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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 42.38


וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא־יֵרֵד בְּנִי עִמָּכֶם כִּי־אָחִיו מֵת וְהוּא לְבַדּוֹ נִשְׁאָר וּקְרָאָהוּ אָסוֹן בַּדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר תֵּלְכוּ־בָהּ וְהוֹרַדְתֶּם אֶת־שֵׂיבָתִי בְּיָגוֹן שְׁאוֹלָה׃And he said: ‘My son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he only is left; if harm befall him by the way in which ye go, then will ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.10, 6.15, 13.2 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.10. When she heard these things she was deeply grieved, even to the thought of hanging herself. But she said, "I am the only child of my father; if I do this, it will be a disgrace to him, and I shall bring his old age down in sorrow to the grave. 6.15. But the angel said to him, "Do you not remember the words with which your father commanded you to take a wife from among your own people? Now listen to me, brother, for she will become your wife; and do not worry about the demon, for this very night she will be given to you in marriage. 13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 33.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.11. בָּרֵךְ יְהוָה חֵילוֹ וּפֹעַל יָדָיו תִּרְצֶה מְחַץ מָתְנַיִם קָמָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו מִן־יְקוּמוּן׃ 33.11. Bless, LORD, his substance, And accept the work of his hands; Smite through the loins of them that rise up against him, And of them that hate him, that they rise not again."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.17, 37.25, 37.28, 37.35, 44.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 37.25. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכָל־לֶחֶם וַיִּשְׂאוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה אֹרְחַת יִשְׁמְעֵאלִים בָּאָה מִגִּלְעָד וּגְמַלֵּיהֶם נֹשְׂאִים נְכֹאת וּצְרִי וָלֹט הוֹלְכִים לְהוֹרִיד מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 37.28. וַיַּעַבְרוּ אֲנָשִׁים מִדְיָנִים סֹחֲרִים וַיִּמְשְׁכוּ וַיַּעֲלוּ אֶת־יוֹסֵף מִן־הַבּוֹר וַיִּמְכְּרוּ אֶת־יוֹסֵף לַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִים בְּעֶשְׂרִים כָּסֶף וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶת־יוֹסֵף מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 37.35. וַיָּקֻמוּ כָל־בָּנָיו וְכָל־בְּנֹתָיו לְנַחֲמוֹ וַיְמָאֵן לְהִתְנַחֵם וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־אֵרֵד אֶל־בְּנִי אָבֵל שְׁאֹלָה וַיֵּבְךְּ אֹתוֹ אָבִיו׃ 44.29. וּלְקַחְתֶּם גַּם־אֶת־זֶה מֵעִם פָּנַי וְקָרָהוּ אָסוֹן וְהוֹרַדְתֶּם אֶת־שֵׂיבָתִי בְּרָעָה שְׁאֹלָה׃ 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 37.25. And they sat down to eat bread; and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery and balm and ladanum, going to carry it down to Egypt." 37.28. And there passed by Midianites, merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty shekels of silver. And they brought Joseph into Egypt." 37.35. And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted; and he said: ‘Nay, but I will go down to the grave to my son mourning.’ And his father wept for him." 44.29. and if ye take this one also from me, and harm befall him, ye will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 16.30, 16.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.33. וַיֵּרְדוּ הֵם וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר לָהֶם חַיִּים שְׁאֹלָה וַתְּכַס עֲלֵיהֶם הָאָרֶץ וַיֹּאבְדוּ מִתּוֹךְ הַקָּהָל׃ 16.30. But if the LORD make a new thing, and the ground open her mouth, and swallow them up, with all that appertain unto them, and they go down alive into the pit, then ye shall understand that these men have despised the LORD.’" 16.33. So they, and all that appertained to them, went down alive into the pit; and the earth closed upon them, and they perished from among the assembly."
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 5.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.5. רַגְלֶיהָ יֹרְדוֹת מָוֶת שְׁאוֹל צְעָדֶיהָ יִתְמֹכוּ׃ 5.5. Her feet go down to death; Her steps take hold on the nether-world;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 15.10, 138.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

138.8. יְהוָה יִגְמֹר בַּעֲדִי יְהוָה חַסְדְּךָ לְעוֹלָם מַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ אַל־תֶּרֶף׃ 138.8. The LORD will accomplish that which concerneth me; Thy mercy, O LORD, endureth for ever; Forsake not the work of Thine own hands."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 2.6, 2.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.6. וְעָשִׂיתָ כְּחָכְמָתֶךָ וְלֹא־תוֹרֵד שֵׂיבָתוֹ בְּשָׁלֹם שְׁאֹל׃ 2.9. וְעַתָּה אַל־תְּנַקֵּהוּ כִּי אִישׁ חָכָם אָתָּה וְיָדַעְתָּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ וְהוֹרַדְתָּ אֶת־שֵׂיבָתוֹ בְּדָם שְׁאוֹל׃ 2.6. Do therefore according to thy wisdom, and let not his hoar head go down to the grave in peace." 2.9. Now therefore hold him not guiltless, for thou art a wise man; and thou wilt know what thou oughtest to do unto him, and thou shalt bring his hoar head down to the grave with blood.’"
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.6, 19.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.6. יְהוָה מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל׃ 19.12. וַתֹּרֶד מִיכַל אֶת־דָּוִד בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיִּבְרַח וַיִּמָּלֵט׃ 2.6. The Lord kills, and gives life: he brings down to the grave, and brings up." 19.12. So Mikhal let David down through a window: and he went, and fled, and escaped."
9. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 3.12 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.12. בְּזַעַם תִּצְעַד־אָרֶץ בְּאַף תָּדוּשׁ גּוֹיִם׃ 3.12. Thou marchest through the earth in indignation, Thou threshest the nations in anger."
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 26.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

26.5. כִּי הֵשַׁח יֹשְׁבֵי מָרוֹם קִרְיָה נִשְׂגָּבָה יַשְׁפִּילֶנָּה יַשְׁפִּילָהּ עַד־אֶרֶץ יַגִּיעֶנָּה עַד־עָפָר׃ 26.5. For He hath brought down them that dwell on high, The lofty city, laying it low, laying it low even to the ground, Bringing it even to the dust."
11. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.19-3.20, 5.17, 6.8, 9.2 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.19. כִּי מִקְרֶה בְנֵי־הָאָדָם וּמִקְרֶה הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִקְרֶה אֶחָד לָהֶם כְּמוֹת זֶה כֵּן מוֹת זֶה וְרוּחַ אֶחָד לַכֹּל וּמוֹתַר הָאָדָם מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אָיִן כִּי הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃ 5.17. הִנֵּה אֲשֶׁר־רָאִיתִי אָנִי טוֹב אֲשֶׁר־יָפֶה לֶאֶכוֹל־וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וְלִרְאוֹת טוֹבָה בְּכָל־עֲמָלוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲמֹל תַּחַת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מִסְפַּר יְמֵי־חיו [חַיָּיו] אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים כִּי־הוּא חֶלְקוֹ׃ 6.8. כִּי מַה־יּוֹתֵר לֶחָכָם מִן־הַכְּסִיל מַה־לֶּעָנִי יוֹדֵעַ לַהֲלֹךְ נֶגֶד הַחַיִּים׃ 9.2. הַכֹּל כַּאֲשֶׁר לַכֹּל מִקְרֶה אֶחָד לַצַּדִּיק וְלָרָשָׁע לַטּוֹב וְלַטָּהוֹר וְלַטָּמֵא וְלַזֹּבֵחַ וְלַאֲשֶׁר אֵינֶנּוּ זֹבֵחַ כַּטּוֹב כַּחֹטֶא הַנִּשְׁבָּע כַּאֲשֶׁר שְׁבוּעָה יָרֵא׃ 3.19. For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that man hath no pre-eminence above a beast; for all is vanity." 3.20. All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all return to dust." 5.17. Behold that which I have seen: it is good, yea, it is comely for one to eat and to drink, and to enjoy pleasure for all his labour, wherein he laboureth under the sun, all the days of his life which God hath given him; for this is his portion." 6.8. For what advantage hath the wise more than the fool? or the poor man that hath understanding, in walking before the living?" 9.2. All things come alike to all; there is one event to the righteous and to the wicked; to the good and to the clean and to the unclean; to him that sacrificeth and to him that sacrificeth not; as is the good, so is the sinner, and he that sweareth, as he that feareth an oath."
12. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.10, 6.15, 13.2 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.10. When she heard these things she was deeply grieved, even to the thought of hanging herself. But she said, "I am the only child of my father; if I do this, it will be a disgrace to him, and I shall bring his old age down in sorrow to the grave. 6.15. But the angel said to him, "Do you not remember the words with which your father commanded you to take a wife from among your own people? Now listen to me, brother, for she will become your wife; and do not worry about the demon, for this very night she will be given to you in marriage. 13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand.
13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 102.5-102.7, 103.7-103.8, 108.11 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

102.5. And grieve not if your soul into Sheol has descended in grief, And that in your life your body fared not according to your goodness, But wait for the day of the judgement of sinners And for the day of cursing and chastisement. 102.6. And yet when ye die the sinners speak over you: ' As we die, so die the righteous, And what benefit do they reap for their deed 102.7. Behold, even as we, so do they die in grief and darkness, And what have they more than we From henceforth we are equal. 103.7. Know ye, that their souls will be made to descend into Sheol And they shall be wretched in their great tribulation. 103.8. And into darkness and chains and a burning flame where there is grievous judgement shall your spirits enter; And the great judgement shall be for all the generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye shall have no peace. 108.11. yet they blessed Me. And now I will summon the spirits of the good who belong to the generation of light, and I will transform those who were born in darkness, who in the flesh were not recompensed
14. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.23, 12.45 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.23. But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.' 12.45. But if he was looking to the splendid reward that is laid up for those who fall asleep in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. Therefore he made atonement for the dead, that they might be delivered from their sin.'
15. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 22.19, 51.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

22.19. A man who pricks an eye will make tears fall,and one who pricks the heart makes it show feeling. 22.19. His fear is confined to the eyes of men,and he does not realize that the eyes of the Lord are ten thousand times brighter than the sun;they look upon all the ways of men,and perceive even the hidden places. 51.6. the slander of an unrighteous tongue to the king. My soul drew near to death,and my life was very near to Hades beneath.
16. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 14.12, 16.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14.12. For the idea of making idols was the beginning of fornication,and the invention of them was the corruption of life 16.13. For thou hast power over life and death;thou dost lead men down to the gates of Hades and back again.
17. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 5.42, 5.51, 6.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.42. Upon this the king, a Phalaris in everything and filled with madness, took no account of the changes of mind which had come about within him for the protection of the Jews, and he firmly swore an irrevocable oath that he would send them to death without delay, mangled by the knees and feet of the beasts 5.51. and cried out in a very loud voice, imploring the Ruler over every power to manifest himself and be merciful to them, as they stood now at the gates of death. 6.31. Accordingly those disgracefully treated and near to death, or rather, who stood at its gates, arranged for a banquet of deliverance instead of a bitter and lamentable death, and full of joy they apportioned to celebrants the place which had been prepared for their destruction and burial.
18. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.393, 3.458, 3.480 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.393. Alas for thee, O land of Gog and Magog 3.458. And Europe shall be happy then, well fed 3.480. 480 Call herself mistress, and then come to naught
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.281 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.281. and this shall be discerned in the end of their life: for it they receive the ordinary death according to nature, then I have invented these oracles; but if they experience a new and unprecedented destruction, then my truth will be testified to; for I see chasms of the earth opening against them, and widened to the greatest extent, and numbers of men perishing in them, dragged down into the gulf with all their kindred, and their very houses swallowed up, and the men going down alive into hell.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 235 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

235. Then standing in the middle of our victims, having bathed ourselves deeply in the blood of our kinsfolk (for such blood will be the only bath which we shall have wherewith to cleanse ourselves for the journey to the shades below), we will mingle our own blood with it, slaughtering ourselves upon their bodies.
21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.597, 2.156, 2.165, 3.375 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.597. This I brought as he bid me, and emptied the greatest part of it into the fire, but reserved a little of it for my own use against uncertain futurity, and out of my fear of thee.” 2.156. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.165. and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men’s own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades. 3.375. while the souls of those whose hands have acted madly against themselves are received by the darkest place in Hades, and while God, who is their Father, punishes those that offend against either of them in their posterity?
22. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.18, 6.8, 20.13-20.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. and the Living one. I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. I have the keys of Death and of Hades. 6.8. And behold, a pale horse, and he who sat on him, his name was Death. Hades followed with him. Authority over one fourth of the earth, to kill with the sword, with famine, with death, and by the wild animals of the earth was given to him. 20.13. The sea gave up the dead who were in it. Death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them. They were judged, each one according to his works. 20.14. Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire.
23. New Testament, Romans, 2.25, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision?
24. New Testament, Luke, 10.15, 16.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.15. You, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, will be brought down to Hades. 16.23. In Hades, he lifted up his eyes, being in torment, and saw Abraham far off, and Lazarus at his bosom.
25. New Testament, Matthew, 11.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.23. You, Capernaum, who are exalted to Heaven, you will go down to Hades. For if the mighty works had been done in Sodom which were done in you, it would have remained until this day.
26. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107a. אוכל לחמי הגדיל עלי עקב,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם אל יביא אדם עצמו לידי נסיון שהרי דוד מלך ישראל הביא עצמו לידי נסיון ונכשל אמר לפניו רבש"ע מפני מה אומרים אלהי אברהם אלהי יצחק ואלהי יעקב ואין אומרים אלהי דוד אמר אינהו מינסו לי ואת לא מינסית לי אמר לפניו רבש"ע בחנני ונסני שנאמר (תהלים כו, ב) בחנני ה' ונסני וגו',אמר מינסנא לך ועבידנא מילתא בהדך דלדידהו לא הודעתינהו ואילו אנא קא מודענא לך דמנסינא לך בדבר ערוה מיד (שמואל ב יא, ב) ויהי לעת הערב ויקם דוד מעל משכבו וגו',אמר רב יהודה שהפך משכבו של לילה למשכבו של יום ונתעלמה ממנו הלכה אבר קטן יש באדם משביעו רעב ומרעיבו שבע,(שמואל ב יא, ב) ויתהלך על גג בית המלך וירא אשה רוחצת מעל הגג והאשה טובת מראה מאד בת שבע הוה קא חייפא רישא תותי חלתא אתא שטן אידמי ליה כציפרתא פתק ביה גירא פתקה לחלתא איגליה וחזייה,מיד (שמואל ב יא, ג) וישלח דוד וידרוש לאשה ויאמר הלא זאת בת שבע בת אליעם אשת אוריה החתי וישלח דוד מלאכים ויקחה ותבא אליו וישכב עמה והיא מתקדשת מטומאתה ותשב אל ביתה והיינו דכתיב (תהלים יז, ג) בחנת לבי פקדת לילה צרפתני בל תמצא זמותי בל יעבר פי אמר איכו זממא נפל בפומיה דמאן דסני לי ולא אמר כי הא מילתא,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים יא, א) למנצח לדוד בה' חסיתי איך תאמרו לנפשי נודי הרכם צפור אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון שלא יאמרו הר שבכם צפור נדדתו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים נא, ו) לך לבדך חטאתי והרע בעיניך עשיתי למען תצדק בדברך תזכה בשפטך אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה גליא וידיעא קמך דאי בעיא למכפייה ליצרי הוה כייפינא אלא אמינא דלא לימרו עבדא זכי למריה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לח, יח) כי אני לצלע נכון ומכאובי נגדי תמיד ראויה היתה בת שבע בת אליעם לדוד מששת ימי בראשית אלא שבאה אליו במכאוב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ראויה היתה לדוד בת שבע בת אליעם אלא שאכלה פגה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לה, טו) ובצלעי שמחו ונאספו נאספו עלי נכים [ולא ידעתי] קרעו ולא דמו אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע גלוי וידוע לפניך שאם היו קורעין בשרי לא היה דמי שותת,ולא עוד אלא בשעה שהם עוסקין בארבע מיתות ב"ד פוסקין ממשנתן ואומרים לי דוד הבא על אשת איש מיתתו במה אמרתי להם הבא על אשת איש מיתתו בחנק ויש לו חלק לעוה"ב אבל המלבין פני חבירו ברבים אין לו חלק לעולם הבא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אפילו בשעת חליו של דוד קיים שמנה עשרה עונות שנאמר (תהלים ו, ז) יגעתי באנחתי אשחה בכל לילה מטתי בדמעתי ערשי אמסה ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בקש דוד לעבוד ע"ז שנאמר (שמואל ב טו, לב) ויהי דוד בא עד הראש אשר ישתחוה שם לאלהים ואין ראש אלא ע"ז שנאמר (דניאל ב, לב) והוא צלמא רישיה די דהב טב,(שמואל ב טו, לב) והנה לקראתו חושי הארכי קרוע כתנתו ואדמה על ראשו אמר לו לדוד יאמרו מלך שכמותך יעבוד ע"ז אמר לו מלך שכמותי יהרגנו בנו מוטב יעבוד ע"ז ואל יתחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא,אמר מאי טעמא קנסיבת יפת תואר א"ל יפת תואר רחמנא שרייה א"ל לא דרשת סמוכין דסמיך ליה (דברים כא, יח) כי יהיה לאיש בן סורר ומורה כל הנושא יפת תואר יש לו בן סורר ומורה,דרש ר' דוסתאי דמן בירי למה דוד דומה לסוחר כותי אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע (תהלים יט, יג) שגיאות מי יבין [א"ל] שביקי לך ומנסתרות נקני שביקי לך גם מזדים חשוך עבדך שביקי לך אל ימשלו בי אז איתם דלא לישתעו בי רבנן שביקי לך,ונקיתי מפשע רב שלא יכתב סרחוני אמר לו א"א ומה יו"ד שנטלתי משרי עומד וצווח כמה שנים עד שבא יהושע והוספתי לו שנאמר (במדבר יג, טז) ויקרא משה להושע בן נון יהושע כל הפרשה כולה עאכ"ו,ונקיתי מפשע רב אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון כולו אמר כבר עתיד שלמה בנך לומר בחכמתו (משלי ו, כז) היחתה איש אש בחיקו ובגדיו לא תשרפנה אם יהלך איש על הגחלים ורגליו לא תכוינה כן הבא על אשת רעהו לא ינקה כל הנוגע בה א"ל כל הכי נטרד ההוא גברא א"ל קבל עליך יסורין קבל עליו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ששה חדשים נצטרע דוד ונסתלקה הימנו שכינה ופירשו ממנו סנהדרין נצטרע דכתיב (תהלים נא, ט) תחטאני באזוב ואטהר תכבסני ומשלג אלבין נסתלקה הימנו שכינה דכתיב (תהלים נא, יד) השיבה לי ששון ישעך ורוח נדיבה תסמכני ופרשו ממנו סנהדרין דכתי' (תהלים קיט, עט) ישובו לי יראיך וגו' ששה חדשים מנלן דכתי' (מלכים א ב, יא) והימים אשר מלך דוד על ישראל ארבעים שנה 107a. bwho did eat of my bread, has lifted his heel against me”(Psalms 41:10). Bread is a metaphor for Torah knowledge.,§ Apropos Ahithophel, the Gemara relates the events that led to his death. bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: A person should never bring himself toundergo ban ordeal, as David, king of Israel, brought himself toundergo ban ordeal and failed.David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, for whatreason bdoes one sayin prayer: bGod of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, and one does not say: God of David?God bsaidto David: bThey have undergone ordeals before Me, and you have not undergone an ordeal before Me.David bsaid before Him: Examine me and subject me to an ordeal, as it is stated: “Examine me, Lord, and subject me to an ordeal;try my kidneys and my heart” (Psalms 26:2).,God bsaidto him: bI will subject you to an ordeal, and I will perform a matter for youthat I did not perform for the Patriarchs, bas for them, I did not inform themof the nature of the ordeal, bwhile I am informing you that I will subject you to an ordeal involving a matter ofa married woman, with whom brelationsare bforbidden. Immediately,it is written: b“And it came to pass one evening that David rose from his bed”(II Samuel 11:2)., bRav Yehuda says:Once David heard the nature of his ordeal, he sought to prevent himself from experiencing lust. bHe transformed his nighttime bed into his daytime bed,i.e., he engaged in intercourse with his wives during the day, in an attempt to quell his lust. bBut a ihalakha /i,i.e., a Torah statement, bescaped him: There is a small limb in manthat he employs in sexual intercourse. If bhe starvesthe limb, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated; butif bhe satiatesthe limb and overindulges in sexual intercourse, it bis starving,and desires more. Therefore, his plan had the opposite effect.,The verse states: b“And he walked upon the roof of the king’s house; from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very fair to look upon”(II Samuel 11:2). bBathsheba was shampooing her head behind a beehive,which concealed her from sight. bSatan came and appeared toDavid bas a bird.David bshot an arrow atthe bird, the arrow bsevered the beehive,Bathsheba bwas exposed, andDavid bsaw her. /b, bImmediately,it is written: b“And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said: Is not this Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite? And David sent messengers, and took her, and she came to him, and he lay with her, for she was purified from her impurity, and then she returned to her house”(II Samuel 11:3–4). bAnd that isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “You have proved my heart; You have visited me in the night: You have tried me, but You find nothing; let no presumptuous thought pass my lips”(Psalms 17:3). David bsaid: Oh, that a muzzle would have fallen upon the mouth of the one who hates me,a euphemism for his own mouth, band I would not have said anything like thatand I would have withstood the ordeal., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “To the leader, of David. In the Lord I put my trust; how can you say to my soul: Flee like a bird to your mountain”(Psalms 11:1)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, pardon me for that sinwith Bathsheba so bthatthe wicked people bwill not say: The mountain that is among you,i.e., the luminary of the generation, David, bwas drivenfrom the world due to ba birdthat led to his transgression., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Against You, only You, have I sinned, and done what is evil in Your eyes; that You are justified when You speak, and right when You judge”(Psalms 51:6)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: It is revealed and known before You that if I sought to suppress myevil binclination, I would have suppressed it; but I said:I will sin, so bthat they will not say a servant overcame his masterand withstood the ordeal even though God said that he would not., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For I am ready to stumble [ iletzela /i] and my pain is always before me”(Psalms 38:18)? bBathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David from the six days of Creation.Rava interprets that the term iletzelais referring to Eve, who was taken from the side [ itzela /i] of Adam, the first man, and explains that she was destined for him, just as Eve was destined for Adam. bBut she came to him through pain. And likewise, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David, but he partook of her unripe,before the appointed time. David would have ultimately married her in a permitted manner after the death of Uriah., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And when I limped they rejoiced and gathered, the wretched gather themselves together against me, and those whom I know not; they tore and did not cease [ idammu /i]”(Psalms 35:15)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. It is revealed and known before you that ifmy enemies bwere to tear my flesh, my blood [ idami /i] would not flow to the ground,due to excessive fasting (see II Samuel 12:16–17).,David continued: bMoreover,my enemies torment me to the extent that bat the time when they are engaged inthe public study of the ihalakhotof the bfour court-imposed death penalties they interrupt their study and say to me: David,concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his deathis effected bwith whatform of execution? And bI said to them:Concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married womanbefore witnesses and with forewarning, bhis death is by strangulation, and he has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another before the multitudes has no share in the World-to-Come.The transgression of those who humiliated David is clearly more severe than the transgression of David himself., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Even during the time of his illness he fulfilledthe mitzva of bconjugal rights for eighteenwives, bas it is stated: “I am weary with my groaning; every night I speak in my bed; I melt away my couch with tears”(Psalms 6:7). Even when he was weary and groaning he still spoke in his bed, a euphemism for sexual intercourse. bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: David sought to engage in idol worshipduring Absalom’s coup, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass when David was at the top [ irosh /i] of the ascent, where he would bow to God”(II Samuel 15:32), band irosh /imeans bnothing other than idol worship, as it is stated: “As for that image, its head [ ireishei /i] was of fine gold”(Daniel 2:32).,It is written: b“Behold Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent and earth upon his head”(II Samuel 15:32). Hushai bsaid to David: Shall they say a king like you will engage in idol worship?David bsaid to him:Is it preferable that they say with regard to ba king like me,known to be righteous, that bhis son will kill him?David continued, referring to himself in third person: bIt is preferable that he shall engage in idol worship and the name of Heaven shall not be desecrated in publicthrough the murder of a righteous king in this manner.,Hushai bsaidto him: bWhat is the reasonthat byou married a beautiful woman,the mother of Absalom? David bsaid to him:With regard to ba beautiful woman, the Merciful One permittedmarrying bher.Hushai bsaid to him:But byou did not interpret the juxtaposedverses, bas juxtaposed tothe portion of the beautiful woman is the portion beginning: b“If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son”(Deuteronomy 21:18). From that juxtaposition it is derived: bAnyone who marries a beautiful woman has a stubborn and rebellious son.Therefore, even if Absalom kills you, there will be no desecration of God’s name, as the people will attribute his actions to his mother., bRabbi Dostai from Biri taught: To what is David comparable?He is comparable bto a Samaritan merchant,who incrementally lowers the price until the buyer agrees to purchase the merchandise. bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: “Who can discern his errors”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., forgive me for the unwitting sins that I committed. God bsaid to him: They are forgiven for you.David asked more: b“Cleanse me from hidden faults”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., pardon me for transgressions that I committed in private, even if I performed them intentionally. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Keep back your servant also from intentional sins”(Psalms 19:14). God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Let them not have dominion over me, then I shall be faultless”(Psalms 19:14), and I further request bthat the Sages will not speak of meand condemn me. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you. /b,David requested: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14), meaning bthat my transgressionwith Bathsheba and Uriah bwill not be writtenin the Bible. God bsaid to him:That is bimpossible. And just asthe letter iyodthat I removed fromthe name of bSarai,wife of Abraham, when I changed her name to Sarah, was bstanding and screaming several yearsover its omission from the Bible buntil Joshua came and I addedthe iyod bto hisname, bas it is stated: “And Moses called Hosea, son of Nun, Joshua [ iYehoshua /i]”(Numbers 13:16); bthe entire portionof your transgression, which is fit to be included in the Bible, ball the more soit cannot be omitted.,The verse states: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14). David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, pardon me for that entire sin.God bsaidto him: bYour son Solomon is already destined to say with his wisdom: “Can a man take fire in his lap and his garments not be burned? Can one walk on hot coals and his feet not be scorched? So too one who lies with his neighbor’s wife; anyone who touches her shall not go unpunished”(Proverbs 6:27–29). David bsaid to Him: Will that man,David, bbe expelledfor bthat entiretransgression, with no remedy? God bsaid toDavid: bAccept upon yourself afflictions,and that will atone for your sins. bHe acceptedafflictions bupon himself. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:For bsix months David was afflicted with leprosy and the Divine Presence abandoned him andthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him. He was afflicted with leprosy, as it is stated: “Purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow”(Psalms 51:9), indicating that he required purification like a leper. bThe Divine Presence abandoned him, as it is stated: “Restore me to joy of Your salvation; and uphold me with a willing spirit”(Psalms 51:14). bAndthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him, as it is stated: “Let those who fear You turn to me,and those who have known Your testimonies” (Psalms 119:79). bFrom where do wederive that this lasted for bsix months?It is derived bas it is written: “And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years; /b
27. Anon., 4 Ezra, 8.53

8.53. The root of evil is sealed up from you, illness is banished from you, and death is hidden; hell has fled and corruption has been forgotten;


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
afterlife,eschatological punishment Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
afterlife,reward Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
afterlife Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
anger Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
asleep Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 949
assimilation/assimilatory Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
ben-shalom,israel,biblical characters,criticism of Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 94
body,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 949
burton christie,douglas Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 94
catacombs Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
cemetery (tell el-yahoudieh) Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174, 257
christian/christianity Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 949
circumcision Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
culture/cultural Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
darkness,sheol Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
david Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
david (biblical) Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 94
day,cosmic ordering,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 949
day,final Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 949
deceit Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
descent,hades (sheol),to Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
descent Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
dust Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
egypt Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
egyptian,jews/jewry Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
entrance Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 949
epigraphy (inscriptions) Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174, 257
eve,loss of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
fools/foolishness Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
funerary epitaphs Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174, 257
gentiles Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
greek Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174, 257
hades Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599, 949; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174, 257
heaven,third Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 949
hellenism Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
hellenistic Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174, 257
homoioteleuton Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
identity (jewish) Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
impure/unclean Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
israel Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
jewish-hellenistic literature Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174, 257
judaism Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
literary genre Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
maccabees/maccabean Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 257
name/named/unnamed Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
non-jews/jewish Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174, 257
onias community Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
onomastics Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
paul Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
polytheism Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174, 257
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
pure Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
sacrifice Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
sarah Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
scripture,forbidden sections of Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 94
septuagint (lxx) Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174, 257
sheol Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174, 257; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508
sibylline oracles,third book Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 257
sinner Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
substitute Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 257
symbols/symbolism Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
tears Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
tomb Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
tombs,tombstones Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
tombs Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
units)' Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 174
wind Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 599
wisdom Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 508