים וקשין לדבר אחר,אמר רב פפא ביתא דאית ביה שונרא לא ניעול בה איניש בלא מסני מאי טעמא משום דשונרא קטיל לחיויא ואכיל ליה ואית ביה בחיויא גרמי קטיני ואי יתיב לה גרמא דחיויא אכרעיה לא נפיק ואסתכן ליה איכא דאמרי ביתא דלית ביה שונרא לא ניעול ביה איניש בהכרא מאי טעמא דילמא מיכריך ביה חויא ולא ידע ומסתכן,ג' דברים צוה ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי את רבי (מק"ש סימן) אל תעש מום בעצמך מאי היא לא תיהוי לך דינא בהדי תלתא דחד הוי בעל דינך ותרי סהדי ואל תעמוד על המקח בשעה שאין לך דמים,אשתך טבלה אל תזקק לה לילה הראשונה אמר רב ובנדה דאורייתא הואיל והוחזק מעין פתוח דילמא משכה זיבה,שלשה דברים צוה רבי יוסי בר' יהודה את רבי אל תצא יחידי בלילה ואל תעמוד בפני הנר ערום ואל תכנס למרחץ חדש שמא תפחת עד כמה אריב"ל עד י"ב חדש ואל תעמוד בפני הנר ערום דתניא העומד בפני הנר ערום הוי נכפה והמשמש מטתו לאור הנר הויין לו בנים נכפין,ת"ר המשמש מטתו על מטה שתינוק ישן עליה אותו תינוק נכפה ולא אמרן אלא דלא הוי בר שתא אבל הוי בר שתא לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דגני להדי כרעיה אבל גני להדי רישיה לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דלא מנח ידיה עילויה אבל מנח ידיה עילויה לית לן בה,אל תצא יחידי בלילה דתניא לא יצא יחידי בלילה לא בלילי רביעיות ולא בלילי שבתות מפני שאגרת בת מחלת היא ושמונה עשרה רבוא של מלאכי חבלה יוצאין וכל אחד ואחד יש לו רשות לחבל בפני עצמו,מעיקרא הוו שכיחי כולי יומא זמנא חדא פגעה ברבי חנינא בן דוסא אמרה ליה אי לאו דמכרזן עלך ברקיע הזהרו בחנינא ובתורתו סכנתיך אמר לה אי חשיבנא ברקיע גוזר אני עליך שלא תעבורי ביישוב לעולם אמרה ליה במטותא מינך שבק לי רווחא פורתא שבק לה לילי שבתות ולילי רביעיות,ותו חדא זמנא פגעה ביה באביי אמרה ליה אי לאו דמכרזי עלך ברקיע הזהרו בנחמני ובתורתו הוה סכנתיך א"ל אי חשיבנא ברקיע גוזרני עלייכי שלא תעבורי ביישוב לעולם הא קא חזינן דעברה אמרי הני 112b. bnot all fingers are equal.It is possible that intimate relations with her second husband might not be as pleasing as with the first, leading her to disparage and even hate him.,Rabbi Akiva continued to offer instruction: It is ba mitzva and a greatmaterial benefit to one’s bbodyto beat fruits without payment.That is, when one lends money and takes land as collateral, deducting from the loan the value of the fruit he eats, both the borrower and the lender benefit from this practice. One who both performs ba mitzva andretains a bpure bodyis one who bmarries a woman,as his thoughts will remain pure band he willmerit to bhave children. /b,The Gemara cites more instructions issued by a Sage to his heirs. bOur holy rabbi,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, bcommanded his sonsto do bfour matters: Do not live in Shekhantzivin Babylonia, bbecause they are mockers. And they will draw you in to their mockeryand lead you to abandon your Torah studies.,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi further commanded his sons: bDo not sit on the bed of an Aramean woman.This advice is explained in different ways. bSome sayit means bthat youshould bnot go to sleep without reciting iShema /i,as a Jew who does this acts like a gentile. bAnd some sayit means bthat youshould bnot marry a convert,i.e., a Jewish woman who was once an Aramean., bAnd some saythat Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi meant the bactualbed of ban Aramean woman, andthis is bdue tothe concern for a similar outcome to the later bincident involving Rav Pappa.The incident in question was as follows: Rav Pappa entered the house of a gentile woman to collect a debt. The woman asked him to sit on her bed until she brought the money. As it turned out, she had placed her dead baby under the bed. Rav Pappa was subsequently accused of killing the baby and was forced to flee the district.,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi continued: bAnd do not avoid paying taxes, lest they find you and confiscate everything you own. And do not stand before an ox when it emerges from the marsh because Satan dances between its horns,i.e., an ox is particularly menacing at that time. bRabbi Shmuel said:This is referring bto a black ox, andspecifically bduring the days of Nisan,when the ox is most dangerous., bRav Oshaya teacheswith regard to the same issue: bOne distances himself fifty cubits from an innocuous ox [ ishor tam /i],an ox with no consistent history of causing damage with the intent to injure. bFrom a forewarned ox [ ishor muad /i],an ox whose owner was forewarned because his ox already gored a person three times, one distances himself until it is beyond beyeshot. /b,A Sage btaught citing the nameof bRabbi Meir,in an exaggerated vein: Even if bthe head of the oxis in its food bbasket, go up to the roof and kick the ladder out from underneath youto escape from it. bRav said: The crythat one says btolead ban oxis ihen hen /i. The cry tolead ba lionis izeh zeh /i. The cry tolead ba camelis ida da /i. The cry tolaborers using ropes to pull ba shipalong a river is iheleni /i, ihayya /i, ihela /i, ivehilook /i, ihulya /i. /b, bAbaye said: Hide, fish, and a cup, hot water, and eggs, and white lice all causethe bother matter,i.e., leprosy. The Gemara elaborates: bHideis referring to bone who sleeps on a tanner’s hidebefore it has been tanned. bFishis referring to the ishibuta /ifish bin the days of Nisan.The bcupis referring to one who eats bthe leftovers of small fried fish. Hot wateris referring to bvery hot water thatone bpours on himself. Eggsmeans bone who steps on eggshells. White liceis referring to bone who washes his garment but does not keep it for eight days before wearing it again,a habit which bcreates these lice. Andall of these practices bcausethe bother matter,leprosy., bRav Pappa said:With regard to ba house in which there is a cat, a personshould bnot enter there barefoot. What is the reason? Because the catmight bkill a snake and eat it, and the snake has small bones, and ifa small bbone gets into one’s foot it cannot be removed, and he will be in danger. Some saythat Rav Pappa said: With regard to ba house in which there is no cat, a personshould bnot enter there in the dark. What is the reason?Since there is no cat to hunt snakes, bperhaps a snake will wrap itself around him withouthim bknowing and he will be in danger. /b, bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, commanded RabbiYehuda HaNasi with regard to bthree matters.Parenthetically, the Gemara states that imem /i, ikuf /i, ishin /iis ba mnemonicfor the three statements, as it stands for imum /i, blemish, imekaḥ /i, a purchase, and iishtekha /i, your wife. The first matter is: bDo not inflict a blemish upon yourself.The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of that statement? The Gemara explains: bDo not have a court case against threepeople, bas one will be your opponent and twowill act as bwitnessesand testify against you whatever they wish. bAnd do not stand overand display interest in ba purchase when you do not haveenough bmoneyeven for the price you are offering, as this constitutes fraud.,The Gemara cites the third instruction that bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, commanded RabbiYehuda HaNasi. After byour wife has immersed, do not engagein intimacy bwith her on the first night.Rather, wait an additional night. bRav said: Andthis is referring bto a menstruating womanwhose status applies bby Torahlaw. According to Torah law, even if a woman experiences a continuous emission of blood for seven days, if the flow stops on the seventh day, she may immerse that night and engage in relations with her husband without delay. However, Rav maintains that one must act stringently in this case. His reasoning is: bSincethere is ba presumptionthat bthe flowof blood bis open, perhapsher izava /iblood bwill continueafterward, i.e., she will see more blood after engaging in intimacy.,The Gemara continues: bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, commanded RabbiYehuda HaNasi with regard to bthree matters: Do not go out alone at night; do not stand naked before a candle; and do not enter a new bathhouse, lest it collapsewhen they light the fire beneath it. The Gemara asks: bUntil whenis a bathhouse considered new? bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Until twelve monthshave passed. With regard to the statement: bAnd do not stand naked before a candle,the Gemara comments that this is bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who stands naked before a candle will become epileptic, and one who engages in intimacy by candlelight will have epileptic children. /b,Likewise, bthe Sages taught: One who engages in intimacy in a bed upon which a baby is sleeping, that child becomes epileptic. And we saidthat this will occur bonly ifthe child bis notyet bone year old; however,if he bis one year old we have noproblem bwith it,as he is old enough not to be affected. bAndfurthermore, bwe said this onlyconcerning a baby bthat is sleeping nearthe father’s bfeet; butif the baby bis sleeping near his headhe is sufficiently far away so that bwe have noproblem bwith it. And we said this only if he does not place his hand onthe baby at the time, bbutif bhe places his hands onthe baby to serve as a barrier between them, bwe have noproblem bwith it. /b,With regard to the instruction: bDo not go out alone at night,the Gemara states that this is bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: One should bnot go out alone at night, neither on Tuesday nights nor on Shabbat nights,i.e., Friday nights, bbecausethe demon bAgrat, daughter of Maḥalat, she and 180,000 angels of destruction go outat these times. bAndas beach and every oneof them bhas permission to destroy by itself,they are all the more dangerous when they go forth together.,The Gemara states: bInitially,these demons bwere present every day. OnceAgrat, daughter of Maḥalat, bmet Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosaand bsaid to him: Had they not announced about you in the Heavens: Be careful of Ḥanina and his Torah, I would have placed you in danger. He said to her: If I amconsidered bimportant in Heaven, I decree upon you that youshould bnever travel through inhabited places. She said to him: I beg you, leave me a little space. He left for her Shabbat nights and Tuesday nights. /b, bAnd furthermore, onceAgrat, daughter of Maḥalat bmet Abayeand bsaid to him: Had they not announced about you in the Heavens: Be careful of Naḥmani,Abaye, band his Torah, I would have placed you in danger. He said to her: If I amconsidered bimportant in Heaven, I decree upon you that youshould bnever pass through inhabited places.The Gemara asks: bBut we see that,notwithstanding these anecdotes, demons do bpass throughinhabited areas. The Sages bsayin explanation: bThesedemon
10. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

72a. והאידנא הוא דליוה פרסאי אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף להא גיסא דפרת עד היכא אמר ליה מאי דעתיך משום בירם מייחסי דפומבדיתא מבירם נסבי,אמר רב פפא כמחלוקת ליוחסין כך מחלוקת לענין גיטין ורב יוסף אמר מחלוקת ליוחסין אבל לגיטין דברי הכל עד ארבא תניינא דגישרא,אמר רמי בר אבא חביל ימא תכילתא דבבל שוניא וגוביא תכילתא דחביל ימא רבינא אמר אף ציצורא תניא נמי הכי חנן בן פנחס אומר חביל ימא תכילתא דבבל שוניא וגוביא וציצורא תכילתא דחביל ימא אמר רב פפא והאידנא איערבי בהו כותאי ולא היא איתתא הוא דבעא מינייהו ולא יהבו ליה מאי חביל ימא אמר רב פפא זו פרת דבורסי,ההוא גברא דאמר להו אנא מן שוט מישוט עמד רבי יצחק נפחא על רגליו ואמר שוט מישוט בין הנהרות עומדת וכי בין הנהרות עומדת מאי הוי אמר אביי אמר ר' חמא בר עוקבא אמר רבי יוסי בר' חנינא בין הנהרות הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין והיכא קיימא אמר ר' יוחנן מאיהי דקירא ולעיל והא אמר רבי יוחנן עד מעברתא דגיזמא אמר אביי רצועה נפקא,אמר רב איקא בר אבין אמר רב חננאל אמר רב חלזון ניהוונד הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין א"ל אביי לא תציתו ליה יבמה היא דנפלה ליה התם א"ל אטו דידי היא דרב חננאל היא אזיל שיילוה לרב חננאל אמר להו הכי אמר רב חלזון ניהוונד הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין,ופליגא דר' אבא בר כהנא דאמר ר' אבא בר כהנא מאי דכתיב (מלכים ב יח, יא) וינחם בחלח ובחבור נהר גוזן וערי מדי חלח זו חלזון חבור זו הדייב נהר גוזן זו גינזק ערי מדי זו חמדן וחברותיה ואמרי לה זו נהוונד וחברותיה,מאי חברותיה אמר שמואל כרך מושכי חוסקי ורומקי אמר רבי יוחנן וכולם לפסול קסלקא דעתא מושכי היינו מושכני והאמר ר' חייא בר אבין אמר שמואל מושכני הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין אלא מושכי לחוד ומושכני לחוד,(דניאל ז, ה) ותלת עלעין בפומה בין שיניה אמר רבי יוחנן זו חלזון הדייב ונציבין שפעמים בולעתן ופעמים פולטתן,(דניאל ז, ה) וארו חיוא אחרי תנינא דמיה לדוב תני רב יוסף אלו פרסיים שאוכלין ושותין כדוב ומסורבלין כדוב ומגדלין שער כדוב ואין להם מנוחה כדוב ר' אמי כי הוה חזי פרסא דרכיב אמר היינו דובא ניידא,א"ל רבי ללוי הראני פרסיים אמר ליה דומים לחיילות של בית דוד הראני חברין דומין למלאכי חבלה הראני ישמעאלים דומין לשעירים של בית הכסא הראני תלמידי חכמים שבבבל דומים למלאכי השרת,כי הוה ניחא נפשיה דרבי אמר הומניא איכא בבבל כולה עמונאי היא מסגריא איכא בבבל כולה דממזירא היא בירקא איכא בבבל שני אחים יש שמחליפים נשותיהם זה לזה בירתא דסטיא איכא בבבל היום סרו מאחרי המקום דאקפי פירא בכוורי בשבתא ואזיל וצדו בהו בשבתא ושמתינהו ר' אחי ברבי יאשיה ואישתמוד אקרא דאגמא איכא בבבל אדא בר אהבה יש בה 72a. bAnd it isonly bnowthat bthe Persians movedthe bridge further bupnorthward. bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: Until where doesthe border extend bon thiswestern bside of the Euphrates? Rav Yosef said to him: What are you thinking?Why do you ask? Is it bdue tothe town of bBiram?Even bthose ofpure blineagewho live in bPumbedita marrywomen bfrom Biram,which demonstrates that the residents of Biram are presumed to have unflawed lineage., bRav Pappa says: Just asthere is ba disputebetween Rav and Shmuel as to the northern border of Babylonia with regard bto lineage, sois there ba dispute with regard to bills of divorce.An agent bringing a bill of divorce from a country overseas to Eretz Yisrael must state that it was written and signed in his presence. If he brought it from Babylonia, there is no requirement for him to state this. Rav Pappa is teaching that the borders that define Babylonia with regard to this issue are the same as the borders with regard to lineage. bAnd Rav Yosef says:This bdisputeis bwith regard to lineage, but with regard to bills of divorce, everyone agreesthat it is considered Babylonia bup to the second lake of the bridgethat Shmuel mentioned., bRami bar Abba said:The province of bḤaveil Yamma is the glory of Babyloniawith regard to lineage; bShunya and Guvyaare bthe glory of Ḥaveil Yamma. Ravina said:The town of bTzitzorais balsolike Shunya and Guvya. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bḤa ben Pineḥas says: Ḥaveil Yamma is the glory of Babylonia; Shunya and Guvya and Tzitzoraare bthe glory of Ḥaveil Yamma. Rav Pappa says: And nowadays, Samaritans have assimilated with them,and their lineage is problematic. The Gemara comments: bAndthat bis not so.Rather, one Samaritan brequestedto marry ba woman from them and they would not giveher bto him,which led to the rumor that Samaritans had assimilated with them. The Gemara asks: bWhatis this region called bḤaveil Yamma? Rav Pappa said: Thisis the area near the bEuphratesadjacent bto Bursi. /b,The Gemara relates: There was ba certain man who said tothe Sages: bI am froma place called bShot Mishot. Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa stood on his feet and said: Shot Mishot is located between theTigris and Euphrates bRivers.The Gemara asks: bAnd if it is located between the rivers, what of it?What ihalakhais this relevant for? bAbaye saidthat bRabbi Ḥama bar Ukva saysthat bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:The area bbetween the rivers is like the exile,meaning Pumbedita, bwith regard to lineage.The Gemara inquires: bAnd where isthe area between the rivers blocatedfor the purpose of this ihalakha /i? bRabbi Yoḥa said: From Ihi Dekira and upward,i.e., northward. The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Until the crossing at Gizmabut no further? bAbaye said: A strip extendsfrom that region past Ihi Dekira., bRav Ika bar Avin saysthat bRav Ḥael saysthat bRav says: Ḥillazon Nihavnad is like the exile with regard to lineage. Abaye said to them: Do not listen toRav Ika bar Avin about this, as bit was a iyevama /iwho bfell before himfrom bthereto perform levirate marriage, and he said that its lineage was unflawed because he wished to marry her. Rav Ika bar Avin bsaid to him: Is that to saythat this ihalakha bis mine? It is Rav Ḥael’s,and it is not reasonable to say that I was influenced by my own interests in stating it. bThey went and asked Rav Ḥael. He said to them: Rav said as follows: Ḥillazon Nihavnad is like the exile with regard to lineage. /b,The Gemara comments: bAndthis bdisagreeswith the statement bof Rabbi Abba bar Kahana, as Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenwith regard to the exile of the ten tribes of the kingdom of Israel: b“And he put them in Halah, and in Habor, on the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes”(II Kings 18:11)? bHalah is Ḥillazon; Habor is Hadyav; the river of Gozan is Ginzak; the cities of the Medes are Ḥamadan and its neighboring towns, and some say: This is Nihavnad and its neighboring towns.Since the ten tribes assimilated with the gentiles, the lineage of Jews from those places is flawed, unlike that which was taught before.,The Gemara asks: bWhatare the bneighboring townsof Nihavnad? bShmuel said:The bcityof bMushekhei, Ḥosekei, and Rumekei. Rabbi Yoḥa says: Andall of these are the same with regard bto flawedlineage. bIt was assumedthat bMushekhei isthe same as bMushekanei.The Gemara therefore asks: bBut doesn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saythat bShmuel says: Mushekanei is like the exile with regard to lineage? Rather,it must be that bMushekhei is discrete, and Mushekanei is discrete. /b,In connection to the aforementioned places, the Gemara analyzes the following verse, describing a vision of a bear-like animal: b“And it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth”(Daniel 7:5). bRabbi Yoḥa says: This is Ḥillazon, Hadyav, and Netzivin, whichthe Persian government bsometimes swallows and sometimes discharges.In other words, control over these places passed from the Persians to the Romans and back again several times.,The first part of that verse stated: b“And behold a second beast, similar to a bear”(Daniel 7:5). bRav Yosef taught: These are Persians, who eat and drinkcopious amounts blike a bear, and are corpulent like a bear, and grow hair like a bear, and have no rest like a bear,which is constantly on the move from one place to another. bWhen Rabbi Ami saw a Persian riding, he would say: This is a bear on the move. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid to Levi: Show me Persians,i.e., describe a typical Persian to me. Levi bsaid to him:They bare similar to the legions of the house of David.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: bShow me Ḥabbarin,Persian priests. Levi said to him: They bare similar to angels of destruction.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: bShow me Ishmaelites.Levi said to him: They bare similar to demons of an outhouse.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: bShow me Torah scholars of Babylonia.Levi said to him: They bare similar to ministering angels. /b, bWhen RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas dying, he saidprophetically: bThere isa place called bHomanya in Babylonia,and ball itspeople are the sons bof Ammon. There isa place called bMasgariya in Babylonia,and ball itspeople are imamzerim /i. There isa place called bBireka in Babylonia,and bthere are two brothersthere bwho exchange wives with each other,and their children are therefore imamzerim /i. bThere isa place called bBireta DeSatya in Babylonia. Today they turned away from the Omnipresent.What did they do? bA ditch with fish overflowed, and they went and trappedthe fish bon Shabbat. Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, excommunicated them, and theyall bbecame apostates. There isa place called bAkra DeAgma in Babylonia. There isa man named bAdda bar Ahava there. /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. טעו לא ישלמו כל שכן שתנעול דלת בפני לווין,רבא אמר מתניתין דהכא בדיני קנסות ואידך בהודאות והלואות,רב פפא אמר אידי ואידי בהודאה והלואה כאן בדין מרומה כאן בדין שאינו מרומה,כדריש לקיש דריש לקיש רמי כתיב (ויקרא יט, טו) בצדק תשפוט עמיתך וכתיב (דברים טז, כ) צדק צדק תרדף הא כיצד כאן בדין מרומה כאן בדין שאין מרומה,רב אשי אמר מתני׳ כדשנין קראי אחד לדין וא' לפשרה,כדתניא צדק צדק תרדף אחד לדין ואחד לפשרה כיצד שתי ספינות עוברות בנהר ופגעו זה בזה אם עוברות שתיהן שתיהן טובעות בזה אחר זה שתיהן עוברות וכן שני גמלים שהיו עולים במעלות בית חורון ופגעו זה בזה אם עלו שניהן שניהן נופלין בזה אחר זה שניהן עולין,הא כיצד טעונה ושאינה טעונה תידחה שאינה טעונה מפני טעונה קרובה ושאינה קרובה תידחה קרובה מפני שאינה קרובה היו שתיהן קרובות שתיהן רחוקות הטל פשרה ביניהן ומעלות שכר זו לזו,ת"ר צדק צדק תרדף הלך אחר ב"ד יפה אחר רבי אליעזר ללוד אחר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לברור חיל,תנא קול ריחים בבורני שבוע הבן שבוע הבן אור הנר בברור חיל משתה שם משתה שם,ת"ר צדק צדק תרדף הלך אחר חכמים לישיבה אחר ר' אליעזר ללוד אחר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לברור חיל אחר רבי יהושע לפקיעין אחר רבן גמליאל ליבנא אחר רבי עקיבא לבני ברק אחר רבי מתיא לרומי אחר רבי חנניא בן תרדיון לסיכני אחר ר' יוסי לציפורי אחר רבי יהודה בן בתירה לנציבין אחר רבי יהושע לגולה אחר רבי לבית שערים אחר חכמים ללשכת הגזית:,דיני ממונות פותחין כו': היכי אמרינן אמר רב יהודה הכי אמרינן להו מי יימר כדקאמריתו,א"ל עולא והא חסמינן להו וליחסמו מי לא תניא רבי שמעון בן אליעזר אומר מסיעין את העדים ממקום למקום כדי שתיטרף דעתן ויחזרו בהן,מי דמי התם ממילא קא מידחו הכא קא דחינן להו בידים,אלא אמר עולא הכי אמרינן יש לך עדים להזימם א"ל רבה וכי פותחין בזכותו של זה שהיא חובתו של זה,ומי הויא חובתו והתנן אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיגמר הדין,הכי אמינא אילו שתיק האי עד דמיגמר דיניה ומייתי עדים ומזים להו הויא ליה חובתו של זה אלא אמר רבה אמרינן ליה יש לך עדים להכחישן,רב כהנא אמר מדבריכם נזדכה פלוני אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו אמרי' ליה אי לא קטלת לא תדחל רב אשי אמר כל מי שיודע לו זכות יבא וילמד עליו,תניא כוותיה דאביי ורבא רבי אומר (במדבר ה, יט) אם לא שכב איש אותך ואם לא שטית וגו' 32b. then if the judges berred they should notneed to bpaythe party they wronged, as they can claim that they were prevented from examining the witnesses effectively. The Gemara answers: If that were to be the ihalakha /i, ball the more so thatthis bwould lock the door in the face ofpotential bborrowers.If people know that the courts are not responsible for an error in judgment, they will not be willing to lend money., bRava says:The ruling of bthe mishna here,that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is stated bwith regard to laws of fines,not standard cases of monetary law. bAnd the othersources, i.e., the mishna in tractate iShevi’itand the ibaraita /i, which do not require inquiry and interrogation, are stated bwith regard tocases of badmissions and loans,in which there is cause to relax the procedures of deliberation, as explained., bRav Pappa says: This and that,i.e., both the mishna here and the other sources, are stated bwith regard tocases of ban admission and a loan.The distinction between them is that the mishna bhere,which rules that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is stated bwith regard toa possibly bfraudulent trial,where the court suspects that one party is attempting to defraud the other party and have witnesses offer false testimony on his own behalf. bThere,in the ibaraitaand in the mishna in tractate iShevi’it /i, which do not require inquiry and interrogation, the ruling is stated bwith regard to a trial thatdoes bnotappear bfraudulent. /b,This distinction is bin accordance withthe statement bof Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish raises a contradictionbetween two verses: It bis writtenin one verse: b“In justice shall you judge your neighbor”(Leviticus 19:15), bandit bis writtenin another verse: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow”(Deuteronomy 16:21), with the repetition indicating that it is not enough to merely judge with justice. He continues: bHowcan bthesetexts be reconciled? bHere,this latter verse is stated bwith regard toa possibly bfraudulent trial,where the court must take extra care to judge with justice; and bthere,that former verse is stated bwith regard to a trial thatdoes bnotappear bfraudulent. /b, bRav Ashi says:The ruling of bthe mishna here,that cases of monetary law require inquiry and interrogation, is bas we answered,i.e., in accordance with any one of the answers offered by the other iamora’im /i. And those bverseswere not stated with regard to fraudulent trials; rather, boneis stated bwith regard to judgment,in which the court must pursue justice extensively, band oneis stated bwith regard to compromise. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: When the verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow,” onemention of “justice” is stated bwith regard to judgment and oneis stated bwith regard to compromise. How so?Where there are btwo boats traveling on the river and they encounter each other, if both of themattempt to bpass, both of them sink,as the river is not wide enough for both to pass. If they pass bone after the other, both of them pass. And similarly,where there are btwo camels who were ascending the ascent of Beit Ḥoron,where there is a narrow steep path, band they encounter each other, if both of themattempt to bascend, both of them fall.If they ascend bone after the other, both of them ascend. /b, bHowdoes one decide which of them should go first? If there is one boat that is bladen andone boat bthat is not laden,the needs of the one bthat is not laden should be overridden due tothe needs of the one bthat is laden.If there is one boat that is bcloseto its destination bandone boat bthat is not closeto its destination, the needs of the one that is bclose should be overridden due tothe needs of the one bthat is not close.If bboth of them were closeto their destinations, or bboth of them were farfrom their destinations, bimpose a compromise between themto decide which goes first, bandthe owners of the boats bpay a fee to one other,i.e., the owners of the first boat compensate the owner of the boat that waits, for any loss incurred.,§ bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow.”This teaches that one should bfollow the best,most prestigious, bcourtof the generation. For example, follow bafter Rabbi Eliezer to Lod, after Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai to Beror Ḥayil. /b,The Sages btaught:When the gentile authorities issued decrees outlawing observance of the mitzvot, members of Jewish communities devised clandestine ways of indicating observance of mitzvot to each other. For example: If one produces bthe sound of a millstone inthe city called bBurni,this is tantamount to announcing: bWeek of the son, week of the son,i.e., there will be a circumcision. If one displays the blight of a lamp inthe city called bBeror Ḥayil,this is tantamount to announcing: There is a wedding bfeast there,there is a wedding bfeast there. /b, bThe Sages taught:The verse states: b“Justice, justice, shall you follow.”This teaches that one should bfollow the Sages to the academywhere they are found. For example, follow bafter Rabbi Eliezer to Lod, after Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai to Beror Ḥayil, after Rabbi Yehoshua to Peki’in, after Rabban Gamliel to Yavne, after Rabbi Akiva to Bnei Brak, after Rabbi Matya to Rome [ iRomi /i], after Rabbi Ḥaya ben Teradyon to Sikhnei, after Rabbi Yosei to Tzippori, after Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira to Netzivin, after Rabbi Yehoshua to the exile [ igola /i],i.e., Babylonia, bafter RabbiYehuda HaNasi bto Beit She’arim,and bafter the Sagesin the time of the Temple bto the Chamber of Hewn Stone. /b,§ The mishna teaches that in cases of bmonetary law,the court bopensthe deliberations either with a claim to exempt the accused, or with a claim to find him liable. In cases of capital law, the court opens the deliberations with a claim to acquit the accused, but does not open the deliberations with a claim to find him liable. The Gemara asks: bHow do we saythis opening stage of the deliberations? In other words, with what claim does the court begin deliberating? bRav Yehuda said: We say this tothe witnesses: bWho saysthat the event occurred bas you said?Perhaps you erred?, bUlla said to him: Butby confronting the witnesses in this manner, bwe silence them.The witnesses will think that the court suspects them of lying, and they will not testify. Rav Yehuda said to him: bAnd let them be silenced. Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta9:1): bRabbi Shimon ben Eliezer says:In cases of capital law, the court bbrings the witnesses fromone bplace toanother bplace in order to confuse them so that they will retracttheir testimony if they are lying.,The Gemara rejects this argument: bArethe ihalakhot bcomparable? There,where Rabbi Shimon ben Eliezer says to bring the witnesses from place to place, the witnesses bare repressed by themselves,whereas bhere, we repress them bydirect baction,and that the court should not do., bRather, Ulla says: We say thisto the accused: bDo you have witnesses to determinethat the witnesses who testified against you are bconspiring witnesses? Rabba said to him: But do we openthe deliberations bwitha claim to bacquitthe accused bthat isto bthe liability of thisone, i.e., the witnesses? This claim can lead to the witnesses incurring liability for their testimony.,The Gemara questions Rabba’s assumption: bBut isthis to bthe liability ofthe witnesses? bBut didn’t we learnin a mishna ( iMakkot5b): bConspiring witnesses are not killedfor their testimony buntil the verdictof the one concerning whom they testified bis issued?Therefore, if they will be shown to be conspiring witnesses at this early stage of the proceedings, they will not be liable.,The Gemara restates Rabba’s objection: bThisis what bI say: Ifthe accused bwould be silent until his verdict is issued andthen bbrings witnesses andthe court bdetermines themto be bconspiringwitnesses, it will be found that the statement of the court bisto bthe liability of thisone, i.e., the witnesses. bRather, Rabba says: We say tothe accused: bDo you have witnesses to contradict them?If the first witnesses are contradicted as to the facts of the case, no one is liable., bRav Kahana said:We say to the witnesses: bBased on your statements, so-and-so is acquitted.The court issues a ipro formadeclaration that it is possible to find a reason to acquit based on the testimony of the witnesses, and then they begin the deliberations. bAbaye and Rava both say: We say tothe accused: For example, bif you did not killanyone, bdo not fearthe consequences of these proceedings, as you will be acquitted. bRav Ashi says:The court announces: bWhoever knowsof a reason bto acquitthe accused bshould come and teachthis reason bconcerning him. /b,The Gemara comments: bIt is taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe explanation bof Abaye and Rava. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays:The priest administering the isotarite to the isotasays to her: b“If no man has lain with you and if you have not gone astrayto impurity while under your husband, you shall be free from this water of bitterness that causes the curse. But if you have gone astray while under your husband…” (Numbers 5:19–20). The priest first states the scenario in which the woman is innocent of adultery.
12. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

59b. כדעבד ליה רבי עקיבא לדביתהו,ת"ר לא תצא אשה בעיר של זהב ואם יצתה חייבת חטאת דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים לא תצא ואם יצתה פטורה רבי אליעזר אומר יוצאה אשה בעיר של זהב לכתחלה,במאי קמיפלגי ר"מ סבר משוי הוא ורבנן סברי תכשיט הוא דילמא שלפא ומחויא ליה ואתיא לאתויי ור"א סבר מאן דרכה למיפק בעיר של זהב אשה חשובה ואשה חשובה לא משלפא ומחויא,כלילא רב אסר ושמואל שרי,דאניסכא כולי עלמא לא פליגי דאסור כי פליגי דארוקתא מר סבר אניסכא עיקר ומר סבר ארוקתא עיקר,רב אשי מתני לקולא דארוקתא דכולי עלמא לא פליגי דשרי כי פליגי דאניסכא מר סבר דילמא שלפא ומחויא ואתי לאתויי ומר סבר מאן דרכה למיפק בכלילא אשה חשובה ואשה חשובה לא שלפא ומחויא,א"ל רב שמואל בר בר חנה לרב יוסף בפירוש אמרת לן משמיה דרב כלילא שרי,אמרו ליה לרב אתא גברא רבה אריכא לנהרדעא ומטלע ודרש כלילא שרי אמר מאן גברא רבה אריכא [דאיטלע] לוי ש"מ נח נפשיה דרבי אפס ויתיב ר' חנינא ברישא ולא הוה ליה איניש ללוי למיתב גביה וקאתי להכא,ודילמא נח נפשיה דרבי חנינא ור' אפס כדקאי קאי ולא הוה ליה איניש ללוי למיתב גביה וקאתי להכא אם איתא דרבי חנינא שכיב לוי לר' אפס מיכף הוה כייף ליה ותו דרבי חנינא לא סגי דלא מליך דכי הוה קא ניחא נפשיה דרבי אמר חנינא בר' חמא יתיב בראש וכתיב בהו בצדיקים (איוב כב, כח) ותגזר אומר ויקם לך וגו',דרש לוי בנהרדעא כלילא שרי נפיק עשרין וארבע כלילי מכולה נהרדעא דרש רבה בר אבוה במחוזא כלילא שרי ונפקו תמני סרי כלילי מחדא מבואה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שמואל קמרא שרי איכא דאמרי דארוקתא ואמר רב ספרא מידי דהוה אטלית מוזהבת,ואיכא דאמרי דאניסכא ואמר רב ספרא מידי דהוה אאבנט של מלכים,א"ל רבינא לרב אשי קמרא עילוי המיינא מאי א"ל תרי המייני קאמרת,אמר רב אשי האי רסוקא אי אית ליה מפרחייתא שרי ואי לא אסיר:,ולא בקטלא: מאי קטלא מנקטא פארי: נזמים: נזמי האף:,ולא בטבעת שאין עליה חותם: הא יש עליה חותם חייבת אלמא לאו תכשיט הוא,ורמינהו תכשיטי נשים טמאים ואלו הן תכשיטי נשים קטלאות נזמים וטבעות וטבעת בין שיש עליה חותם בין שאין עליה חותם ונזמי האף,ואמר רבי זירא לא קשיא הא ר' נחמיה הא רבנן),דתניא. היא של מתכת וחותמה של אלמוג טמאה היא של אלמוג וחותמה של מתכת טהורה ורבי נחמיה מטמא שהיה ר' נחמיה אומר בטבעת הלך אחר חותמה בעול הלך אחר סמלוניו 59b. blikethe one bthat Rabbi Akiva made for his wife. /b,And on this subject, bthe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bA woman may not go outinto the public domain on Shabbat bwith a city of goldornament. bAnd if she went outwith it into the public domain bshe is liable to bring a sin-offering;that is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: She may not go outwith it iab initio /i, band if she went out she is exempt. And Rabbi Eliezer says: A woman may go out with a city of goldornament iab initio /i. /b,The Gemara explains: bWith regard to whatprinciple bdo they disagree? Rabbi Meir holdsthat bit isconsidered ba burdenand not an ornament, and one who carries a burden into the public domain is liable to bring a sin-offering. bAnd the Rabbis holdthat bit is an ornament.Why, then, did they prohibit going out into the public domain wearing it? They are concerned blest she remove it, and show itto another, band come to carry itin the public domain. bAnd Rabbi Eliezer holds: Whose manner is it to go out with a city of goldornament? Only ban important woman, andin that case there is no concern, as ban important woman does not removeornaments band showthem to others.,After discussing going out into the public domain on Shabbat with a city of gold ornament, the Gemara discusses other ornaments. There is a dispute among iamora’imwith regard to a ikelila /i,which is a tiara-like ornament. bRav prohibitedgoing out with it, band Shmuel permitteddoing so.,The Gemara sets the parameters of the disagreement: With a ikelilamade bof metal, everyone agrees that it is prohibitedto go out into the public domain. bWhere they disagreeis in the case bof a wovenfabric inlaid with metal. One bSage,Rav, bholdsthat in that type of ornament bthe metal isthe bprimaryelement, and it is prohibited. bAndone bSage,Shmuel, bholdsthat bthe wovenfabric bisthe bprimaryelement, and it is consequently permitted., bRav Ashi taughtthis disagreement with ba lenientinterpretation, as he said: With a ikelila bof wovenfabric, beveryone agrees that it is permittedto go out into the public domain. bWhere they disagreeis in the case bof a metalornament. One bSage,Rav, bholdsthat it is prohibited because there is concern blest she remove it, and show itto another, band come to carry itin the public domain. bAndone bSage,Shmuel, bholdsthat it is permitted. bWhose manner is to go out with a ikelila /iornament? Only ban important woman; and an important woman does not removeornaments band showthem to others.,On the same topic, bRav Shmuel bar bar Ḥana said to Rav Yosefwho, due to illness, forgot his learning: bYou explicitly said to us in the name of Rav:With regard to ba ikelila /i,it bis permittedto go out into the public domain on Shabbat.,The Gemara relates that one day bthey said to Rav: A great, tall man came to Neharde’a and he was limping. And he taught:With ba ikelila /i,it bis permittedto go out into the public domain on Shabbat. Rav bsaid: Who is a great, tall man who limps? Levi. Conclude from this that Rabbi Afes passed away and Rabbi Ḥanina is sitting at the headof the yeshiva in Eretz Yisrael in his place. bAnd,consequently, bLevi had no one before whom to sitand study band he came here.As long as Rabbi Afes headed the yeshiva, Rabbi Ḥanina would sit outside the study hall. Entering the study hall would indicate that he accepted the authority of Rabbi Afes. Rabbi Ḥanina, who was a great man, refused to do so. In deference to Rabbi Ḥanina, Levi would sit with him as a colleague outside the study hall. When Levi arrived from Eretz Yisrael, it was clear that Rabbi Afes must have died. Levi, who considered himself Rabbi Ḥanina’s equal in terms of both scholarship and age, did not want to defer to Rabbi Ḥanina’s authority and decided to go to elsewhere, to Babylonia.,The Gemara asks: How did Rav arrive at that particular conclusion? bAnd perhaps Rabbi Ḥanina died and Rabbi Afesremained bstandingin his position at the head of the yeshiva bas he stoodpreviously; band Levi had no one with whom to sitoutside the study hall, bandthat is why bhe came here?The Gemara answers that that could not be the case for two reasons. First, bif it were so,that bRabbi Ḥanina died, Leviwould have been bsubject tothe authority of bRabbi Afes.It was only in deference to Rabbi Ḥanina that Levi did not enter the study hall. bAnd furthermore, it could not be that Rabbi Ḥaninadied and bdid not reignas head of the yeshiva, bas when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdied, he saidin his dying testament: bḤanina, son of Rabbi Ḥama, shall sit at the headof the yeshiva. bAnd of the righteous it is written: “You will decree a saying and it will be established for you,and the light will shine on your ways” (Job 22:28). Since the statement that Rabbi Ḥanina will serve at the head of the yeshiva crossed the lips of a righteous person, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, it is inconceivable that it would not have been realized.,The Gemara returns to the subject of ikelila /i. When bLevi taught in Neharde’athat with the ikelila /iornament, one bis permittedto go out into the public domain on Shabbat, btwenty-fourwomen wearing the ikelila /iornament bwent outinto the public domain bfrom all of Neharde’a.When bRabba bar Avuh taught in Meḥoza thatthe ikelila /iornament bis permitted, eighteenwomen wearing the ikelila /iornament bwent out from one alleyway.Meḥoza was a wealthy mercantile city, and many women there owned precious jewelry., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav Shmuel said:With a precious bgilded belt [ ikamra /i],a woman bis permittedto go out into the public domain on Shabbat. bSome saythat he was referring to a belt made bof wovenfabric and inlaid with gold. bAnd Rav Safra said:It is permitted bjust asit is permitted bin the case of a gilded cloak. /b, bAnd some saythat it is referring to a belt made entirely bof metal. And Rav Safra said:It is permitted bjust asit is permitted to go out into the public domain on Shabbat with bthe belt of kingsmade entirely of gold., bRavina said to Rav Ashi:With regard to going out with ba gilded belt overanother bbelt [ ihemyana /i], whatis the ihalakha /i? bHe said to him: Two belts you said;it is certainly uncommon to wear two belts. Therefore, one of them is a burden., bRav Ashi said: This short cloak; if it hasshort bstraps with whichto tie it, bit is permittedto go out with it, and bif not, it is prohibited. /b,We learned in the mishna: bAnda woman may bnotgo out on Shabbat bwith a ikatla /i.The Gemara explains: bWhat isa ikatla /i? Atype of bsmall bibhung from the neck. The inezamim /imentioned in the mishna with which a woman may not go out on Shabbat refer to bnose rings,not earrings.,We learned in the mishna: bNor with a ring that has no seal on it.By inference: bIf it does have a seal on it, she is liableto bring a sin-offering. She is only exempt from bringing a sacrifice when she goes out with a ring that does not have a seal on it, which is an ornament; however, a ring with a seal on it, typically used by men for sealing documents, is considered a burden for a woman on Shabbat. bApparently,that ring bis not an ornament. /b,The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a mishna in tractate iKelim /i: bWomen’s ornamentscan become britually impure. And these are women’s ornaments: Bibs; earrings; and rings; and a ring whether it has a seal on itor bwhether it does not have a seal on it; and nose rings.Apparently, even a ring that has a seal on it is considered a woman’s ornament., bAnd Rabbi Zeira said:This is bnot difficult.Rather, bthisruling in our mishna, which distinguishes between a ring with a seal and a ring without a seal, bisin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Neḥemya; thatruling in the mishna in tractate iKelim /i, which does not distinguish between rings, bisin accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis. /b, bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: If the ring were made bof metal and its sealwas made bof coral, itcan become britually impurebecause the primary component of the ring is metal, a material that can become britually impure.If the ring were made bof coral and its seal of metal, it is ritually pureand cannot become ritually impure. bRabbi Neḥemya deems it ritually impure, as Rabbi Neḥemya would say: With regard to a ring, follow its seal;if the seal were made of material that can become ritually impure, the entire ring can become ritually impure, and if it were made of material that cannot become ritually impure, the entire ring remains pure. The same is true bwith regard to a yokeof an animal: bFollow its rods.Rods are placed in the yoke to fasten it to the animal; the component material of the rods determines whether or not the entire yoke can become ritually impure.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ben sira Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 58
burial Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 234
death of Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 73, 76
deathbed scenes Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 76
embalming Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 234
jacob Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 234
musaf Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 58
parents Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 58
priesthood Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 58
qumran Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 58
rabbanan Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 234
rabbis, as philosophers Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 73
sacrifices/cult Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 58
schools, handling of succession Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 76
schools Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 76
shimon ben lakish, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 234
tithes Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 58
wills/final testaments, of philosophers' Cohen, The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism (2010) 76
yehudah ha-nasi, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 234
yitzhak, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 234
yohanan, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 234
– death of Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 234
– punishment of Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 234