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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 35.22


וַיְהִי בִּשְׁכֹּן יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָרֶץ הַהִוא וַיֵּלֶךְ רְאוּבֵן וַיִּשְׁכַּב אֶת־בִּלְהָה פִּילֶגֶשׁ אָבִיו וַיִּשְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי־יַעֲקֹב שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר׃And it came to pass, while Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine; and Israel heard of it. Now the sons of Jacob were twelve:


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4, 27.11-27.26, 33.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 27.11. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר׃ 27.12. אֵלֶּה יַעַמְדוּ לְבָרֵךְ אֶת־הָעָם עַל־הַר גְּרִזִים בְּעָבְרְכֶם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי וִיהוּדָה וְיִשָּׂשכָר וְיוֹסֵף וּבִנְיָמִן׃ 27.13. וְאֵלֶּה יַעַמְדוּ עַל־הַקְּלָלָה בְּהַר עֵיבָל רְאוּבֵן גָּד וְאָשֵׁר וּזְבוּלֻן דָּן וְנַפְתָּלִי׃ 27.14. וְעָנוּ הַלְוִיִּם וְאָמְרוּ אֶל־כָּל־אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל קוֹל רָם׃ 27.15. אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה פֶסֶל וּמַסֵּכָה תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי חָרָשׁ וְשָׂם בַּסָּתֶר וְעָנוּ כָל־הָעָם וְאָמְרוּ אָמֵן׃ 27.16. אָרוּר מַקְלֶה אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.17. אָרוּר מַסִּיג גְּבוּל רֵעֵהוּ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.18. אָרוּר מַשְׁגֶּה עִוֵּר בַּדָּרֶךְ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.19. אָרוּר מַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר־יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.21. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־כָּל־בְּהֵמָה וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.22. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־אֲחֹתוֹ בַּת־אָבִיו אוֹ בַת־אִמּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.23. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־חֹתַנְתּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.24. אָרוּר מַכֵּה רֵעֵהוּ בַּסָּתֶר וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.25. אָרוּר לֹקֵחַ שֹׁחַד לְהַכּוֹת נֶפֶשׁ דָּם נָקִי וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.26. אָרוּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה־הַזֹּאת לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 33.6. יְחִי רְאוּבֵן וְאַל־יָמֹת וִיהִי מְתָיו מִסְפָּר׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 27.11. And Moses charged the people the same day, saying:" 27.12. ’These shall stand upon mount Gerizim to bless the people, when ye are passed over the Jordan: Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Joseph, and Benjamin;" 27.13. and these shall stand upon mount Ebal for the curse: Reuben, Gad, and Asher, and Zebulun, Dan, and Naphtali." 27.14. And the Levites shall speak, and say unto all the men of Israel with a loud voice:" 27.15. Cursed be the man that maketh a graven or molten image, an abomination unto the LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman, and setteth it up in secret. And all the people shall answer and say: Amen." 27.16. Cursed be he that dishonoureth his father or his mother. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.17. Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour’s landmark. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.18. Cursed be he that maketh the blind to go astray in the way. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.19. Cursed be he that perverteth the justice due to the stranger, fatherless, and widow. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.20. Cursed be he that lieth with his father’s wife; because he hath uncovered his father’s skirt. And all the people shall say: Amen. ." 27.21. Cursed be he that lieth with any manner of beast. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.22. Cursed be he that lieth with his sister, the daughter of his father, or the daughter of his mother. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.23. Cursed be he that lieth with his mother-in-law. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.24. Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour in secret. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.25. Cursed be he that taketh a bribe to slay an innocent person. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.26. Cursed be he that confirmeth not the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say: Amen.’" 33.6. Let Reuben live, and not die In that his men become few."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 4.4, 6.8, 6.11, 8.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.4. וַתָּבוֹאינָה נַעֲרוֹת אֶסְתֵּר וְסָרִיסֶיהָ וַיַּגִּידוּ לָהּ וַתִּתְחַלְחַל הַמַּלְכָּה מְאֹד וַתִּשְׁלַח בְּגָדִים לְהַלְבִּישׁ אֶת־מָרְדֳּכַי וּלְהָסִיר שַׂקּוֹ מֵעָלָיו וְלֹא קִבֵּל׃ 6.8. יָבִיאוּ לְבוּשׁ מַלְכוּת אֲשֶׁר לָבַשׁ־בּוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְסוּס אֲשֶׁר רָכַב עָלָיו הַמֶּלֶךְ וַאֲשֶׁר נִתַּן כֶּתֶר מַלְכוּת בְּרֹאשׁוֹ׃ 6.11. וַיִּקַּח הָמָן אֶת־הַלְּבוּשׁ וְאֶת־הַסּוּס וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֶת־מָרְדֳּכָי וַיַּרְכִּיבֵהוּ בִּרְחוֹב הָעִיר וַיִּקְרָא לְפָנָיו כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הַמֶּלֶךְ חָפֵץ בִּיקָרוֹ׃ 8.15. וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָצָא מִלִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּלְבוּשׁ מַלְכוּת תְּכֵלֶת וָחוּר וַעֲטֶרֶת זָהָב גְּדוֹלָה וְתַכְרִיךְ בּוּץ וְאַרְגָּמָן וְהָעִיר שׁוּשָׁן צָהֲלָה וְשָׂמֵחָה׃ 4.4. And Esther’s maidens and her chamberlains came and told it her; and the queen was exceedingly pained; and she sent raiment to clothe Mordecai; and to take his sackcloth from off him; but he accepted it not." 6.8. let royal apparel be brought which the king useth to wear, and the horse that the king rideth upon, and on whose head a crown royal is set;" 6.11. Then took Haman the apparel and the horse, and arrayed Mordecai, and caused him to ride through the street of the city, and proclaimed before him: ‘Thus shall it be done unto the man whom the king delighteth to honour.’" 8.15. And Mordecai went forth from the presence of the king in royal apparel of blue and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a rob of fine linen and purple; and the city of Shushan shouted and was glad."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 25.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.2. וְהָיוּ הַכְּרֻבִים פֹּרְשֵׂי כְנָפַיִם לְמַעְלָה סֹכְכִים בְּכַנְפֵיהֶם עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וּפְנֵיהֶם אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו אֶל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת יִהְיוּ פְּנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים׃ 25.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ־לִי תְּרוּמָה מֵאֵת כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִדְּבֶנּוּ לִבּוֹ תִּקְחוּ אֶת־תְּרוּמָתִי׃ 25.2. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, that they take for Me an offering; of every man whose heart maketh him willing ye shall take My offering."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 28.20-28.21, 35.16-35.20, 37.25, 37.29, 37.36, 38.14, 38.16-38.19, 39.1, 47.31, 49.1-49.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.21. וְשַׁבְתִּי בְשָׁלוֹם אֶל־בֵּית אָבִי וְהָיָה יְהוָה לִי לֵאלֹהִים׃ 35.16. וַיִּסְעוּ מִבֵּית אֵל וַיְהִי־עוֹד כִּבְרַת־הָאָרֶץ לָבוֹא אֶפְרָתָה וַתֵּלֶד רָחֵל וַתְּקַשׁ בְּלִדְתָּהּ׃ 35.17. וַיְהִי בְהַקְשֹׁתָהּ בְּלִדְתָּהּ וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמְיַלֶּדֶת אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־גַם־זֶה לָךְ בֵּן׃ 35.18. וַיְהִי בְּצֵאת נַפְשָׁהּ כִּי מֵתָה וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ בֶּן־אוֹנִי וְאָבִיו קָרָא־לוֹ בִנְיָמִין׃ 35.19. וַתָּמָת רָחֵל וַתִּקָּבֵר בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶפְרָתָה הִוא בֵּית לָחֶם׃ 37.25. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכָל־לֶחֶם וַיִּשְׂאוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה אֹרְחַת יִשְׁמְעֵאלִים בָּאָה מִגִּלְעָד וּגְמַלֵּיהֶם נֹשְׂאִים נְכֹאת וּצְרִי וָלֹט הוֹלְכִים לְהוֹרִיד מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 37.29. וַיָּשָׁב רְאוּבֵן אֶל־הַבּוֹר וְהִנֵּה אֵין־יוֹסֵף בַּבּוֹר וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־בְּגָדָיו׃ 37.36. וְהַמְּדָנִים מָכְרוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־מִצְרָיִם לְפוֹטִיפַר סְרִיס פַּרְעֹה שַׂר הַטַּבָּחִים׃ 38.14. וַתָּסַר בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתְּכַס בַּצָּעִיף וַתִּתְעַלָּף וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם אֲשֶׁר עַל־דֶּרֶךְ תִּמְנָתָה כִּי רָאֲתָה כִּי־גָדַל שֵׁלָה וְהִוא לֹא־נִתְּנָה לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 38.16. וַיֵּט אֵלֶיהָ אֶל־הַדֶּרֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר הָבָה־נָּא אָבוֹא אֵלַיִךְ כִּי לֹא יָדַע כִּי כַלָּתוֹ הִוא וַתֹּאמֶר מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִּי כִּי תָבוֹא אֵלָי׃ 38.17. וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֲשַׁלַּח גְּדִי־עִזִּים מִן־הַצֹּאן וַתֹּאמֶר אִם־תִּתֵּן עֵרָבוֹן עַד שָׁלְחֶךָ׃ 38.18. וַיֹּאמֶר מָה הָעֵרָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר אֶתֶּן־לָּךְ וַתֹּאמֶר חֹתָמְךָ וּפְתִילֶךָ וּמַטְּךָ אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדֶךָ וַיִּתֶּן־לָּהּ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ וַתַּהַר לוֹ׃ 38.19. וַתָּקָם וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתָּסַר צְעִיפָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתִּלְבַּשׁ בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ׃ 39.1. וְיוֹסֵף הוּרַד מִצְרָיְמָה וַיִּקְנֵהוּ פּוֹטִיפַר סְרִיס פַּרְעֹה שַׂר הַטַּבָּחִים אִישׁ מִצְרִי מִיַּד הַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹרִדֻהוּ שָׁמָּה׃ 39.1. וַיְהִי כְּדַבְּרָהּ אֶל־יוֹסֵף יוֹם יוֹם וְלֹא־שָׁמַע אֵלֶיהָ לִשְׁכַּב אֶצְלָהּ לִהְיוֹת עִמָּהּ׃ 47.31. וַיֹּאמֶר הִשָּׁבְעָה לִי וַיִּשָּׁבַע לוֹ וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־רֹאשׁ הַמִּטָּה׃ 49.1. לֹא־יָסוּר שֵׁבֶט מִיהוּדָה וּמְחֹקֵק מִבֵּין רַגְלָיו עַד כִּי־יָבֹא שילה [שִׁילוֹ] וְלוֹ יִקְּהַת עַמִּים׃ 49.1. וַיִּקְרָא יַעֲקֹב אֶל־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר הֵאָסְפוּ וְאַגִּידָה לָכֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא אֶתְכֶם בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים׃ 49.2. מֵאָשֵׁר שְׁמֵנָה לַחְמוֹ וְהוּא יִתֵּן מַעֲדַנֵּי־מֶלֶךְ׃ 49.2. הִקָּבְצוּ וְשִׁמְעוּ בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב וְשִׁמְעוּ אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבִיכֶם׃ 49.3. בַּמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׂדֵה הַמַּכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי־מַמְרֵא בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן אֲשֶׁר קָנָה אַבְרָהָם אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה מֵאֵת עֶפְרֹן הַחִתִּי לַאֲחֻזַּת־קָבֶר׃ 49.3. רְאוּבֵן בְּכֹרִי אַתָּה כֹּחִי וְרֵאשִׁית אוֹנִי יֶתֶר שְׂאֵת וְיֶתֶר עָז׃ 49.4. פַּחַז כַּמַּיִם אַל־תּוֹתַר כִּי עָלִיתָ מִשְׁכְּבֵי אָבִיךָ אָז חִלַּלְתָּ יְצוּעִי עָלָה׃ 49.5. שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי אַחִים כְּלֵי חָמָס מְכֵרֹתֵיהֶם׃ 49.6. בְּסֹדָם אַל־תָּבֹא נַפְשִׁי בִּקְהָלָם אַל־תֵּחַד כְּבֹדִי כִּי בְאַפָּם הָרְגוּ אִישׁ וּבִרְצֹנָם עִקְּרוּ־שׁוֹר׃ 49.7. אָרוּר אַפָּם כִּי עָז וְעֶבְרָתָם כִּי קָשָׁתָה אֲחַלְּקֵם בְּיַעֲקֹב וַאֲפִיצֵם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 49.8. יְהוּדָה אַתָּה יוֹדוּךָ אַחֶיךָ יָדְךָ בְּעֹרֶף אֹיְבֶיךָ יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אָבִיךָ׃ 28.20. And Jacob vowed a vow, saying: ‘If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on," 28.21. so that I come back to my father’s house in peace, then shall the LORD be my God," 35.16. And they journeyed from Beth-el; and there was still some way to come to Ephrath; and Rachel travailed, and she had hard labour." 35.17. And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the mid-wife said unto her: ‘Fear not; for this also is a son for thee.’" 35.18. And it came to pass, as her soul was in departing—for she died—that she called his name Ben-oni; but his father called him Benjamin." 35.19. And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath—the same is Beth-lehem." 35.20. And Jacob set up a pillar upon her grave; the same is the pillar of Rachel’s grave unto this day." 37.25. And they sat down to eat bread; and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery and balm and ladanum, going to carry it down to Egypt." 37.29. And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes." 37.36. And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh’s, the captain of the guard." 38.14. And she put off from her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself with her veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the entrance of Enaim, which is by the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him to wife." 38.16. And he turned unto her by the way, and said: ‘Come, I pray thee, let me come in unto thee’; for he knew not that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said: ‘What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come in unto me?’" 38.17. And he said: ‘I will send thee a kid of the goats from the flock.’ And she said: ‘Wilt thou give me a pledge, till thou send it?’" 38.18. And he said: ‘What pledge shall I give thee?’ And she said: ‘Thy signet and thy cord, and thy staff that is in thy hand.’ And he gave them to her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him." 38.19. And she arose, and went away, and put off her veil from her, and put on the garments of her widowhood." 39.1. And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh’s, the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of the hand of the Ishmaelites, that had brought him down thither." 47.31. And he said: ‘Swear unto me.’ And he swore unto him. And Israel bowed down upon the bed’s head." 49.1. And Jacob called unto his sons, and said: ‘Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the end of days." 49.2. Assemble yourselves, and hear, ye sons of Jacob; And hearken unto Israel your father." 49.3. Reuben, thou art my first-born, My might, and the first-fruits of my strength; The excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power." 49.4. Unstable as water, have not thou the excellency; Because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed; Then defiledst thou it—he went up to my couch." 49.5. Simeon and Levi are brethren; Weapons of violence their kinship." 49.6. Let my soul not come into their council; Unto their assembly let my glory not be not united; For in their anger they slew men, And in their self-will they houghed oxen." 49.7. Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce, And their wrath, for it was cruel; I will divide them in Jacob, And scatter them in Israel" 49.8. Judah, thee shall thy brethren praise; Thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; Thy father’s sons shall bow down before thee."
5. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 11.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.2. וְהָיָה אִם־תַּעֲלֶה חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאָמַר לְךָ מַדּוּעַ נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הָעִיר לְהִלָּחֵם הֲלוֹא יְדַעְתֶּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יֹרוּ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה׃ 11.2. וַיְהִי לְעֵת הָעֶרֶב וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵעַל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ עַל־גַּג בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּרְא אִשָּׁה רֹחֶצֶת מֵעַל הַגָּג וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה מְאֹד׃ 11.2. And it came to pass one evening, that David arose from his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king’s house: and from the roof he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very fair to look upon."
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 52.1-52.2, 61.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

52.1. חָשַׂף יְהוָה אֶת־זְרוֹעַ קָדְשׁוֹ לְעֵינֵי כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם וְרָאוּ כָּל־אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ אֵת יְשׁוּעַת אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃ 52.1. עוּרִי עוּרִי לִבְשִׁי עֻזֵּךְ צִיּוֹן לִבְשִׁי בִּגְדֵי תִפְאַרְתֵּךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם עִיר הַקֹּדֶשׁ כִּי לֹא יוֹסִיף יָבֹא־בָךְ עוֹד עָרֵל וְטָמֵא׃ 52.2. הִתְנַעֲרִי מֵעָפָר קוּמִי שְּׁבִי יְרוּשָׁלִָם התפתחו [הִתְפַּתְּחִי] מוֹסְרֵי צַוָּארֵךְ שְׁבִיָּה בַּת־צִיּוֹן׃ 52.1. Awake, awake, Put on thy strength, O Zion; Put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city; For henceforth there shall no more come into thee The uncircumcised and the unclean." 52.2. Shake thyself from the dust; Arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem; Loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion." 61.10. I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, My soul shall be joyful in my God; For He hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of victory, As a bridegroom putteth on a priestly diadem, And as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels."
7. Anon., Jubilees, 33.2, 33.9, 33.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

33.2. And he went to his father Isaac, he and Leah his wife, on the new moon of the tenth month. 33.9. For this reason it is written and ordained on the heavenly tables that a man should not lie with his father's wife, and should not uncover his father's skirt, for this is unclean: 33.15. And let them not say: to Reuben was granted life and forgiveness after he had lain with his father's concubine, and to her also though she had a husband, and her husband Jacob, his father, was still alive.
8. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 1.6, 3.11, 3.15, 4.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.6. And behold I call to witness against you this day the God of heaven, that ye walk not in the sins of youth and fornication, wherein I was poured out, and defiled the bed of my father Jacob. 4.4. And yet my father comforted me much and prayed for me unto the Lord, that the anger of the Lord might pass from me, even as the Lord showed. And thenceforth until now I have been on my guard and sinned not.
9. Septuagint, Judith, 10.3-10.4, 16.7, 16.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 10.4. And she put sandals on her feet, and put on her anklets and bracelets and rings, and her earrings and all her ornaments, and made herself very beautiful, to entice the eyes of all men who might see her. 16.7. For their mighty one did not fall by the hands of the young men, nor did the sons of the Titans smite him, nor did tall giants set upon him; but Judith the daughter of Merari undid him with the beauty of her countece. 16.23. She became more and more famous, and grew old in her husband's house, until she was one hundred and five years old. She set her maid free. She died in Bethulia, and they buried her in the cave of her husband Manasseh
10. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.231, 11.234 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.231. The same supplications did the multitude put up, and entreated that God would provide for their deliverance, and free the Israelites that were in all the earth from this calamity which was now coming upon them, for they had it before their eyes, and expected its coming. Accordingly, Esther made supplication to God after the manner of her country, by casting herself down upon the earth, and putting on her mourning garments 11.234. 9. When Esther had used this supplication for three days, she put off those garments, and changed her habit, and adorned herself as became a queen, and took two of her handmaids with her, the one of which supported her, as she gently leaned upon her, and the other followed after, and lifted up her large train (which swept along the ground) with the extremities of her fingers. And thus she came to the king, having a blushing redness in her countece, with a pleasant agreeableness in her behavior; yet did she go in to him with fear;
11. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 329, 348, 355, 2 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

12. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

92a. יקבוהו לאום ואין לאום אלא עוברין שנאמר (בראשית כה, כג) ולאום מלאום יאמץ ואין קבה אלא קללה שנאמר (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ואין בר אלא תורה שנאמר (תהלים ב, יב) נשקו בר פן יאנף,עולא בר ישמעאל אומר מנקבין אותו ככברה כתיב הכא (משלי יא, כו) יקבוהו לאום וכתיב התם (מלכים ב יב, י) ויקב חור בדלתו ואמר אביי כי אוכלא דקצרי,ואם למדו מה שכרו אמר רבא אמר רב ששת זוכה לברכות כיוסף שנאמר (משלי יא, כו) וברכה לראש משביר ואין משביר אלא יוסף שנאמר (בראשית מב, ו) ויוסף הוא [השליט על הארץ הוא] המשביר לכל עם הארץ,אמר רב ששת כל המלמד תורה בעוה"ז זוכה ומלמדה לעולם הבא שנאמר (משלי יא, כה) ומרוה גם הוא יורה,אמר רבא מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (דברים לג, ו) יחי ראובן ואל ימות יחי ראובן בעולם הזה ואל ימות לעולם הבא רבינא אמר מהכא (דניאל יב, ב) ורבים מישני אדמת עפר יקיצו אלה לחיי עולם ואלה לחרפות לדראון עולם רב אשי אמר מהכא (דניאל יב, יג) ואתה לך [לקץ] ותנוח ותעמוד לגורלך לקץ הימין,אמר רבי אלעזר כל פרנס שמנהיג את הצבור בנחת זוכה ומנהיגם לעוה"ב שנאמר (ישעיהו מט, י) כי מרחמם ינהגם ועל מבועי מים ינהלם,וא"ר אלעזר גדולה דעה שניתנה בין שתי אותיות שנאמר (שמואל א ב, ג) כי אל דעות ה',וא"ר אלעזר גדול מקדש שניתן בין שתי אותיות שנאמר (שמות טו, יז) פעלת ה' מקדש ה' כוננו ידיך מתקיף לה רב אדא קרחינאה אלא מעתה גדולה נקמה שניתנה בין שתי אותיות דכתיב (תהלים צד, א) אל נקמות ה' אל נקמות הופיע,אמר ליה למילתיה הכי נמי כדעולא דאמר עולא שתי הופעיות הללו למה אחת למדת טובה ואחת למדת פורענות,ואמר ר' אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו דעה כאילו נבנה בית המקדש בימיו שזה ניתן בין שתי אותיות וזה ניתן בין שתי אותיות,ואמר ר' אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו דעה לסוף מתעשר שנאמר (משלי כד, ד) ובדעת חדרים ימלאו כל הון יקר ונעים,ואמר ר' אלעזר כל אדם שאין בו דעה אסור לרחם עליו שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, יא) כי לא עם בינות הוא על כן לא ירחמנו עושהו ויוצרו לא יחוננו,וא"ר אלעזר כל הנותן פיתו למי שאין בו דעה יסורין באין עליו שנאמר (עובדיה א, ז) לחמך ישימו מזור תחתיך אין תבונה בו ואין מזור אלא יסורין שנאמר (הושע ה, יג) וירא אפרים את חליו ויהודה את מזורו,ואמר ר' אלעזר כל אדם שאין בו דעה לסוף גולה שנאמר (ישעיהו ה, יג) לכן גלה עמי מבלי דעת,ואמר ר"א כל בית שאין דברי תורה נשמעים בו בלילה אש אוכלתו שנאמר (איוב כ, כו) כל חשך טמון לצפוניו תאכלהו אש לא נופח ירע שריד באהלו אין שריד אלא ת"ח שנאמר (יואל ג, ה) ובשרידים אשר ה' קורא,ואמר ר' אלעזר כל שאינו מהנה תלמידי חכמים מנכסיו אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם שנאמר (איוב כ, כא) אין שריד לאכלו על כן לא יחיל טובו אין שריד אלא תלמידי חכמים שנאמר ובשרידים אשר ה' קורא,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל שאינו משייר פת על שלחנו אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם שנאמר אין שריד לאכלו על כן לא יחיל טובו,והאמר רבי אלעזר כל המשייר פתיתים על שלחנו כאילו עובד ע"ז שנאמר (ישעיהו סה, יא) העורכים לגד שלחן והממלאים למני ממסך לא קשיא הא דאיכא שלימה בהדיה הא דליכה שלימה בהדיה,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל המחליף בדבורו כאילו עובד ע"ז כתיב הכא (בראשית כז, יב) והייתי בעיניו כמתעתע וכתיב התם (ירמיהו י, טו) הבל המה מעשה תעתועים,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל המסתכל בערוה קשתו ננערת שנאמר (חבקוק ג, ט) עריה תעור קשתך,ואמר רבי אלעזר לעולם הוי קבל וקיים אמר רבי זירא אף אנן נמי תנינא בית אפל אין פותחין לו חלונות לראות נגעו ש"מ,אמר ר' טבי אמר ר' יאשיה מאי דכתיב (משלי ל, טז) שאול ועוצר רחם ארץ לא שבעה מים וכי מה ענין שאול אצל רחם אלא לומר לך מה רחם מכניס ומוציא אף שאול מכניס ומוציא,והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה רחם שמכניסין בו בחשאי מוציאין ממנו בקולי קולות שאול שמכניסין בו בקולות אינו דין שמוציאין ממנו בקולי קולות מיכן תשובה לאומרין אין תחיית המתים מן התורה,תנא דבי אליהו צדיקים שעתיד הקדוש ברוך הוא להחיותן אינן חוזרין לעפרן שנאמר (ישעיהו ד, ג) והיה הנשאר בציון והנותר בירושלים קדוש יאמר לו כל הכתוב לחיים בירושלים מה קדוש לעולם קיים אף הם לעולם קיימין 92a. bthe people [ ileom /i] shall curse him [ iyikkevuhu /i],but blessing shall be upon the head of one who provides” (Proverbs 11:26). bAndthe term ileom /iis referring to bnothing other than fetuses, as it is stated:“Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples shall be separated from your bowels; band the one ileomshall overcome the other ileom /i”(Genesis 25:23). bAnd ikabbo /iis referring to bnothing other than curse, as it is statedin the statement of Balaam: b“How can I curse one who is not cursed [ ikabbo /i] by God?”(Numbers 23:8). bAnd ibar /iis referring to bnothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “Pay homage to ibarlest He be angry”(Psalms 2:12), i.e., observe the Torah to avoid God’s wrath., bUlla bar Yishmael says: One perforates like a sievea person who withholds ihalakhafrom a student. bIt is written here:“He who withholds ibar /i, bthe people iyikkevuhu /i”(Proverbs 11:26), band it is written there: “And he bored [ ivayyikkov /i] a hole in its lid of it”(II Kings 12:10). bAnd Abaye says:One perforates him blike a launderers’ utensilused for sprinkling water on garments., bAnd if one teachesthe student ihalakharather than withholding it, bwhat is his reward? Rava saysthat bRav Sheshet says: He is privilegedto receive bblessings like Joseph, as it is statedat the end of that verse: b“But blessing shall be upon the head of one who provides [ imashbir /i]”(Proverbs 11:26). bAnd imashbir /iis referring to bnoone bother than Joseph, as it is stated: “And Joseph was the governor of the land, and he was the provider [ ihamashbir /i] to all the people of the land”(Genesis 42:6)., bRav Sheshet says: Anyone who teaches Torah in this world is privileged and teaches it in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And he who satisfies abundantly [ iumarveh /i] shall be satisfied himself [ iyoreh /i]”(Proverbs 11:25). Rav Sheshet interprets the verse homiletically: By transposing the letters of the word imarveh /i: iMem /i, ireish /i, ivav /i, iheh /i, one arrives at the word imoreh /i, meaning teaches. The verse means that one who teaches [ imoreh /i] will teach [ iyoreh /i] in the future as well.,The Gemara returns to the topic of the source for resurrection in the Torah. bRava says: From whereis bresurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “Let Reuben live and not die,in that his men become few” (Deuteronomy 33:6). This is interpreted: b“Let Reuben live” in this world “and not die” in the World-to-Come. Ravina saysthat resurrection is derived bfrom here: “And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awaken, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting disgrace”(Daniel 12:2). bRav Ashi saysproof is derived bfrom here: “But go you your way until the end be; and you shall rest, and arise to your lot at the end of days”(Daniel 12:13).,§ bRabbi Elazar says: Any communal leader who leads the community calmly,without anger and honestly, bis privileged and leads them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “For he that has compassion upon them will lead them, even by the springs of water shall he guide them”(Isaiah 49:10). Just as he led them in this world, so too will he guide them in the World-to-Come.,The Gemara proceeds to cite additional statements of Rabbi Elazar relating to recommended conduct. bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Great is knowledge, as it was placed between two letters,two names of God, bas it is stated: “For a God of knowledge is the Lord”(I Samuel 2:3)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Great is the Holy Temple, as ittoo bwas placed between two letters,two names of God, bas it is stated:“The place in which to dwell that bYou have made, Lord, the Temple, Lord, which Your hands have prepared”(Exodus 15:17). bRav Adda Karḥina’a objects tothe explanation that being placed between two names of God accords significance. bIf that is so,the same should hold true for vengeance. Shall one say: bGreatis bvengeance, as it was placed between two letters, as it is written: “God of vengeance, Lord, God of vengeance shine forth”(Psalms 94:1)?,Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him: In its context, indeed,vengeance is great, bin accordance withthe statement bof Ulla. As Ulla sayswith regard to bthese two appearances:“O Lord, God to Whom vengeance belongs; God to Whom vengeance belongs, appear” (Psalms 94:1), and: “He appeared from Mount Paran” (Deuteronomy 33:2), bwhyare both necessary? bOne,the second verse, is necessary bfor the attribute ofdivine bgood,with which God gave the Torah at Sinai, band one,the first verse, is necessary bfor the attribute ofdivine bpunishment,with which God exacts vengeance against the enemies and oppressors of the Jewish people., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to bany person in whom there is knowledge,it is bas though the Temple was built in his days, as this,knowledge, bwas placed between two letters and that,the Temple, bwas placed between two letters. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person in whom there is knowledge ultimately becomes wealthy, as it is stated: “And by knowledge are the chambers filled with all precious and pleasant riches”(Proverbs 24:4)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to bany person in whom there is no knowledge, it is prohibited to have mercy upon him, as it is stated: “For it is a people of no understanding; therefore its Maker will have no mercy on them, and its Creator will show them no favor”(Isaiah 27:11). If God has no mercy upon them, all the more so should people not show them mercy., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to banyone who gives his bread to one without knowledge, afflictions befall him, as it is stated: “They who eat your bread will place imazorunder you, in whom there is no discernment”(Obadiah 1:7). bAnd imazor /imeans bnothing other than afflictions,based on the parallel with another verse, bas it is stated: “And Ephraim saw his sickness and Judah his wound [ imezoro /i]”(Hosea 5:13). This indicates that one who gives his bread to one without discernment will ultimately fall ill., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person in whom there is no knowledge is ultimately exiled, as it is stated: “Therefore my people are exiled, for lack of knowledge”(Isaiah 5:13)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to bany house in which there are no matters of Torah heard at night, the fireof Gehenna bconsumes it, as it is stated: “All darkness is laid up for his treasures, a fire not fanned shall consume him; it shall go ill with a isaridin his tent”(Job 20:26). iSarid /iis referring to bnoone bbut a Torah scholar, as it is stated: “And among the iseridim /i, those whom the Lord shall call”(Joel 3:5). A house that is dark at night and in which no Torah is heard will be consumed by a fire that does not require fanning with a bellows, the fire of Gehenna., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Anyone who does not benefit Torah scholars from his property never sees a sign of blessing, as it is stated: “None of his food shall remain [ isarid /i]; therefore his prosperity shall not endure”(Job 20:21). iSarid /iis referring to bnoone bbut Torah scholars, as it is stated: “And among the iseridim /i, those whom the Lord shall call.”No prosperity will come to one who does not share his food with a Torah scholar., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Anyone who does not leave bread on his tableat the end of his meal indicating his gratitude to God for providing him more than enough bnever sees a sign of blessing, as it is stated: “None of his food shall remain; therefore his prosperity shall not endure.” /b,The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rabbi Elazar say:With regard to banyone who leaves piecesof bread bon his table, it is as if he worships idols, as it is stated: “Who prepare a table for Fortune [ iGad /i] and offer blended wine for Destiny”(Isaiah 65:11). The people would leave pieces of bread on the table as an offering to the constellation iGad /i, which they believed influences the fortune of the home. This practice was a form of idol worship. The Gemara answers: This apparent contradiction is bnot difficult: Thiscase, where leaving pieces of bread is a form of idol worship, applies bwhen there is a wholeloaf together bwiththe pieces, as the addition of the pieces is clearly for idol worship; bthatcase, where failure to leave bread on the table is criticized, applies bwhen there is no wholeloaf together bwiththe pieces., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to banyone who amendsthe truth bin his speech, it is as though he worships idols.As, bit is written here,in the verse where Jacob sought to resist taking his father’s blessing from Esau: b“And I shall seem to him a deceiver [ imetate’a /i]”(Genesis 27:12), band it is written therewith regard to idol worship: b“They are vanity, the work of deception [ itatuim /i]”(Jeremiah 10:15)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says:With regard to banyone who looks at nakedness [ ierva /i], his bow is emptied,i.e., he will be robbed of his potency, bas it is stated: “Your bow is stripped bare [ ierya /i]”(Habakkuk 3:9)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Forever be in the dark,i.e., anonymous, bandyou will continue to bexist. Rabbi Zeira says: We learna similar idea in a mishna bas well( iNega’im2:3): In ba dark house, one does not open windows toilluminate bitin order bto seewhether or not bitsblemish is bleprosy,and the house retains the presumptive status of ritual purity. Those matters that are obscured are allowed to continue. The Gemara affirms: bConclude fromthat mishna that this is so.,§ The Gemara returns to the topic of the source for resurrection in the Torah. bRabbi Tavi saysthat bRabbi Yoshiya says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“There are three that are never satisfied… bthe grave, and the barren womb, and earth that does not receive sufficient water”(Proverbs 30:15–16)? bAnd what does a grave have to do with a womb? Rather,they are juxtaposed bto say to you: Just as a womb takes in and gives forth, so too a grave takes in andalso bgives forth,with the resurrection of the dead., bAnd arethese bmatters notinferred ia fortiori /i: Ifwith regard to ba womb, into which one introducesthe embryo bin secret, one removesthe baby bfrom itaccompanied bbythe bloud soundsof the woman crying out during childbirth, then with regard to bthe grave, into which one introducesthe corpse bwith soundsof wailing and mourning the dead, bis it not right that one removesfrom it the resurrected dead accompanied bbythe bloud soundsof the resurrected multitudes? bFrom herethere is ba response tothose who bsay: There is no resurrection of the deadderived bfrom the Torah. /b, bThe school of Eliyahu taught: The righteous whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, is destined to resurrect do not return to their dust, as it is stated: “And it shall come to pass, that he who remains in Zion and he who remains in Jerusalem shall be called holy, anyone who is written unto life in Jerusalem”(Isaiah 4:3). bJust asthe bHoly One exists forever, so too will they exist forever. /b
13. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

55b. מיתיבי אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מפני מה קנסת מיתה על אדם הראשון אמר להם מצוה קלה צויתיו ועבר עליה א"ל והלא משה ואהרן שקיימו כל התורה כולה ומתו א"ל (קהלת ט, ב) מקרה אחד לצדיק ולרשע לטוב וגו',הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר אף משה ואהרן בחטאם מתו שנא' (במדבר כ, יב) יען לא האמנתם בי הא האמנתם בי עדיין לא הגיע זמנכם ליפטר מן העולם,מיתיבי ארבעה מתו בעטיו של נחש ואלו הן בנימין בן יעקב ועמרם אבי משה וישי אבי דוד וכלאב בן דוד וכולהו גמרא לבר מישי אבי דוד דמפרש ביה קרא דכתיב (שמואל ב יז, כה) ואת עמשא שם אבשלום תחת יואב (שר) הצבא ועמשא בן איש ושמו יתרא הישראלי אשר בא אל אביגיל בת נחש אחות צרויה אם יואב,וכי בת נחש הואי והלא בת ישי הואי דכתיב (דברי הימים א ב, טז) ואחיותיהן צרויה ואביגיל אלא בת מי שמת בעטיו של נחש,מני אילימא תנא דמלאכי השרת והא איכא משה ואהרן אלא לאו ר"ש בן אלעזר היא וש"מ יש מיתה בלא חטא ויש יסורין בלא עון ותיובתא דרב אמי תיובתא:,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל האומר ראובן חטא אינו אלא טועה שנאמר (בראשית לה, כב) ויהיו בני יעקב שנים עשר מלמד שכולן שקולים כאחת אלא מה אני מקיים (בראשית לה, כב) וישכב את בלהה פילגש אביו מלמד שבלבל מצעו של אביו ומעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו שכב עמה,תניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר מוצל אותו צדיק מאותו עון ולא בא מעשה זה לידו אפשר עתיד זרעו לעמוד על הר עיבל ולומר (דברים כז, כ) ארור שוכב עם אשת אביו ויבא חטא זה לידו אלא מה אני מקיים וישכב את בלהה פילגש אביו עלבון אמו תבע אמר אם אחות אמי היתה צרה לאמי שפחת אחות אמי תהא צרה לאמי עמד ובלבל את מצעה,אחרים אומרים שתי מצעות בלבל אחת של שכינה ואחת של אביו והיינו דכתיב (בראשית מט, ד) אז חללת יצועי עלה (אל תקרי יצועי אלא יצועיי),כתנאי פחז כמים אל תותר ר' אליעזר אומר פזתה חבתה זלתה ר' יהושע אומר פסעתה על דת חטאת זנית ר"ג אומר פיללתה חלתה זרחה תפלתך,אמר ר"ג עדיין צריכין אנו למודעי ר' אלעזר המודעי אומר הפוך את התיבה ודורשה זעזעתה הרתעתה פרחה חטא ממך רבא אמר ואמרי לה ר' ירמיה בר אבא זכרת עונשו של דבר חלית עצמך חולי גדול פירשת מלחטוא:,ראובן בני עלי בני שמואל דוד ושלמה ויואש סימן:,אמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל האומר בני עלי חטאו אינו אלא טועה שנאמר (שמואל א א, ג) ושם שני בני עלי (עם ארון ברית האלהים) חפני ופנחס כהנים לה',סבר לה כרב דאמר רב פנחס לא חטא מקיש חפני לפנחס מה פנחס לא חטא אף חפני לא חטא אלא מה אני מקיים אשר ישכבון את הנשים מתוך ששהו את קיניהן שלא הלכו אצל בעליהן מעלה עליהן הכתוב כאילו שכבום,גופא אמר רב פנחס לא חטא שנאמר (שמואל א יד, ג) ואחיה בן אחיטוב אחי אי כבוד בן פנחס בן עלי כהן ה' וגו' אפשר חטא בא לידו והכתוב מייחסו,והלא כבר נאמר (מלאכי ב, יב) יכרת ה' לאיש אשר יעשנה ער ועונה מאהלי יעקב ומגיש מנחה לה' צבאות אם ישראל הוא לא יהיה לו ער בחכמים ולא עונה בתלמידים ואם כהן הוא לא יהיה לו בן מגיש מנחה אלא לאו שמע מינה פנחס לא חטא,אלא הא כתיב (שמואל א ב, כב) אשר ישכבון ישכבן כתיב,והכתיב (שמואל א ב, כד) אל בני כי לא טובה השמועה א"ר נחמן בר יצחק בני כתיב,והכתיב מעבירים א"ר הונא בריה דרב יהושע מעבירם כתיב,והכתיב בני בליעל מתוך שהיה לו לפנחס למחות לחפני ולא מיחה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו חטא,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל האומר 55b. The Gemara braises an objectionfrom the following ibaraita /i: bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, why did You penalize Adam, the first man, withthe bdeathpenalty? bHe said to them: I gave him a simple mitzva, and he violated it. They said to Him: Didn’t Moses and Aaron, who observed the whole Torah in its entirety,nevertheless bdie?The Holy One, Blessed be He, bsaid to them,citing the verse: “All things come alike to all; bthere is one event to the righteous and to the wicked; to the goodand to the clean, and to the unclean; to him who sacrifices, and to him who does not sacrifice; as is the good, so is the sinner; and he who swears, as he who fears an oath” (Ecclesiastes 9:2). Apparently, death is not dependent upon one’s actions. Everyone dies.,The Gemara answers: Rav Ami bstatedhis position bin accordance with this itanna /i, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Even Moses and Aaron died due to their sin, as it is stated:“And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron: bBecause you did not believe in Me /b, to sanctify Me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore you shall not bring this congregation in to the land which I have given them” (Numbers 20:12). bHad you believed in Meand spoken to the rock as commanded, byour time would notyet bhave come to leave the world.Apparently, even Moses and Aaron died due to their sins.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom what was taught in the following ibaraita /i: bFourpeople bdied due toAdam’s sin with bthe serpent,in the wake of which death was decreed upon all of mankind, although they themselves were free of sin. bAnd they are: Benjamin, son of Jacob; Amram, father of Moses; Yishai, father of David; and Kilab, son of David. And all of themwere learned through btradition, except for Yishai, father of David, with regard to whom there is an explicit verseinterpreted homiletically, bas it is written: “And Absalom placed Amasa in charge of the army in place of Joab, and Amasa was the son of a man named Ithra the Israelite, who had taken to himself Abigail the daughter of Nahash, sister of Zeruiah, the mother of Joab”(II Samuel 17:25).,The Gemara asks: bAnd wasAbigail bthe daughter of Nahash? Wasn’t she the daughter of Yishai, as it is written:“And Yishai begot his firstborn Eliab, and Abinadab the second, and Shimea the third, Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth, Ozem the sixth, David the seventh: band their sisters were Zeruiah and Abigail.And the sons of Zeruiah: Abishai, and Joab, and Asahel, three. And Abigail bore Amasa; and the father of Amasa was Jether the Ishmaelite” (I Chronicles 2:13–17)? Apparently, Abigail was the daughter of Yishai. bRather,the verse states that Abigail was the daughter of Nahash in order to teach us that she was bthe daughter of one who died on account ofAdam’s sin with bthe serpent [ inaḥash /i],though he himself was free of sin.,The Gemara now clarifies the matter: bWhois the itannaof the ibaraitathat states that four people did not die due to their own sins? bIf you saythat it is the itanna /iwho taught the conversation between bthe ministering angelsand God, it is difficult, bas weren’t therealso bMoses and Aaronwho did not die due to their own sins? bRather, it must be Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar,who holds that even Moses and Aaron died because of their own sins. bLearn from itthen that, in principle, he agrees that bthere is death without sin and there is suffering without iniquity, andthis is a bconclusive refutationof the opinion bof Rav Ami.The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is a bconclusive refutation. /b,Having mentioned the sins of some of the significant ancestors of the Jewish people, the Gemara now addresses several additional ancestors. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who says that Reuben sinnedwith Bilhah bis nothing other than mistaken, as it is stated:“And it came to pass, when Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine; and Israel heard of it. bNow the sons of Jacob were twelve”(Genesis 35:22). The fact that the Torah stated the number of Jacob’s sons at that point in the narrative bteaches that,even after the incident involving Bilhah, ballof the brothers bwere equalin righteousness. Apparently, Reuben did not sin. bHowthen bdo I establishthe meaning of the verse: b“And he lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine”?The plain understanding of the verse indicates sin. bThisverse bteaches thatReuben brearranged his father’s bedin protest of Jacob’s placement of his bed in the tent of Bilhah and not in the tent of his mother Leah after the death of Rachel. bAnd the verse ascribes to himliability for his action bas if he hadactually blain withBilhah., bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: This righteous person,Reuben, bwas saved from that sinof adultery, band that action did not come tobe performed by bhim? Is it possiblethat bhis descendants are destined to stand on Mount Eival and say: “Cursed be he that lies with his father’s wife;because he uncovers his father’s skirt. And all the people shall say, amen” (Deuteronomy 27:20), band this sin will come tobe performed by bhim?Is it conceivable that the members of a tribe would curse their ancestor? bHowthen bdo I establishthe meaning of the verse: b“And he lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine”?It is understood as follows: bHe protested the affront to his mother. He said: If my mother’s sisterRachel bwas a rival to my mother, will my mother’s sister’s concubine be a rival to my mother? Heimmediately bstood and rearranged her bedso that Jacob would enter Leah’s tent.,iAḥerimsay: He rearranged two beds, one of the Divine Presence and one of his father. And that isthe meaning of bthat which is written:“Unstable as water, you shall not excel; because you went up to your father’s bed; bthen you did defile it; he went up to my bed [ iyetzu /i’ ii /i]”(Genesis 49:4). bDo not read it as iyetzu’i /i,in the singular; brather, read it as iyetzu /i’ iai /i, my beds,in the plural, referring to both the bed of his father and to the bed of the Divine Presence, which rests in the tents of the righteous.,The Gemara notes that the matter of Reuben’s innocence is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i.As it was taught in a ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“Unstable [ ipaḥaz /i] as water, you shall not excel.”The Sages understood ipaḥazas an acronym. bRabbi Eliezer saysthat it means: bYou were impulsive [ ipazta /i], you were liable [ iḥavta /i], and you acted contemptuously [ izalta /i]. Rabbi Yehoshua saysthat it means: bYou trampled the law [ ipasata al dat /i], you sinned [ iḥatata /i],and byou were promiscuous [ izanita /i]. Rabban Gamliel says:The acronym does not refer to Reuben’s sin. It refers to his repentance: bYou prayed [ ipilalta /i], you trembledin fear b[ iḥalta /i],and byour prayer shone forth [ izarḥa /i]. /b, bRabban Gamliel said: We still needthe explanation of bthe Modaite,as bRabbi Elazar HaModa’i said: Reversethe order of the letters in bthe word ipaḥaz bandthen binterpret it homiletically: You shook [ izizata /i], you recoiled[ihirtata /i];the iḥetin ipaḥazis interchanged with the letter iheh /i, so that you would not sin, and bthe sin flew [ iparḥa /i] from you.Rabban Gamliel and Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i are of the opinion that Reuben did not sin. Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua held that he did. bRava said, and some saythat bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said:Reverse the letters in ipaḥazand interpret: bYou remembered [ izakharta /i] the punishmentfor that offense, byou made yourself gravely ill [ iḥalita /i]in order to refrain from sinning, and byousuccessfully bwithdrew [ ipeirashta /i] from sinning. /b,The Gemara prefaces the following statements of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani with a bmnemonic: Reuben, the sons of Eli, the sons of Samuel, David, Solomon, and Josiah. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who says that the sons of Eli sinned is nothing other than mistaken, as it is written: “And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Pinehas, were there priests of the Lord”(I Samuel 1:3).,The Gemara explains: Rabbi Yonatan bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRav, as Rav said: Pinehas did not sin.And the verse bjuxtaposes Hophni to Pinehas; just as Pinehas did not sin, so too Hophni did not sin.The Gemara asks: bHow,then, bdo I establishthe meaning of the verse: “Now Eli was very old, and heard all that his sons did to all Israel; and bhow they lay with the womenthat assembled at the door of the Tent of Meeting” (I Samuel 2:22), which indicates otherwise? The Gemara answers: bSincethe sons of Eli bdelayedsacrificing bthe bird-offeringsof women who had given birth, a pair of doves brought as part of the purification process, and this delay caused the women bnot to go to their husbandsin timely fashion, bthe verse ascribes toHophni and Pinehas liability bas if they had lain with them.They were guilty of nothing more than negligence and carelessness.,The Gemara now examines bthe matter itselfof Rav’s statement cited in the course of the previous discussion. bRav said: Pinehas did not sin, as it is stated: “And Ahijah, the son of Ahitub, Ichabod’s brother, the son of Pinehas, the son of Eli, was the Lord’s priestin Shiloh, wearing an ephod” (I Samuel 14:3). bIs it possible that sin came toPinehas’ bhand and,nevertheless, bthe verse traces the lineageof his grandson, Ahijah, back bto him? /b, bWasn’t it was already statedwith regard to those who engage in promiscuous relations: b“The Lord will cut off from the man that does this, him that is awake and him that answers from the tents of Jacob, or any to present an offering to the Lord of hosts”(Malachi 2:12). The Sages interpreted the verse homiletically: bIfthe sinner is ban Israelite, he will not haveamong his descendants bone who issharp and bawake among the Sages, oreven bone amongtheir bdisciples who can answerquestions. bAnd if he is a priest, he will not have a son who will present a meal-offering.If Pinehas had sons and grandsons serving as priests, bconclude from it that Pinehas did not sin. /b,The Gemara asks: bHowever, isn’t it written: “And how they lay [ iyishkevun /i]with the women.” The verb iyishkevunis in the plural, indicating that both sons were guilty. The Gemara answers: It bis writtenwithout a ivavso that it can be read as iyishkeven /iin the singular, i.e., how he lay, indicating that only one of them sinned.,The Gemara asks further: bIsn’t it writtenthat Eli said: b“No, my sons [ ibanai /i]; for it is not a good reportthat I hear; you make the Lord’s people to transgress” (I Samuel 2:24). The fact that Eli referred to his sons in the plural indicates that they both sinned. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is writtenin a manner that can be read as bmy son [ ibeni /i]in the singular.,The Gemara raises another question: bIsn’t it written: “You makethe Lord’s people bto transgress [ ima’avirim /i]in the plural, indicating that both sons were guilty. bRav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said:Here too, the word bis writtenwithout a iyodso that it can be read as: bYou causethe Lord’s people bto transgress [ ima’aviram /i]in the singular, indicating that only one of them sinned.,The Gemara raises one last challenge: bIsn’t it written:“Now the sons of Eli were bscoundrels;they knew not the Lord” (I Samuel 2:12), indicating that they were both sinners. The Gemara answers: bSince Pinehas should have protested Hophni’sconduct, bbut he did not protest, the verse ascribes to himliability bas if hetoo bhad sinned. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who says /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
audience Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 414
bathsheba Gera (2014), Judith, 331
betrothed,christological Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 123
betrothed,factual Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 123
biblical interpretation,in book of jubilees Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 113
biblical interpretation,in dead sea scrolls Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 113
biblical interpretation,rewritten bible Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 113
biblical interpretation Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 113, 114
biblical women,as symbols Gera (2014), Judith, 331
biblical women,bathe Gera (2014), Judith, 331
biblical women,seductive Gera (2014), Judith, 331
bilhah Gera (2014), Judith, 331
changing Gera (2014), Judith, 331
children Gera (2014), Judith, 331
claudius,roman emperor,expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 373
context Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
contradiction Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
demetrius Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
demetrius colleagues Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
egyptians Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
esther,in lxx / additions Gera (2014), Judith, 331
esther,in mt Gera (2014), Judith, 331
genesis rabbah Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
hebrew bible Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 414, 420, 423
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 387, 388, 394
ishmaelites Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
israel,nan Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 388
jacob Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 387, 388, 394, 414, 420, 423
jacob (patriarch) Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 123
jerusalem Gera (2014), Judith, 331
joseph Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
joseph and the brothers Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 387, 388, 394, 414, 420, 423
jubilees Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 113
judah Gera (2014), Judith, 331
judith,symbolic figure Gera (2014), Judith, 331
judith,widow Gera (2014), Judith, 331
maid,judiths Gera (2014), Judith, 331
masoretic text Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 420
meturgeman (interpreter) Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 141
midianites Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
midrash/midrashim Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 387, 388, 394, 414, 420, 423
midrash Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 113, 114
mordecai Gera (2014), Judith, 331
moses Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 387, 388, 394, 423
mourning Gera (2014), Judith, 331
patriarchs,texts Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 414
pharaoh Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 123
polity Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 414
prayer Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 387, 388, 394, 414, 420, 423
rabbi yose Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
rabbinic,interpretation' Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
rape,during marriage Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 123
reuben/reuben and bilhah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 387, 388, 394, 414, 420, 423
reuben Gera (2014), Judith, 331; Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57
reuben (biblical) Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 123
revelation,esoteric Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 113
revelation Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 414
rewritten bible Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 387, 388, 394, 420
sackcloth Gera (2014), Judith, 331
sages,the Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 423
sarah (matriarch) Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 123
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 420
septuagint,lukes use Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 372
sexual encounters Gera (2014), Judith, 331
sifre dvarim Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 113
susanna Gera (2014), Judith, 331
synagogue Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 141
syriac,ruḥānāʾit Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 123
syriac,suʿrānāʾit Monnickendam (2020), Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian, 123
talmud Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 141
tamar,judahs daughter in law Gera (2014), Judith, 331
targum Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 141
torah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 387, 388, 394
water shortage Gera (2014), Judith, 331
widows,clothing of Gera (2014), Judith, 331
widows Gera (2014), Judith, 331
yehuda Niehoff (2011), Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 57