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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 38.11


וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה לְתָמָר כַּלָּתוֹ שְׁבִי אַלְמָנָה בֵית־אָבִיךְ עַד־יִגְדַּל שֵׁלָה בְנִי כִּי אָמַר פֶּן־יָמוּת גַּם־הוּא כְּאֶחָיו וַתֵּלֶךְ תָּמָר וַתֵּשֶׁב בֵּית אָבִיהָ׃Then said Judah to Tamar his daughter-in-law: ‘Remain a widow in thy father’s house, till Shelah my son be grown up’; for he said: ‘Lest he also die, like his brethren.’ And Tamar went and dwelt in her father’s house.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 38.1-38.10, 38.12-38.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

38.1. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא וַיֵּרֶד יְהוּדָה מֵאֵת אֶחָיו וַיֵּט עַד־אִישׁ עֲדֻלָּמִי וּשְׁמוֹ חִירָה׃ 38.1. וַיֵּרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיָּמֶת גַּם־אֹתוֹ׃ 38.2. וַיַּרְא־שָׁם יְהוּדָה בַּת־אִישׁ כְּנַעֲנִי וּשְׁמוֹ שׁוּעַ וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ׃ 38.2. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוּדָה אֶת־גְּדִי הָעִזִּים בְּיַד רֵעֵהוּ הָעֲדֻלָּמִי לָקַחַת הָעֵרָבוֹן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה וְלֹא מְצָאָהּ׃ 38.3. וְאַחַר יָצָא אָחִיו אֲשֶׁר עַל־יָדוֹ הַשָּׁנִי וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ זָרַח׃ 38.3. וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ עֵר׃ 38.4. וַתַּהַר עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ אוֹנָן׃ 38.5. וַתֹּסֶף עוֹד וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁלָה וְהָיָה בִכְזִיב בְּלִדְתָּהּ אֹתוֹ׃ 38.6. וַיִּקַּח יְהוּדָה אִשָּׁה לְעֵר בְּכוֹרוֹ וּשְׁמָהּ תָּמָר׃ 38.7. וַיְהִי עֵר בְּכוֹר יְהוּדָה רַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה וַיְמִתֵהוּ יְהוָה׃ 38.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה לְאוֹנָן בֹּא אֶל־אֵשֶׁת אָחִיךָ וְיַבֵּם אֹתָהּ וְהָקֵם זֶרַע לְאָחִיךָ׃ 38.9. וַיֵּדַע אוֹנָן כִּי לֹּא לוֹ יִהְיֶה הַזָּרַע וְהָיָה אִם־בָּא אֶל־אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו וְשִׁחֵת אַרְצָה לְבִלְתִּי נְתָן־זֶרַע לְאָחִיו׃ 38.12. וַיִּרְבּוּ הַיָּמִים וַתָּמָת בַּת־שׁוּעַ אֵשֶׁת־יְהוּדָה וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוּדָה וַיַּעַל עַל־גֹּזֲזֵי צֹאנוֹ הוּא וְחִירָה רֵעֵהוּ הָעֲדֻלָּמִי תִּמְנָתָה׃ 38.13. וַיֻּגַּד לְתָמָר לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה חָמִיךְ עֹלֶה תִמְנָתָה לָגֹז צֹאנוֹ׃ 38.14. וַתָּסַר בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתְּכַס בַּצָּעִיף וַתִּתְעַלָּף וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם אֲשֶׁר עַל־דֶּרֶךְ תִּמְנָתָה כִּי רָאֲתָה כִּי־גָדַל שֵׁלָה וְהִוא לֹא־נִתְּנָה לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 38.15. וַיִּרְאֶהָ יְהוּדָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לְזוֹנָה כִּי כִסְּתָה פָּנֶיהָ׃ 38.16. וַיֵּט אֵלֶיהָ אֶל־הַדֶּרֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר הָבָה־נָּא אָבוֹא אֵלַיִךְ כִּי לֹא יָדַע כִּי כַלָּתוֹ הִוא וַתֹּאמֶר מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִּי כִּי תָבוֹא אֵלָי׃ 38.17. וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֲשַׁלַּח גְּדִי־עִזִּים מִן־הַצֹּאן וַתֹּאמֶר אִם־תִּתֵּן עֵרָבוֹן עַד שָׁלְחֶךָ׃ 38.18. וַיֹּאמֶר מָה הָעֵרָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר אֶתֶּן־לָּךְ וַתֹּאמֶר חֹתָמְךָ וּפְתִילֶךָ וּמַטְּךָ אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדֶךָ וַיִּתֶּן־לָּהּ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ וַתַּהַר לוֹ׃ 38.19. וַתָּקָם וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתָּסַר צְעִיפָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתִּלְבַּשׁ בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ׃ 38.21. וַיִּשְׁאַל אֶת־אַנְשֵׁי מְקֹמָהּ לֵאמֹר אַיֵּה הַקְּדֵשָׁה הִוא בָעֵינַיִם עַל־הַדָּרֶךְ וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא־הָיְתָה בָזֶה קְדֵשָׁה׃ 38.22. וַיָּשָׁב אֶל־יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא מְצָאתִיהָ וְגַם אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם אָמְרוּ לֹא־הָיְתָה בָזֶה קְדֵשָׁה׃ 38.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה תִּקַּח־לָהּ פֶּן נִהְיֶה לָבוּז הִנֵּה שָׁלַחְתִּי הַגְּדִי הַזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא מְצָאתָהּ׃ 38.24. וַיְהִי כְּמִשְׁלֹשׁ חֳדָשִׁים וַיֻּגַּד לִיהוּדָה לֵאמֹר זָנְתָה תָּמָר כַּלָּתֶךָ וְגַם הִנֵּה הָרָה לִזְנוּנִים וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה הוֹצִיאוּהָ וְתִשָּׂרֵף׃ 38.25. הִוא מוּצֵאת וְהִיא שָׁלְחָה אֶל־חָמִיהָ לֵאמֹר לְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֵלֶּה לּוֹ אָנֹכִי הָרָה וַתֹּאמֶר הַכֶּר־נָא לְמִי הַחֹתֶמֶת וְהַפְּתִילִים וְהַמַּטֶּה הָאֵלֶּה׃ 38.26. וַיַּכֵּר יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר צָדְקָה מִמֶּנִּי כִּי־עַל־כֵּן לֹא־נְתַתִּיהָ לְשֵׁלָה בְנִי וְלֹא־יָסַף עוֹד לְדַעְתָּה׃ 38.27. וַיְהִי בְּעֵת לִדְתָּהּ וְהִנֵּה תְאוֹמִים בְּבִטְנָהּ׃ 38.28. וַיְהִי בְלִדְתָּהּ וַיִּתֶּן־יָד וַתִּקַּח הַמְיַלֶּדֶת וַתִּקְשֹׁר עַל־יָדוֹ שָׁנִי לֵאמֹר זֶה יָצָא רִאשֹׁנָה׃ 38.29. וַיְהִי כְּמֵשִׁיב יָדוֹ וְהִנֵּה יָצָא אָחִיו וַתֹּאמֶר מַה־פָּרַצְתָּ עָלֶיךָ פָּרֶץ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ פָּרֶץ׃ 38.1. And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah." 38.2. And Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite whose name was Shua; and he took her, and went in unto her." 38.3. And she conceived, and bore a son; and he called his name Er." 38.4. And she conceived again, and bore a son; and she called his name O." 38.5. And she yet again bore a son, and called his name Shelah; and he was at Chezib, when she bore him." 38.6. And Judah took a wife for Er his first-born, and her name was Tamar." 38.7. And Er, Judah’s first-born, was wicked in the sight of the LORD; and the LORD slew him." 38.8. And Judah said unto O: ‘Go in unto thy brother’s wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto her, and raise up seed to thy brother.’" 38.9. And O knew that the seed would not be his; and it came to pass when he went in unto his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest he should give seed to his brother." 38.10. And the thing which he did was evil in the sight of the LORD; and He slew him also." 38.12. And in process of time Shua’s daughter, the wife of Judah, died; and Judah was comforted, and went up unto his sheep-shearers to Timnah, he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite." 38.13. And it was told Tamar, saying: ‘Behold, thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his sheep.’" 38.14. And she put off from her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself with her veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the entrance of Enaim, which is by the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him to wife." 38.15. When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a harlot; for she had covered her face." 38.16. And he turned unto her by the way, and said: ‘Come, I pray thee, let me come in unto thee’; for he knew not that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said: ‘What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come in unto me?’" 38.17. And he said: ‘I will send thee a kid of the goats from the flock.’ And she said: ‘Wilt thou give me a pledge, till thou send it?’" 38.18. And he said: ‘What pledge shall I give thee?’ And she said: ‘Thy signet and thy cord, and thy staff that is in thy hand.’ And he gave them to her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him." 38.19. And she arose, and went away, and put off her veil from her, and put on the garments of her widowhood." 38.20. And Judah sent the kid of the goats by the hand of his friend the Adullamite, to receive the pledge from the woman’s hand; but he found her not." 38.21. Then he asked the men of her place, saying: ‘Where is the harlot, that was at Enaim by the wayside?’ And they said: ‘There hath been no harlot here.’" 38.22. And he returned to Judah, and said: ‘I have not found her; and also the men of the place said: There hath been no harlot here.’" 38.23. And Judah said: ‘Let her take it, lest we be put to shame; behold, I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her.’" 38.24. And it came to pass about three months after, that it was told Judah, saying: ‘Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot; and moreover, behold, she is with child by harlotry.’ And Judah said: ‘Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.’" 38.25. When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying: ‘By the man, whose these are, am I with child’; and she said: ‘Discern, I pray thee, whose are these, the signet, and the cords, and the staff.’" 38.26. And Judah acknowledged them, and said: ‘She is more righteous than I; forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son.’ And he knew her again no more." 38.27. And it came to pass in the time of her travail, that, behold, twins were in her womb." 38.28. And it came to pass, when she travailed, that one put out a hand; and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying: ‘This came out first.’" 38.29. And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold his brother came out; and she said: ‘Wherefore hast thou made a breach for thyself?’ Therefore his name was called Perez." 38.30. And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand; and his name was called Zerah."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.15. עֶרְוַת כַּלָּתְךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֵשֶׁת בִּנְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.15. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter-in-law: she is thy son’wife; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness."
3. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 4.12-4.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וִיהִי בֵיתְךָ כְּבֵית פֶּרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יָלְדָה תָמָר לִיהוּדָה מִן־הַזֶּרַע אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן יְהוָה לְךָ מִן־הַנַּעֲרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 4.13. וַיִּקַּח בֹּעַז אֶת־רוּת וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה לָהּ הֵרָיוֹן וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן׃ 4.14. וַתֹּאמַרְנָה הַנָּשִׁים אֶל־נָעֳמִי בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא הִשְׁבִּית לָךְ גֹּאֵל הַיּוֹם וְיִקָּרֵא שְׁמוֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 4.15. וְהָיָה לָךְ לְמֵשִׁיב נֶפֶשׁ וּלְכַלְכֵּל אֶת־שֵׂיבָתֵךְ כִּי כַלָּתֵךְ אֲ‍שֶׁר־אֲהֵבַתֶךְ יְלָדַתּוּ אֲשֶׁר־הִיא טוֹבָה לָךְ מִשִּׁבְעָה בָּנִים׃ 4.16. וַתִּקַּח נָעֳמִי אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּשִׁתֵהוּ בְחֵיקָהּ וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאֹמֶנֶת׃ 4.17. וַתִּקְרֶאנָה לוֹ הַשְּׁכֵנוֹת שֵׁם לֵאמֹר יֻלַּד־בֵּן לְנָעֳמִי וַתִּקְרֶאנָה שְׁמוֹ עוֹבֵד הוּא אֲבִי־יִשַׁי אֲבִי דָוִד׃ 4.18. וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדוֹת פָּרֶץ פֶּרֶץ הוֹלִיד אֶת־חֶצְרוֹן׃ 4.19. וְחֶצְרוֹן הוֹלִיד אֶת־רָם וְרָם הוֹלִיד אֶת־עַמִּינָדָב׃ 4.21. וְשַׂלְמוֹן הוֹלִיד אֶת־בֹּעַז וּבֹעַז הוֹלִיד אֶת־עוֹבֵד׃ 4.22. וְעֹבֵד הוֹלִיד אֶת־יִשָׁי וְיִשַׁי הוֹלִיד אֶת־דָּוִד׃ 4.12. and let thy house be like the house of Perez, whom Tamar bore unto Judah, of the seed which the LORD shall give thee of this young woman.’" 4.13. So Boaz took Ruth, and she became his wife; and he went in unto her, and the LORD gave her conception, and she bore a son." 4.14. And the women said unto Naomi: ‘Blessed be the LORD, who hath not left thee this day without a near kinsman, and let his name be famous in Israel." 4.15. And he shall be unto thee a restorer of life, and a nourisher of thine old age; for thy daughter-in-law, who loveth thee, who is better to thee than seven sons, hath borne him.’" 4.16. And Naomi took the child, and laid it in her bosom, and became nurse unto it." 4.17. And the women her neighbours gave it a name, saying: ‘There is a son born to Naomi’; and they called his name Obed; he is the father of Jesse, the father of David." 4.18. Now these are the generations of Perez: Perez begot Hezron;" 4.19. and Hezron begot Ram, and Ram begot Amminadab;" 4.20. and Amminadab begot Nahshon, and Nahshon begot Salmon;" 4.21. and Salmon begot Boaz, and Boaz begot Obed;" 4.22. and Obed begot Jesse, and Jesse begot David."
4. Homer, Iliad, 21.416-21.422 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

21.416. /When she had thus spoken, she turned from Ares her bright eyes. Him then the daughter of Zeus, Aphrodite, took by the hand, and sought to lead away, as he uttered many a moan, and hardly could he gather back to him his spirit. But when the goddess, white-armed Hera, was ware of her, forthwith she spake winged words to Athene: 21.417. /When she had thus spoken, she turned from Ares her bright eyes. Him then the daughter of Zeus, Aphrodite, took by the hand, and sought to lead away, as he uttered many a moan, and hardly could he gather back to him his spirit. But when the goddess, white-armed Hera, was ware of her, forthwith she spake winged words to Athene: 21.418. /When she had thus spoken, she turned from Ares her bright eyes. Him then the daughter of Zeus, Aphrodite, took by the hand, and sought to lead away, as he uttered many a moan, and hardly could he gather back to him his spirit. But when the goddess, white-armed Hera, was ware of her, forthwith she spake winged words to Athene: 21.419. /When she had thus spoken, she turned from Ares her bright eyes. Him then the daughter of Zeus, Aphrodite, took by the hand, and sought to lead away, as he uttered many a moan, and hardly could he gather back to him his spirit. But when the goddess, white-armed Hera, was ware of her, forthwith she spake winged words to Athene: 21.420. / Out upon it, thou child of Zeus that beareth the aegis, unwearied one, lo, there again the dog-fly is leading Ares, the bane of mortals, forth from the fury of war amid the throng; nay, have after her. So spake she, and Athene sped in pursuit, glad at heart, and rushing upon her she smote Aphrodite on the breast with her stout hand; 21.421. / Out upon it, thou child of Zeus that beareth the aegis, unwearied one, lo, there again the dog-fly is leading Ares, the bane of mortals, forth from the fury of war amid the throng; nay, have after her. So spake she, and Athene sped in pursuit, glad at heart, and rushing upon her she smote Aphrodite on the breast with her stout hand; 21.422. / Out upon it, thou child of Zeus that beareth the aegis, unwearied one, lo, there again the dog-fly is leading Ares, the bane of mortals, forth from the fury of war amid the throng; nay, have after her. So spake she, and Athene sped in pursuit, glad at heart, and rushing upon her she smote Aphrodite on the breast with her stout hand;
5. Homer, Odyssey, 7.290-7.293, 7.309-7.324, 7.332-7.333, 7.346-7.347 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 2.4, 2.7, 2.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.4. וְאֶלְעָשָׂה הֹלִיד אֶת־סִסְמָי וְסִסְמַי הֹלִיד אֶת־שַׁלּוּם׃ 2.4. וְתָמָר כַּלָּתוֹ יָלְדָה לּוֹ אֶת־פֶּרֶץ וְאֶת־זָרַח כָּל־בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה חֲמִשָּׁה׃ 2.7. וּבְנֵי כַּרְמִי עָכָר עוֹכֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר מָעַל בַּחֵרֶם׃ 2.9. וּבְנֵי חֶצְרוֹן אֲשֶׁר נוֹלַד־לוֹ אֶת־יְרַחְמְאֵל וְאֶת־רָם וְאֶת־כְּלוּבָי׃ 2.4. And Tamar his daughter-in-law bore him Perez and Zerah. All the sons of Judah were five." 2.7. And the sons of Carmi: Achar, the troubler of Israel, who committed a trespass concerning the devoted thing." 2.9. The sons also of Hezron, that were born unto him: Jerahmeel, and Ram, and Chelubai."
7. Anon., Jubilees, 41 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8. Anon., Testament of Judah, 10.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. New Testament, Matthew, 1.3-1.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Judah became the father of Perez and Zerah by Tamar. Perez became the father of Hezron. Hezron became the father of Ram. 1.4. Ram became the father of Amminadab. Amminadab became the father of Nahshon. Nahshon became the father of Salmon. 1.5. Salmon became the father of Boaz by Rahab. Boaz became the father of Obed by Ruth. Obed became the father of Jesse. 1.6. Jesse became the father of David the king. David became the father of Solomon by her who had been the wife of Uriah. 1.7. Solomon became the father of Rehoboam. Rehoboam became the father of Abijah. Abijah became the father of Asa. 1.8. Asa became the father of Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat became the father of Joram. Joram became the father of Uzziah. 1.9. Uzziah became the father of Jotham. Jotham became the father of Ahaz. Ahaz became the father of Hezekiah. 1.10. Hezekiah became the father of Manasseh. Manasseh became the father of Amon. Amon became the father of Josiah. 1.11. Josiah became the father of Jechoniah and his brothers, at the time of the exile to Babylon. 1.12. After the exile to Babylon, Jechoniah became the father of Shealtiel. Shealtiel became the father of Zerubbabel. 1.13. Zerubbabel became the father of Abiud. Abiud became the father of Eliakim. Eliakim became the father of Azor. 1.14. Azor became the father of Sadoc. Sadoc became the father of Achim. Achim became the father of Eliud. 1.15. Eliud became the father of Eleazar. Eleazar became the father of Matthan. Matthan became the father of Jacob. 1.16. Jacob became the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, from whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.
10. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

92a. יכול אפילו מעולה בדמים ת"ל רק,שמואל אייתי ליה אריסיה תמרי אכיל טעים בהו טעמא דחמרא א"ל מאי האי א"ל ביני גופני קיימי אמר מכחשי בחמרא כולי האי למחר אייתי לי מקורייהו:,רב חסדא חזא תאלי בי גופני אמר ליה לאריסיה עקרינהו גופני קני דקלי דקלי לא קני גופני:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אע"פ שהוא נותן לו אין נמחל לו עד שיבקש ממנו שנאמר (בראשית כ, ז) ועתה השב אשת וגו' ומנין שאם לא מחל לו שהוא אכזרי שנאמר (בראשית כ, יז) ויתפלל אברהם אל האלהים וירפא אלהים את אבימלך וגו',האומר סמא את עיני קטע את ידי שבר את רגלי חייב ע"מ לפטור חייב,קרע את כסותי שבר את כדי חייב ע"מ לפטור פטור עשה כן לאיש פלוני על מנת לפטור חייב בין בגופו בין בממונו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר כל אלו שאמרו דמי בושתו אבל צערו אפי' הביא כל אילי נביות שבעולם אין נמחל לו עד שיבקש ממנו שנאמר (בראשית כ, ז) השב אשת האיש כי נביא הוא ויתפלל בעדך,דאשת נביא בעי אהדורי אשת אחר לא בעי אהדורי,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן השב אשת האיש מכל מקום ודקא אמרת (בראשית כ, ד) הגוי גם צדיק תהרוג הלא הוא אמר לי אחותי היא והיא גם היא אמרה אחי הוא נביא הוא וכבר לימד אכסנאי שבא לעיר על עסקי אכילה ושתיה שואלין אותו או על עסקי אשתו שואלין אותו אשתך היא אחותך היא,מכאן לבן נח שנהרג שהיה לו ללמוד ולא למד:,(בראשית כ, יח) כי עצר עצר ה' אמר ר' אלעזר שתי עצירות הללו למה אחת באיש שכבת זרע שתים באשה שכבת זרע ולידה,במתניתא תנא שתים באיש שכבת זרע וקטנים שלשה באשה שכבת זרע וקטנים ולידה,רבינא אמר שלש באיש שכבת זרע וקטנים ופי טבעת ארבעה באשה שכבת זרע ולידה וקטנים ופי טבעת:,(בראשית כ, יח) בעד כל רחם אמרי דבי ר' ינאי אפילו תרנגולת של בית אבימלך לא הטילה ביצתה,א"ל רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמור רבנן כל המבקש רחמים על חבירו והוא צריך לאותו דבר הוא נענה תחילה א"ל דכתיב (איוב מב, י) וה' שב את שבות איוב בהתפללו בעד רעהו,אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא (בראשית כ, יז) ויתפלל אברהם אל האלהים וירפא אלהים את אבימלך ואת אשתו ואמהותיו [וגו'] וכתיב (בראשית כא, א) וה' פקד את שרה כאשר אמר וגו' כאשר אמר אברהם אל אבימלך,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמרי אינשי בהדי הוצא לקי כרבא א"ל דכתיב (ירמיהו ב, כט) למה תריבו אלי כלכם פשעתם בי נאם ה',אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא (שמות טז, כח) עד אנה מאנתם לשמור מצותי ותורותי,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי כתיב (בראשית מז, ב) ומקצה אחיו לקח חמשה אנשים מאן נינהו חמשה א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן אותן שהוכפלו בשמות,יהודה נמי איכפולי מיכפל,אמר ליה למילתיה הוא דאיכפל דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מאי דכתיב (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות ויהי מתיו מספר וזאת ליהודה,כל אותן ארבעים שנה שהיו ישראל במדבר היו עצמותיו של יהודה מגולגלין בארון עד שבא משה ובקש רחמים אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מי גרם לראובן שיודה יהודה,מיד שמע ה' קול יהודה על איבריה לשפא לא הוו קא מסקי למתיבתא דרקיעא (דברים לג, ז) ואל עמו תביאנו לא הוה ידע מאי קאמרי רבנן ולמשקל ומיטרח בהדי רבנן (דברים לג, ז) ידיו רב לו לא הוה סליק ליה שמעתתא אליבא דהלכתא (דברים לג, ז) ועזר מצריו תהיה,אמר ליה רבא לרבה בר מרי מנא הא מילתא דאמרי אינשי בתר עניא אזלא עניותא אמר ליה דתנן עשירים מביאין בכורים בקלתות של זהב ושל כסף ועניים בסלי נצרים של ערבה קלופה הסלים והבכורים נותנים לכהנים אמר ליה את אמרת מהתם ואנא אמינא מהכא 92a. One bmighthave thought that he must give precedence to the cutting down of a barren tree bevenif the barren tree is bgreater in monetaryvalue than the fruit-bearing tree. bThe verse states: “Only,”which teaches that there is an exception to the rule. Similarly, if the fruit-bearing tree itself would be worth more as lumber than for its fruits, it would be permitted for one to cut it down.,The Gemara relates: The bsharecropper of Shmuel brought him dates.Shmuel batethem, and btasted the taste of wine in them. He said tohis sharecropper: bWhat is this?The sharecropper bsaid to him:The date palms bstand among the grapevinesand therefore contain a taste of wine from the grapes. Shmuel bsaid:Do bthey weaken the wine,i.e., the grapevines, bso muchthat it is possible to taste the wine in the dates? bTomorrow,cut down the date palms and bbring me from their marrowto eat.,The Gemara relates a similar incident: bRav Ḥisda saw date palmsgrowing bamong grapevineson his estate. bHe said to his sharecropper: Uproot thedate palms, since one can bpurchase date palmswith bgrapevines,as grapevines are more valuable, while one bcannot purchase grapevineswith bdate palms. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bDespitethe fact bthatthe assailant who caused damage bgives tothe victim all of the required payments for the injury, his transgression is bnot forgiven for himin the heavenly court buntil he requestsforgiveness bfromthe victim, bas it is statedthat God told Abimelech after he had taken Sarah from Abraham: b“Now therefore restore the wifeof the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for you, and you shall live” (Genesis 20:7). bAnd from whereis it derived bthat ifthe victim bdoes not forgive him that he is cruel? As it is stated: “And Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech,and his wife, and his maidservants; and they bore children” (Genesis 20:17).,The mishna continues: With regard to bone who saysto another: bBlind my eye,or: bcut off my hand,or: bbreak my leg,and he does so, the one who performed these actions is bliableto pay for the damage, despite having been instructed to do so. Even if he explicitly instructed him: Do so bon the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, he is nevertheless bliable. /b,With regard to one who says to another: bTear my garment,or: bbreak my jug,and he does so, he is bliableto pay for the damage. But if he instructed him explicitly: Do so bon the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, he is bexemptfrom payment. If one says to another: bDo so,i.e., cause damage, bto so-and-so on the condition thatyou will bbe exemptfrom payment, and he did so, he is bliable, whetherthe instructions were bwith regard tothe victim bhimself,or bwhetherthe instructions were bwith regard to his property. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught: All thesesums bthatin the previous mishna bthey saidone is liable to pay for humiliating another are the bcompensation for his humiliation,for which there is a set amount. bButfor the victim’s bpaincaused by the assailant, beven ifthe assailant bbringsas offerings ball the rams of Nebaioth(see Isaiah 60:7) bthat are in the world,which are of the best quality, his transgression bis not forgiven for himin the heavenly court buntil he requestsforgiveness bfromthe victim, bas it is stated: “Restore the wife of the man; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for you”(Genesis 20:7).,Having quoted the verse, the Gemara asks: Shall one infer from here bthat the wife of a prophet needs to be returned,but bthe wife of anotherindividual bneed not be returned? /b,The Gemara answers. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says:This is how the verse should be understood: b“Restore the wife of the man” in any case,since she is his wife. bAndwith regard to that bwhich you,Abimelech, bsaid: “Will you slay even a righteous nation? Did he not say himself to me: She is my sister, and she, even she herself, said: He is my brother?”(Genesis 20:4–5), the answer is that you, Abimelech, are not so righteous, since the reason Abraham said that Sarah was his sister is that bhe is a prophet, and he already learnedhow to conduct himself based on your behavior. As with regard to ba guest [ iakhsenai /i] who comes to town, does one ask him about matters concerning eating and drinking, or does one ask him about matters concerning his wife?Does one ask a guest: bIs she your wife? Is she your sister?Abimelech was to be blamed, since Abraham thought that he intended to steal his wife.,The Gemara remarks: bFrom hereit can be derived bthat a gentile is executedfor having transgressed a prohibition without awareness that the act was prohibited, bsince he should have learned and he did not learn. /b,Having mentioned the verses concerning the incident of Abraham and Abimelech, the Gemara explains other related verses. b“For the Lord had obstructed [ iatzor atzar /i]all the wombs of the house of Abimelech” (Genesis 20:18). bRabbi Elazar says: Whyare bthese two obstructions [ iatzor atzar /i]both stated? bOneis stated bwith regard to a man,that bsemenwill not be discharged, and btwoare stated bwith regard to a woman,that bsemenwill not be discharged from her, bandthat she will not give bbirth. /b,It bwas taught in a ibaraita /i: Twoare stated bwith regard to a man: Semen and urine,i.e., that the men were unable to both urinate and discharge semen; bthreeare stated bwith regard to a woman: Semen, and urine, and birth. /b, bRavina says: Threeare stated bwith regard to a man: Semen, and urine, andthe banal sphincter,i.e., that they were unable to discharge stool as well. Consequently, they would be unable to relieve themselves at all. bFourare stated bwith regard to a woman: Semen, and birth, and urine, andthe banal sphincter. /b,The verse states: “For the Lord had obstructed ball the wombsof the house of Abimelech.” The Sages bof the school of Rabbi Yannai say: Even a hen of the house of Abimelech did not lay her eggduring that time.,§ The Gemara cites a series of questions that Rava asked Rabba bar Mari, the first one being related to the previous topic of discussion. bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby the Sages stated: Anyone who asksfor bcompassionfrom Heaven bonbehalf of banother, and he requirescompassion from Heaven bconcerning that same matter, he is answered first?Rabba bar Mari bsaid to himthat the source for this is bas it is written: “And the Lord changed the fortune of Job, when he prayed for his friends”(Job 42:10).,Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a verse in the Writings, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah. As it is written: b“And Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants,and they bore children” (Genesis 20:17), band it is writtenimmediately following that: b“And the Lord remembered Sarah, as He had said”(Genesis 21:1), with the pronoun interpreted homiletically: bAs Abraham said with regard to Abimelech.Because Abraham prayed for Abimelech that the women of his household should give birth, Abraham himself was answered concerning that matter., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby people say: The cabbage is damaged together with the thorn,since the cabbage is sometimes harmed when the thorn is removed? Rabba bar Mari bsaid to himthat the source is bas it is written: “Why will you contend with Me? You all have transgressed against Me, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 2:29). The term “you all” includes even those who have not sinned.,Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a verse in the Prophets, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah. The Lord said to Moses after some of the people collected the manna on Shabbat: b“How long do you refuse [ ime’antem /i] to keep My commandments and My laws?”(Exodus 16:28). The term “you refuse [ ime’antem /i]” is written in the plural, indicating that even Moses was included, although he did not sin., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is writtenwith regard to Joseph: b“And from among his brothers he took five men,and presented them to Pharaoh” (Genesis 47:2). bWho are these fivemen? Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: This is what Rabbi Yoḥa says: Those whose names were repeatedin the blessings with which Moses later blessed the twelve tribes. They are Dan, Zebulun, Gad, Asher, and Naftali (see Deuteronomy 35). Since they were weak, Joseph brought them before Pharaoh.,Rava said: bJudah alsohad his name brepeatedin the blessings, and he was strong.,Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: Hisname bwas repeated for hisown bmatter, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenconcerning Reuben and Judah in Moses’ blessing of the tribes at the end of his life: b“Let Reuben live and not die in that his men become few”(Deuteronomy 33:6), and immediately afterward in the following verse it states: b“And this for Judah,and he said: Hear Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; may his hands fight on his behalf, and You shall be a help against his adversaries” (Deuteronomy 33:7)? What is the connection between the blessing of Reuben and that of Judah, juxtaposed with the conjunction “and”?,Rabbi Yoḥa said: bAll those forty years that the Jewish people were in the desert, the bones of Judah,which the Jewish people took with them from Egypt along with the bones of his brothers, bwere rollingaround bin the coffin, until Moses came and asked for mercyon Judah’s behalf. Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, whoserved as the bimpetus for Reuben that he should confesshis sin, through which he merited a blessing and was not excluded from the count of the twelve sons of Jacob (see Genesis 35:22)? It was bJudah,as Reuben saw him confess his sin, and thereby did the same., bImmediatelyafter Moses prayed, the verse states: b“Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7). bHis bonesthen benteredtheir bsockets [ ileshafa /i],and his skeleton became attached. The angels still bdid not elevatehim binto the heavenly study hall.Moses then prayed: b“And bring him in unto his people”(Deuteronomy 33:7), i.e., bring him to those in the heavenly study hall. This prayer was accepted, but bhestill bdid not know what the sages were saying, andhe was unable bto deliberatein Torah matters bwith the sages.Moses then prayed: b“May his hands fight on his behalf”(Deuteronomy 33:7), meaning that he should have the ability to contend with them in study. But still bhe was unable to drawconclusions from bhis discussion in accordance with the ihalakha /i.Moses then prayed: b“And You shall be a help against his adversaries”(Deuteronomy 33:7)., bRava said to Rabba bar Mari: From where is this matterderived bwhereby people say: Poverty follows the poor?Rabba bar Mari bsaid to him: As we learnedin a mishna ( iBikkurim3:8): bRichpeople would bbring first fruits in baskets of gold and of silver, and poorpeople would bring first fruits bin wicker basketsmade bof peeled willow,and bthey would give the baskets and the first fruits to the priests.The rich would have their baskets returned to them, while the poor would not. Rava bsaid to him: You saidthe proof bfrom there,from a mishna, band I saythe proof bfrom here,from a verse in the Torah:
11. Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. אמר רב יהודה אמר רב נידוי על תנאי צריך הפרה מנלן מיהודה דכתיב (בראשית מג, ט) אם לא הביאותיו אליך וגו' וא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות וגו' וזאת ליהודה,כל אותן מ' שנה שהיו ישראל במדבר עצמותיו של יהודה היו מגולגלין בארון עד שעמד משה ובקש עליו רחמים אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם מי גרם לראובן שיודה יהודה (דברים לג, ז) וזאת ליהודה שמע ה' קול יהודה,עאל איבריה לשפא לא הוה קא מעיילי ליה למתיבתא דרקיע (דברים לג, ז) ואל עמו תביאנו לא הוה קא ידע למישקל ומיטרח בשמעתא בהדי רבנן (דברים לג, ז) ידיו רב לו לא הוה ידע לפרוקי קושיא (דברים לג, ז) ועזר מצריו תהיה,איבעיא להו במיתת כולן הוא חוזר או דלמא במיתת אחד מהן,ת"ש נגמר דינו בלא כ"ג אינו יוצא משם לעולם ואם איתא ליהדר (ביה) בדהנך בדליכא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big משנגמר דינו מת כ"ג ה"ז אינו גולה אם עד שלא נגמר דינו מת כ"ג ומנו אחר תחתיו ולאחר מכן נגמר דינו חוזר במיתתו של שני נגמר דינו בלא כ"ג וההורג כ"ג וכ"ג שהרג אינו יוצא משם לעולם,ואינו יוצא לא לעדות מצוה ולא לעדות ממון ולא לעדות נפשות ואפי' ישראל צריכים לו ואפי' שר צבא ישראל כיואב בן צרויה אינו יוצא משם לעולם שנאמר (במדבר לה, כה) אשר נס שמה שם תהא דירתו שם תהא מיתתו שם תהא קבורתו,כשם שהעיר קולטת כך תחומה קולט רוצח שיצא חוץ לתחום ומצאו גואל הדם רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר מצוה ביד גואל הדם ורשות ביד כל אדם רבי עקיבא אומר רשות ביד גואל הדם וכל אדם חייבין עליו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט אמר אביי ק"ו ומה מי שגלה כבר יצא עכשיו מי שלא גלה אינו דין שלא יגלה ודלמא האי דגלה איכפר ליה האי דלא גלה לא מידי גלות קא מכפרא מיתת כהן הוא דמכפרא:,אם עד שלא נגמר דינו וכו': מנא הני מילי אמר רב כהנא דאמר קרא (במדבר לה, כה) וישב בה עד מות הכהן הגדול אשר משח אותו בשמן הקדש וכי הוא מושחו אלא זה שנמשח בימיו,מאי הוה ליה למעבד היה לו לבקש רחמים שיגמור דינו לזכות ולא ביקש,אמר אביי נקטינן נגמר דינו ומת מוליכין את עצמותיו לשם דכתיב (במדבר לה, לב) לשוב לשבת בארץ עד מות הכהן ואיזהו ישיבה שהיא בארץ הוי אומר זו קבורה תנא מת קודם שמת כ"ג מוליכין עצמותיו על קברי אבותיו דכתיב (במדבר לה, כח) ישוב הרוצח אל ארץ אחוזתו איזהו ישיבה שהיא בארץ אחוזתו הוי אומר זו קבורה,נגמר דינו ונעשה כהן בן גרושה או בן חלוצה פליגי בה רבי אמי ור' יצחק נפחא חד אומר מתה כהונה וחד אומר בטלה כהונה,לימא בפלוגתא דר"א ורבי יהושע קא מיפלגי דתנן היה עומד ומקריב ע"ג המזבח ונודע שהוא בן גרושה או בן חלוצה ר"א אומר כל קרבנות שהקריב פסולין ורבי יהושע מכשיר,מאן דאמר מתה כר' יהושע ומאן דאמר בטלה כרבי אליעזר 11b. Apropos declarations that take effect even if they were stated conditionally and the condition was not fulfilled, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Ostracismthat was declared bconditionally requires nullification,even though the condition was not fulfilled. bFrom where do wederive this? It is derived bfrom Judah, as it is writtenwith regard to his request that his father allow the brothers to take Benjamin to Egypt: b“If I do not bring him to you… /bI would have sinned to you for all days” (Genesis 43:9), i.e., I will remain ostracized as a sinner. bAnd Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Let Reuben live and not die”(Deuteronomy 33:6), followed immediately by the verse: b“And this for Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7)? Why was the blessing of Judah linked to that of Reuben?, bThroughout those forty years thatthe children of bIsrael were in the wilderness, Judah’s bones were rattling in the coffin,detached from one another, because the ostracism that he declared upon himself remained in effect, buntil Moses stood and entreatedGod to have bmercy upon him.Moses bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, who caused Reuben to confesshis sin with Bilhah? It was bJudah.Judah’s confession to his sin with Tamar led Reuben to confess to his own sin. Moses continued: b“And this is for Judah…hear God, the voice of Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7).,At that point bhis limbs enteredtheir designated bplace [ ileshafa /i]and no longer rattled, but the Heavenly court still bwould notallow bhimto benter the heavenly academy.Moses continued: b“And bring him to his people”(Deuteronomy 33:7), so that he may join the other righteous people in Heaven. That request was also granted, but Judah bdid not knowhow bto engage in the give-and-take of ihalakhawith the Sagesin the heavenly academy. Moses continued: b“His hands shall contend for him”(Deuteronomy 33:7). That request was also granted, but Judah bdid not knowhow bto resolveany bdifficultyraised to reject his opinion until Moses prayed: b“And You shall be a help against his adversaries”(Deuteronomy 33:7).,The mishna enumerates those High Priests whose death facilitates the return of unintentional murderers to their homes from the city of refuge to which they fled. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Is it only bwith the death of all ofthe High Priests enumerated in the mishna that the unintentional murderer breturns, or perhapsit is even bwith the death of one of themthat he returns?,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara resolution to the dilemma from the succeeding mishna: If the bverdictof a murderer bwas decidedat a time bwhenthere was bnoone filling the position of bHigh Priest, he never leavesthe city of refuge. bAnd if it is sothat the death of any of those listed in the mishna facilitates his return, blet him return withthe death of one bof theseother High Priests, the one who was sanctified by donning the eight vestments or a priest who was relieved of his position. The Gemara rejects the proof: The mishna is referring to a case bwhere there were noHigh Priests when the verdict was decided., strongMISHNA: /strong If, bafterthe unintentional murderer’s bverdict was decidedand he was sentenced to exile, bthe High Priest died,he bis not exiled,as the death of the High Priest exempts him from exile. bIfit was bbefore his verdict was decidedthat bthe High Priest died and they appointed another in his place, and thereafter his verdict was decided, he returnsfrom exile bwith the death of the secondHigh Priest. If bthe verdict ofa murderer bwas decidedat a time bwhenthere was bno High Priest, andlikewise in the cases of bone whounintentionally bkilled a High Priest andin the case of ba High Priest who killedunintentionally, the unintentional murderer bnever leavesthe city of refuge., bAndone who is exiled may bnot leavethe city at all, beither for testimonyrelating to ba mitzva, or for testimonyrelating to bmonetary matters, or for testimonyrelating to bcapitalmatters. bAnd evenif bthe Jewish people requirehis services, band evenif he is bthe general of the army of Israel like Joab ben Zeruiah, he never leavesthe city of refuge, bas it is stated:“And the congregation shall restore him to his city of refuge, bthat he fled there”(Numbers 35:25), from which it is derived: bThere shall be his dwelling, there shall be his death, there shall be his burial. /b,The mishna continues: bJust asan unintentional murderer bis admittedto bthe cityof refuge, bso is he admittedto bits outskirts, locatedwithin the Shabbat bboundary.Once he entered the outskirts of the city, the blood redeemer may not kill him. In a case bwhere a murderer emerged beyond theShabbat bboundaryof the city of refuge band the blood redeemer found himthere, bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says:It is ba mitzva for the blood redeemerto kill him, bandit is boptional for everyother bpersonto do so. bRabbi Akiva says:It is boptional for the blood redeemer, and everyother bperson is liable forkilling bhim. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches: If after the unintentional murderer’s verdict was decided and he was sentenced to exile, the High Priest died, the unintentional murderer is not exiled. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bAbaye says:It is derived through ban ia fortiori /iinference: bIf one who was already exiled now emergeswith the death of this High Priest, with regard to bone who was notyet bexiled, is it not right that he should not be exiled?The Gemara rejects this reasoning: bAnd perhapswith regard to bthisone, bwho wasalready bexiled,his sin bwas atonedfor by his exile, and therefore the death of the High Priest facilitates his return, but bthatone, bwho was notyet bexiled, no,his sin was not atoned for and the death of the High Priest should not prevent his exile. The Gemara rebuts: bIsit his bexilethat batonesfor his sin? bIt is the death of the High Priest that atonesfor his sin, and the High Priest died.,The mishna teaches: bIfit was bbefore his verdict was decidedthat the High Priest died and they appointed another in his place, and thereafter his verdict was decided, he returns with the death of the second High Priest. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRav Kahana saidthat they are derived from a verse, bas the verse states: “And he shall dwell there until the death of the High Priest, whom he anointed with the sacred oil”(Numbers 35:25). bNow isit the unintentional murderer who banointsthe High Priest? bRather,the reference is to bthatHigh Priest bwho was anointed during his days,after he committed the unintentional murder.,The Gemara asks: Why is his return home dependent on the death of the second High Priest? Earlier (11a), the Gemara explained that the High Priest bears a share of the responsibility for unintentional murderers, as he should have pleaded for mercy for his generation and he did not do so. In this case, as the High Priest in question was appointed only after the murder transpired, bwhat could he have doneto prevent the unintentional murder? The Gemara answers: bHe should have pleaded for mercy thatthe bverdict ofthe unintentional murderer bwould be decidedby the court bfavorably,so that he would not be sentenced to exile, band he did not plead. /b,§ bAbaye said: We have a traditionthat with regard to an unintentional murderer bwhose verdict was decidedand who was sentenced to exile, band he diedbefore he was exiled to the city of refuge, bone transports his bonesto the city of refuge, and buries him bthere, as it is written: “To return and dwell in the land until the death of the priest”(Numbers 35:32). bAnd what isthe bdwelling that is in the land? You must say it isreferring to his bburial.A Sage btaught:If an unintentional murderer bdiedin a city of refuge bbefore the High Priest died, one transports his bones to the graves of his ancestorsafter the High Priest dies, bas it is written: “The murderer shall return to his ancestral land”(Numbers 35:28). bWhatis the bdwelling that istaking place bin his ancestral land? You must say it ishis bburial. /b,§ The Gemara cites a dispute with regard to a case where the murderer’s bverdict was decided,i.e., he was sentenced to exile, bandthe High bPriestfilling the position at the time bwas deemed the son of a divorced woman or the son of a iḥalutza /i,and the High Priest was thereby disqualified from the priesthood. bRabbi Ami and Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa disagree with regard to thismatter. bOne says: The priesthood died,i.e., it is as though the High Priest died, and all exiles return home from the city of refuge. bAndthe other bone says: The priesthood is voided,i.e., it is as though there was no High Priest filling the position during that period, and therefore, the exiles may never leave the city of refuge.,The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat these iamora’im /i, Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa, bdisagree with regard tothe issue that is the subject of bthe disputebetween bRabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua, as we learnedin a mishna ( iTerumot8:1): If a priest bwas standing and sacrificingofferings bupon the altar, and it became known that he was the son of a divorced woman or the son of a iḥalutza /i,and he was disqualified from the Temple service, bRabbi Eliezer says: All offerings that he sacrificedup to that point are bnot valid,as it is apparent that he is not and never was fit for Temple service, band Rabbi Yehoshua deemsall offerings that he already sacrificed as bvalid. /b,The Gemara explains: Let us say that bthe one who sayshere that the priesthood bdiedholds bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua.He holds that the High Priest is disqualified only from the time of the discovery that he is disqualified from the priesthood and forward, while any service performed previous to that discovery is valid. The discovery that he is disqualified from the priesthood is like the High Priest’s death, but his priesthood is not invalidated retroactively. bAnd the one who saysthat the priesthood is bvoidedholds bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer,and since his priesthood is voided retroactively, there was no High Priest filling the position when he was sentenced.
12. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7b. וקטליאות נזמים וטבעות מעבירין ממנה כדי לנוולה ואחר כך מביא חבל מצרי וקושרו למעלה מדדיה,וכל הרוצה לראות בא לראות חוץ מעבדיה ושפחותיה מפני שלבה גס בהן וכל הנשים מותרות לראותה שנאמר (יחזקאל כג, מח) ונוסרו כל הנשים ולא תעשינה כזמתכנה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנהני מילי א"ר חייא בר גמדא א"ר יוסי בר' חנינא אתיא תורה תורה כתיב הכא (במדבר ה, ל) ועשה לה הכהן את כל התורה וכתיב התם (דברים יז, יא) על פי התורה אשר יורוך מה להלן בשבעים ואחד אף כאן בשבעים ואחד,ומאיימין עליה וכו' ורמינהו כדרך שמאיימין עליה שלא תשתה כך מאיימין עליה שתשתה אומרים לה בתי אם ברור לך הדבר שטהורה את עמדי על בורייך ושתי לפי שאין מים המרים דומין אלא לסם יבש שמונח על בשר חי אם יש שם מכה מחלחל ויורד אין שם מכה אינו מועיל כלום,לא קשיא כאן קודם שנמחקה מגילה כאן לאחר שנמחקה מגילה,ואומר לפניה וכו' ת"ר אומר לפניה דברים של הגדה ומעשים שאירעו בכתובים הראשונים כגון (איוב טו, יח) אשר חכמים יגידו ולא כחדו מאבותם,יהודה הודה ולא בוש מה היה סופו נחל חיי העולם הבא ראובן הודה ולא בוש מה היה סופו נחל חיי העולם הבא ומה שכרן מה שכרן כדקא אמרינן אלא מה שכרן בעולם הזה (איוב טו, יט) להם לבדם נתנה הארץ ולא עבר זר בתוכם,בשלמא ביהודה אשכחן דאודי דכתיב (בראשית לח, כו) ויכר יהודה ויאמר צדקה ממני אלא ראובן מנלן דאודי,דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות (דברים לג, ז) וזאת ליהודה,כל אותן שנים שהיו ישראל במדבר היו עצמותיו. של יהודה מגולגלין בארון עד שעמד משה ובקש עליו רחמים אמר לפניו רבש"ע מי גרם לראובן שהודה יהודה וזאת ליהודה,מיד (דברים לג, ז) שמע ה' קול יהודה על איבריה לשפא ולא הוה קא מעיילין ליה למתיבתא דרקיעא (דברים לג, ז) ואל עמו תביאנו ולא הוה קא ידע משקל ומטרח בשמעתא בהדי רבנן (דברים לג, ז) ידיו רב לו לא הוה קא סלקא ליה שמעתא אליבא דהילכתא (דברים לג, ז) ועזר מצריו תהיה,בשלמא יהודה דאודי כי היכי דלא תישרף תמר אלא ראובן למה ליה דאודי והאמר רב ששת חציף עלי (בר ישראל) דמפריט חטאיה כי היכי דלא ליחשדו אחוהי,אם אמרה טמאה אני וכו' שמעת מינה כותבין שובר,אמר אביי תני מקרעת א"ל רבא והא שוברת קתני אלא אמר רבא במקום שאין כותבין כתובה עסקינן,ואם אמרה טהורה אני מעלין אותה לשערי מזרח מעלין אותה 7b. bor chokers [ ikatliyot /i],or bnose rings, orfinger brings, they removed them from her in order to render her unattractive. And afterwardthe priest bwould bring an Egyptian ropefashioned from palm fibers, band he would tie it above her breasts. /b, bAnd anyone who desires to watch her may come to watch, except for her slaves and maidservants,who are not permitted to watch bbecause her heart is emboldened by them,as seeing one’s slaves reinforces one’s feeling of pride, and their presence may cause her to maintain her innocence. bAnd all of the women are permitted to watch her, as it is stated:“Thus will I cause lewdness to cease out of the land, bthat all women may be taught not to do after your lewdness”(Ezekiel 23:48)., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks concerning the ihalakhathat the isotais brought before the Sanhedrin: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda saysthat bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:This bis derivedby means of a verbal analogy between the words b“ itora /i”and b“ itora /i.”It bis written here,with regard to a isota /i: b“And the priest shall execute upon her all this law [ itora /i]”(Numbers 5:30), bandit bis written there,with regard to a rebellious Elder, who must go to the place chosen by God and follow the ruling of the Sanhedrin: b“According to the law [ itora /i] that they shall teach you”(Deuteronomy 17:11). bJust as therethe verse is referring to what occurs binthe presence of the Sanhedrin of bseventy-onejudges, bso too here,with regard to a isota /i, the verse is referring to what occurs binthe presence of the Sanhedrin of bseventy-onejudges.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd they threaten herin order that she admit her sin, to obviate the need to erase God’s name. bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionfrom that which was taught in a ibaraitain the iTosefta(1:6): bIn the same manner that they threaten her so that she will not drink, so too, they threaten her so that she will drink,as bthey say to her: My daughter, if the matter is clear to you that you are pure, arise forthe sake of byour clearposition band drink.If you are innocent you have nothing to fear, bbecause the bitter water is similar only to a dry poison placed on the flesh. If there is a woundthere, the poison will bpenetrate and enterthe blood stream, but if bthere is no wound there, it does not have any effect.This teaches that the woman is warned not to drink if she is guilty, but if she is not guilty she is encouraged to drink. There is no mention of the latter in the mishna.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Herethe mishna is referring to bbefore the scroll was erased,and at that point the woman is warned only not to drink if she is guilty, so that the name of God will not be erased. bTherethe ibaraitais referring to bafter the scroll was erased.Then she is warned that if she is innocent she should drink because if she now refuses to drink, it will turn out that the scroll was erased for no purpose.,§ The mishna teaches: bAndthe judge bsays in her presencematters that are not worthy of being heard by her and all her father’s family in order to encourage her to admit her sin. The Gemara cites a ibaraitathat details what was said. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The judge bsays in her presence words of homileticalinterpretation bandmentions bincidents that happenedto previous generations that are recorded bin the earlyprophetic bwritings. For example,they expound the following verse: b“That wise men told and did not hide from their fathers”(Job 15:18); this teaches that even during the time of the forefathers, there were people who admitted their sins despite the shame they incurred.,For example, bJudah admittedthat he sinned with Tamar band was not embarrassedto do so, and bwhat was his end? He inherited the life of the World-to-Come. Reuben admittedthat he lay with his father’s concubine Bilhah band was not embarrassed,and bwhat was his end? Hetoo binherited the life of the World-to-Come.The Gemara asks: bAnd what is their reward?The Gemara interjects: bWhat is their reward?Their reward was clearly bas we say,that they inherited the life of the World-to-Come. The Gemara clarifies: bRather,the second question was: bWhat is their reward in this world?The Gemara answers by citing the next verse in the book of Job: b“To them alone the land was given, and no stranger passed among them”(Job 15:19). Judah was given the kingship, and Reuben inherited a portion of land in the Transjordan before the other tribes.,The Gemara questions the source for Reuben’s admission. bGranted, with regard to Judah we have founda source bthat he admittedhis sin with Tamar, bas it is written: “And Judah acknowledged them and said: She is more righteous than I”(Genesis 38:26). Judah admitted that he was the one who had impregnated Tamar. bBut from where do wederive bthat Reuben admittedhis sin?,The Gemara answers: It is bas Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is writtenconcerning Reuben and Judah in Moses’ blessing of the tribes at the end of his life: b“Let Reuben live and not die in that his men become few”(Deuteronomy 33:6), and immediately afterward, in the following verse, it is stated: b“And this for Judah,and he said: Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him in unto his people; his hands shall contend for him, and You shall be a help against his adversaries” (Deuteronomy 33:7). What is the connection between the blessing of Reuben and that of Judah, juxtaposed with the conjunction “and”?,Rabbi Yoḥa says: bAll those years that the Jewish people were in the desert, the bones of Judah,which the Jewish people took with them from Egypt along with the bones of his brothers, bwere rollingaround bin the coffin, until Moses arose and asked for compassion onJudah’s behalf. Moses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, who served as the impetus for Reuben that he admithis sin, through which he merited a blessing and was not excluded from the count of the twelve sons of Jacob (see Genesis 35:22)? It was bJudah,as Reuben saw him confess his sin, and thereby did the same. Moses continues in the next verse: b“And this for Judah,”as if to say: Is this Judah’s reward for serving as an example of confessing to one’s sins, that his bones roll around?, bImmediatelyafter Moses prayed, the verse states: b“Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah”(Deuteronomy 33:7). bHis bonesthen benteredtheir bsockets [ ishafa /i],and his skeleton was reassembled. bButthe angels still bdid not elevatehim binto the heavenly study hall.Moses then prayed: b“And bring him in unto his people”(Deuteronomy 33:7), i.e., those in the heavenly study hall. This prayer was accepted, bbut hestill bdid not knowhow bto deliberatein Torah matters bwith theheavenly bsages.Moses then prayed: b“His hands shall contend for him”(Deuteronomy 33:7), meaning that he should have the ability to contend with them in study. But still bhe was unable to drawconclusions from bhis discussion in accordance with the ihalakha /i.Moses then prayed: b“And You shall be a help against his adversaries”(Deuteronomy 33:7).,The Gemara discusses the propriety of admitting one’s sins in public. bGranted,with regard to bJudah,it was proper bthat he admittedhis sin in public, as he did so bin order that Tamar not be burnedinnocently. bBut why did Reuben admithis sin in public? bBut didn’t Rav Sheshet say: Iconsider one bwho specifies his sinsin public to be bbrazen,as one who does so indicates that he is not embarrassed by his actions? The Gemara answers: The reason he admitted his sin in public was bin order that his brothers should not be suspectedof having committed the deed.,§ The mishna teaches: bIfafter the judge’s warning bshe says: I am defiled,she writes a receipt for her marriage contract. The Gemara comments: bYoucan blearn from thismishna bthat one writes a receiptto serve as proof that a debt has been paid rather than tearing the promissory note. This matter is the subject of a dispute between the itanna’imin tractate iBava Batra(170b)., bAbaye said: Teachin the mishna differently. Rather than understanding that she writes a receipt, explain it to mean: bShe tearsher marriage contract. bRava said to him: Butthe mishna bteachesexplicitly that bshe writes a receipt. Rather,to explain the mishna, bRava said: We are dealing with a place inwhich bthey do not write a marriage contract,as they rely on the rabbinical ordice that all wives are entitled to the sum of a standard marriage contract upon divorce or being widowed, even if no marriage contract has been written. Because there is no marriage contract to tear, a receipt is written so that the man can prove that he no longer has a monetary obligation. However, generally, it is possible that the document would be torn, and no proof can be adduced from this mishna.,§ The mishna teaches: bBut ifafter the warning bshemaintains her innocence and bsays: I am pure, theywould bbring her up to the Eastern Gate.The Gemara asks: Would bthey bring her up? /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adultery, jewish Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 538
against the christians (porphyry of tyre) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
allegorical and etymological argumentation Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 207
angel, fallen/evil Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 229
canaan, canaanites Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186
childbirth Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 538
chorizontes Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 207
church history or ecclesiastical history (historia ecclesiastica, eusebius of caesarea) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
ecclesiastical history or church history (historia ecclesiastica, eusebius of caesarea) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
emerton, j Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186
erotapokrisis (quaestiones et responsiones), eusebius's use of" Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
etymological and allegorical argumentation Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 207
eusebius of caesarea, as biblical scholar and exegete Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
eusebius of caesarea, erotapokrisis and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
eusebius of caesarea, historia ecclesiastica (ecclesiastical history or church history) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
eusebius of caesarea, porphyry of tyre and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
eusebius of caesarea, questions and solutions Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
eusebius of caesarea, the proof of the gospel Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
eusebius of caesarea Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
eusebius of caesareas gospel problems and aristarchus on homer, different timing posited for contradictory accounts of same event Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 207
eusebius of caesareas gospel problems and aristarchus on homer, etymological and allegorical arguments Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 207
eusebius of caesareas gospel problems and aristarchus on homer, strategies of aristarchus followed by eusebius Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 207
eusebius of caesareas gospel problems and aristarchus on homer Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 207
exogamy Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186
female modesty Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 239
hebrew bible Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 239
historia ecclesiastica (ecclesiastical history or church history, eusebius of caesarea) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
homer., chorizontes on Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 207
immorality (sexual) Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 239
incest Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186
inclusiveness, jews and Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 290, 291
israel Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 229
joseph Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186
judah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 229, 239; Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186
julius africanus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
law, jewish Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 538
levirate marriage Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 290, 291
lex iulia de adulteriis coercendis Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 538
marriage, marrying Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186
marriage, jewish Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 538
messiah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 239
midrash Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 229
monarchy Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 229
moses Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 229
multiculturalism, jews and Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 290, 291
noah Bacchi, Uncovering Jewish Creativity in Book III of the Sibylline Oracles: Gender, Intertextuality, and Politics (2022) 117
philo Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 291
polygamy Hubbard, A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities (2014) 538
porphyry of tyre, against the christians Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
porphyry of tyre, eusebius of caesarea and Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
pray, prayer Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 229
prologues, the proof of the gospel (eusebius of caesarea) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
punishment Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 229
questions and solutions (eusebius of caesarea) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 639
rebekah Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186
repent Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 229
sarah Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186
separatism, jewish Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 290, 291
sexual relations Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 229, 239
shem Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 239; Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186
tamar' Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 229
tamar Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 239; Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186
tamar and judah Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 290, 291
tamar as Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 291
testament of judah Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 291
women Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 186