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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.24


כִּי שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקַּם־קָיִן וְלֶמֶךְ שִׁבְעִים וְשִׁבְעָה׃If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.7, 3.15, 4.1-4.4, 4.7-4.23, 4.25-4.26, 6.1-6.9, 6.12-6.22, 9.8-9.17, 9.20-9.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 3.15. וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃ 4.1. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה עָשִׂיתָ קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים אֵלַי מִן־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 4.1. וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת־חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת־קַיִן וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 4.2. וַתֹּסֶף לָלֶדֶת אֶת־אָחִיו אֶת־הָבֶל וַיְהִי־הֶבֶל רֹעֵה צֹאן וְקַיִן הָיָה עֹבֵד אֲדָמָה׃ 4.2. וַתֵּלֶד עָדָה אֶת־יָבָל הוּא הָיָה אֲבִי יֹשֵׁב אֹהֶל וּמִקְנֶה׃ 4.3. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ יָמִים וַיָּבֵא קַיִן מִפְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה מִנְחָה לַיהוָה׃ 4.4. וְהֶבֶל הֵבִיא גַם־הוּא מִבְּכֹרוֹת צֹאנוֹ וּמֵחֶלְבֵהֶן וַיִּשַׁע יְהוָה אֶל־הֶבֶל וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ׃ 4.7. הֲלוֹא אִם־תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל־בּוֹ׃ 4.8. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיָּקָם קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ׃ 4.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל אָחִיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי׃ 4.11. וְעַתָּה אָרוּר אָתָּה מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר פָּצְתָה אֶת־פִּיהָ לָקַחַת אֶת־דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ מִיָּדֶךָ׃ 4.12. כִּי תַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה לֹא־תֹסֵף תֵּת־כֹּחָהּ לָךְ נָע וָנָד תִּהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ׃ 4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־יְהוָה גָּדוֹל עֲוֺנִי מִנְּשֹׂא׃ 4.14. הֵן גֵּרַשְׁתָּ אֹתִי הַיּוֹם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּמִפָּנֶיךָ אֶסָּתֵר וְהָיִיתִי נָע וָנָד בָּאָרֶץ וְהָיָה כָל־מֹצְאִי יַהַרְגֵנִי׃ 4.15. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ יְהוָה לָכֵן כָּל־הֹרֵג קַיִן שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקָּם וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוָה לְקַיִן אוֹת לְבִלְתִּי הַכּוֹת־אֹתוֹ כָּל־מֹצְאוֹ׃ 4.16. וַיֵּצֵא קַיִן מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־נוֹד קִדְמַת־עֵדֶן׃ 4.17. וַיֵּדַע קַיִן אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת־חֲנוֹךְ וַיְהִי בֹּנֶה עִיר וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הָעִיר כְּשֵׁם בְּנוֹ חֲנוֹךְ׃ 4.18. וַיִּוָּלֵד לַחֲנוֹךְ אֶת־עִירָד וְעִירָד יָלַד אֶת־מְחוּיָאֵל וּמְחִיּיָאֵל יָלַד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁאֵל וּמְתוּשָׁאֵל יָלַד אֶת־לָמֶךְ׃ 4.19. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ לֶמֶךְ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֵׁם הָאַחַת עָדָה וְשֵׁם הַשֵּׁנִית צִלָּה׃ 4.21. וְשֵׁם אָחִיו יוּבָל הוּא הָיָה אֲבִי כָּל־תֹּפֵשׂ כִּנּוֹר וְעוּגָב׃ 4.22. וְצִלָּה גַם־הִוא יָלְדָה אֶת־תּוּבַל קַיִן לֹטֵשׁ כָּל־חֹרֵשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל וַאֲחוֹת תּוּבַל־קַיִן נַעֲמָה׃ 4.23. וַיֹּאמֶר לֶמֶךְ לְנָשָׁיו עָדָה וְצִלָּה שְׁמַעַן קוֹלִי נְשֵׁי לֶמֶךְ הַאְזֵנָּה אִמְרָתִי כִּי אִישׁ הָרַגְתִּי לְפִצְעִי וְיֶלֶד לְחַבֻּרָתִי׃ 4.25. וַיֵּדַע אָדָם עוֹד אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת כִּי שָׁת־לִי אֱלֹהִים זֶרַע אַחֵר תַּחַת הֶבֶל כִּי הֲרָגוֹ קָיִן׃ 4.26. וּלְשֵׁת גַּם־הוּא יֻלַּד־בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ אֱנוֹשׁ אָז הוּחַל לִקְרֹא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 6.5. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 6.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָאתִי מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה עַד־רֶמֶשׂ וְעַד־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם כִּי נִחַמְתִּי כִּי עֲשִׂיתִם׃ 6.8. וְנֹחַ מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃ 6.12. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה נִשְׁחָתָה כִּי־הִשְׁחִית כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֶת־דַּרְכּוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים לְנֹחַ קֵץ כָּל־בָּשָׂר בָּא לְפָנַי כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ חָמָס מִפְּנֵיהֶם וְהִנְנִי מַשְׁחִיתָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 6.14. עֲשֵׂה לְךָ תֵּבַת עֲצֵי־גֹפֶר קִנִּים תַּעֲשֶׂה אֶת־הַתֵּבָה וְכָפַרְתָּ אֹתָהּ מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ בַּכֹּפֶר׃ 6.15. וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה אֹרֶךְ הַתֵּבָה חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה רָחְבָּהּ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה קוֹמָתָהּ׃ 6.16. צֹהַר תַּעֲשֶׂה לַתֵּבָה וְאֶל־אַמָּה תְּכַלֶנָּה מִלְמַעְלָה וּפֶתַח הַתֵּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ תָּשִׂים תַּחְתִּיִּם שְׁנִיִּם וּשְׁלִשִׁים תַּעֲשֶׂהָ׃ 6.17. וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אֶת־הַמַּבּוּל מַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בָּאָרֶץ יִגְוָע׃ 6.18. וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתָּךְ וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וּנְשֵׁי־בָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ׃ 6.19. וּמִכָּל־הָחַי מִכָּל־בָּשָׂר שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל תָּבִיא אֶל־הַתֵּבָה לְהַחֲיֹת אִתָּךְ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה יִהְיוּ׃ 6.21. וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ מִכָּל־מַאֲכָל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְאָסַפְתָּ אֵלֶיךָ וְהָיָה לְךָ וְלָהֶם לְאָכְלָה׃ 6.22. וַיַּעַשׂ נֹחַ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים כֵּן עָשָׂה׃ 9.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ וְאֶל־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ לֵאמֹר׃ 9.9. וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם וְאֶת־זַרְעֲכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם׃ 9.11. וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם וְלֹא־יִכָּרֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר עוֹד מִמֵּי הַמַּבּוּל וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד מַבּוּל לְשַׁחֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים זֹאת אוֹת־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי נֹתֵן בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם לְדֹרֹת עוֹלָם׃ 9.13. אֶת־קַשְׁתִּי נָתַתִּי בֶּעָנָן וְהָיְתָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵין הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.14. וְהָיָה בְּעַנְנִי עָנָן עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְנִרְאֲתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן׃ 9.15. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד הַמַּיִם לְמַבּוּל לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר׃ 9.16. וְהָיְתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן וּרְאִיתִיהָ לִזְכֹּר בְּרִית עוֹלָם בֵּין אֱלֹהִים וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.17. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ זֹאת אוֹת־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר הֲקִמֹתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵין כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.21. וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּיִן וַיִּשְׁכָּר וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה׃ 9.22. וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן אֵת עֶרְוַת אָבִיו וַיַּגֵּד לִשְׁנֵי־אֶחָיו בַּחוּץ׃ 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’" 4.1. And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived and bore Cain, and said: ‘I have agotten a man with the help of the LORD.’" 4.2. And again she bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground." 4.3. And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD." 4.4. And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering;" 4.7. If thou doest well, shall it not be lifted up? and if thou doest not well, sin coucheth at the door; and unto thee is its desire, but thou mayest rule over it.’" 4.8. And Cain spoke unto Abel his brother. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him." 4.9. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Where is Abel thy brother?’ And he said: ‘I know not; am I my brother’s keeper?’" 4.10. And He said: ‘What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto Me from the ground." 4.11. And now cursed art thou from the ground, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother’s blood from thy hand." 4.12. When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shalt thou be in the earth.’" 4.13. And Cain said unto the LORD: ‘My punishment is greater than I can bear." 4.14. Behold, Thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the land; and from Thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth; and it will come to pass, that whosoever findeth me will slay me.’" 4.15. And the LORD said unto him: ‘Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.’ And the LORD set a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should smite him." 4.16. And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden." 4.17. And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bore Enoch; and he builded a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son Enoch." 4.18. And unto Enoch was born Irad; and Irad begot Mehujael; and Mehujael begot Methushael; and Methushael begot Lamech." 4.19. And Lamech took unto him two wives; the name of one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah." 4.20. And Adah bore Jabal; he was the father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle." 4.21. And his brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all such as handle the harp and pipe." 4.22. And Zillah, she also bore Tubal-cain, the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron; and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah." 4.23. And Lamech said unto his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech; For I have slain a man for wounding me, And a young man for bruising me;" 4.25. And Adam knew his wife again; and she bore a son, and called his name Seth: ‘for God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him.’" 4.26. And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh; then began men to call upon the name of the LORD." 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 6.5. And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart." 6.7. And the LORD said: ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth Me that I have made them.’" 6.8. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD." 6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God." 6.12. And God saw the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth. ." 6.13. And God said unto Noah: ‘The end of all flesh is come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth." 6.14. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; with rooms shalt thou make the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch." 6.15. And this is how thou shalt make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits." 6.16. A light shalt thou make to the ark, and to a cubit shalt thou finish it upward; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it." 6.17. And I, behold, I do bring the flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; every thing that is in the earth shall perish." 6.18. But I will establish My covet with thee; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons’wives with thee." 6.19. And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female." 6.20. of the fowl after their kind, and of the cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive." 6.21. And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.’" 6.22. Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he." 9.8. And God spoke unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying:" 9.9. ’As for Me, behold, I establish My covet with you, and with your seed after you;" 9.10. and with every living creature that is with you, the fowl, the cattle, and every beast of the earth with you; of all that go out of the ark, even every beast of the earth." 9.11. And I will establish My covet with you; neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of the flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.’" 9.12. And God said: ‘This is the token of the covet which I make between Me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:" 9.13. I have set My bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covet between Me and the earth." 9.14. And it shall come to pass, when I bring clouds over the earth, and the bow is seen in the cloud," 9.15. that I will remember My covet, which is between Me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh." 9.16. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covet between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth.’" 9.17. And God said unto Noah: ‘This is the token of the covet which I have established between Me and all flesh that is upon the earth.’" 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 9.21. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent." 9.22. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without."
2. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 8.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.4. הֵם הִמְלִיכוּ וְלֹא מִמֶּנִּי הֵשִׂירוּ וְלֹא יָדָעְתִּי כַּסְפָּם וּזְהָבָם עָשׂוּ לָהֶם עֲצַבִּים לְמַעַן יִכָּרֵת׃ 8.4. They have set up kings, but not from Me, they have made princes, and I knew it not; of their silver and their gold have they made them idols, that they may be cut off."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 94 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.20, 31.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.7. כִּי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִמְאָסוּן אִישׁ אֱלִילֵי כַסְפּוֹ וֶאֱלִילֵי זְהָבוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לָכֶם יְדֵיכֶם חֵטְא׃ 2.20. In that day a man shall cast away His idols of silver, and his idols of gold, Which they made for themselves to worship, To the moles and to the bats;" 31.7. For in that day they shall cast away every man his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, Which your own hands have made unto you for a sin."
5. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.4. בְּכֶסֶף וּבְזָהָב יְיַפֵּהוּ בְּמַסְמְרוֹת וּבְמַקָּבוֹת יְחַזְּקוּם וְלוֹא יָפִיק׃ 10.4. They deck it with silver and with gold, They fasten it with nails and with hammers, that it move not."
6. Hesiod, Works And Days, 110-201, 109 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

109. Filling both land and sea, while every day
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 7.19 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.19. כַּסְפָּם בַּחוּצוֹת יַשְׁלִיכוּ וּזְהָבָם לְנִדָּה יִהְיֶה כַּסְפָּם וּזְהָבָם לֹא־יוּכַל לְהַצִּילָם בְּיוֹם עֶבְרַת יְהוָה נַפְשָׁם לֹא יְשַׂבֵּעוּ וּמֵעֵיהֶם לֹא יְמַלֵּאוּ כִּי־מִכְשׁוֹל עֲוֺנָם הָיָה׃ 7.19. They shall cast their silver in the streets, and their gold shall be as an unclean thing; their silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of the LORD; they shall not satisfy their souls, neither fill their bowels; because it hath been the stumblingblock of their iniquity."
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 8.1-8.8, 19.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.1. And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all 8.2. colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they 8.3. were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjaza taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, 'Armaros the resolving of enchantments, Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations, Ezeqeel the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiel the signs of the earth, Shamsiel the signs of the sun, and Sariel the course of the moon. And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven . . . 19.1. And Uriel said to me: 'Here shall stand the angels who have connected themselves with women, and their spirits assuming many different forms are defiling mankind and shall lead them astray into sacrificing to demons as gods, (here shall they stand,) till the day of the great judgement in
9. Anon., Jubilees, 7.20-7.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.20. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lûbâr; Sêdêqêtêlĕbâb fronting the mountain on its east; and Na’êlâtamâ’ûk on the south; ’Adatanêsês towards the west. 7.21. And these are the sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad--this (son) was born two years after the flood--and Lud, and Aram.
10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 28.1-28.2, 28.5-28.7, 28.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

28.1. He that takes vengeance will suffer vengeance from the Lord,and he will firmly establish his sins. 28.1. In proportion to the fuel for the fire, so will be the burning,and in proportion to the obstinacy of strife will be the burning;in proportion to the strength of the man will be his anger,and in proportion to his wealth he will heighten his wrath. 28.2. Forgive your neighbor the wrong he has done,and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray. 28.2. for its yoke is a yoke of iron,and its fetters are fetters of bronze; 28.5. If he himself, being flesh, maintains wrath,who will make expiation for his sins? 28.6. Remember the end of your life, and cease from enmity,remember destruction and death, and be true to the commandments. 28.7. Remember the commandments, and do not be angry with your neighbor;remember the covet of the Most High, and overlook ignorance. 28.9. and a sinful man will disturb friends and inject enmity among those who are at peace.
12. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 13.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13.10. But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of mens hands,gold and silver fashioned with skill,and likenesses of animals,or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 44 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

44. for every part of the earth was under water, so that it was wholly buried and carried away, and the world was mutilated of huge portions, and appeared in all its wholeness and integrity, fearful as it is to say or even to imagine such a thing, to be utterly crippled and destroyed. And likewise the air, with the exception of that small portion which is about the moon, was wholly obscured, being overcast by the violence and impetuosity of the water which overran all the region belonging to it with irresistible might.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 12 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Now the first example of an enemy placed directly in front of one is derived from what is said in the case of Cain, that "he went out from the face of God, and dwelt in the land of Nod, in the front of Eden." Now Nod being interpreted means commotion, and Eden means delight. The one therefore is a symbol of wickedness agitating the soul, and the other of virtue which creates for the soul a state of tranquillity and happiness, not meaning by happiness that effeminate luxury which is derived from the indulgence of the irrational passion of pleasure, but a joy free from toil and free from hardship, which is enjoyed with great tranquillity. 12. in this manner those who are skilful in the art of medicine, save their patients; for they do not think it advisable to give food before they have removed the causes of their diseases; for while the diseases remain, food is useless, being the pernicious materials of their sufferings. III.
15. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.56 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 154, 151 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

151. For instance, the name of dog is beyond all question a homonymy, inasmuch as it comprehends many dissimilar things which are signified by that appellation. For there is a terrestrial barking animal called a dog; there is also a marine monster with the same name: there is also the star in heaven, which the poets calls the autumnal star, because it rises at the beginning of autumn, for the sake of ripening the fruits and bringing them to perfection. Moreover, there were the philosophers who came from the cynic school. Aristippus and Diogenes; and other too who chose to practise the same mode of life, an incalculable number of men.
17. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 28.3-28.4 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18. New Testament, Hebrews, 10.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.30. For we know him who said, "Vengeance belongs to me," says the Lord, "I will repay." Again, "The Lord will judge his people.
19. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 34.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34.8. וְכָל הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּךָ וגו' (בראשית ח, יז), אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן הַוְצֵא כְּתִיב הַיְצֵא קְרִי. וְשָׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא בַתֵּבָה. וּפָרוּ בָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא בַתֵּבָה. (בראשית ח, יט): כָּל הַחַיָּה [ו] כָל הָרֶמֶשׂ וגו', כֹּל רוֹמֵשׁ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ רוֹמֵשׂ מָלֵא פְּרַט לְכִלְאָיִם. לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתֵיהֶם, פְּרַט לְסִירוּס. עַל שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים נִצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ, עַל עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, וְעַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת, וְעַל שְׁפִיכוּת דָּמִים, וְעַל בִּרְכַּת הַשֵּׁם, וְעַל הַדִּין, וְעַל הַגָּזֵל, וְעַל אֵבָר מִן הֶחָי. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַדָּם מִן הֶחָי. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַכִּלְאָיִם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַכְּשָׁפִים. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָא אוֹמֵר אַף עַל הַסֵּרוּס. אָמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי עַל כָּל הָאָמוּר בַּפָּרָשָׁה נִצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ (דברים יח, י): לֹא יִמָּצֵא בְךָ מַעֲבִיר בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ וגו', וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (דברים יח, יב): כִּי תוֹעֲבַת ה' כָּל עוֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה. 34.8. Bring forth (hayetze) with you every living thing that is with you…that they may swarm in the earth (Gen. 8:18). R. Yudan said: havtze is written, but it is read hayetze: that they may swarm in the earth - but not in the Ark. And be fruitful and multiply upon the earth - but not in the Ark. 'Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, whatsoever moves (kol romes) upon the earth (Gen 8:19). R. Aivu said: Kol romes is written fully [with a vav] - it excludes kilayim [mixing species]. After their families: this excludes emasculation. The children of Noah were enjoined concerning seven tings: Idolatry, incest, murder, cursing the Divine Name [blasphemy], civil law, and a limb torn from a living animal. Rabbi Chanina ben Gamliel says: also concerning blood from a living animal. Rabbi Eleazar says: also against mixing species. Rabbi Shime'on ben Yochai says: also against witchcraft. Rabbi Yocha ben Beroka says: also against emasculation. Rabbi Assi said: The children of Noah were ordered regarding everything stated in the sentence: 'There shall not be found among you any one that makes his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, etc.' (Deut. 18:10) and afterwards 'because it is an abomination for Ad-nai all that do this.' (Deut. 18:12)"
20. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. אם תלמיד חכם הוא אין צריך אמר אביי אף תלמיד חכם מיבעי ליה למימר חד פסוקא דרחמי כגון (תהלים לא, ו) בידך אפקיד רוחי פדיתה אותי ה' אל אמת:,א"ר לוי בר חמא אמר ר"ש בן לקיש לעולם ירגיז אדם יצר טוב על יצר הרע שנא' (תהלים ד, ה) רגזו ואל תחטאו. אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר אמרו בלבבכם אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יקרא קריאת שמע שנאמר על משכבכם אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יזכור לו יום המיתה שנאמר ודומו סלה.,וא"ר לוי בר חמא אמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (שמות כד, יב) ואתנה לך את לוחות האבן והתורה והמצוה אשר כתבתי להורותם לוחות אלו עשרת הדברות תורה זה מקרא והמצוה זו משנה אשר כתבתי אלו נביאים וכתובים להורותם זה גמרא מלמד שכולם נתנו למשה מסיני:,א"ר יצחק כל הקורא ק"ש על מטתו כאלו אוחז חרב של שתי פיות בידו שנאמר (תהלים קמט, ו) רוממות אל בגרונם וחרב פיפיות בידם מאי משמע אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אשי מרישא דענינא דכתיב (תהלים קמט, ה) יעלזו חסידים בכבוד ירננו על משכבותם וכתיב בתריה רוממות אל בגרונם וחרב פיפיות בידם.,ואמר רבי יצחק כל הקורא קריאת שמע על מטתו מזיקין בדילין הימנו שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) ובני רשף יגביהו עוף ואין עוף אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי כג, ה) התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו ואין רשף אלא מזיקין שנאמר (דברים לב, כד) מזי רעב ולחומי רשף וקטב מרירי.,אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש כל העוסק בתורה יסורין בדילין הימנו שנאמר ובני רשף יגביהו עוף ואין עוף אלא תורה שנאמר התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו ואין רשף אלא יסורין שנאמר מזי רעב ולחומי רשף,אמר ליה רבי יוחנן הא אפילו תינוקות של בית רבן יודעין אותו שנאמר (שמות טו, כו) ויאמר אם שמוע תשמע לקול ה' אלהיך והישר בעיניו תעשה והאזנת למצותיו ושמרת כל חקיו כל המחלה אשר שמתי במצרים לא אשים עליך כי אני ה' רופאך אלא כל שאפשר לו לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק הקב"ה מביא עליו יסורין מכוערין ועוכרין אותו שנא' (תהלים לט, ג) נאלמתי דומיה החשיתי מטוב וכאבי נעכר ואין טוב אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ד, ב) כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו.,אמר רבי זירא ואיתימא רבי חנינא בר פפא בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם מוכר חפץ לחבירו מוכר עצב ולוקח שמח אבל הקב"ה אינו כן נתן להם תורה לישראל ושמח שנא' כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו.,אמר רבא ואיתימא רב חסדא אם רואה אדם שיסורין באין עליו יפשפש במעשיו שנא' (איכה ג, מ) נחפשה דרכינו ונחקורה ונשובה עד ה' פשפש ולא מצא יתלה בבטול תורה שנאמר (תהלים צד, יב) אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,ואם תלה ולא מצא בידוע שיסורין של אהבה הם שנאמר (משלי ג, יב) כי את אשר יאהב ה' יוכיח.,אמר רבא אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא כל שהקב"ה חפץ בו מדכאו ביסורין שנאמר (ישעיהו נג, י) וה' חפץ דכאו החלי,יכול אפילו לא קבלם מאהבה תלמוד לומר (ישעיהו נג, י) אם תשים אשם נפשו מה אשם לדעת אף יסורין לדעת,ואם קבלם מה שכרו (ישעיהו נג, י) יראה זרע יאריך ימים ולא עוד אלא שתלמודו מתקיים בידו שנא' (ישעיהו נג, י) וחפץ ה' בידו יצלח,פליגי בה רבי יעקב בר אידי ורבי אחא בר חנינא חד אמר אלו הם יסורין של אהבה כל שאין בהן בטול תורה שנאמר (תהלים צד, יב) אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,וחד אמר אלו הם יסורין של אהבה כל שאין בהן בטול תפלה שנאמר (תהלים סו, כ) ברוך אלהים אשר לא הסיר תפלתי וחסדו מאתי,אמר להו רבי אבא בריה דר' חייא בר אבא הכי אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אלו ואלו יסורין של אהבה הן שנאמר כי את אשר יאהב ה' יוכיח,אלא מה ת"ל (תהלים צד, יב) ומתורתך תלמדנו אל תקרי תלמדנו אלא תלמדנו דבר זה מתורתך תלמדנו,ק"ו משן ועין מה שן ועין שהן אחד מאבריו של אדם עבד יוצא בהן לחרות יסורין שממרקין כל גופו של אדם על אחת כמה וכמה,והיינו דרבי שמעון בן לקיש דאמר רשב"ל נאמר ברית במלח ונאמר ברית ביסורין נאמר ברית במלח דכתיב (ויקרא ב, יג) ולא תשבית מלח ברית ונאמר ברית ביסורין דכתיב (דברים כח, סט) אלה דברי הברית מה ברית האמור במלח מלח ממתקת את הבשר אף ברית האמור ביסורין יסורין ממרקין כל עונותיו של אדם:,תניא רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אומר שלש מתנות טובות נתן הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל וכולן לא נתנן אלא ע"י יסורין אלו הן תורה וארץ ישראל והעולם הבא,תורה מנין שנאמר אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,ארץ ישראל דכתיב (דברים ח, ה) כי כאשר ייסר איש את בנו ה' אלהיך מיסרך וכתיב בתריה כי ה' אלהיך מביאך אל ארץ טובה,העולם הבא דכתיב (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור ודרך חיים תוכחות מוסר.,תני תנא קמיה דר' יוחנן כל העוסק בתורה ובגמילות חסדים 5a. bIf one is a Torah scholar, he need notrecite iShemaon his bed since he is always engaged in the study of Torah and will likely fall asleep engrossed in matters of Torah. bAbaye said: Even a Torah scholar must recite at least one verse of prayer, such as: “Into Your hand I trust my spirit; You have redeemed me, Lord, God of truth”(Psalms 31:6).,Incidental to the verse, “Tremble, and do not sin,” the Gemara mentions that bRabbi Levi bar Ḥama saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: One should always incite his good inclination against his evil inclination,i.e., that one must constantly struggle so that his evil inclination does not lead him to transgression, bas it is stated: "Tremble, and do not sin."br bIfone succeeds and bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent,but bifhe does bnotsucceed in subduing it, he should bstudy Torah,as alluded to in bthe verse: “Say to your heart.” br bIfhe bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent; if not, he should recite iShema /i,which contains the acceptance of the yoke of God, and the concept of reward and punishment, bas it is statedin the verse: b“Upon your bed,”which alludes to iShema /i, where it says: “When you lie down.” br bIfhe bsubdueshis evil inclination, bexcellent; if not, he should remind himself of the day of death,whose silence is alluded to in the continuation of bthe verse: “And be still, Selah.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:God said to Moses, “Ascend to me on the mountain and be there, band I will give you the stone tablets and the Torah and the mitzva that I have written that you may teach them”(Exodus 24:12), meaning that God revealed to Moses not only the Written Torah, but all of Torah, as it would be transmitted through the generations. br bThe “tablets” are the ten commandmentsthat were written on the tablets of the Covet, br bthe “Torah” is the five books of Moses. br bThe “mitzva” is the Mishna,which includes explanations for the mitzvot and how they are to be performed. br b“That I have written” refers to the Prophets and Writings,written with divine inspiration. br b“That you may teach them” refers to the Talmud,which explains the Mishna. brThese explanations are the foundation for the rulings of practical ihalakha /i. This verse bteachesthat ballaspects of Torah bwere given toMoses bfrom Sinai. /b,The Gemara continues its treatment of the recitation of iShemaupon one’s bed. bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who recites iShemaon his bed, it is as if he holds a double-edged sword,guarding him from all evil, bas it is stated: “High praises of God in their mouths, and a double-edged sword in their hands”(Psalms 149:6). The Gemara asks: bFrom where is it inferredthat this verse from Psalms refers to the recitation of iShema /i? bMar Zutra, and some say Rav Ashi, said:We derive it bfrom the precedingverse, bas it is written: “Let the pious exult in glory; let them joyously sing upon their beds.”The praise of God from one’s bed is the recitation of iShema /i. bAnd it is written thereafter: “High praises of God in their mouths, and a double-edged sword in their hands.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who recites iShemaupon his bed, demons stay away from him.This is alluded to, bas it is stated:“But man is born into trouble, band the sparks [ ireshef] fly [ iuf] upward”(Job 5:7). The verse is explained: The word bfly [ iuf]means bnothing other than Torah,as Torah is difficult to grasp and easy to lose, like something that floats away, bas it is stated: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone;for riches certainly make themselves wings, like an eagle that flies into the heavens” (Proverbs 23:5). The word b“sparks”means bnothing other than demons, as it is stated: “Wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the sparks [ ireshef /i] and bitter destruction [ iketev meriri /i],and the teeth of beasts I will send upon them, with the venom of crawling things of the dust” (Deuteronomy 32:24). Here we see iresheflisted along with iketev meriri /i, both of which are understood by the Sages to be names of demons.,Regarding this unclear verse, bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: If one engages in Torahstudy, bsuffering stays away from him, as it is stated: “And the sparks fly upward.”And bflymeans bnothing other than Torah, bas it is stated: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone;and sparksmeans bnothing other than suffering, as it is stated: “Wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the sparks,”equating devouring sparks with wasting hunger, as both are types of suffering. From here, we derive that through Torah, fly, one is able to distance himself, upward, from suffering, sparks., bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: Even schoolchildren,who learn only the Written Torah, bknow thisconcept bas it is stated: “And He said you shall surely hear the voice of the Lord your God, and what is upright in His eyes you shall do and you shall listen to His mitzvot and guard His statutes; any disease that I have placed upon Egypt I will not place upon you for I am the Lord your healer”(Exodus 15:26). bRather,one must interpret the verse: bAnyone who is able to engage in Torahstudy byet does not engagein that study, not only does bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,fail to protect him, but He bbrings upon him hideous afflictions,that embarrass him band trouble him, as it is stated: “I was mute with silence; I was silent from good, and my pain was strong”(Psalms 39:3). The word bgoodmeans bnothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “For I have given you a good portion, My Torah, do not abandon it”(Proverbs 4:2). The verse should be understood: “I have been silent from the study of Torah, and my pain was strong.”,With regard to the verse: “For I have given you a good portion,” bRabbi Zeira, and some say Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa, said: Come and see how the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, are unlike the characteristics of flesh and blood. It is characteristic of flesh and blood that when one sells an object to anotherperson, bthe seller grievesthe loss of his possession band the buyer rejoices. With regard to the Holy One, Blessed be He,however, bthis is not so. He gave the Torah to Israel and rejoiced, as it is stated: “For I have given you a good portion, My Torah, do not abandon it.”A good portion is understood as a good purchase; although God sold Torah to Israel, He rejoices in the sale and praises the object before its new owner (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto).,Previously, the Gemara discussed suffering that results from one’s transgressions. The Gemara shifts the focus and discusses suffering that does not result from one’s transgressions and the suffering of the righteous. bRava, and some say Rav Ḥisda, said: If a person sees that suffering has befallen him, he should examine his actions.Generally, suffering comes about as punishment for one’s transgressions, bas it is stated: “We will search and examine our ways, and return to God”(Lamentations 3:40). bIf he examinedhis ways and bfound notransgression for which that suffering is appropriate, bhe may attributehis suffering bto derelictionin the study bof Torah.God punishes an individual for dereliction in the study of Torah in order to emphasize the gravity of the issue, bas it is stated: “Happy is the man whom You punish, Lord, and teach out of Your law”(Psalms 94:12). This verse teaches us that his suffering will cause him to return to Your law., bAnd if he did attributehis suffering to dereliction in the study of Torah, band did not findthis to be so, bhe may be confident that these are afflictions of love, as it is stated: “For whom the Lord loves, He rebukes,as does a father the son in whom he delights” (Proverbs 3:12).,So too, bRava saidthat bRav Seḥora saidthat bRav Huna said: Anyone in whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, delights, He oppresses him with suffering, as it is stated: “Yet in whom the Lord delights, He oppresses him with disease;to see if his soul would offer itself in guilt, that he might see his children, lengthen his days, and that the desire of the Lord might prosper by his hand” (Isaiah 53:10). This verse illustrates that in whomever God delights, he afflicts with illness.,I bmighthave thought that God delights in him even bif he does not accepthis suffering bwith love. Therefore the verse teaches: “If his soul would offer itself in guilt.” Just as a guilt-offering is brought knowingly,as it is one of the sacrifices offered willingly, without coercion, bso toohis bsufferingmust be accepted bknowingly. /b, bAnd if one acceptsthat suffering with love, bwhat is his reward?As the second part of the verse states: b“That he might see his children, lengthen his days.” Moreover,in addition to these earthly rewards, bhisTorah bstudy will endureand his Torah study will be successful, bas it is stated: “The purpose of the Lord,”the Torah, the revelation of God’s will, b“might prosper by his hand.” /b,With regard to the acceptance of affliction with love and what exactly this entails, bRabbi Ya’akov bar Idi and Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina disagree. Oneof them bsaid: Afflictions of love are any that do not cause derelictionin the study bof Torah,i.e., any which do not afflict his body to the extent that he is unable to study Torah, bas it is stated: “Happy is the man whom You afflict, Lord, and teach from Your Torah.”Afflictions of love are when You “teach from Your Torah.”, bAnd one said: Afflictions of love are any that do not cause derelictionin the recitation bof prayer, as it is stated: “Blessed is God Who did not turn away my prayer”(Psalms 66:20). Despite his suffering, the afflicted is still capable of praying to God., bRabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said:My father, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: Both,even afflictions that cause dereliction in the study of Torah and those that cause dereliction in the recitation of prayer, bare afflictions of love,as with regard to one who suffers without transgression bit is stated: “For whom He loves, He rebukes,”and inability to study Torah and to pray are among his afflictions., bWhat then,is the meaning when bthe verse states: “And teach him from Your Torah”? Do not read and teachto mean and bteach him /b, brather, and teach us /b. bYou teach usthe value of bthisaffliction bfrom Your Torah. /b,This is taught through ban ia fortioriinference fromthe law concerning bthe tooth and eyeof a slave: bThe tooth and eye areeach ba single limb of a personand if his master damages either, bthe slave thereby obtains his freedom; suffering that cleanses a person’s entire body all the more sothat one attains freedom, atonement, from his sins., bAnd that isthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish, as Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:The word bcovet is used with regard to salt, andthe word bcovet is used with regard to afflictions.The word bcovet is used with regard to salt, as it is written: “The salt of the covetwith your God bshould not be excludedfrom your meal-offering; with all your sacrifices you must offer salt” (Leviticus 2:13). bAndthe word bcovet is used with regard to afflictions, as it is written: “These are the words of the covet”(Deuteronomy 28:69). bJust as,in bthe covet mentioned with regard to salt, the salt sweetensthe taste of bthe meatand renders it edible, bso tooin bthe covet mentioned with regard to suffering, the suffering cleanses a person’s transgressions,purifying him for a more sublime existence.,Additionally, bit was taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to affliction: bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Israel three precious gifts, all of which were given only by means of suffering,which purified Israel so that they may merit to receive them. These gifts are: bTorah, Eretz Yisrael, and the World-to-Come. /b, bFrom whereis it derived that bTorahis only acquired by means of suffering? bAs it is said: “Happy is the man whom You afflict, Lord,”after which it is said: b“And teach from Your Torah.” /b, bEretz Yisrael, as it is written: “As a man rebukes his son, so the Lord your God rebukes you”(Deuteronomy 8:5), band it is written thereafter: “For the Lord your God will bring you to a good land.” /b, bThe World-to-Come, as it is written: “For the mitzva is a lamp, the Torah is light, and the reproofs of instruction are the way of life”(Proverbs 6:23). One may arrive at the lamp of mitzva and the light of Torah that exists in the World-to-Come only by means of the reproofs of instruction in this world., bA itannataughtthe following ibaraita bbefore Rabbi Yoḥa: If one engages in Torah and acts of charity /b
21. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. בכל יום דנין את העדים בכינוי יכה יוסי את יוסי,נגמר הדין לא הורגין בכינוי אלא מוציאין כל אדם לחוץ שואלין את הגדול שביניהן ואומר לו אמור מה ששמעת בפירוש והוא אומר והדיינין עומדין על רגליהן וקורעין ולא מאחין,והשני אומר אף אני כמוהו והשלישי אומר אף אני כמוהו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא עד שיברך שם בשם,מנהני מילי אמר שמואל דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם וגו' בנקבו שם יומת,ממאי דהאי נוקב לישנא דברוכי הוא דכתיב (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ואזהרתיה מהכא (שמות כב, כז) אלהים לא תקלל,ואימא מיברז הוא דכתיב (מלכים ב יב, י) ויקב חור בדלתו ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים יב, ג) ואבדתם את שמם לא תעשון כן לה' אלהיכם,בעינא שם בשם וליכא,ואימא דמנח שני שמות אהדדי ובזע להו ההוא נוקב וחוזר ונוקב הוא ואימא דחייק שם אפומא דסכינא ובזע בה ההוא חורפא דסכינא הוא דקא בזע,אימא פרושי שמיה הוא דכתיב (במדבר א, יז) ויקח משה ואהרן את האנשים האלה אשר נקבו בשמות ואזהרתיה מהכא (דברים ו, יג) את ה' אלהיך תירא,חדא דבעינא שם בשם וליכא ועוד הויא ליה אזהרת עשה ואזהרת עשה לא שמה אזהרה,ואיבעית אימא אמר קרא (ויקרא כד, יא) ויקב ויקלל למימרא דנוקב קללה הוא,ודילמא עד דעבד תרוייהו לא סלקא דעתך דכתיב (ויקרא כד, יד) הוצא את המקלל ולא כתיב הוצא את הנוקב והמקלל שמע מינה חדא היא,תנו רבנן איש מה ת"ל איש איש לרבות את העובדי כוכבים שמוזהרין על ברכת השם כישראל ואינן נהרגין אלא בסייף שכל מיתה האמורה בבני נח אינה אלא בסייף,והא מהכא נפקא מהתם נפקא ה' זו ברכת השם,אמר ר' יצחק נפחא לא נצרכא אלא לרבותא הכינויין ואליבא דרבי מאיר,דתניא (ויקרא כד, טו) איש איש כי יקלל אלהיו ונשא חטאו מה תלמוד לומר והלא כבר נאמר (ויקרא כד, טז) ונוקב שם ה' מות יומת לפי שנאמר ונוקב שם מות יומת יכול לא יהא חייב אלא על שם המיוחד בלבד מניין לרבות כל הכינויין תלמוד לומר איש כי יקלל אלהיו מכל מקום דברי רבי מאיר,וחכמים אומרים על שם המיוחד במיתה ועל הכינויין באזהרה,ופליגא דרבי מיישא דאמר רבי מיישא בן נח שבירך את השם בכינויים לרבנן חייב,מאי טעמא דאמר קרא (ויקרא כד, טז) כגר כאזרח גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן בנקבו שם אבל עובד כוכבים אפילו בכינוי,ורבי מאיר האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח בסקילה אבל עובד כוכבים בסייף סלקא דעתך אמינא הואיל ואיתרבו איתרבו קמ"ל,ורבי יצחק נפחא אליבא דרבנן האי כגר כאזרח מאי עביד ליה גר ואזרח הוא דבעינן שם בשם אבל עובד כוכבים לא בעינן שם בשם,איש איש למה לי דיברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,תנו רבנן שבע מצות נצטוו בני נח דינין וברכת השם ע"ז גילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים וגזל ואבר מן החי 56a. bOn every dayof a blasphemer’s trial, when the judges bjudge the witnesses,i.e., interrogate the witnesses, they ask the witnesses to use ban appellationfor the name of God, so that they do not utter a curse of God’s name. Specifically, the witnesses would say: bLet Yosei smite Yosei,as the name Yosei has four letters in Hebrew, as does the Tetragrammaton.,When bthe judgment is over,and the court votes to deem the defendant guilty, bthey do not sentencehim bto death based onthe testimony of the witnesses in which they used ban appellationfor the name of God, without having ever heard the exact wording of the curse. bRather, they remove allthe bpeoplewho are not required to be there from the court, so that the curse is not heard publicly, and the judges binterrogate the eldest ofthe witnesses, band say to him: Say what you heard explicitly. And he saysexactly what he heard. bAnd the judges stand on their feet and make a tearin their garments, as an act of mourning for the desecration of the honor of God. bAnd they do notever fully bstitchit back together again., bAnd the secondwitness bsays: I tooheard bas hedid, but he does not repeat the curse explicitly. bAnd the thirdwitness, in the event that there is one, bsays: I tooheard bas hedid. In this manner, the repetition of the invective sentence is limited to what is absolutely necessary., strongGEMARA: /strong The Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: A blasphemer is not liable bunless he blesses,a euphemism for curses, the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, e.g., by saying: Let such and such a name strike such and such a name.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where is this matterderived? bShmuel says:It is derived from that bwhich the verse states: “And he who blasphemes [ ivenokev /i] the nameof the Lord shall be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him; the convert as well as the homeborn, bwhen he blasphemes [ ibenokvo /i] the name, he shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16). It is derived from the repetition of the phrase “blasphemes the name” that the reference is to cursing the name of God with the name of God.,The Gemara asks: bFrom whereis it derived bthat thisword inokevis a term for blessing,i.e., cursing? The Gemara answers that it is derived from the statement of Balaam, who was sent by Balak to curse the Jewish people: b“How shall I curse [ iekkov /i] whom God has not cursed?”(Numbers 23:8). bAndthe bprohibitionagainst cursing God is derived bfrom here: “You shall not curse God”(Exodus 22:27).,The Gemara asks: bBut saythat perhaps the meaning of inokev bisnot cursing, but rather bmaking a hole, as it is written: “And made a hole [ ivayyikkov /i] in its lid”(II Kings 12:10). According to this, the word inokevis referring to one who makes a hole and damages the written name of God. bAndthe bprohibitionagainst doing so is derived bfrom here: “And you shall destroy their nameout of that place. bYou shall not do so to the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 12:3–4).,The Gemara answers: It is derived from the repetition of inokevthat for one to be liable, it is bnecessarythat his transgression involve the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, bandsuch a transgression is bnotpossible if the reference is to making a hole.,The Gemara challenges: bBut say thatsuch a transgression is possible, as one can bplace twowritten bnamesof God, bone on top of the other, and tearthrough bthemat once. The Gemara explains: bThatwould be defined as bmaking a hole and again making a hole,not making a hole in one name by means of another name. The Gemara asks: bBut say thatone can betchthe bnameof God bon the point of a knife and cutthrough another name bwith it.The Gemara answers: In bthatcase, bit is the point of the knife that is cutting,not the name of God.,The Gemara asks: bSaythat inokevmeans the butterance of theineffable bname ofGod. bAs it is written: “And Moses and Aaron took these men that are pointed out [ inikkevu /i] by name”(Numbers 1:17). bAndthe bprohibitionto do so is derived bfrom here: “You shall fear the Lord, your God”(Deuteronomy 6:13).,The Gemara answers: bOneanswer is bthatfor one to be liable, it is bnecessarythat his transgression involve the bnameof God bwiththe bnameof God, bandsuch a transgression is bnotpossible if the reference is to uttering the ineffable name of God. bFurthermore,the prohibition derived from the verse “You shall fear the Lord, your God” bis a prohibitionstated as ba positive mitzva, and a prohibitionstated as ba positive mitzva is not considered a prohibition. /b,The Gemara presents an alternative proof that inokevis referring to cursing: bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bthe verse states: “Andthe son of the Israelite woman bblasphemed [ ivayyikkov /i]the name band cursed”(Leviticus 24:11). bThat is to say thatthe meaning of inokevisto bcurse. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthis verse does not prove that the meaning of inokevis to curse; rather, it indicates that one is not liable to be executed bunless he does both,i.e., both inokevand cursing God? The Gemara answers: This shall bnot enter your mind, as it is written: “Bring forth the one who cursed… /band stone him” (Leviticus 24:14), band it is not written: Bring forth the inokevand one who cursed. Conclude from itthat bit is oneact and not two.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin” (Leviticus 24:15), that the verse could have stated: bOne [ iish /i]who curses his God. bWhymust bthe verse state: “Anyone [ iish ish /i]”?It is bto include the gentiles, who are prohibited from blessing,i.e., cursing, bthe nameof God, just blike Jewsare. bAnd they are executedfor this transgression bby the sword alone, as all deathpenalties bstated with regard to the descendants of Noah are by the sword alone. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut is this ihalakha bderived from here?Rather, bit is derived from there:“And the Lord God commanded the man” (Genesis 2:16), as is stated in a ibaraitathat will soon be quoted at length: b“The Lord,” thisis referring to bthe blessing,i.e., cursing, bof the nameof God. This verse concerns Adam, the first man, and is therefore binding on all of humanity., bRav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa says:The verse “anyone who curses his God” bis necessary only to includegentiles who curse God using bthe appellationsfor the name of God, rather than mentioning the ineffable name, bandthis is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Meir. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhymust bthe verse state: “Anyone who curses his God shall bear his sin”? But isn’t it already stated: “And he who blasphemes the name of the Lord shall be put to death”(Leviticus 24:16)? Rather, bsince it is stated: “And he who blasphemes the nameof the Lord bshall be put to death,”one bmighthave thought that one bwill be liable only forcursing bthe ineffable nameof God. bFrom whereis it derived that the verse bincludesone who curses bany of the appellationsas well? bThe verse states: “Anyone who curses his God,”to indicate that one is liable to be executed bin any case.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b, bAnd the Rabbis say: Forcursing bthe ineffable nameof God, one is punished bby death, and forcursing bthe appellations,one is liable to receive lashes bforviolating ba prohibition. /b,The Gemara comments: bAndRav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, who holds that according to the Rabbis, gentiles are not liable for cursing appellations for the name of God, bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Meyasha. As Rav Meyasha says: A descendant of Noah who blessed God byone of the bappellations is liableto be executed even baccording tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis. /b, bWhat is the reason?It is bbecause the verse states: “The convert as well as the homeborn,when he blasphemes the name, he shall be put to death” (Leviticus 24:16), from which it is derived that bit isonly in the case of ba convert or a homebornJew bthat we requirethe condition: b“When he blasphemes the name,”i.e., he is liable to be executed only if he curses the ineffable name. bBut a gentileis liable to be executed beven due tomerely cursing ban appellation. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rabbi Meir do with thispart of the verse: b“The convert as well as the homeborn”?What does he derive from it? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Meir derives that ba convert or a homebornJew is liable to be executed bby stoningfor this transgression, bbut a gentileis executed bby the sword.This exclusion is necessary as otherwise it might benter your mind to saythat bsincegentiles bare includedin the ihalakhotof this verse, bthey are includedin all the ihalakhotof blasphemy. Therefore the verse bteaches usthat they are not stoned.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what does Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa do with thispart of the verse: b“The convert as well as the homeborn,” according tothe opinion bof the Rabbis,since Rav Yitzḥak Nappaḥa holds that the Rabbis do not deem either a Jew or a gentile liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: He derives that bit isspecifically with regard to ba convert and a homebornJew bthat we requirethe condition that he curse ba nameof God bby a nameof God; bbutwith regard to ba gentile, we do not requirethat he curse ba nameof God bby a nameof God in order for him to be liable.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed the inclusive term b“anyonewho curses his God,” according to the opinions that do not derive from it that a gentile is liable for cursing an appellation of God’s name? The Gemara answers: No ihalakhais derived from it; it is not a superfluous term, as bthe Torah spoke in the language of people. /b,§ Since the ihalakhotof the descendants of Noah have been mentioned, a full discussion of the Noahide mitzvot is presented. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe descendants of Noah,i.e., all of humanity, bwere commandedto observe bseven mitzvot:The mitzva of establishing courts of bjudgment; andthe prohibition against bblessing,i.e., cursing, bthe nameof God; and the prohibition of bidol worship;and the prohibition against bforbidden sexual relations; andthe prohibition of bbloodshed; andthe prohibition of brobbery; andthe prohibition against eating ba limb from a livinganimal.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
adam, fatherhood of seth Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156, 160
adam Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 396
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
asael, azael, as culture-hero Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
babel, tower of babel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21, 23
behavior, aberrant Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 119
behavior, correct Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 119
book of the watchers, and greco-roman culture Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
border crossing\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21
cain, cainites Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cain Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 396
cainites as, fallen angels as Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cainites as Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
civilization, as decline Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
civilization, origins of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
contradiction Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 158
cosmetics, cosmetology, and promiscuity Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
cosmetics, cosmetology, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
covenant, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
covenant Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
curse, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
cycle, patriarchal, abrahamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
cycle, patriarchal, cain Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
cycle, patriarchal, noahic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
didymus, incest and polygamy (cain) Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 158
dispersion\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
enoch Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156, 160
enosh Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156, 157, 160
eschatological Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
etiology\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 22
eusebius of emesa, cain Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 157
exile\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
family (lineage) Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 160
flood, the Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 396
free will Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 157, 158
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
genesis\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21, 22, 23
glory, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
ham Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 396
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
herod\u2002, primeval history Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21
holiness Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 396
holy war, division of humanity Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 119
holy war Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 119
humility, cains progeny Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 158
identity, construction of identity Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21, 22, 23
identity, identify formation Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
inclination Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
itinerary\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
journey, earthly journey Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
justice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
knowledge, human and divine Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
lemma, main/primary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, and female vanity Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, and idolatry Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, and violence Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, as angelic teaching Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
metalworking, as invention of cainites Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
motifs, in ps' Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 119
naid Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156, 157, 158
natural law Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 158, 160, 161
noachite commandments Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
noah Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 396
nobility Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 396
nomad\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
nomadic life\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
non-literal interpretation, name-interpretation, onomastic Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156
patriarch\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
pentateuch Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 10
resurrection Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
seth Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 156, 157, 160
spirit, truth, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
sword Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
testimonia Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 159
text-world, correlation Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 160
text-world, defamiliarization Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 160
textual transmission, premodern Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
torah, and enochic literature Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
transience\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 23
traveler, group Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 21, 22, 23
tree, life, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
tubal-cain Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
violence, antediluvian Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 38
wickedness, guarding yourself from all Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
wickedness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
wisdom Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 735
yahweh, as agent in tamid psalms Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 119
yahweh, ruler motif Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 119