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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.25


וַיֵּדַע אָדָם עוֹד אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת כִּי שָׁת־לִי אֱלֹהִים זֶרַע אַחֵר תַּחַת הֶבֶל כִּי הֲרָגוֹ קָיִן׃And Adam knew his wife again; and she bore a son, and called his name Seth: ‘for God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him.’


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

47 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 21.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.12. מַכֵּה אִישׁ וָמֵת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 21.12. He that smiteth a man, so that he dieth, shall surely be put to death."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27, 2.16-2.17, 2.21, 3.14-3.16, 3.20, 3.23-3.24, 4.1-4.24, 4.26, 5.1-5.8, 5.29, 6.1-6.6, 6.8-6.9, 6.12-6.22, 9.8-9.17, 9.19-9.21, 9.25-9.28, 10.16-10.18, 11.1-11.9, 16.5, 25.23, 26.21-26.22, 30.11, 37.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.16. וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃ 2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 2.21. וַיַּפֵּל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו וַיִּסְגֹּר בָּשָׂר תַּחְתֶּנָּה׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.15. וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃ 3.16. אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אָמַר הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ בְּעֶצֶב תֵּלְדִי בָנִים וְאֶל־אִישֵׁךְ תְּשׁוּקָתֵךְ וְהוּא יִמְשָׁל־בָּךְ׃ 3.23. וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִגַּן־עֵדֶן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם׃ 3.24. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃ 4.1. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה עָשִׂיתָ קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים אֵלַי מִן־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 4.1. וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת־חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת־קַיִן וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 4.2. וַתֹּסֶף לָלֶדֶת אֶת־אָחִיו אֶת־הָבֶל וַיְהִי־הֶבֶל רֹעֵה צֹאן וְקַיִן הָיָה עֹבֵד אֲדָמָה׃ 4.2. וַתֵּלֶד עָדָה אֶת־יָבָל הוּא הָיָה אֲבִי יֹשֵׁב אֹהֶל וּמִקְנֶה׃ 4.3. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ יָמִים וַיָּבֵא קַיִן מִפְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה מִנְחָה לַיהוָה׃ 4.4. וְהֶבֶל הֵבִיא גַם־הוּא מִבְּכֹרוֹת צֹאנוֹ וּמֵחֶלְבֵהֶן וַיִּשַׁע יְהוָה אֶל־הֶבֶל וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ׃ 4.5. וְאֶל־קַיִן וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ לֹא שָׁעָה וַיִּחַר לְקַיִן מְאֹד וַיִּפְּלוּ פָּנָיו׃ 4.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קָיִן לָמָּה חָרָה לָךְ וְלָמָּה נָפְלוּ פָנֶיךָ׃ 4.7. הֲלוֹא אִם־תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל־בּוֹ׃ 4.8. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיָּקָם קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ׃ 4.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל אָחִיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי׃ 4.11. וְעַתָּה אָרוּר אָתָּה מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר פָּצְתָה אֶת־פִּיהָ לָקַחַת אֶת־דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ מִיָּדֶךָ׃ 4.12. כִּי תַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה לֹא־תֹסֵף תֵּת־כֹּחָהּ לָךְ נָע וָנָד תִּהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ׃ 4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־יְהוָה גָּדוֹל עֲוֺנִי מִנְּשֹׂא׃ 4.14. הֵן גֵּרַשְׁתָּ אֹתִי הַיּוֹם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּמִפָּנֶיךָ אֶסָּתֵר וְהָיִיתִי נָע וָנָד בָּאָרֶץ וְהָיָה כָל־מֹצְאִי יַהַרְגֵנִי׃ 4.15. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ יְהוָה לָכֵן כָּל־הֹרֵג קַיִן שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקָּם וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוָה לְקַיִן אוֹת לְבִלְתִּי הַכּוֹת־אֹתוֹ כָּל־מֹצְאוֹ׃ 4.16. וַיֵּצֵא קַיִן מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־נוֹד קִדְמַת־עֵדֶן׃ 4.17. וַיֵּדַע קַיִן אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת־חֲנוֹךְ וַיְהִי בֹּנֶה עִיר וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הָעִיר כְּשֵׁם בְּנוֹ חֲנוֹךְ׃ 4.18. וַיִּוָּלֵד לַחֲנוֹךְ אֶת־עִירָד וְעִירָד יָלַד אֶת־מְחוּיָאֵל וּמְחִיּיָאֵל יָלַד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁאֵל וּמְתוּשָׁאֵל יָלַד אֶת־לָמֶךְ׃ 4.19. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ לֶמֶךְ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֵׁם הָאַחַת עָדָה וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית צִלָּה׃ 4.21. וְשֵׁם אָחִיו יוּבָל הוּא הָיָה אֲבִי כָּל־תֹּפֵשׂ כִּנּוֹר וְעוּגָב׃ 4.22. וְצִלָּה גַם־הִוא יָלְדָה אֶת־תּוּבַל קַיִן לֹטֵשׁ כָּל־חֹרֵשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל וַאֲחוֹת תּוּבַל־קַיִן נַעֲמָה׃ 4.23. וַיֹּאמֶר לֶמֶךְ לְנָשָׁיו עָדָה וְצִלָּה שְׁמַעַן קוֹלִי נְשֵׁי לֶמֶךְ הַאְזֵנָּה אִמְרָתִי כִּי אִישׁ הָרַגְתִּי לְפִצְעִי וְיֶלֶד לְחַבֻּרָתִי׃ 4.24. כִּי שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקַּם־קָיִן וְלֶמֶךְ שִׁבְעִים וְשִׁבְעָה׃ 4.26. וּלְשֵׁת גַּם־הוּא יֻלַּד־בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ אֱנוֹשׁ אָז הוּחַל לִקְרֹא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 5.1. זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 5.1. וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־קֵינָן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.2. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי־יֶרֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.2. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמָם אָדָם בְּיוֹם הִבָּרְאָם׃ 5.3. וַיְחִי אָדָם שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בִּדְמוּתוֹ כְּצַלְמוֹ וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת׃ 5.3. וַיְחִי־לֶמֶךְ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־נֹחַ חָמֵשׁ וְתִשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.4. וַיִּהְיוּ יְמֵי־אָדָם אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־שֵׁת שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.5. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי אָדָם אֲשֶׁר־חַי תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.6. וַיְחִי־שֵׁת חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אֱנוֹשׁ׃ 5.7. וַיְחִי־שֵׁת אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־אֱנוֹשׁ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.8. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי־שֵׁת שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.29. וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ נֹחַ לֵאמֹר זֶה יְנַחֲמֵנוּ מִמַּעֲשֵׂנוּ וּמֵעִצְּבוֹן יָדֵינוּ מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אֵרְרָהּ יְהוָה׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 6.5. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 6.8. וְנֹחַ מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃ 6.12. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה נִשְׁחָתָה כִּי־הִשְׁחִית כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֶת־דַּרְכּוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים לְנֹחַ קֵץ כָּל־בָּשָׂר בָּא לְפָנַי כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ חָמָס מִפְּנֵיהֶם וְהִנְנִי מַשְׁחִיתָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.14. עֲשֵׂה לְךָ תֵּבַת עֲצֵי־גֹפֶר קִנִּים תַּעֲשֶׂה אֶת־הַתֵּבָה וְכָפַרְתָּ אֹתָהּ מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ בַּכֹּפֶר׃ 6.15. וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה אֹרֶךְ הַתֵּבָה חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה רָחְבָּהּ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה קוֹמָתָהּ׃ 6.16. צֹהַר תַּעֲשֶׂה לַתֵּבָה וְאֶל־אַמָּה תְּכַלֶנָּה מִלְמַעְלָה וּפֶתַח הַתֵּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ תָּשִׂים תַּחְתִּיִּם שְׁנִיִּם וּשְׁלִשִׁים תַּעֲשֶׂהָ׃ 6.17. וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אֶת־הַמַּבּוּל מַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בָּאָרֶץ יִגְוָע׃ 6.18. וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתָּךְ וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וּנְשֵׁי־בָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ׃ 6.19. וּמִכָּל־הָחַי מִכָּל־בָּשָׂר שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל תָּבִיא אֶל־הַתֵּבָה לְהַחֲיֹת אִתָּךְ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה יִהְיוּ׃ 6.21. וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ מִכָּל־מַאֲכָל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְאָסַפְתָּ אֵלֶיךָ וְהָיָה לְךָ וְלָהֶם לְאָכְלָה׃ 6.22. וַיַּעַשׂ נֹחַ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים כֵּן עָשָׂה׃ 9.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ וְאֶל־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ לֵאמֹר׃ 9.9. וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם וְאֶת־זַרְעֲכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם׃ 9.11. וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם וְלֹא־יִכָּרֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר עוֹד מִמֵּי הַמַּבּוּל וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד מַבּוּל לְשַׁחֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים זֹאת אוֹת־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי נֹתֵן בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם לְדֹרֹת עוֹלָם׃ 9.13. אֶת־קַשְׁתִּי נָתַתִּי בֶּעָנָן וְהָיְתָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵין הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.14. וְהָיָה בְּעַנְנִי עָנָן עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְנִרְאֲתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן׃ 9.15. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד הַמַּיִם לְמַבּוּל לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר׃ 9.16. וְהָיְתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן וּרְאִיתִיהָ לִזְכֹּר בְּרִית עוֹלָם בֵּין אֱלֹהִים וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.17. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ זֹאת אוֹת־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר הֲקִמֹתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵין כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.19. שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי־נֹחַ וּמֵאֵלֶּה נָפְצָה כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.21. וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּיִן וַיִּשְׁכָּר וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה׃ 9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 9.26. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 9.27. יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּאָהֳלֵי־שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 9.28. וַיְחִי־נֹחַ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה׃ 10.16. וְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי וְאֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֵת הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי׃ 10.17. וְאֶת־הַחִוִּי וְאֶת־הַעַרְקִי וְאֶת־הַסִּינִי׃ 10.18. וְאֶת־הָאַרְוָדִי וְאֶת־הַצְּמָרִי וְאֶת־הַחֲמָתִי וְאַחַר נָפֹצוּ מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי׃ 11.1. וַיְהִי כָל־הָאָרֶץ שָׂפָה אֶחָת וּדְבָרִים אֲחָדִים׃ 11.1. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת שֵׁם שֵׁם בֶּן־מְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁד שְׁנָתַיִם אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃ 11.2. וַיְחִי רְעוּ שְׁתַּיִם וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־שְׂרוּג׃ 11.2. וַיְהִי בְּנָסְעָם מִקֶּדֶם וַיִּמְצְאוּ בִקְעָה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׁם׃ 11.3. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ הָבָה נִלְבְּנָה לְבֵנִים וְנִשְׂרְפָה לִשְׂרֵפָה וַתְּהִי לָהֶם הַלְּבֵנָה לְאָבֶן וְהַחֵמָר הָיָה לָהֶם לַחֹמֶר׃ 11.3. וַתְּהִי שָׂרַי עֲקָרָה אֵין לָהּ וָלָד׃ 11.4. וַיֹּאמְרוּ הָבָה נִבְנֶה־לָּנוּ עִיר וּמִגְדָּל וְרֹאשׁוֹ בַשָּׁמַיִם וְנַעֲשֶׂה־לָּנוּ שֵׁם פֶּן־נָפוּץ עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה לִרְאֹת אֶת־הָעִיר וְאֶת־הַמִּגְדָּל אֲשֶׁר בָּנוּ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם׃ 11.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הֵן עַם אֶחָד וְשָׂפָה אַחַת לְכֻלָּם וְזֶה הַחִלָּם לַעֲשׂוֹת וְעַתָּה לֹא־יִבָּצֵר מֵהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יָזְמוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 11.7. הָבָה נֵרְדָה וְנָבְלָה שָׁם שְׂפָתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ אִישׁ שְׂפַת רֵעֵהוּ׃ 11.8. וַיָּפֶץ יְהוָה אֹתָם מִשָּׁם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיַּחְדְּלוּ לִבְנֹת הָעִיר׃ 11.9. עַל־כֵּן קָרָא שְׁמָהּ בָּבֶל כִּי־שָׁם בָּלַל יְהוָה שְׂפַת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ וּמִשָּׁם הֱפִיצָם יְהוָה עַל־פְּנֵי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 16.5. וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרַי אֶל־אַבְרָם חֲמָסִי עָלֶיךָ אָנֹכִי נָתַתִּי שִׁפְחָתִי בְּחֵיקֶךָ וַתֵּרֶא כִּי הָרָתָה וָאֵקַל בְּעֵינֶיהָ יִשְׁפֹּט יְהוָה בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶיךָ׃ 25.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לָהּ שְׁנֵי גיים [גוֹיִם] בְּבִטְנֵךְ וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ וּלְאֹם מִלְאֹם יֶאֱמָץ וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר׃ 26.21. וַיַּחְפְּרוּ בְּאֵר אַחֶרֶת וַיָּרִיבוּ גַּם־עָלֶיהָ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמָהּ שִׂטְנָה׃ 26.22. וַיַּעְתֵּק מִשָּׁם וַיַּחְפֹּר בְּאֵר אַחֶרֶת וְלֹא רָבוּ עָלֶיהָ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמָהּ רְחֹבוֹת וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־עַתָּה הִרְחִיב יְהוָה לָנוּ וּפָרִינוּ בָאָרֶץ׃ 30.11. וַתֹּאמֶר לֵאָה בגד [בָּא] [גָד] וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ גָּד׃ 37.11. וַיְקַנְאוּ־בוֹ אֶחָיו וְאָבִיו שָׁמַר אֶת־הַדָּבָר׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.16. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;" 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’" 2.21. And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof." 3.14. And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life." 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’" 3.16. Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’" 3.20. And the man called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living." 3.23. Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken." 3.24. So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life." 4.1. And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived and bore Cain, and said: ‘I have agotten a man with the help of the LORD.’" 4.2. And again she bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground." 4.3. And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD." 4.4. And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering;" 4.5. but unto Cain and to his offering He had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countece fell." 4.6. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countece fallen?" 4.7. If thou doest well, shall it not be lifted up? and if thou doest not well, sin coucheth at the door; and unto thee is its desire, but thou mayest rule over it.’" 4.8. And Cain spoke unto Abel his brother. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him." 4.9. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Where is Abel thy brother?’ And he said: ‘I know not; am I my brother’s keeper?’" 4.10. And He said: ‘What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto Me from the ground." 4.11. And now cursed art thou from the ground, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from thy hand." 4.12. When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shalt thou be in the earth.’" 4.13. And Cain said unto the LORD: ‘My punishment is greater than I can bear." 4.14. Behold, Thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the land; and from Thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth; and it will come to pass, that whosoever findeth me will slay me.’" 4.15. And the LORD said unto him: ‘Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.’ And the LORD set a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should smite him." 4.16. And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden." 4.17. And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bore Enoch; and he builded a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son Enoch." 4.18. And unto Enoch was born Irad; and Irad begot Mehujael; and Mehujael begot Methushael; and Methushael begot Lamech." 4.19. And Lamech took unto him two wives; the name of one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah." 4.20. And Adah bore Jabal; he was the father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle." 4.21. And his brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all such as handle the harp and pipe." 4.22. And Zillah, she also bore Tubal-cain, the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron; and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah." 4.23. And Lamech said unto his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech; For I have slain a man for wounding me, And a young man for bruising me;" 4.24. If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold." 4.26. And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh; then began men to call upon the name of the LORD." 5.1. This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;" 5.2. male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created." 5.3. And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth." 5.4. And the days of Adam after he begot Seth were eight hundred years; and he begot sons and daughters." 5.5. And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years; and he died." 5.6. And Seth lived a hundred and five years, and begot Enosh." 5.7. And Seth lived after he begot Enosh eight hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.8. And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years; and he died." 5.29. And he called his name Noah, saying: ‘This same shall comfort us in our work and in the toil of our hands, which cometh from the ground which the LORD hath cursed.’" 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 6.5. And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart." 6.8. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD." 6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God." 6.12. And God saw the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth. ." 6.13. And God said unto Noah: ‘The end of all flesh is come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth." 6.14. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; with rooms shalt thou make the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch." 6.15. And this is how thou shalt make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits." 6.16. A light shalt thou make to the ark, and to a cubit shalt thou finish it upward; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it." 6.17. And I, behold, I do bring the flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; every thing that is in the earth shall perish." 6.18. But I will establish My covet with thee; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons’wives with thee." 6.19. And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female." 6.20. of the fowl after their kind, and of the cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive." 6.21. And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.’" 6.22. Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he." 9.8. And God spoke unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying:" 9.9. ’As for Me, behold, I establish My covet with you, and with your seed after you;" 9.10. and with every living creature that is with you, the fowl, the cattle, and every beast of the earth with you; of all that go out of the ark, even every beast of the earth." 9.11. And I will establish My covet with you; neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of the flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.’" 9.12. And God said: ‘This is the token of the covet which I make between Me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:" 9.13. I have set My bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covet between Me and the earth." 9.14. And it shall come to pass, when I bring clouds over the earth, and the bow is seen in the cloud," 9.15. that I will remember My covet, which is between Me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh." 9.16. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covet between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth.’" 9.17. And God said unto Noah: ‘This is the token of the covet which I have established between Me and all flesh that is upon the earth.’" 9.19. These three were the sons of Noah, and of these was the whole earth overspread." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 9.21. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent." 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 9.26. And he said: Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 9.27. God enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 9.28. And Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years." 10.16. and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite;" 10.17. and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite;" 10.18. and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite; and afterward were the families of the Canaanite spread abroad." 11.1. And the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." 11.2. And it came to pass, as they journeyed east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there." 11.3. And they said one to another: ‘Come, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly.’ And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar." 11.4. And they said: ‘Come, let us build us a city, and a tower, with its top in heaven, and let us make us a name; lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.’" 11.5. And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded." 11.6. And the LORD said: ‘Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is what they begin to do; and now nothing will be withholden from them, which they purpose to do." 11.7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’" 11.8. So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth; and they left off to build the city." 11.9. Therefore was the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there aconfound the language of all the earth; and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth." 16.5. And Sarai said unto Abram: ‘My wrong be upon thee: I gave my handmaid into thy bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD judge between me and thee.’" 25.23. And the LORD said unto her: Two nations are in thy womb, And two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels; And the one people shall be stronger than the other people; And the elder shall serve the younger." 26.21. And they digged another well, and they strove for that also. And he called the name of it Sitnah." 26.22. And he removed from thence, and digged another well; and for that they strove not. And he called the name of it Rehoboth; and he said: ‘For now the LORD hath made room for us, and we shall be fruitful in the land.’" 30.11. And Leah said: ‘Fortune is come! ’ And she called his name Gad." 37.11. And his brethren envied him; but his father kept the saying in mind. ."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃ 19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.12. הֶאָנֹכִי הָרִיתִי אֵת כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה אִם־אָנֹכִי יְלִדְתִּיהוּ כִּי־תֹאמַר אֵלַי שָׂאֵהוּ בְחֵיקֶךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת־הַיֹּנֵק עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לַאֲבֹתָיו׃ 11.12. Have I conceived all this people? have I brought them forth, that Thou shouldest say unto me: Carry them in thy bosom, as a nursing-father carrieth the sucking child, unto the land which Thou didst swear unto their fathers?"
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 4.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.21. אַל־יַלִּיזוּ מֵעֵינֶיךָ שָׁמְרֵם בְּתוֹךְ לְבָבֶךָ׃ 4.21. Let them not depart from thine eyes; Keep them in the midst of thy heart."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 28.1, 90.3-90.4, 139.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.1. לְדָוִד אֵלֶיךָ יְהוָה אֶקְרָא צוּרִי אַל־תֶּחֱרַשׁ מִמֶּנִּי פֶּן־תֶּחֱשֶׁה מִמֶּנִּי וְנִמְשַׁלְתִּי עִם־יוֹרְדֵי בוֹר׃ 90.3. תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד־דַּכָּא וַתֹּאמֶר שׁוּבוּ בְנֵי־אָדָם׃ 90.4. כִּי אֶלֶף שָׁנִים בְּעֵינֶיךָ כְּיוֹם אֶתְמוֹל כִּי יַעֲבֹר וְאַשְׁמוּרָה בַלָּיְלָה׃ 139.11. וָאֹמַר אַךְ־חֹשֶׁךְ יְשׁוּפֵנִי וְלַיְלָה אוֹר בַּעֲדֵנִי׃ 28.1. [A Psalm] of David. Unto thee, O LORD, do I call; My Rock, be not Thou deaf unto me; Lest, if Thou be silent unto me, I become like them that go down into the pit." 90.3. Thou turnest man to contrition; And sayest: 'Return, ye children of men.'" 90.4. For a thousand years in Thy sight Are but as yesterday when it is past, And as a watch in the night." 139.11. And if I say: ‘Surely the darkness shall envelop me, And the light about me shall be night';"
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 29.18 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.18. יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבֹתֵינוּ שֳׁמְרָה־זֹּאת לְעוֹלָם לְיֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבוֹת לְבַב עַמֶּךָ וְהָכֵן לְבָבָם אֵלֶיךָ׃ 29.18. O LORD, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Israel, our fathers, keep this for ever, even the imagination of the thoughts of the heart of Thy people, and direct their heart unto Thee;"
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 29.18 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.18. וַיָּבוֹאוּ פְנִימָה אֶל־חִזְקִיָּהוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמְרוּ טִהַרְנוּ אֶת־כָּל־בֵּית יְהוָה אֶת־מִזְבַּח הָעוֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־שֻׁלְחַן הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו׃ 29.18. Then they went in to Hezekiah the king within [the palace], and said: ‘We have cleansed all the house of the LORD, even the altar of burnt-offering, with all the vessels thereof, and the table of showbread, with all the vessels thereof."
9. Anon., 1 Enoch, 84-90, 83 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

83. And now, my son Methuselah, I will show thee all my visions which I have seen, recounting,them before thee. Two visions I saw before I took a wife, and the one was quite unlike the other: the first when I was learning to write: the second before I took thy mother, (when) I saw a terrible,vision. And regarding them I prayed to the Lord. I had laid me down in the house of my grandfather Mahalalel, (when) I saw in a vision how the heaven collapsed and was borne off and fell to,the earth. And when it fell to the earth I saw how the earth was swallowed up in a great abyss, and mountains were suspended on mountains, and hills sank down on hills, and high trees were rent,from their stems, and hurled down and sunk in the abyss. And thereupon a word fell into my mouth,,and I lifted up (my voice) to cry aloud, and said: ' The earth is destroyed.' And my grandfather Mahalalel waked me as I lay near him, and said unto me: ' Why dost thou cry so, my son, and why,dost thou make such lamentation' And I recounted to him the whole vision which I had seen, and he said unto me: ' A terrible thing hast thou seen, my son, and of grave moment is thy dream- vision as to the secrets of all the sin of the earth: it must sink into the abyss and be destroyed with,a great destruction. And now, my son, arise and make petition to the Lord of glory, since thou art a believer, that a remt may remain on the earth, and that He may not destroy the whole,earth. My son, from heaven all this will come upon the earth, and upon the earth there will be great,destruction. After that I arose and prayed and implored and besought, and wrote down my prayer for the generations of the world, and I will show everything to thee, my son Methuselah. And when I had gone forth below and seen the heaven, and the sun rising in the east, and the moon setting in the west, and a few stars, and the whole earth, and everything as He had known it in the beginning, then I blessed the Lord of judgement and extolled Him because He had made the sun to go forth from the windows of the east, and he ascended and rose on the face of the heaven, and set out and kept traversing the path shown unto him.
10. Anon., Jubilees, 4.1-4.2, 4.6-4.14, 4.29-4.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.1. And in the third week in the second jubilee she gave birth to Cain, and in the fourth she gave birth to Abel, and in the fifth she gave birth to her daughter ’Âwân. 4.2. And in the first (year) of the third jubilee, Cain slew Abel because (God) accepted the sacrifice of Abel, and did not accept the offering of Cain. 4.6. and the man who hath seen and not declared (it), let him be accursed as the other. 4.7. And for this reason we announce when we come before the Lord our God all the sin which is committed in heaven and on earth, and in light and in darkness, and everywhere. 4.8. And Adam and his wife mourned for Abel four weeks of years 4.9. and in the fourth year of the fifth week they became joyful, and Adam knew his wife again, and she bare him a son, and he called his name Seth; for he said "God hath raised up a second seed unto us on the earth instead of Abel; for Cain slew him. 4.10. And in the sixth week he begat his daughter ’Azûrâ. 4.11. And Cain took ’Âwân his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch at the close of the fourth jubilee. 4.12. And in the first year of the first week of the fifth jubilee, houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city, and called its name after the name of his son Enoch. 4.13. And Adam knew Eve his wife and she bare yet nine sons. 4.14. And in the fifth week of the fifth jubilee Seth took ’Azûrâ his sister to be his wife, and in the fourth (year of the sixth week) she bare him Enos. br He began to call on the name of the Lord on the earth. 4.29. for these had begun to unite themselves, so as to be defiled, with the daughters of men, and Enoch testified against (them) all. 4.30. And he was taken from amongst the children of men, and we conducted him into the Garden of Eden in majesty and honour
11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.28. עַד־כָּה סוֹפָא דִי־מִלְּתָא אֲנָה דָנִיֵּאל שַׂגִּיא רַעְיוֹנַי יְבַהֲלֻנַּנִי וְזִיוַי יִשְׁתַּנּוֹן עֲלַי וּמִלְּתָא בְּלִבִּי נִטְרֵת׃ 7.28. Here is the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my thoughts much affrighted me, and my countece was changed in me; but I kept the matter in my heart."
12. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 20 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Therefore, the allwise Moses attributes to the just man a knowledge of the husbandry of the soul, as an act consistent with his character, and thoroughly suited to him, saying, "Noah began to be a husbandman." But to the unjust man he attributes the task of tilling the ground, which is an employment bearing the heaviest burdens without any knowledge.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 18, 47, 12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Now the first example of an enemy placed directly in front of one is derived from what is said in the case of Cain, that "he went out from the face of God, and dwelt in the land of Nod, in the front of Eden." Now Nod being interpreted means commotion, and Eden means delight. The one therefore is a symbol of wickedness agitating the soul, and the other of virtue which creates for the soul a state of tranquillity and happiness, not meaning by happiness that effeminate luxury which is derived from the indulgence of the irrational passion of pleasure, but a joy free from toil and free from hardship, which is enjoyed with great tranquillity. 12. in this manner those who are skilful in the art of medicine, save their patients; for they do not think it advisable to give food before they have removed the causes of their diseases; for while the diseases remain, food is useless, being the pernicious materials of their sufferings. III.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 54 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

54. Knowing very well that the law is here adding no superfluous word from any indescribable impetuosity in its description of the matter, I doubted within myself why it does not merely say that he who has slain another shall die, and why it has added, that he shall die the death;
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 135-136, 69, 134 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

134. After this, Moses says that "God made man, having taken clay from the earth, and he breathed into his face the breath of life." And by this expression he shows most clearly that there is a vast difference between man as generated now, and the first man who was made according to the image of God. For man as formed now is perceptible to the external senses, partaking of qualities, consisting of body and soul, man or woman, by nature mortal. But man, made according to the image of God, was an idea, or a genus, or a seal, perceptible only by the intellect, incorporeal, neither male nor female, imperishable by nature.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 28, 42, 169 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

169. for God did not grant this even to the all-wise Moses; not though he addressed innumerable requests to him, all having this object; but an oracle was delivered to him, telling him, "Thou shalt see my back parts, but my face thou shalt not See;" and the meaning of this is, that all the things which are behind God are within the comprehension of a virtuous man, but he himself alone is incomprehensible; and he is incomprehensible by any direct and immediate access (for by such means it is only explained what kind of being he is), but he may be understood in his subsequent and consistent faculties; for they, by means of the works accomplished by them, declare not his essence, but his existence. XLIX.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 48, 43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

43. And he learnt all these things from Abraham his grandfather, who was the author of his own education, who gave to the all-wise Isaac all that he had, leaving none of his substance to bastards, or to the spurious reasonings of concubines, but he gives them small gifts, as being inconsiderable persons. For the possessions of which he is possessed, namely, the perfect virtues, belong only to the perfect and legitimate son; but those which are of an intermediate character, are suitable to and fall to the share of those who are not perfect, but who have advanced as far as the encyclical branches of elementary education, of which Agar and Cheturah partake, Agar meaning "a dwelling near," and Cheturah meaning "sacrificing.
18. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.81 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 214 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

214. Is not this the thing which the Greeks say that Heraclitus, that great philosopher who is so celebrated among them, put forth as the leading principle of his whole philosophy, and boasted of it as if it were a new discovery? For it is in reality an ancient discovery of Moses, that out of the same thing opposite things are produced having the ratio of parts to the whole, as has here been shown. XLVI.
20. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 126 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

126. And this will also be proved by the oracle which was given to the all-wise Moses, in which these words are contained: "Behold, is there not Aaron thy brother, the Levite? I know that he will speak for thee; and behold he will be coming forth to meet thee, and he will rejoice in himself when he seeth Thee." For here the Creator says, that he knows that uttered speech is a burden to the mind, because it speaks; for he represents it, that is to say, articulate sound, as the organ, as it were, of all this concrete being of ours.
21. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 154, 27, 151 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

151. For instance, the name of dog is beyond all question a homonymy, inasmuch as it comprehends many dissimilar things which are signified by that appellation. For there is a terrestrial barking animal called a dog; there is also a marine monster with the same name: there is also the star in heaven, which the poets calls the autumnal star, because it rises at the beginning of autumn, for the sake of ripening the fruits and bringing them to perfection. Moreover, there were the philosophers who came from the cynic school. Aristippus and Diogenes; and other too who chose to practise the same mode of life, an incalculable number of men.
22. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 1.2, 4.1-4.2, 9.3, 10.1, 12.1, 13.3, 21.2, 21.6, 29.3, 39.2, 40.2, 40.6-40.7, 43.1-43.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.3. Μετανοήσατε, οἶκος Ἰσραήλ, ἀπὸ τῆς ἀνομίας ὑμῶν: εἶπον τοῖς υἱοῖς τοῦ λαοῦ μου. Ἐὰν ὦσιν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ὑμῶν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἕως τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἐὰν ὦσιν πυρρότεραι κόκκου καὶ μελανώτεραι σάκκου, καὶ ἐπιστραφῆτε πρός με ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας καὶ εἴπητε: Πάτερ: ἐπακούσομαι ὑμῶν ὡς λαοῦ ἁγίου.
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.67, 1.69 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.67. 3. Now Adam, who was the first man, and made out of the earth, (for our discourse must now be about him,) after Abel was slain, and Cain fled away, on account of his murder, was solicitous for posterity, and had a vehement desire of children, he being two hundred and thirty years old; after which time he lived other seven hundred, and then died. 1.69. All these proved to be of good dispositions. They also inhabited the same country without dissensions, and in a happy condition, without any misfortunes falling upon them, till they died. They also were the inventors of that peculiar sort of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies, and their order.
25. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. as free, and not using your freedom for a cloak of wickedness, but as bondservants of God.
26. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.2-11.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Acts, 2.38, 3.19, 12.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 3.19. Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that so there may come times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord 12.23. Immediately an angel of the Lord struck him, because he didn't give God the glory, and he was eaten by worms, and he died.
28. New Testament, Apocalypse, 8.4, 11.13, 14.7, 16.9, 19.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.4. The smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, went up before God out of the angel's hand. 11.13. In that day there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. Seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified, and gave glory to the God of heaven. 14.7. He said with a loud voice, "Fear the Lord, and give him glory; for the hour of his judgment has come. Worship him who made the heaven, the earth, the sea, and the springs of waters! 16.9. People were scorched with great heat, and people blasphemed the name of God who has the power over these plagues. They didn't repent and give him glory. 19.7. Let us rejoice and be exceedingly glad, and let us give the glory to him. For the marriage of the Lamb has come, and his wife has made herself ready.
29. New Testament, Romans, 4.20, 7.2, 7.4, 8.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.20. Yet, looking to the promise of God, he didn't waver through unbelief, but grew strong through faith, giving glory to God 7.2. For the woman that has a husband is bound by law to the husband while he lives, but if the husband dies, she is discharged from the law of the husband. 7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God. 8.15. For you didn't receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry, "Abba! Father!
30. New Testament, John, 9.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.24. So they called the man who was blind a second time, and said to him, "Give glory to God. We know that this man is a sinner.
31. New Testament, Luke, 2.19, 2.51, 17.18, 21.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.19. But Mary kept all these sayings, pondering them in her heart. 2.51. And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth. He was subject to them, and his mother kept all these sayings in her heart. 17.18. Were there none found who returned to give glory to God, except this stranger? 21.23. Woe to those who are pregt and to those who nurse infants in those days! For there will be great distress in the land, and wrath to this people.
32. New Testament, Mark, 13.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.17. But woe to those who are with child and to those who nurse babies in those days!
33. New Testament, Matthew, 1.18, 1.23, 17.5, 19.6, 24.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. Now the birth of Jesus Christ was like this; for after his mother, Mary, was engaged to Joseph, before they came together, she was found pregt by the Holy Spirit. 1.23. Behold, the virgin shall be with child, And shall bring forth a son. They shall call his name Immanuel;" Which is, being interpreted, "God with us. 17.5. While he was still speaking, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them. Behold, a voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Listen to him. 19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart. 24.19. But woe to those who are with child and to nursing mothers in those days!
34. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 22.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

35. Anon., Tchacos 3 Gospel of Judas, 43.1-43.11 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

36. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 3.6.46.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

37. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.25.3, 1.30-1.31, 1.30.1-1.30.4, 1.31.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

35a. מתני׳ big strongכיצד /strong /big מברכין על הפירות על פירות האילן הוא אומר בורא פרי העץ חוץ מן היין שעל היין הוא אומר בורא פרי הגפן ועל פירות הארץ הוא אומר בורא פרי האדמה חוץ מן הפת שעל הפת הוא אומר המוציא לחם מן הארץ ועל הירקות הוא אומר בורא פרי האדמה רבי יהודה אומר בורא מיני דשאים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא ה"מ דתנו רבנן (ויקרא יט, כד) קדש הלולים לה' מלמד שטעונים ברכה לפניהם ולאחריהם מכאן אמר ר"ע אסור לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיברך,והאי קדש הלולים להכי הוא דאתא האי מיבעי ליה חד דאמר רחמנא אחליה והדר אכליה ואידך דבר הטעון שירה טעון חלול ושאינו טעון שירה אין טעון חלול וכדר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מנין שאין אומרים שירה אלא על היין שנאמר (שופטים ט, יג) ותאמר להם הגפן החדלתי את תירושי המשמח אלהים ואנשים אם אנשים משמח אלהים במה משמח מכאן שאין אומרים שירה אלא על היין,הניחא למאן דתני נטע רבעי אלא למאן דתני כרם רבעי מאי איכא למימר דאתמר ר' חייא ור' שמעון ברבי חד תני כרם רבעי וחד תני נטע רבעי,ולמאן דתני כרם רבעי הניחא אי יליף ג"ש דתניא ר' אומר נאמר כאן (ויקרא יט, כה) להוסיף לכם תבואתו ונאמר להלן (דברים כב, ט) ותבואת הכרם מה להלן כרם אף כאן כרם אייתר ליה חד הלול לברכה,ואי לא יליף גזרה שוה ברכה מנא ליה ואי נמי יליף גזרה שוה אשכחן לאחריו לפניו מנין,הא לא קשיא דאתיא בקל וחומר כשהוא שבע מברך כשהוא רעב לא כל שכן,אשכחן כרם שאר מינין מנין,דיליף מכרם מה כרם דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה,איכא למפרך מה לכרם שכן חייב בעוללות,קמה תוכיח מה לקמה שכן חייבת בחלה,כרם יוכיח וחזר הדין לא ראי זה כראי זה ולא ראי זה כראי זה הצד השוה שבהן דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה,מה להצד השוה שבהן שכן יש בו צד מזבח ואתי נמי זית דאית ביה צד מזבח,וזית מצד מזבח אתי והא בהדיא כתיב ביה כרם דכתיב (שופטים טו, ה) ויבער מגדיש ועד קמה ועד כרם זית אמר רב פפא כרם זית אקרי כרם סתמא לא אקרי,מ"מ קשיא מה להצד השוה שבהן שכן יש בהן צד מזבח אלא דיליף לה משבעת המינין מה שבעת המינין דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה,מה לשבעת המינין שכן חייבין בבכורים ועוד התינח לאחריו לפניו מנין,הא לא קשיא דאתי בקל וחומר כשהוא שבע מברך כשהוא רעב לכ"ש,ולמאן דתני נטע רבעי הא תינח כל דבר נטיעה דלאו בר נטיעה כגון בשר ביצים ודגים מנא ליה אלא סברא הוא אסור לו לאדם שיהנה מן העולם הזה בלא ברכה:,ת"ר אסור לו לאדם שיהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה וכל הנהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה מעל מאי תקנתיה ילך אצל חכם,ילך אצל חכם מאי עביד ליה הא עביד ליה איסורא אלא אמר רבא ילך אצל חכם מעיקרא וילמדנו ברכות כדי שלא יבא לידי מעילה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל הנהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה כאילו נהנה מקדשי שמים שנא' (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה ר' לוי רמי כתיב לה' הארץ ומלואה וכתיב (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם לא קשיא כאן קודם ברכה 35a. strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna discusses the blessings recited over various foods. bHow does one recite a blessing over fruits? Overdifferent bfruitsthat grow on a btree one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree, with the exception of wine.Although wine is produced from fruit of the tree, due to its significance, its blessing differs from other fruits of the tree. bOver wine one recites: Who creates fruit of the vine. Over fruitsthat grow from bthe earth, one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground, with the exception of bread.Bread, too, is significant and its blessing differs from other fruits of the ground, bas over bread one recites: Who brings forth bread from the earth. Overherbs and leafy bvegetables one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat there is room to distinguish between fruits that grow from the earth, herbs, and leafy vegetables. Although they are all fruit of the ground, since they have different qualities, the blessing on the latter is: bWho creates various kinds of herbs. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Concerning the fundamental basis for blessings, the Gemara asks: bFrom where are these matters,the obligation to recite a blessing before eating, derived? The Gemara answers: bAs the Sages taughtin the iSifra /i: With regard to saplings, it is stated that in their fourth year their fruit will be: b“…sanctified for praises before the Lord”(Leviticus 19:24). This verse bteachesthat bthey requirepraise of God in the form of a bblessingboth bbeforehand and thereafter,as the verse says praises in the plural. bFrom here, Rabbi Akiva said: A person is forbidden to taste anything before he recites a blessing,as without reciting praise over food, it has the status of a consecrated item, from which one is forbidden to derive pleasure.,The Gemara asks: bAnddid bthisverse: b“Sanctified for praises,” come for thatpurpose? bThisverse bis necessaryto derive other matters. bOnebeing bthat the Merciful One said: Redeem it and then eat it.This midrash interprets ihillul /i, praise, as iḥillul /i, redemption. bAnd the othermatter derived from this verse is: bAn object whichis offered upon the altar and brequires a songof praise when it is offered, as is the case with the libation of wine, brequires redemption. And that which does not require a songof praise, all other fruits, bdoes not require redemption. Andthis is bin accordance withthe opinion that bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: From whereis it derived that bone only recites a songof praise in the Temple bover thelibation of bwineon the altar? bAs it is stated: “And the vine replied: Should I leave my wine, which gladdens God and man,and go and wave above the trees?” (Judges 9:13). bIfwine bgladdens people, in whatway bdoes it gladden God?Rather, derive bfrom here that one only recites a songof praise bover wine,as wine gladdens God when offered as part of the service in the Temple.In any case, other ihalakhothave been derived from this verse. From where, then, is the requirement to recite blessings derived?,Indeed, bthisworks out bwell according to the one who taught,as a rule: bA fourth-year saplingin the imishnayotdealing with the prohibition to eat fruits produced during the first three years of a tree’s existence and the sanctity of the fruit produced in its fourth year; as, in his opinion, fourth-year fruits that grow on all trees must be redeemed. bHowever, according to the one who taught,as a rule: bA fourth-year grapevine, what can be said?Indeed, he derives the ihalakhathat only wine that is accompanied by a song of praise requires redemption, from the interpretation of ihillulas iḥillul /i. bAs it was stated: Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bone taughtthese imishnayotusing the term: bA fourth-year grapevine, and one taughtusing the term: bA fourth-year sapling. /b, bAnd according to the one who taught: A fourth year grapevine, thisworks out bwell if he derivesthis matter bfrom a verbal analogy [ igezera shava /i],and therefore need not derive this ihalakhafrom the term ihillulim /i. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: It is stated herewith regard to the laws of the prohibition of fruit for the tree’s first three years: “But in the fifth year you may eat its fruit, bso that it may increase your produce [ itevuato /i];I am the Lord your God” (Leviticus 19:25). bAnd it is stated below,with regard to the laws of diverse kinds: “You shall not sow your vineyard with two kinds of seed, lest the growth of the seed that you have sown be forfeited bwith the produce [ iutevuat /i] of the vineyard”(Deuteronomy 22:9). Based on a verbal analogy, it can be derived: bJust as below,with regard to the laws of diverse kinds, the produce is that which grows in bvineyards; so too, here,with regard to the ihalakhotof the fruits of a sapling, the produce is that which grows in bvineyards.Consequently, according to the one who holds this verbal analogy, bone extra ihillul /iremains from which to derive bthe blessing.Since he derives that the laws of fourth-year saplings apply only to grapes from the verbal analogy, he can derive the requirement to recite blessings before partaking of food from the word ihillulim /i., bAnd if he does not derivethis ihalakhaby means of ba verbal analogy,he must derive this ihalakhafrom the term ihillulim /i, in which case, bfrom where does he derivethe mitzva bto recite a blessingbefore partaking of food? bAnd even if he derivesthis ihalakhaby means of ba verbal analogy, we founda source for the obligation to recite a blessing baftereating, similar to the obligation stated in the verse: “And you will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless.” However, bfrom whereis it derived that there is an obligation to recite a blessing bbeforehand?From one ihillul /i, the fundamental ihalakhaof redemption of fourth-year saplings is derived.,The Gemara answers this: This is bnot difficult, as itmay be bderived by means of an ia fortioriinference: If when he is satiated,after eating, bheis obligated to brecite a blessingover food, bwhen he is hungry,before eating, ball the more sothat he is obligated to recite a blessing over food.,The Gemara comments: In that way, bwe founda source for the obligation to recite a blessing over the produce of bvineyards,but bfrom whereis it derived with regard to bother types ofproduce?,The Gemara responds: bIt is derivedby means of the hermeneutic principle: What do we find, bfromthe produce of a bvineyard: Just asthe fruit of the bvineyard is an itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit and it requires a blessing, so too, any itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit, requires a blessing. /b,The Gemara rejects this proof: bThisderivation bcan be refuted,as a vineyard is unique: bWhatis unique about a bvineyard, that it is obligated inthe mitzva requiring to give bsmall, incomplete clusters of grapes [ iolelot /i]to the poor? That is a stringency that does not apply to other fruits. Perhaps the blessing is also a stringency that applies only to grapes.,The Gemara answers: In that case, bstanding grain can provethat the ihalakhaof iolelotis not a factor in the obligation to recite a blessing. One is obligated by Torah law to recite a blessing after eating bread, even though the ihalakhaof iolelotdoes not apply to grain. The Gemara rejects this proof: bWhatis unique about bripe grain, that it is obligated inthe mitzva of separating iḥalla /ifrom the dough? That is a stringency that does not apply to other foods. Perhaps the blessing is also a stringency that applies only to grain.,The Gemara responds: In that regard, bvineyards can provethat the ihalakhaof iḥallais not a factor in the obligation to recite a blessing. In summary: bAnd the derivation has revertedto its starting point. However, at this point the ihalakhais derived from a combination of the two sources: bThe aspect of this is not like the aspect of that, and the aspect of that is not like the aspect of this; the common denominator is:Both are bitemsfrom bwhich one derives benefit andeach brequires a blessing.A general principle may be derived: bSo too, any itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit, requires a blessing. /b,Again, the Gemara objects: bWhatis unique about bthe common denominatorbetween grapes and grain that prevents utilizing it as a paradigm for other food items? Grapes and grain bhave an aspectof being offered upon the baltar,and perhaps that is the reason that they require blessings. Based on that reasoning, although all other food items cannot be derived from the common denominator, ban olive may also be derived as it too has an aspectof being offered upon the baltar,as olive oil is one of the components of a meal offering.,The Gemara questions this point: bIs an olive derived fromthe fact that it bhas an aspectof being offered upon the baltar? Isn’t it written explicitly with regard tothe olive blistedthat the orchard in which it grows is called ikerem /i; as it is written: “And burnt up from the shocks and the standing grain and the olive yards [ ikerem zayit /i]”(Judges 15:5)? Just as the orchard in which grapes grow is called ikerem /i, and grapes require a blessing, the olive also grows in a ikeremand should require a blessing. bRav Pappa said:Nevertheless, an analogy may not be drawn between the two; where the olive grows bis called ikerem zayit /i, it is not called ikeremunmodified,which is a term reserved for grapevines.,The Gemara returns to the issue at hand, noting that bin any case, it is difficult: Whatis unique about bthe common denominatorbetween grapes and grain? That they bpossess an aspectof being offered upon the baltar. Rather, it is derived fromthe obligation to recite a blessing bupon the seven species.After the verse speaks of the seven species, it states: “And you will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless.” This is a paradigm for all other foods, that they too require a blessing: bJust as the seven species are itemsfrom bwhich one derives benefit and require a blessing, any itemfrom bwhich one derives benefit, requires a blessing. /b,Again, the Gemara rejects this: bWhatis unique babout the seven species? That one is obligated inthe mitzva bof first fruits.However, other produce with regard to which one is not obligated in the mitzva of first fruits, from where is it derived that they require a blessing? bFurthermore,even if the seven species can serve as a paradigm, bthisworks out bwellwith regard to the blessing bthereafter;but bfrom whereis the obligation to recite a blessing bbeforehandderived?,The Gemara responds to the question: This is bnot difficult, as itmay be bderived by means of an ia fortioriinference: If when he is satiated,after eating, bheis obligated to brecite a blessingover food, bwhen he is hungry,before eating, ball the more sohe is obligated to recite a blessing over food.,In any case, this is not an absolute proof. Furthermore, even baccording to the one who taught: A fourth-year saplingin all the relevant imishnayot /i, bitworks out bwellwith regard to beverything that can be planted,that one is obligated to recite a blessing. However, with regard to bitems that cannot be planted, such as meat, eggs, and fish, from where does hederive the ihalakhathat one is obligated to recite a blessing? bRather,all previous attempts at deriving this ihalakhaare rejected. The fundamental obligation to recite a blessing over food is founded on breason: One is forbidden to derive benefit from this world without a blessing. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a iTosefta /i: bOne is forbidden to derive benefit from this world,which is the property of God, bwithoutreciting ba blessingbeforehand. bAnd anyone who derives benefit from this world without a blessing,it is as if he is guilty of bmisuseof a consecrated object. The Gemara adds: bWhat is his remedy? He should go to a Sage. /b,The Gemara is puzzled: bHe should go to a Sage; what will he do to him?How can the Sage help after bhe has already violated a prohibition? Rather, Rava said,this is how it should be understood: bHe should go to a Sage initially,in his youth, bandthe Sage bwill teach him blessings, so that he will not come tobe guilty of this type of bmisuseof a consecrated object in the future.,Similarly, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: One who derives benefit from this world without a blessing, it is as if he enjoyed objects consecrated to the heavens, as it is stated: “The earth and all it contains is the Lord’s,the world and all those who live in it” (Psalms 24:1). Rabbi Levi expressed this concept differently. bRabbi Levi raised a contradiction: It is written: “The earth and all it contains is the Lord’s,” and it is writtenelsewhere: b“The heavens are the Lord’s and the earth He has given over to mankind”(Psalms 115:16). There is clearly a contradiction with regard to whom the earth belongs. He himself resolves the contradiction: This is bnot difficult. Here,the verse that says that the earth is the Lord’s refers to the situation bbefore a blessingis recited
39. Nag Hammadi, Allogenes, 56.21-56.22, 60.21-60.23, 61.25-61.26, 62.19-62.23, 63.16-63.18, 63.20-63.21, 64.16, 68.20 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

40. Nag Hammadi, Eugnostos The Blessed, 13.7-13.14, 85.9-85.15 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

41. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 117.15-117.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

42. Nag Hammadi, The Hypostasis of The Archons, 91.31-91.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

43. Origen, Against Celsus, 3.13 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.13. Now, if these arguments hold good, why should we not defend, in the same way, the existence of heresies in Christianity? And respecting these, Paul appears to me to speak in a very striking manner when he says, For there must be heresies among you, that they who are approved may be made manifest among you. For as that man is approved in medicine who, on account of his experience in various (medical) heresies, and his honest examination of the majority of them, has selected the preferable system - and as the great proficient in philosophy is he who, after acquainting himself experimentally with the various views, has given in his adhesion to the best, - so I would say that the wisest Christian was he who had carefully studied the heresies both of Judaism and Christianity. Whereas he who finds fault with Christianity because of its heresies would find fault also with the teaching of Socrates, from whose school have issued many others of discordant views. Nay, the opinions of Plato might be chargeable with error, on account of Aristotle's having separated from his school, and founded a new one - on which subject we have remarked in the preceding book. But it appears to me that Celsus has become acquainted with certain heresies which do not possess even the name of Jesus in common with us. Perhaps he had heard of the sects called Ophites and Cainites, or some others of a similar nature, which had departed in all points from the teaching of Jesus. And yet surely this furnishes no ground for a charge against the Christian doctrine.
44. Anon., Pirqei De Rabbi Eliezer, 22 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

45. Epiphanius, Panarion, 26.1.9, 39.3.5, 39.5.1, 40.2.1-40.2.2, 40.7.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

46. Anon., 4 Baruch, 6.22

6.22. And he sent his angel to me, and he told me these words which I send to you.
47. Pseudo-Tertullian, Adversus Omnes Haereses, 2.1-2.6



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel, progeny of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
abel, soul of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
abel Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204, 226, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 271, 272, 273, 276, 277, 279, 289, 293, 700, 845, 1030; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 73
abraham Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 279
abraham\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
acherusian sea (lake) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 845
adam, condition of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274
adam, deathbed of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 271, 274
adam, disease (illness) of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 845
adam, fatherhood of seth Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156, 160
adam, grief of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 262, 271
adam, joy of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 262
adam, mouth of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 279
adam, pardoning of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
adam Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160; Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106, 109, 111, 118; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47, 73
aeons, of barbelo Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106
aeons Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 96, 109
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
allogenes, character Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 96, 106, 109, 111, 118
angel Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 118; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 73
anger, attacking seth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272, 274
anger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 260, 271
anthropophagy Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 260
antiochus of ascalon Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
apocalypses Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106
archangel, righteous/righteousness of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 388
archangel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 262, 273, 276, 1030
archontics Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 118
aristarchus Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 138
ascension, of allogenes Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 109
ascent, frightful Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 276
ascent literature, visionary/mystical Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 109
asleep Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272
autogenes Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 118
babel, tower of babel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21
baptism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 48
barbelo Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
beast, attacking seth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261
beast, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 273, 700
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 700
beauty Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 273
birth, cain, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 258, 260
birth, seth, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204, 258, 259, 260, 262, 274, 293
blasphemy, heresy as Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353
blood of abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226, 258, 259
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272, 274, 1030
body Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 48; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226, 1030
border crossing\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21
burial, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
burial, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272, 1030
burial, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
cain, hands of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204, 259, 260
cain, seeds of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
cain, son of anger, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 258
cain, stomach of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 259
cain Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204, 226, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 271, 272, 273, 274, 276, 277, 279, 289, 293, 845; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 73
cainites Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 73
carpocratians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
chaldean (hebrew language) Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
chariot, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 279
childbirth, pain (agony) of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 271
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272, 274, 276, 277, 279, 289, 293, 845
children, seth, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 273
children Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 271, 293
christ, see also jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47, 73
christian/christianity Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 277
clement of alexandria, moral criticism of heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
clement of alexandria, reduction of diverse heresies to common errors Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353
cloud Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 109
codex tchacos Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 96, 106, 111
commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
confession, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204
confession Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 279
contradiction Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 158
coptic Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106, 111
creation, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
creator archons, archons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47, 73
curse, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204
curse, serpent, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 259
cycle, patriarchal, abrahamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
cycle, patriarchal, cain Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
cycle, patriarchal, noahic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
daughters, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 293
david, king Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 176
david Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 277
day, judgment, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274, 700
day, six Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
day, three Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 276
death, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
death, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 273, 293
descent, of christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
descent, of sophia/wisdom Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
didymus, incest and polygamy (cain) Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 158
disease and pain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272, 274, 276, 289, 845
dust Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 289, 293
dyad and monad, the earthborn Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
encratites Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47, 73
enoch Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156, 160
enos, in fourth generation Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
enos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
enosh Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156, 157, 160
epiphanius Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 111, 118
ethics Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 48
ethiopians Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272
etiology\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 22
eudorus Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
eusebius of emesa, cain Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 157
eve, dream of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
eve, nightmare of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 289
eve, pregcy of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204, 258
eve Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 96; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47, 73
excrement Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 289
expulsion, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 259
expulsion, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 259
expulsion, paradise, from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 259
eye Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 258, 272
family (lineage) Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 160
flesh, sin of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204
fountain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 277
four, the number Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
free will Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 157, 158
fruit, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 289
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204, 845
genesis\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21, 22
glory, loss of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 279
gnosis Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 118
gnostic, gnosticism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106, 111, 118
god, as mother Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 180
god, grief of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 271
god, human created according to the image of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
god, light of the whole creation, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 845
god, man of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274
god, presence of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 259, 274, 845
god, promise of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 262
god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 96, 106, 118
grief, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 262, 271
grief, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 271
groaning, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 262
halakhah Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 176
hands, angels, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 845
hands, cain, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204, 259, 260
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274, 289, 700
health Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 271
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 271, 276, 277
hebrew, and chaldean Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
hebrew Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 138
herod\u2002, primeval history Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21
holy spirit Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
humility, cains progeny Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 158
ialdabaoth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
identity, construction of identity Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21, 22
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 274
incarnation, of christ Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 111
incarnation, of seth Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 109, 111
instructor Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 73
intellect, triad Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106
invisible spirit Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 48, 106, 118
irenaeus Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 277
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 277
jesus, see also christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
jesus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 277, 279
john, son of zebedee Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 48
joy, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 262
joy Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 262, 271
judgment Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226, 700
knowledge Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
law, the, in clement Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353
lemma, main/primary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
libertine Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
libertinism/license Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353
linen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
literal sense Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 138
man (anthropos) barbelo, first/immortal man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
man (anthropos) barbelo, lordly man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 73
man (anthropos) barbelo, second man/son of man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
man (anthropos) barbelo, third man (title) Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
marriage, heretical contempt for Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352, 353
marriage Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 388; Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
messos Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106, 118
metaphorical interpretation Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 138
michael, refusal (rejection or denial) of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274, 276
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 262, 271, 273, 276, 1030
moon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274, 845
moses, as all-wise Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
moses, greek philosophical ideas and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
moses Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 138
mother barbelo, heavenly Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
mother barbelo, of the living/all Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
mother barbelo Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
mourning Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 262
mouth, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 279
mouth, cain, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 259
murder of abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 259, 260, 272, 293
mystery Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 260, 276
mystical ascent/union/vision Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 109
mysticism, jewish Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 118
naasseni Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
nag hammadi Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 111, 118
naid Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156, 157, 158
natural law Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 158, 160, 161
non-literal interpretation, name-interpretation, onomastic Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156
norea Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 111
oath, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204, 845
ogdoad Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
oil, mercy, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274, 276
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274
one-being, platonic, plotinian Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106
one-being, triple-powered Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106
one-being, unknowable Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106
ophites, the diagram Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
oxen, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272, 273, 274, 845
paradise, traveling (journey or foray) to/from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272, 274
paradise, vicinity of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272, 274
pentateuch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
peratics Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 73
philo Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 138
prayer Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 48, 109
prayers, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
prayers, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
prayers, seth, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272
pride Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 353
progeny, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
progeny, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261
progeny, seth, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 273
pythagorean-platonist tradition Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
redundancy, biblical Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 138
redundancy, stylistic Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 138
redundancy Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 138
regions, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
repentance Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 388
revealer Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 73
rib Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
ritual, gnostic/sethian Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 48, 96
ritual, of baptism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 48
samaria/samaritans Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 388
satan, and heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
satan Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204
savior, allogenes Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 111
savior, christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
scripture, as weapon/criterion against heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
seal, abels tomb (grave), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
seal, adams tomb (grave), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
seal, triangular Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
seal Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
seeds, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
seeds, cain, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
seeds, divine Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 273
seeds, serpent, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
seeds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226, 261, 272, 700
serpent, devil/in paradise Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 73
serpent, other Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 73
seth, beginning of a new generation, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272
seth, birth of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204, 258, 259, 260, 262, 274, 293
seth, character Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 48, 96, 106, 109, 111, 118
seth, children of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 273
seth, head of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274
seth, person Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 73
seth, progeny of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 273
seth, seed/race of Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 111
seth, sethians Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 111
seth Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 138; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 138; Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156, 157, 160
sethian, baptism Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 138
sethians, sethianism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47, 73
sethians Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 48, 106, 111, 118
sex/sexual Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204, 260
sons (sonship), adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 261, 272, 273, 293, 845
sons (sonship), seth, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272, 273, 289
sophia, see also prunicus, wisdom, zoe Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
soul, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
stomach, cain, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 259
stomach Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 259
sun Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274, 845
sweat Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 289
temple Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 277
temptation Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 258
tent, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274
terminology Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 138
testament of eve Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 274
testimonia Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 159
text-world, correlation Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 160
text-world, defamiliarization Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 160
throne, chariot-throne Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 845
throne Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 262
tomb Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1030
torah' Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 388
transfiguration Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 109
traveler, group Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21, 22
tree, knowledge, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 293
tree Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 272, 274, 279, 293
triad Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 47
triads, first Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 160
triple-power, spirit Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106
twins, abels twin sister Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 226
twins Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 204, 226
unknown, unknowable Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 106