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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.20


nanAnd the man called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

37 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.1, 3.4, 4.1, 4.13-4.14, 5.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. נָאווּ לְחָיַיִךְ בַּתֹּרִים צַוָּארֵךְ בַּחֲרוּזִים׃ 1.1. שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים אֲשֶׁר לִשְׁלֹמֹה׃ 3.4. כִּמְעַט שֶׁעָבַרְתִּי מֵהֶם עַד שֶׁמָּצָאתִי אֵת שֶׁאָהֲבָה נַפְשִׁי אֲחַזְתִּיו וְלֹא אַרְפֶּנּוּ עַד־שֶׁהֲבֵיאתִיו אֶל־בֵּית אִמִּי וְאֶל־חֶדֶר הוֹרָתִי׃ 4.1. מַה־יָּפוּ דֹדַיִךְ אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה מַה־טֹּבוּ דֹדַיִךְ מִיַּיִן וְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנַיִךְ מִכָּל־בְּשָׂמִים׃ 4.1. הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי הִנָּךְ יָפָה עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים מִבַּעַד לְצַמָּתֵךְ שַׂעְרֵךְ כְּעֵדֶר הָעִזִּים שֶׁגָּלְשׁוּ מֵהַר גִּלְעָד׃ 4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 5.11. רֹאשׁוֹ כֶּתֶם פָּז קְוּצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִּים שְׁחֹרוֹת כָּעוֹרֵב׃ 1.1. THE song of songs, which is Solomon’s. 3.4. Scarce had I passed from them, When I found him whom my soul loveth: I held him, and would not let him go, Until I had brought him into my mother’s house, And into the chamber of her that conceived me. 4.1. Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; Thine eyes are as doves behind thy veil; Thy hair is as a flock of goats, that trail down from mount Gilead. 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices. 5.11. His head is as the most fine gold, His locks are curled, And black as a raven.
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 23.19, 34.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.19. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 34.26. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 23.19. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk." 34.26. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring unto the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 1.3-1.5, 1.22, 1.26-1.30, 2.2, 2.4, 2.7-2.24, 3.1-3.19, 3.21-3.24, 4.1, 4.3-4.4, 4.18, 4.25, 5.3-5.5, 5.9-5.14, 5.18-5.24, 5.29, 6.1-6.7, 9.10, 9.20, 12.5, 12.13, 15.6, 21.8-21.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃ 1.5. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד׃ 1.22. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים לֵאמֹר פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וְהָעוֹף יִרֶב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.29. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כָּל־עֵשֶׂב זֹרֵעַ זֶרַע אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ פְרִי־עֵץ זֹרֵעַ זָרַע לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה׃ 2.2. וַיְכַל אֱלֹהִים בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃ 2.2. וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁמוֹת לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּלְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וּלְאָדָם לֹא־מָצָא עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃ 2.4. אֵלֶּה תוֹלְדוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ בְּהִבָּרְאָם בְּיוֹם עֲשׂוֹת יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמָיִם׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.8. וַיִּטַּע יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים גַּן־בְעֵדֶן מִקֶּדֶם וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁם אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יָצָר׃ 2.9. וַיַּצְמַח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־עֵץ נֶחְמָד לְמַרְאֶה וְטוֹב לְמַאֲכָל וְעֵץ הַחַיִּים בְּתוֹךְ הַגָּן וְעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע׃ 2.11. שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פִּישׁוֹן הוּא הַסֹּבֵב אֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ הַחֲוִילָה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם הַזָּהָב׃ 2.12. וּזֲהַב הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא טוֹב שָׁם הַבְּדֹלַח וְאֶבֶן הַשֹּׁהַם׃ 2.13. וְשֵׁם־הַנָּהָר הַשֵּׁנִי גִּיחוֹן הוּא הַסּוֹבֵב אֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ כּוּשׁ׃ 2.14. וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי חִדֶּקֶל הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ קִדְמַת אַשּׁוּר וְהַנָּהָר הָרְבִיעִי הוּא פְרָת׃ 2.15. וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃ 2.16. וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃ 2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 2.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לֹא־טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃ 2.19. וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃ 2.21. וַיַּפֵּל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו וַיִּסְגֹּר בָּשָׂר תַּחְתֶּנָּה׃ 2.22. וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃ 2.23. וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם זֹאת הַפַּעַם עֶצֶם מֵעֲצָמַי וּבָשָׂר מִבְּשָׂרִי לְזֹאת יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה כִּי מֵאִישׁ לֻקֳחָה־זֹּאת׃ 2.24. עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 3.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־קֹלְךָ שָׁמַעְתִּי בַּגָּן וָאִירָא כִּי־עֵירֹם אָנֹכִי וָאֵחָבֵא׃ 3.1. וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.2. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ מִפְּרִי עֵץ־הַגָּן נֹאכֵל׃ 3.2. וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ חַוָּה כִּי הִוא הָיְתָה אֵם כָּל־חָי׃ 3.3. וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בּוֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.4. וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מוֹת תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.5. כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃ 3.6. וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב הָעֵץ לְמַאֲכָל וְכִי תַאֲוָה־הוּא לָעֵינַיִם וְנֶחְמָד הָעֵץ לְהַשְׂכִּיל וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּתֵּן גַּם־לְאִישָׁהּ עִמָּהּ וַיֹּאכַל׃ 3.7. וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת׃ 3.8. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים בְּתוֹךְ עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר מִי הִגִּיד לְךָ כִּי עֵירֹם אָתָּה הֲמִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לְבִלְתִּי אֲכָל־מִמֶּנּוּ אָכָלְתָּ׃ 3.12. וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה עִמָּדִי הִוא נָתְנָה־לִּי מִן־הָעֵץ וָאֹכֵל׃ 3.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לָאִשָּׁה מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הַנָּחָשׁ הִשִּׁיאַנִי וָאֹכֵל׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.15. וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃ 3.16. אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אָמַר הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ בְּעֶצֶב תֵּלְדִי בָנִים וְאֶל־אִישֵׁךְ תְּשׁוּקָתֵךְ וְהוּא יִמְשָׁל־בָּךְ׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.18. וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 3.21. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵׁם׃ 3.22. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃ 3.23. וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִגַּן־עֵדֶן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם׃ 3.24. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃ 4.1. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה עָשִׂיתָ קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים אֵלַי מִן־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 4.1. וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת־חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת־קַיִן וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 4.3. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ יָמִים וַיָּבֵא קַיִן מִפְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה מִנְחָה לַיהוָה׃ 4.4. וְהֶבֶל הֵבִיא גַם־הוּא מִבְּכֹרוֹת צֹאנוֹ וּמֵחֶלְבֵהֶן וַיִּשַׁע יְהוָה אֶל־הֶבֶל וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ׃ 4.18. וַיִּוָּלֵד לַחֲנוֹךְ אֶת־עִירָד וְעִירָד יָלַד אֶת־מְחוּיָאֵל וּמְחִיּיָאֵל יָלַד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁאֵל וּמְתוּשָׁאֵל יָלַד אֶת־לָמֶךְ׃ 4.25. וַיֵּדַע אָדָם עוֹד אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת כִּי שָׁת־לִי אֱלֹהִים זֶרַע אַחֵר תַּחַת הֶבֶל כִּי הֲרָגוֹ קָיִן׃ 5.3. וַיְחִי אָדָם שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בִּדְמוּתוֹ כְּצַלְמוֹ וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת׃ 5.3. וַיְחִי־לֶמֶךְ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־נֹחַ חָמֵשׁ וְתִשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.4. וַיִּהְיוּ יְמֵי־אָדָם אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־שֵׁת שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.5. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי אָדָם אֲשֶׁר־חַי תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.9. וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־קֵינָן׃ 5.11. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי אֱנוֹשׁ חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.12. וַיְחִי קֵינָן שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־מַהֲלַלְאֵל׃ 5.13. וַיְחִי קֵינָן אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מַהֲלַלְאֵל אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.14. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי קֵינָן עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.18. וַיְחִי־יֶרֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־חֲנוֹךְ׃ 5.19. וַיְחִי־יֶרֶד אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־חֲנוֹךְ שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.21. וַיְחִי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁלַח׃ 5.22. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁלַח שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.23. וַיְהִי כָּל־יְמֵי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 5.29. וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ נֹחַ לֵאמֹר זֶה יְנַחֲמֵנוּ מִמַּעֲשֵׂנוּ וּמֵעִצְּבוֹן יָדֵינוּ מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אֵרְרָהּ יְהוָה׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 6.5. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 6.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָאתִי מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה עַד־רֶמֶשׂ וְעַד־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם כִּי נִחַמְתִּי כִּי עֲשִׂיתִם׃ 12.5. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־אָחִיו וְאֶת־כָּל־רְכוּשָׁם אֲשֶׁר רָכָשׁוּ וְאֶת־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן וַיֵּצְאוּ לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ אַרְצָה כְּנָעַן׃ 12.13. אִמְרִי־נָא אֲחֹתִי אָתְּ לְמַעַן יִיטַב־לִי בַעֲבוּרֵךְ וְחָיְתָה נַפְשִׁי בִּגְלָלֵךְ׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 21.8. וַיִּגְדַּל הַיֶּלֶד וַיִּגָּמַל וַיַּעַשׂ אַבְרָהָם מִשְׁתֶּה גָדוֹל בְּיוֹם הִגָּמֵל אֶת־יִצְחָק׃ 21.9. וַתֵּרֶא שָׂרָה אֶת־בֶּן־הָגָר הַמִּצְרִית אֲשֶׁר־יָלְדָה לְאַבְרָהָם מְצַחֵק׃ 21.11. וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּעֵינֵי אַבְרָהָם עַל אוֹדֹת בְּנוֹ׃ 21.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אַל־יֵרַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ עַל־הַנַּעַר וְעַל־אֲמָתֶךָ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמַר אֵלֶיךָ שָׂרָה שְׁמַע בְּקֹלָהּ כִּי בְיִצְחָק יִקָּרֵא לְךָ זָרַע׃ 21.13. וְגַם אֶת־בֶּן־הָאָמָה לְגוֹי אֲשִׂימֶנּוּ כִּי זַרְעֲךָ הוּא׃ 21.14. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם אַבְרָהָם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּקַּח־לֶחֶם וְחֵמַת מַיִם וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־הָגָר שָׂם עַל־שִׁכְמָהּ וְאֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַיְשַׁלְּחֶהָ וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתֵּתַע בְּמִדְבַּר בְּאֵר שָׁבַע׃ 21.15. וַיִּכְלוּ הַמַּיִם מִן־הַחֵמֶת וַתַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד תַּחַת אַחַד הַשִּׂיחִם׃ 21.16. וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתֵּשֶׁב לָהּ מִנֶּגֶד הַרְחֵק כִּמְטַחֲוֵי קֶשֶׁת כִּי אָמְרָה אַל־אֶרְאֶה בְּמוֹת הַיָּלֶד וַתֵּשֶׁב מִנֶּגֶד וַתִּשָּׂא אֶת־קֹלָהּ וַתֵּבְךְּ׃ 21.17. וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת־קוֹל הַנַּעַר וַיִּקְרָא מַלְאַךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָגָר מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַה־לָּךְ הָגָר אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־שָׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶל־קוֹל הַנַּעַר בַּאֲשֶׁר הוּא־שָׁם׃ 21.18. קוּמִי שְׂאִי אֶת־הַנַּעַר וְהַחֲזִיקִי אֶת־יָדֵךְ בּוֹ כִּי־לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל אֲשִׂימֶנּוּ׃ 21.19. וַיִּפְקַח אֱלֹהִים אֶת־עֵינֶיהָ וַתֵּרֶא בְּאֵר מָיִם וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתְּמַלֵּא אֶת־הַחֵמֶת מַיִם וַתַּשְׁקְ אֶת־הַנָּעַר׃ 21.21. וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּמִדְבַּר פָּארָן וַתִּקַּח־לוֹ אִמּוֹ אִשָּׁה מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." 1.5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day." 1.22. And God blessed them, saying: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.’" 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.29. And God said: ‘Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed—to you it shall be for food;" 1.30. and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is a living soul, [I have given] every green herb for food.’ And it was so." 2.2. And on the seventh day God finished His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made." 2.4. These are the generations of the heaven and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made earth and heaven." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 2.8. And the LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed." 2.9. And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil." 2.10. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became four heads." 2.11. The name of the first is Pishon; that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;" 2.12. and the gold of that land is good; there is bdellium and the onyx stone." 2.13. And the name of the second river is Gihon; the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Cush." 2.14. And the name of the third river is Tigris; that is it which goeth toward the east of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates." 2.15. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." 2.16. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;" 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’" 2.18. And the LORD God said: ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.’" 2.19. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof." 2.20. And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him." 2.21. And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof." 2.22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man." 2.23. And the man said: ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’" 2.24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh." 3.1. Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman: ‘Yea, hath God said: Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden?’" 3.2. And the woman said unto the serpent: ‘of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat;" 3.3. but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’" 3.4. And the serpent said unto the woman: ‘Ye shall not surely die;" 3.5. for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’" 3.6. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat." 3.7. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles." 3.8. And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden." 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’" 3.10. And he said: ‘I heard Thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.’" 3.11. And He said: ‘Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?’" 3.12. And the man said: ‘The woman whom Thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.’" 3.13. And the LORD God said unto the woman: ‘What is this thou hast done?’ And the woman said: ‘The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.’" 3.14. And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life." 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’" 3.16. Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’" 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’" 3.21. And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them." 3.22. And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’" 3.23. Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken." 3.24. So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life." 4.1. And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived and bore Cain, and said: ‘I have agotten a man with the help of the LORD.’" 4.3. And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD." 4.4. And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering;" 4.18. And unto Enoch was born Irad; and Irad begot Mehujael; and Mehujael begot Methushael; and Methushael begot Lamech." 4.25. And Adam knew his wife again; and she bore a son, and called his name Seth: ‘for God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him.’" 5.3. And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth." 5.4. And the days of Adam after he begot Seth were eight hundred years; and he begot sons and daughters." 5.5. And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years; and he died." 5.9. And Enosh lived ninety years, and begot Ke." 5.10. And Enosh lived after he begot Ke eight hundred and fifteen years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.11. And all the days of Enosh were nine hundred and five years; and he died." 5.12. And Ke lived seventy years, and begot Mahalalel." 5.13. And Ke lived after he begot Mahalalel eight hundred and forty years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.14. And all the days of Ke were nine hundred and ten years; and he died." 5.18. And Jared lived a hundred sixty and two years, and begot Enoch." 5.19. And Jared lived after he begot Enoch eight hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.20. And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years; and he died. ." 5.21. And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah." 5.22. And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.23. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years." 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him." 5.29. And he called his name Noah, saying: ‘This same shall comfort us in our work and in the toil of our hands, which cometh from the ground which the LORD hath cursed.’" 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 6.5. And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart." 6.7. And the LORD said: ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth Me that I have made them.’" 9.10. and with every living creature that is with you, the fowl, the cattle, and every beast of the earth with you; of all that go out of the ark, even every beast of the earth." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 12.5. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother’s son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came." 12.13. Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister; that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee.’" 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness." 21.8. And the child grew, and was weaned. And Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned." 21.9. And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne unto Abraham, making sport." 21.10. Wherefore she said unto Abraham: ‘Cast out this bondwoman and her son; for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac.’" 21.11. And the thing was very grievous in Abraham’s sight on account of his son." 21.12. And God said unto Abraham: ‘Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah saith unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall seed be called to thee." 21.13. And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed.’" 21.14. And Abraham arose up early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away; and she departed, and strayed in the wilderness of Beer-sheba." 21.15. And the water in the bottle was spent, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs." 21.16. And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bow-shot; for she said: ‘Let me not look upon the death of the child.’ And she sat over against him, and lifted up her voice, and wept." 21.17. And God heard the voice of the lad; and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her: ‘What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is." 21.18. Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him fast by thy hand; for I will make him a great nation.’" 21.19. And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink." 21.20. And God was with the lad, and he grew; and he dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer." 21.21. And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran; and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.7. וְהֵמָּה כְּאָדָם עָבְרוּ בְרִית שָׁם בָּגְדוּ בִי׃ 6.7. But they like men have transgressed the covet; There have they dealt treacherously against Me."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 2.12, 16.12-16.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.12. קָרְבַּן רֵאשִׁית תַּקְרִיבוּ אֹתָם לַיהוָה וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא־יַעֲלוּ לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ׃ 16.12. וְלָקַח מְלֹא־הַמַּחְתָּה גַּחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וּמְלֹא חָפְנָיו קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים דַּקָּה וְהֵבִיא מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת׃ 16.13. וְנָתַן אֶת־הַקְּטֹרֶת עַל־הָאֵשׁ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְכִסָּה עֲנַן הַקְּטֹרֶת אֶת־הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵדוּת וְלֹא יָמוּת׃ 16.14. וְלָקַח מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה בְאֶצְבָּעוֹ עַל־פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת קֵדְמָה וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת יַזֶּה שֶׁבַע־פְּעָמִים מִן־הַדָּם בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ׃ 16.15. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לָעָם וְהֵבִיא אֶת־דָּמוֹ אֶל־מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וְעָשָׂה אֶת־דָּמוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְדַם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה אֹתוֹ עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 2.12. As an offering of first-fruits ye may bring them unto the LORD; but they shall not come up for a sweet savour on the altar." 16.12. And he shall take a censer full of coals of fire from off the altar before the LORD, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the veil." 16.13. And he shall put the incense upon the fire before the LORD, that the cloud of the incense may cover the ark-cover that is upon the testimony, that he die not." 16.14. And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the ark-cover on the east; and before the ark-cover shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times." 16.15. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the veil, and do with his blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the ark-cover, and before the ark-cover."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.6, 21.8-21.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.6. וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּעָם אֵת הַנְּחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִים וַיְנַשְּׁכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיָּמָת עַם־רָב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃ 21.9. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃ 21.6. And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died." 21.8. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live.’" 21.9. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived."
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 2.1-2.11, 2.19, 3.18, 3.22, 4.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. כִּי־תָבוֹא חָכְמָה בְלִבֶּךָ וְדַעַת לְנַפְשְׁךָ יִנְעָם׃ 2.1. בְּנִי אִם־תִּקַּח אֲמָרָי וּמִצְוֺתַי תִּצְפֹּן אִתָּךְ׃ 2.2. לְהַקְשִׁיב לַחָכְמָה אָזְנֶךָ תַּטֶּה לִבְּךָ לַתְּבוּנָה׃ 2.2. לְמַעַן תֵּלֵךְ בְּדֶרֶךְ טוֹבִים וְאָרְחוֹת צַדִּיקִים תִּשְׁמֹר׃ 2.3. כִּי אִם לַבִּינָה תִקְרָא לַתְּבוּנָה תִּתֵּן קוֹלֶךָ׃ 2.4. אִם־תְּבַקְשֶׁנָּה כַכָּסֶף וְכַמַּטְמוֹנִים תַּחְפְּשֶׂנָּה׃ 2.5. אָז תָּבִין יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים תִּמְצָא׃ 2.6. כִּי־יְהוָה יִתֵּן חָכְמָה מִפִּיו דַּעַת וּתְבוּנָה׃ 2.7. וצפן [יִצְפֹּן] לַיְשָׁרִים תּוּשִׁיָּה מָגֵן לְהֹלְכֵי תֹם׃ 2.8. לִנְצֹר אָרְחוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְדֶרֶךְ חסידו [חֲסִידָיו] יִשְׁמֹר׃ 2.9. אָז תָּבִין צֶדֶק וּמִשְׁפָּט וּמֵישָׁרִים כָּל־מַעְגַּל־טוֹב׃ 2.11. מְזִמָּה תִּשְׁמֹר עָלֶיךָ תְּבוּנָה תִנְצְרֶכָּה׃ 2.19. כָּל־בָּאֶיהָ לֹא יְשׁוּבוּן וְלֹא־יַשִּׂיגוּ אָרְחוֹת חַיִּים׃ 3.18. עֵץ־חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ וְתֹמְכֶיהָ מְאֻשָּׁר׃ 3.22. וְיִהְיוּ חַיִּים לְנַפְשֶׁךָ וְחֵן לְגַרְגְּרֹתֶיךָ׃ 4.7. רֵאשִׁית חָכְמָה קְנֵה חָכְמָה וּבְכָל־קִנְיָנְךָ קְנֵה בִינָה׃ 2.1. My son, if thou wilt receive my words, And lay up my commandments with thee;" 2.2. So that thou make thine ear attend unto wisdom, And thy heart incline to discernment;" 2.3. Yea, if thou call for understanding, And lift up thy voice for discernment;" 2.4. If thou seek her as silver, And search for her as for hid treasures;" 2.5. Then shalt thou understand the fear of the LORD, And find the knowledge of God." 2.6. For the LORD giveth wisdom, Out of His mouth cometh knowledge and discernment;" 2.7. He layeth up sound wisdom for the upright, He is a shield to them that walk in integrity;" 2.8. That He may guard the paths of justice, And preserve the way of His godly ones. ." 2.9. Then shalt thou understand righteousness and justice, And equity, yea, every good path." 2.10. For wisdom shall enter into thy heart, And knowledge shall be pleasant unto thy soul;" 2.11. Discretion shall watch over thee, Discernment shall guard thee;" 2.19. None that go unto her return, Neither do they attain unto the paths of life;" 3.18. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, And happy is every one that holdest her fast." 3.22. So shall they be life unto thy soul, And grace to thy neck." 4.7. The beginning of wisdom is: Get wisdom; Yea, with all thy getting get understanding."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 108.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

108.10. Moab is my washpot; Upon Edom do I cast my shoe; Over Philistia do I cry aloud."
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 26.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

26.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית מַמְלְכוּת יְהוֹיָקִים בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה מֵאֵת יְהוָה לֵאמֹר׃ 26.1. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה אֵת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיַּעֲלוּ מִבֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית יְהוָה וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בְּפֶתַח שַׁעַר־יְהוָה הֶחָדָשׁ׃ 26.1. In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah, came this word from the LORD, saying:"
10. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 1.13 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.13. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־לִבִּי לִדְרוֹשׁ וְלָתוּר בַּחָכְמָה עַל כָּל־אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה תַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם הוּא עִנְיַן רָע נָתַן אֱלֹהִים לִבְנֵי הָאָדָם לַעֲנוֹת בּוֹ׃ 1.13. And I applied my heart to seek and to search out by wisdom concerning all things that are done under heaven; it is a sore task that God hath given to the sons of men to be exercised therewith."
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.10. For Ezra had set his heart to seek the law of the LORD, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and ordices."
12. Anon., 1 Enoch, 42 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

42. Wisdom found no place where she might dwell; Then a dwelling-place was assigned her in the heavens.",Wisdom went forth to make her dwelling among the children of men, And found no dwelling-place:Wisdom returned to her place, And took her seat among the angels.,And unrighteousness went forth from her chambers: Whom she sought not she found, And dwelt with them,As rain in a desert And dew on a thirsty land.
13. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.4, 17.10, 24.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.4. Wisdom was created before all things,and prudent understanding from eternity. 24.9. From eternity, in the beginning, he created me,and for eternity I shall not cease to exist.
14. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.24, 8.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.24. For wisdom is more mobile than any motion;because of her pureness she pervades and penetrates all things. 8.1. She reaches mightily from one end of the earth to the other,and she orders all things well.
15. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.105-1.108, 2.74 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.105. Accordingly God says, "In the day in which ye eat of it ye shall die the death." And yet, though they have eaten of it, they not only do not die, but they even beget children, and are the causes of life to other beings besides themselves. What, then, are we to say? Surely that death is of two kinds; the one being the death of the man, the other the peculiar death of the soul--now the death of the man is the separation of his soul from his body, but the death of the soul is the destruction of virtue and the admission of vice; 1.106. and consequently God calls that not merely "to die," but "to die the death;" showing that he is speaking not of common death, but of that peculiar and especial death which is the death of the soul, buried in its passions and in all kinds of evil. And we may almost say that one kind of death is opposed to the other kind. For the one is the separation of what was previously existing in combination, namely, of body and soul. But this other death, on the contrary, is a combination of them both, the inferior one, the body, having the predomice, and the superior one, the soul, being made subject to it. 1.107. When, therefore, God says, "to die the death," you must remark that he is speaking of that death which is inflicted as punishment, and not of that which exists by the original ordice of nature. The natural death is that one by which the soul is separated from the body. But the one which is inflicted as a punishment, is when the soul dies according to the life of virtue, and lives only according to the life of vice. 1.108. Well, therefore, did Heraclitus say this, following the doctrine of Moses; for he says, "We are living according to the death of those men; and we have died according to their life." As if he had said, Now, when we are alive, we are so though our soul is dead and buried in our body, as if in a tomb. But if it were to die, then our soul would live according to its proper life, being released from the evil and dead body to which it is bound.
16. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.32, 1.37 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 9.3, 16, 18.4, 23.3, 23.5, 25.2, 25.3, 27.1-29.6, 28, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 29.3, 29.6 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.35, 1.37, 1.41, 1.46, 1.49, 1.51, 2.177, 2.179, 2.181 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.35. God also presented the living creatures, when he had made them, according to their kinds, both male and female, to Adam, who gave them those names by which they are still called. But when he saw that Adam had no female companion, no society, for there was no such created, and that he wondered at the other animals which were male and female, he laid him asleep, and took away one of his ribs, and out of it formed the woman; 1.37. 3. Moses says further, that God planted a paradise in the east, flourishing with all sorts of trees; and that among them was the tree of life, and another of knowledge, whereby was to be known what was good and evil; 1.41. But while all the living creatures had one language, at that time the serpent, which then lived together with Adam and his wife, shewed an envious disposition, at his supposal of their living happily, and in obedience to the commands of God; 1.46. When he made no reply, as conscious to himself that he had transgressed the command of God, God said, “I had before determined about you both, how you might lead a happy life, without any affliction, and care, and vexation of soul; and that all things which might contribute to your enjoyment and pleasure should grow up by my providence, of their own accord, without your own labor and painstaking; which state of labor and painstaking would soon bring on old age, and death would not be at any remote distance: 1.49. But God allotted him punishment, because he weakly submitted to the counsel of his wife; and said the ground should not henceforth yield its fruits of its own accord, but that when it should be harassed by their labor, it should bring forth some of its fruits, and refuse to bring forth others. He also made Eve liable to the inconveniency of breeding, and the sharp pains of bringing forth children; and this because she persuaded Adam with the same arguments wherewith the serpent had persuaded her, and had thereby brought him into a calamitous condition. 1.51. And when God had appointed these penalties for them, he removed Adam and Eve out of the garden into another place. 2.177. but, upon the whole, I think it necessary to mention those names, that I may disprove such as believe that we came not originally from Mesopotamia, but are Egyptians. Now Jacob had twelve sons; of these Joseph was come thither before. We will therefore set down the names of Jacob’s children and grandchildren. 2.179. Zabulon had with him three sons—Sarad, Helon, Jalel. So far is the posterity of Lea; with whom went her daughter Dinah. These are thirty-three. 2.181. And this was the legitimate posterity of Jacob. He had besides by Bilhah, the handmaid of Rachel, Dan and Nephtliali; which last had four sons that followed him—Jesel, Guni, Issari, and Sellim. Dan had an only begotten son, Usi.
19. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.9, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God's own possession, that you may show forth the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light: 2.16. as free, and not using your freedom for a cloak of wickedness, but as bondservants of God.
20. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 3.2, 15.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. I fed you with milk, not withmeat; for you weren't yet ready. Indeed, not even now are you ready 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.
21. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.6, 11.2-11.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22. New Testament, Acts, 10.38 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.38. even Jesus of Nazareth, how God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him.
23. New Testament, Romans, 5.12-5.21, 7.2, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 5.16. The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. 5.17. For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; so much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ. 5.18. So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life. 5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 5.21. that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 7.2. For the woman that has a husband is bound by law to the husband while he lives, but if the husband dies, she is discharged from the law of the husband. 7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God.
24. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 10.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 10.11. I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.
25. New Testament, Matthew, 19.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart.
26. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 56.1, 56.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

56.1. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וַיִּשָֹּׂא אַבְרָהָם אֶת עֵינָיו (בראשית כב, ד), כְּתִיב (הושע ו, ב): יְחַיֵּנוּ מִיֹּמָיִם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יְקִמֵנוּ וְנִחְיֶה לְפָנָיו, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל שְׁבָטִים, כְּתִיב (בראשית מב, יח): וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם יוֹסֵף בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל מְרַגְלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע ב, טז): וְנַחְבֵּתֶם שָׁמָּה שְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יט, טז): וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל יוֹנָה, דִּכְתִיב (יונה ב, א): וַיְהִי יוֹנָה בִּמְעֵי הַדָּגָה שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים וּשְׁלשָׁה לֵילוֹת, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל עוֹלֵי גוֹלָה, דִּכְתִיב (עזרא ח, לב): וַנֵּשֶׁב שָׁם יָמִים שְׁלשָׁה, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל תְּחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים, דִּכְתִיב: יְחַיֵּנוּ מִיֹּמָיִם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יְקִמֵנוּ, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל אֶסְתֵּר, (אסתר ה, א): וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וַתִּלְבַּשׁ אֶסְתֵּר מַלְכוּת, לָבְשָׁה מַלְכוּת בֵּית אָבִיהָ. בְּאֵיזֶה זְכוּת, רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי לֵוִי, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי בִּזְכוּת יוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיֹת הַבֹּקֶר. וְרַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר בִּזְכוּת שֶׁל יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי. וַיַּרְא אֶת הַמָּקוֹם מֵרָחֹק, מָה רָאָה רָאָה עָנָן קָשׁוּר בָּהָר, אָמַר דּוֹמֶה שֶׁאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַר לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַקְרִיב אֶת בְּנִי שָׁם. 56.1. וַיִּקְרָא אַבְרָהָם שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא ה' יִרְאֶה (בראשית כב, יד), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַרְתָּ לִי (בראשית כב, ב): קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ אֶת יְחִידְךָ, הָיָה לִי מַה לְּהָשִׁיב, אֶתְמוֹל אָמַרְתָּ (בראשית כא, כב): כִּי בְיִצְחָק וגו', וְעַכְשָׁו קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ וגו' וְחַס וְשָׁלוֹם לֹא עָשִׂיתִי כֵן אֶלָּא כָּבַשְׁתִּי רַחֲמַי לַעֲשׂוֹת רְצוֹנְךָ, יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בָּנָיו שֶׁל יִצְחָק בָּאִים לִידֵי עֲבֵרוֹת וּמַעֲשִׂים רָעִים תְּהֵא נִזְכַּר לָהֶם אוֹתָהּ הָעֲקֵדָה וְתִתְמַלֵּא עֲלֵיהֶם רַחֲמִים. אַבְרָהָם קָרָא אוֹתוֹ יִרְאֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּקְרָא אַבְרָהָם שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא ה' יִרְאֶה. שֵׁם קָרָא אוֹתוֹ שָׁלֵם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יד, יח): וּמַלְכִּי צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם קוֹרֵא אֲנִי אוֹתוֹ יִרְאֶה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקָּרָא אוֹתוֹ אַבְרָהָם, שֵׁם אָדָם צַדִּיק מִתְרָעֵם, וְאִם קוֹרֵא אֲנִי אוֹתוֹ שָׁלֵם, אַבְרָהָם אָדָם צַדִּיק מִתְרָעֵם, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי קוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם כְּמוֹ שֶׁקָּרְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם, יִרְאֶה שָׁלֵם, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ אָמַר עַד שֶׁהוּא שָׁלֵם עָשָׂה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא סֻכָּה וְהָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל בְּתוֹכָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עו, ג): וַיְהִי בְשָׁלֵם סֻכּוֹ וּמְעוֹנָתוֹ בְּצִיּוֹן, וּמָה הָיָה אוֹמֵר יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁאֶרְאֶה בְּבִנְיַן בֵּיתִי. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֶרְאָה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ חָרֵב וּבָנוּי חָרֵב וּבָנוּי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא ה' יִרְאֶה, הֲרֵי בָּנוּי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים טז, טז): שָׁלוֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה. אֲשֶׁר יֵאָמֵר הַיּוֹם בְּהַר ה', הֲרֵי חָרֵב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ה, יח): עַל הַר צִיּוֹן שֶׁשָּׁמֵם. ה' יֵרָאֶה, בָּנוּי וּמְשֻׁכְלָל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קב, יז): כִּי בָנָה ה' צִיּוֹן נִרְאָה בִּכְבוֹדוֹ. 56.6. וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת (בראשית כב, י), רַב בְּעָא קוֹמֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה מִנַּיִן לִשְׁחִיטָה שֶׁהִיא בְּדָבָר הַמִּטַּלְטֵל, מִן הָכָא, וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת יָדוֹ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין מִן הַהַגָּדָה אֲמַר לָךְ, חָזַר הוּא בֵּיהּ, וְאִין מִן אוּלְפָּן אֲמַר לָךְ, לֵית הוּא חָזַר בֵּיהּ, דְּתָנֵי לֵוִי הָיוּ נְעוּצִים מִתְּחִלָּתָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּסוּלִים, תְּלוּשִׁין וּנְעָצָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּשֵׁרִים, דִּתְנַן הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּמַגַּל יָד בְּמַגַּל קָצִיר וּבְצֹר וּבְקָנֶה, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי חֲמִשָּׁה דְבָרִים נֶאֶמְרוּ בִּקְרוּמִיּוֹת שֶׁל קָנֶה, אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין בָּהּ, וְאֵין מוֹהֲלִין בָּהּ, וְאֵין חוֹתְכִין בָּהּ בָּשָׂר, וְאֵין מְקַנְחִין בָּהּ אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, וְלֹא מְחַצִּין בָּהּ אֶת הַשִּׁנַּיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרוּחַ רָעָה שׁוֹכֶנֶת עָלָיו. 56.1. “On the third day, Abraham lifted up his eyes…” (Genesis 22:4) It is written “He will revive us from the two days, on the third day He will set us up, and we will live before Him.” (Hoshea 6:2) On the third day of the tribes it is written “On the third day, Joseph said to them…” (Genesis 42:18) On the third day of the spies, as it says “…and hide yourselves there three days…” (Joshua 2:16) On the third day of the giving of the Torah, as it says “It came to pass on the third day…” (Exodus 19:16) On the third day of Jonah, as it is written “…and Jonah was in the belly of the fish for three days and three nights.” (Jonah 2:1) On the third day of those who came up from exile, as it is written “…and stayed there three days.” (Ezra 8:32) On the third day of the resurrection of the dead, as it is written “He will revive us from the two days, on the third day He will set us up, and we will live before Him.” (Hoshea 6:2) On Esther’s third day “Now it came to pass on the third day, that Esther clothed herself regally…” (Esther 5:1) The royalty of her father’s house. In what merit? This is an argument of the Rabbis and Rabbi Levi. The Rabbis say: in the merit of the third day of the giving of the Torah, as it says “It came to pass on the third day when it was morning…” (Exodus 19:16) Rabbi Levi said: in the merit of the third day of our father Avraham, as it says \"On the third day, Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place from afar.” (Genesis 22:4) What did he see? He saw a cloud attached to the mountain. He said: it appears that this is the place where the Holy One told me to offer up my son." 56.6. And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife (Gen. 22:10). Rav asked R. Hiyya the Elder: How do we know that ritual slaughtering must be with a movable object? From here: \"And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife\" — he said: if he told you this from a Haggadah, he might retract; and if he stated it as a tradition, he cannot not retract from it, since Levi taught: If they [sharp flints] were attached [to the ground or rocks] from the very beginning, they are unfit; but if they had been originally detached but subsequently fixed in the ground, they are fit, since we learned: \"If one slaughters with a hand-sickle, a harvest sickle, a flint, or a reed, the slaughtering is fit.\" Said Rabbi Yosei: Five things were said of a reed stalk: You may not slaughter, circumcise, cut meat, wipe your hands, nor pick your teeth with it, because an evil spirit rests upon it."
27. Anon., Tchacos 3 Gospel of Judas, 53.18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.25.3, 1.30.1-1.30.3, 1.30.7-1.30.9, 1.30.11-1.30.12, 1.30.15 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

30. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

43a. הני אין צורת דרקון לא,אלא פשיטא במוצא וכדתנן המוצא כלים ועליהם צורת חמה,רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,אמר אביי אין רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,רבא אמר כולה במוצא ומציעתא רבי יהודה היא דתניא רבי יהודה מוסיף אף דמות מניקה וסר אפיס מניקה על שם חוה שמניקה כל העולם כולו סר אפיס על שם יוסף שסר ומפיס את כל העולם כולו והוא דנקיט גריוא וקא כייל והיא דנקטא בן וקא מניקה:,תנו רבנן איזהו צורת דרקון פירש רשב"א כל שיש לו ציצין בין פרקיו מחוי רבי אסי בין פרקי צואר אמר ר' חמא ברבי חנינא הלכה כר"ש בן אלעזר,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך אחר ר' אלעזר הקפר בריבי בדרך ומצא שם טבעת ועליה צורת דרקון ומצא עובד כוכבים קטן ולא אמר לו כלום מצא עובד כוכבים גדול ואמר לו בטלה ולא בטלה סטרו ובטלה,ש"מ תלת ש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל עבודת כוכבים שלו ושל חבירו וש"מ יודע בטיב של עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה מבטל ושאינו יודע בטיב עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה אינו מבטל וש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל בעל כרחו,מגדף בה רבי חנינא ולית ליה לרבי אלעזר הקפר בריבי הא דתנן המציל מן הארי ומן הדוב ומן הנמר ומן הגייס ומן הנהר ומזוטו של ים ומשלוליתו של נהר והמוצא בסרטיא ופלטיא גדולה ובכל מקום שהרבים מצוין שם הרי אלו שלו מפני שהבעלים מתייאשין מהן,אמר אביי נהי דמינה מייאש מאיסורא מי מייאש מימר אמר אי עובד כוכבים משכח לה מפלח פלח לה אי ישראל משכח לה איידי דדמיה יקרין מזבין לה לעובד כוכבים ופלח לה:,תנן התם דמות צורות לבנות היה לו לר"ג בעלייתו בטבלא בכותל שבהן מראה את ההדיוטות ואומר להן כזה ראיתם או כזה ראיתם,ומי שרי והכתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני,אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שאפשר לעשות כמותן,כדתניא לא יעשה אדם בית תבנית היכל אכסדרה תבנית אולם חצר תבנית עזרה שולחן תבנית שולחן מנורה תבנית מנורה אבל הוא עושה של ה' ושל ו' ושל ח' ושל ז' לא יעשה אפילו של שאר מיני מתכות,רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אף של עץ לא יעשה כדרך שעשו בית חשמונאי,אמרו לו משם ראיה שפודין של ברזל היו וחופין בבעץ העשירו עשאום של כסף חזרו והעשירו עשאום של זהב,ושמשין שאי אפשר לעשות כמותן מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני במרום,אמר אביי 43a. The Sages interpret this verse as referring to the heavenly constellations, which indicates that it bisprohibited to form only bthesefigures, but it is bnotprohibited to form ba figure of a dragon. /b, bRather,the Gemara concludes, it is bobviousthat this ihalakhais referring to a case bwhereone bfindsa vessel with the figure of a dragon, bandthis is bas we learnedin the mishna: In the case of bone who finds vessels, and upon them is a figure of the sun,a figure of the moon, or a figure of a dragon, he must take them and cast them into the Dead Sea.,The Gemara asks about the lack of consistency between the clauses of Rav Sheshet’s statement: Can it be that bthe first clause and the last clause arereferring to a case bwhere one findsvessels with the specified figures, band the middle clause isreferring to a case bwhere one formsthese figures?, bAbaye said: Indeed, the first clause and the last clause arereferring to cases bwhere one findsvessels with figures, band the middle clause isreferring to a case bwhere one formsfigures., bRava said: The entirestatement of Rav Sheshet is referring to a case bwhere one findsvessels with these figures, band the middle clause isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda addsto the list of forbidden figures beven a figure of a nursing woman and iSar Apis /i.The figure of ba nursing womanis worshipped as it bsymbolizes Eve, who nurses the entire world.The figure of iSar Apis /iis worshipped as it bsymbolizes Joseph, who ruled over [ isar /i] and appeased [ imefis /i] the entire worldby distributing food during the seven years of famine (see Genesis, chapter 41). bButthe figure of iSar Apisis forbidden bonly when it is holding a dry measure and measuringwith it; bandthe figure of a nursing woman is forbidden bonly when she is holding a child and nursingit.,§ bThe Sages taught: What is a figure of a dragon? Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar explained:It is banyfigure bthat has scales between its joints. Rabbi Asi motionedwith his hands to depict scales bbetween the joints of the neck. Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Once, I was following Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished on the road, and he found a ring there, and there was a figure of a dragon on it. And hethen bencountered a minor gentile boy, but did not say anything to him. Hethen bencountered an adult gentile, and said to him: Revokethe ring’s idolatrous status. bButthe gentile bdid not revoke it.Rabbi Elazar HaKappar then bslapped himacross his face, whereupon the gentile succumbed band revokedits idolatrous status.,The Gemara comments: bLearn fromthis incident the following bthree ihalakhot /i: bLearn from itthat ba gentile can revokethe idolatrous status of both bhisobject of bidol worship and that of anothergentile. bAnd learn fromthe fact that Rabbi Elazar HaKappar waited to find an adult gentile, that only one who bis aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories can revokethe idol’s status, bbutone bwho is not aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories,such as a minor, bcannot revokethe idol’s status. bAndfinally, blearn from itthat ba gentile can revokethe status of an idol even bagainst his will. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina ridiculedthis ruling and asked: bButwhy was it necessary to have a gentile actively revoke the idolatrous status of the ring? bDoesn’t Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished maintainin accordance with bthat which we learnedin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who savesan object bfrom a lion, or from a bear, or from a cheetah, or from a troopof soldiers, bor from a river, or from the tide of the sea, or from the flooding of a river, orsimilarly bone who findsan object bin a main thoroughfare orin ba large plaza, orfor that matter, banywhere frequented by the public,in all these cases, the objects belong bto him, because the owners despair ofrecovering bthem?Therefore, in the case of a lost ring with an idolatrous figure on it, its idolatrous status is automatically revoked, as its owner despairs of recovering it., bAbaye said: Granted,the owner bdespairs ofrecovering the object bitself, but does he despair ofits bforbidden [ ime’issura /i]idolatrous status? The owner does not assume that the object will never be worshipped again; rather, bhe saysto himself: bIf a gentile finds it, he will worship it. If a Jew finds it, since it is valuable, he will sell it to a gentile who willthen bworship it.Therefore, Rabbi Elazar HaKappar had to have the ring’s idolatrous status revoked.,§ bWe learnedin a mishna bthere( iRosh HaShana24a): bRabban Gamliel haddiagrams of the different bfigures of moonsdrawn bon a tabletthat hung bon the wall of his attic, which he would show to the ordinarypeople b[ ihahedyotot /i]who came to testify about sighting the new moon but who were unable to adequately describe what they had seen. bAnd he would say to them: Did you seean image blike this, or did you seean image blike that? /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd isit bpermittedto form these figures? bBut isn’t it written: “You shall not make with Megods of silver, or gods of gold” (Exodus 20:20), which is interpreted to mean: bYou shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me,i.e., those celestial bodies that were created to serve God, including the sun and the moon.,In answering, bAbaye said: The Torah prohibited onlythe figures of those battendants thatone can bpossibly reproducesomething that is truly bin their likeness.Since it is impossible to reproduce the sun and the moon, the prohibition does not apply to these entities., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA person may not construct a housein the exact bimage of the Sanctuary,nor ba porticoin the exact bimage of the Entrance Hallof the Sanctuary, nor ba courtyard corresponding to the Temple courtyard,nor ba table corresponding to the Tablein the Temple, nor ba candelabrum corresponding to the Candelabrumin the Temple. bButone bmay fashiona candelabrum bof five or of six or of eightlamps. bAndone bmay not fashiona candelabrum bof sevenlamps bevenif he constructs it bfrom other kinds of metalrather than gold, as in extenuating circumstances the Candelabrum in the Temple may be fashioned from other metals.,The ibaraitacontinues: bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: One may not fashion a candelabrum of wood either, in the manner thatthe kings of bthe Hasmonean monarchy fashionedit. When they first purified the Temple they had to fashion the Candelabrum out of wood as no other material was available. Since a wooden candelabrum is fit for the Temple, it is prohibited to fashion one of this kind for oneself.,The Rabbis bsaid toRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda: Do you seek to cite ba proof from there,i.e., from the Hasmonean era, that a candelabrum fashioned of wood is fit for the Temple? During that era the branches of the Candelabrum bwerefashioned from bspits [ ishappudin /i] of iron, and they coveredthem bwith tin [ ibeva’atz /i].Later, when bthey grew richerand could afford a Candelabrum of higher-quality material, bthey fashionedthe Candelabrum bfrom silver.When bthey grew even richer, they fashionedthe Candelabrum bfrom gold.In any event, Abaye proves from this ibaraitathat the prohibition against forming a figure applies only to items that can be reconstructed in an accurate manner. Since this is not possible in the case of the moon, Rabban Gamliel’s figures were permitted.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is itactually bpermittedto fashion figures of those battendantsof God concerning bwhich it is impossible to reproduce their likeness? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse: b“You shall not make with Megods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean: bYou shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high?Apparently, this includes the sun and the moon., bAbaye said: /b
31. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18b. אוצר מה אוצר זה רחב מלמטה וקצר מלמעלה כדי לקבל את הפירות אף האשה רחבה מלמטה וקצרה מלמעלה כדי לקבל את הולד,ויביאה אל האדם מלמד שעשה הקב"ה שושבינות לאדם הראשון מכאן לגדול שיעשה שושבינות לקטן ואל ירע לו,ולמאן דאמר פרצוף הי מינייהו סגי ברישא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא דזכר סגי ברישא דתניא לא יהלך אדם אחורי אשה בדרך ואפי' היא אשתו נזדמנה על הגשר יסלקנה לצדדין וכל העובר אחורי אשה בנהר אין לו חלק לעולם הבא:,תנו רבנן המרצה מעות לאשה מידו לידה או מידה לידו בשביל שיסתכל בה אפילו דומה למשה רבינו שקיבל תורה מהר סיני לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם ועליו הכתוב אומר (משלי יא, כא) יד ליד לא ינקה רע לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם,אמר רב נחמן מנוח עם הארץ היה שנאמר (שופטים יג, יא) ויקם וילך מנוח אחרי אשתו,מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק אלא מעתה גבי אלקנה דכתיב וילך אלקנה אחרי אשתו הכי נמי וגבי אלישע דכתיב (מלכים ב ד, ל) ויקם וילך אחריה הכי נמי,אלא אחרי דבריה ועצתה הכא נמי אחרי דבריה ועצתה,אמר רב אשי ולמאי דאמר רב נחמן מנוח עם הארץ היה אפילו בי רב נמי לא קרא דכתיב (בראשית כד, סא) ותקם רבקה ונערותיה ותרכבנה על הגמלים ותלכנה אחרי האיש ולא לפני האיש,אמר רבי יוחנן אחרי ארי ולא אחרי אשה אחרי אשה ולא אחרי עבודת כוכבים אחורי עבודת כוכבים ולא אחורי בית הכנסת בשעה שמתפללין,ואמר ר' ירמיה בן אלעזר כל אותן השנים שהיה אדם הראשון בנידוי הוליד רוחין ושידין ולילין שנאמר (בראשית ה, ג) ויחי אדם שלשים ומאת שנה ויולד בדמותו כצלמו מכלל דעד האידנא לאו כצלמו אוליד,מיתיבי היה ר' מאיר אומר אדם הראשון חסיד גדול היה כיון שראה שנקנסה מיתה על ידו ישב בתענית מאה ושלשים שנה ופירש מן האשה מאה ושלשים שנה והעלה זרזי תאנים על בשרו מאה ושלשים שנה,כי קאמרינן ההוא בשכבת זרע דחזא לאונסיה,ואמר רבי ירמיה בן אלעזר מקצת שבחו של אדם אומרים בפניו וכולו שלא בפניו מקצת שבחו בפניו דכתיב (בראשית ז, א) כי אותך ראיתי צדיק לפני בדור הזה,כולו שלא בפניו דכתיב (בראשית ו, ט) נח איש צדיק תמים היה בדורותיו,וא"ר ירמיה בן אלעזר מאי דכתיב (בראשית ח, יא) והנה עלה זית טרף בפיה אמרה יונה לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע יהיו מזונותי מרורין כזית ומסורין בידך ואל יהיו מתוקין כדבש ותלוין ביד בשר ודם כתיב הכא טרף וכתיב התם (משלי ל, ח) הטריפני לחם חוקי,וא"ר ירמיה בן אלעזר כל בית שנשמעין בו דברי תורה בלילה שוב אינו נחרב שנאמר (איוב לה, י) ולא אמר איה אלוה עושי נותן זמירות בלילה,ואמר רבי ירמיה בן אלעזר מיום שחרב בית המקדש דיו לעולם שישתמש בשתי אותיות שנאמר (תהלים קנ, ו) כל הנשמה תהלל יה הללויה,ואמר רבי ירמיה בן אלעזר נתקללה בבל נתקללו שכיניה נתקללה שומרון נתברכו שכיניה נתקללה בבל נתקללו שכיניה דכתיב (ישעיהו יד, כג) ושמתיה למורש קיפוד ואגמי מים נתקללה שומרון נתברכו שכיניה דכתיב (מיכה א, ו) ושמתי שומרון לעי השדה 18b. bof a storehouse. Just as a storehouse isbuilt bwide on the bottom and narrow on top, in order to hold producewithout collapsing, bso too a womanis created bwide on the bottom and narrow on top, in order to hold the fetus. /b,The Gemara cites an exposition of the end of the previously cited verse: b“And brought her unto the man”(Genesis 2:22). This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, was Adam the firstman’s bbest man,attending to all his wedding needs and bringing his wife to him. bFrom herewe learn bthat a greater individual should serve as a best man for a lesser individual and should not feel badabout it as something beneath his dignity.,The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who saysthat Eve was ba faceor side of Adam, bwhich one of them walked in front? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is reasonableto say bthat the male walked in front,as this is proper behavior, bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA man should not walk behind a woman on a path, even if she is his wife. If she happensupon him bon a bridge, he shouldwalk quickly in order to catch up to her and consequently bmove her tohis bside,so that she will not walk before him. bAnd anyone who walks behind a woman in a river,where she has to lift up her skirt in order to cross, bhas no share in the World-to-Come. /b, bThe Sages taught:With regard to bone who counts out money for a woman from his hand into her hand or from her hand into his hand, in order to look upon her, even ifin other matters bhe is like Moses our teacher, who received the Torah from Mount Sinai, he will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna. The verse says about him: “Hand to hand, the evil man shall not go unpunished”(Proverbs 11:21). One who hands money from his hand to her hand, even if he received the Torah from God’s hand to his own, like Moses, bhe will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna,which is called evil., bRav Naḥman said:From the following verse, it is known that Samson’s father, bManoah, was an ignoramus, as it is stated: “And Manoah arose, and went after his wife”(Judges 13:11), which shows that he was unfamiliar with the principle that one must not walk behind a woman., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects to this: If that is so,if the verse relating to Manoah is understood literally, what will one say about the verse bwith regard to Elkana,the father of the prophet Samuel, bas it is written: “And Elkana walked after his wife.”Does bthisverse mean that Elkana was balsoan ignorant person? bAndwhat of the verse bwith regard tothe prophet bElisha, as it is written:“And the mother of the child said: As the Lord lives, and as your soul lives, I will not leave you; band he arose and followed her”(ii Kings 4:30). Does bthisverse mean that Elisha was balsoan uneducated person?, bRather,certainly each of these verses means that bhe followed her words and advice.If so, bhere too,the verse concerning Manoah may be similarly interpreted. He did not literally walk behind his wife, but rather bhe followedher bwords and advice. /b, bRav Ashi said: And according to what Rav Naḥman said,that bManoah was an ignoramus, he did not even readthe basic Torah stories that children learn bin school. As it is written: “Rebecca arose, and her damsels, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man”(Genesis 24:61); they followed him and did bnotwalk bbefore the man. /b,On this topic, bRabbi Yoḥa said:It is preferable to walk bbehind a lion, and not behind a woman.And it is preferable to walk bbehind a woman and not behind idolatry.When a procession honoring idolatry is passing in the street, it is better to walk behind a woman than appear to be accompanying the idolatry. It is preferable to walk bbehind idolatry and not behind a synagogue at a time of prayer.By walking behind a synagogue at a time of prayer and not entering, one appears as though he were denying the God to Whom the congregation is directing its prayers.,Having cited an aggadic statement of Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar, the Gemara cites other statements of his: bRabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: All those years during which Adam was ostracizedfor the sin involving the Tree of Knowledge, bhe bore spirits, demons, and female demons, as it is stated: “And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image,and called his name Seth” (Genesis 5:3). bBy inference, until now,the age of one hundred thirty, bhe did not bear after his image,but rather bore other creatures.,The Gemara raises ban objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Meir would say: Adam the firstman bwas very pious. When he saw that death was imposed as a punishment because of him, he observed a fast for a hundred thirty years, and he separated fromhis bwife for a hundred thirty years, and wore belts [ izarzei /i] of figleaves bon his bodyas his only garment for ba hundred thirty years.If so, how did he father demons into the world?,The Gemara answers: bWhenRabbi Yirmeya bmade his statement,he meant that those destructive creatures were formed bfrom the semen thatAdam baccidentally emitted,which brought the destructive creatures into being., bAnd Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazarfurther bsaid:Only bsome of a person’s praise should be said in his presence, and all of itmay be said bnot in his presence.Only bsome of his praise should be said in his presence, as it is written:“And the Lord said to Noah, come, you and all your house into the ark, bfor you have I seen righteous before Me in this generation”(Genesis 7:1)., bAnd all of itmay be said bnot in his presence, as it is written:“These are the generations of Noah; bNoah was a righteous man, and perfect in his generations,and Noah walked with God” (Genesis 6:9). When not referring to him in his presence, God refers to Noah as a righteous and perfect man., bAnd Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazaralso bsaid: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written:“And the dove came in to him in the evening, band lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf, plucked off [ itaraf /i];so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth” (Genesis 8:11)? bThe dove said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, let my food be bitter as an olive but given into Your hand, and let it not be sweet as honey but dependent upon flesh and blood.He adds this explanation: bHere it is written: iTaraf /i. And there it is written:“Remove far from me falsehood and lies; give me neither poverty nor riches; bfeed me [ ihatrifeni /i] my allotted portion”(Proverbs 30:8)., bAnd Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazaralso bsaid: Any house in which the words of Torah are heard at night will never be destroyed, as it is stated: “But none says: Where is God my Maker, Who gives songs in the night”(Job 35:10). The verse implies that one who sings songs of Torah in his house at night will not need to lament the destruction of his home., bAnd Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazarfurther bsaid: From the day that the Temple was destroyed, it is enough for the world to usein its praise of God, or in greeting one another with the name of God, only btwo lettersof the Tetragrammaton, namely iyodand iheh /i, bas it is stated: “Let everything that has breath praise the Lord [ iYah /i]. iHalleluya /i”(Psalms 150:6), without mentioning the full name of God, comprised of four letters., bAnd Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazaralso bsaid:When bBabylonia was cursed, its neighbors were cursedalong with it. When bSamaria was cursed, its neighbors were blessed.He explains: When bBabylonia was cursed, its neighbors were cursed, as it is written: “I will also make it a possession for wild birds, and pools of water”(Isaiah 14:23), and the arrival of predatory animals brings harm to the surrounding neighbors as well. When bSamaria was cursed, its neighbors were blessed, as it is written: “Therefore I will turn Samaria into a heap of rubble in the field /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. קשיין אהדדי אלא לאו ש"מ שאני בין מחובר מעיקרו לתלוש ולבסוף חברו ש"מ,אמר מר השוחט במוכני שחיטתו כשרה והתניא שחיטתו פסולה ל"ק הא בסרנא דפחרא הא בסרנא דמיא,ואיבעית אימא הא והא בסרנא דמיא ולא קשיא הא בכח ראשון הא בכח שני,וכי הא דאמר רב פפא האי מאן דכפתיה לחבריה ואשקיל עליה בידקא דמיא ומית חייב מ"ט גירי דידיה הוא דאהני ביה וה"מ בכח ראשון אבל בכח שני גרמא בעלמא הוא,יתיב רב אחוריה דרבי חייא ורבי חייא קמיה דרבי ויתיב רבי וקאמר מנין לשחיטה שהוא בתלוש שנאמר (בראשית כב, י) ויקח את המאכלת לשחוט א"ל רב לרבי חייא מאי קאמר א"ל וי"ו דכתיב אאופתא קאמר והא קרא קאמר קרא זריזותיה דאברהם קמ"ל,אמר רבא פשיטא לי תלוש ולבסוף חברו לענין עבודת כוכבים הוי תלוש דאמר מר המשתחוה לבית שלו אסרו ואי ס"ד הוי מחובר (דברים יב, ב) אלהיהם על ההרים ולא ההרים אלהיהם,לענין הכשר זרעים תנאי היא דתנן הכופה קערה על הכותל בשביל שתודח הרי זה בכי יותן בשביל שלא ילקה הכותל אינו בכי יותן,הא גופא קשיא אמרת בשביל שתודח הרי זה בכי יותן הא בשביל שיודח הכותל אין זה בכי יותן,והדר תני בשביל שלא ילקה הכותל אינו בכי יותן הא בשביל שיודח הכותל ה"ז בכי יותן,א"ר אלעזר תברא מי ששנה זו לא שנה זו רב פפא אמר כולה חד תנא הוא הא בכותל מערה הא בכותל בנין,וה"ק הכופה קערה על הכותל בשביל שתודח ה"ז בכי יותן הא בשביל שיודח הכותל אין זה בכי יותן,בד"א בכותל מערה אבל בכותל בנין בשביל שלא ילקה הכותל הוא דאינו בכי יותן הא בשביל שיודח הכותל ה"ז בכי יותן,בעי רבא 16a. Ostensibly, the two clauses of the ibaraitaare bdifficult,as they contradict beach other,since the first clause states that slaughter with a blade that is attached is valid and the latter clause states that slaughter is not valid. bRather,must one bnot conclude from itthat there is ba difference betweena case where the blade was battached from the outset anda case where the blade was bdetached and ultimately he reattached it?The Gemara affirms: Indeed, blearn from it. /b,§ bThe Master said:In the case of bone who slaughters with a mechanismof a wheel with a knife attached to it, bhis slaughter is valid.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bhis slaughter is not valid?The Gemara answers: This contradiction is bnot difficult. This ibaraita /i, which rules that the slaughter is valid, is bina case where the knife was attached to ba potter’s wheel,whose movement is generated by the potter pressing on a pedal. Since the slaughter was performed by the force of the person’s actions, the slaughter is valid. bThat ibaraita /i, which rules that the slaughter is not valid, is bina case where the knife was attached to ba waterwheel.Since the slaughter was not performed by the force of the person’s actions, the slaughter is not valid., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: The rulings of both bthis ibaraita band that ibaraitaare bina case where the knife was attached to ba waterwheel, andthe contradiction is bnot difficult. This ibaraita /i, which rules that the slaughter is valid, is in a case where the movement of the slaughter was generated bby primary force,as the person releases the water that turns the wheel, and on that initial turn of the wheel the knife slaughters the animal. bThat ibaraita /i, which rules that the slaughter is not valid, is in a case where the slaughter was generated bby secondary force,as the knife slaughters the animal on the second turn of the wheel., bAndthis is blike that which Rav Pappa says:In the case of ba certainperson bwho bound another and diverted a flow [ ibidka /i] of water upon him and he died,the one who diverted the water is bliablefor his murder. bWhat is the reason?It is because those were bhis arrows that were effective in hismurder. bAnd this matterapplies in a case where he killed the other person bby primary force,as the person was proximate to him and was directly drowned by the water. bButif the person was further away and was killed bby secondary forceafter the water flowed on its own, it is not by his direct action; rather, bit is merely an indirectaction, and he is exempt.,§ bRav sat behind Rabbi Ḥiyya, and Rabbi Ḥiyyasat bbefore RabbiYehuda HaNasi, band RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsat and said: From whereis it derived bthat slaughter isperformed specifically bwitha blade that is bdetached?It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated:“And Abraham stretched forth his hand band took the knife to slaughterhis son” (Genesis 22:10). bRav said to Rabbi Ḥiyya: What is he saying?Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid toRav: bHe is sayingan incorrect reason, comparable to the letter ivavthat is written onthe rough surface of ba tree trunk [ ia’ufta /i].The Gemara asks: bBut didn’tRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsay a verseas proof for his statement? The Gemara answers: bThe verse teaches us the diligence of Abraham,who had a knife prepared to slaughter Isaac. It does not teach any ihalakhaconcerning ritual slaughter.,§ Apropos the issue of slaughter with a detached blade, bRava said:It is bobvious to methat concerning an item that was bdetached and ultimately one attached it,with regard bto the matter of idol worshipits halakhic status bisthat of ba detacheditem, bas the Master says: One who bows to his house has rendered it forbiddenas an object of idol worship. bAnd if it enters your mindto say that its halakhic status bisthat of an battacheditem, it is written with regard to idolatry: b“Their gods, upon the high mountains”(Deuteronomy 12:2), from which it is derived: bBut the mountains are not their gods,as items attached to the ground are never rendered forbidden as objects of idol worship. The halakhic status of a house built from stones that were detached is that of a detached item.,With regard bto the matter of rendering seeds susceptibleto ritual impurity, there bisa dispute between itanna’im /i, as we learnedin a mishna ( iMakhshirin4:3): In the case of bone who places a bowl on the wallwhile it is raining bso thatthe bowl bwill be rinsedwith the rainwater, if the water from the bowl then falls onto produce, bthat is underthe rubric of the verse: “But bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed” (Leviticus 11:38). The water has the halakhic status of a liquid that he poured of his own volition on fruit and seeds. Consequently, it renders them susceptible to ritual impurity. But if he placed the bowl there bso that the wall will not be damaged, it is not underthe rubric of the verse “but bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed.” Since he had no intent to use the water, it is not considered to have entered the bowl of his own volition, and it does not render produce susceptible to impurity., bThismishna bitselfis bdifficult,as the inferences from the first clause and the latter clause are contradictory. In the first clause byou said:In the case of one who places a bowl on the wall bso thatthe bowl bwill be rinsedwith the rainwater, bthat is underthe rubric of the verse “but bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed,” and the water renders produce susceptible to impurity. By inference, if he placed the bowl bso that the wall will be rinsedby means of the bowl, bthat is not underthe rubric of the verse “but bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed.” That water would not render produce susceptible to impurity, because the intent was for the water to rinse the wall, which is an item attached to the ground., bAnd thenthe mishna bteachesin the latter clause: If he placed the bowl bso that the wall will not be damaged, it is not underthe rubric of the verse: “But bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed.” By inference, if he placed the bowl bso that the wall will be rinsed, that is underthe rubric of the verse: “But bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed,” as a wall has the status of a detached item, since it was built from stones that were detached., bRabbi Elazar said:This mishna is bdisjointed;the itanna bwho taught thisfirst clause bdid not teach thatsecond clause. There is a tannaitic dispute whether the status of a wall that is built from detached stones is that of an attached item or a detached item. bRav Pappa said: The entiremishna bisthe opinion of bone itanna /i: Thisfirst clause is binthe case of bthe wall of a cave,which is attached from the outset; bthatlatter clause is binthe case of bthe wall of a building,which is built from stones that were detached from the ground., bAnd thisis what the mishna bis saying:In the case of bone who places a bowl on the wall so thatthe bowl bwill be rinsedwith the rainwater, bthat is underthe rubric of the verse “but bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed,” and the water renders produce susceptible to impurity. By inference, if he placed the bowl bso that the wall will be rinsedby means of the bowl, bthat is not underthe rubric of the verse “but bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed.”, bIn whatcase bis this statement said?It is said binthe case of bthe wall of a cave,which was always attached to the ground. bBut inthe case of bthe wall of a building,whose stones were detached and subsequently reattached, if he places the bowl bso that the wall will not be damaged,that bis whenit is bnot underthe rubric of the verse “but bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed.” bButif he places the bowl bso that the wall will be rinsed, that is underthe rubric of the verse “but bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed.”, bRava raises a dilemma: /b
33. Nag Hammadi, Eugnostos The Blessed, 6.8, 10.4, 13.7, 85.8-85.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

34. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 108.2-108.19, 110.7-110.13, 110.27-110.29, 113.5-113.10, 113.12, 115.11-115.23, 116.28-116.29, 119.16-119.19, 120.17-120.18, 121.27-121.35 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

35. Nag Hammadi, The Hypostasis of The Archons, 95.5, 95.17-95.34 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

36. Nag Hammadi, The Sophia of Jesus Christ, 99.17-99.19 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

37. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.116-7.118



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, trust of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81
abraham Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 170
adam, condition of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
adam Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 56; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 35; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 188; Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 170; Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 56; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 45, 135, 137, 141; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 103
adam and eve Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81, 82; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 485
afterlife Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 35
akedah (binding of isaac), transformation into normative text, through rabbinic exegesis Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 32
amoraim, palestinian Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
androgyny Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135, 137
angel/angelic passim see also archangel, entourage Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 709
angel Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 141
angels, heavenly mansion of Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 206
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
animating breath Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 35
antiochene school Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
arabic Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 21
aramaic Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 21
archangel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4, 709
archangels Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 141
archon Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 135, 141, 155
aristotle Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 39
atlas Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
auerbach, erich Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 39
autobiography, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
babylonian incantation bowls, lilith on Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
babylonian talmud (bavli) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
baier, annette Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 82
baptism, of jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135
barbeloite, modern definitions Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 147
blasphemy, heresy as Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
body of sin, flesh (of man) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
canaan, canaanites Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 170
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81, 82
carpocratians Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
celsus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
centaurs Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
chariot Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 727, 728
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
christ, as bridegroom Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 112
christ, as caput (corporis) ecclesiae Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 112
christ, see also jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 45, 132, 135, 147, 155
christology, pauline Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 365
clement of alexandria, assimilation of heresy to paganism Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 335
clement of alexandria, liberal tolerance of heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 335
clement of alexandria, moral criticism of heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
clement of alexandria, reduction of diverse heresies to common errors Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
constituent parts Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 35
corinthians Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132
corporeal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 35
cosmic order, in hebrew bible Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 56
creator archons, archons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132
crucifixion Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135
culture heroes Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
curse, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 708
cursing, of adam and eve Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 141
death, of ialdabaoth/samael Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 141
death personified in gnostic, mortality Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
deceit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
deception, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
deception, process of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
deception, serpent, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
deception Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 709
demons, and demonic generation Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
demons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
depth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 45
descent, of christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135
descent, of sophia/wisdom Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 135
descent, of the immortal man/adam of light Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 137
devil, envy of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 35
earthly origin Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 35
education, educational, educative Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
egypt, egyptian Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
ekklesia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 137
encratites Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 45, 132, 135, 137, 141, 147, 155
enoch Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
entrance Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
envy, devil, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
epiphanius Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 271
eschatological, resurrection Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
eschatology, eschatological Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
ethics of care Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 82
euhemerism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
eve, sentencing of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
eve Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 34; Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 56; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 188; Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 170; Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 56; Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 45, 132, 135, 137, 141, 147, 155; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 103
expulsion, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 708
expulsion, paradise, from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4, 709
fair, sentence Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 708
fall, of sophia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 155
fall Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 137, 155
fear of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4, 709
flood Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 34
fragrances, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 709
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
gabriel, demon Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
generation, beyond dyadic coitus Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
generation, demonic Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
generation, of seth Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
gentile gods Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
gnosis, knowledge, tree of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 141
gnosis, knowledge Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 132, 135, 141, 147, 155
god, anger of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
god, denial of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 728
god, promise of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 727
god, wrath of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 709
greece, greek Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
greed, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
hands, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 709, 728
happiness Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 188
hebrew Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 485
holy spirit Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 45
ialdabaoth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135
iconography Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
idol, idolatry Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
illness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
image Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 45
immortality Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 728
immortality in relation to sin, eschatological Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
immortality of soul Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
instructor Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 141, 155
interpretatio\u2003 Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
invisible spirit Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 147
irenaeus Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
isis Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
j source Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 49
jesus, see also christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135, 147, 155
jesus christ Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
judgment Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 708, 709
kinglessness Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 137, 147, 155
kings Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132
knowledge, of good and evil Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 56
knowledge, tree of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 141
knowledge Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 135, 141, 147, 155
language of creation Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 21
law, the, in clement Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 335, 352
law/spirit antithesis Conybeare, Abused Bodies in Roman Epic (2000) 112
libertinism/license Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
life, circle of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 147
life, eve Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 132, 137, 155
life, ogdoad Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 137, 147
life, sophia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 137, 141, 147
life, spirit/breath of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 141
life, tree of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 141, 155
life Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 141
light Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135, 147, 155
likeness, of adam Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
likeness Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 45
lilith, on incantation bowls Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
lion Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
love, sophia/circle of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
malina, bruce j. Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 103
man Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 103
man (anthropos) barbelo, first/immortal man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 45, 137
man (anthropos) barbelo, second man/son of man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 45, 137, 147, 155
man (anthropos) barbelo, third man (title) Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 45
marriage, marrying Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 170
marriage, heretical contempt for Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 335, 352
marriage Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
meaningless Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 35
michael, devil Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
michael, refusal (rejection or denial) of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 728
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4, 709
modes Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
moses Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 728
mother Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
mother barbelo, of the living/all Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 45, 135, 137, 141, 147, 155
mutability, mutable Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
myth, mythology Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 170
mytheme Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 170
oath, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 727
observed by, image and likeness of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
observed by, seth begotten by Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
observed by, spirits begotten by Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
ogdoad Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 137, 147
oil, mercy, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
oil, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 728
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
ophites, the diagram Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 147
pagan, paganism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
paganism, heresy assimilated to Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 335
pandora Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 34
paradise, traveling (journey or foray) to/from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
paradise Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 485; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 141, 147, 155
paradise myth Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 206
parenesis Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
passions Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 62, 188
paul, valentinian use of the letters of Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 56
paul Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 135
pentad Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
persia, zoroastrian texts of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
philo, hebrew, knowledge of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 188
philosophy, positive invocation and use of Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 335
pistis (sophia) Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 45, 141
plato Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 103
pleasure, serpent symbol of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 188
pleasure Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 103
plotinus Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 103
predestination Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
priestly source Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 49
pronoia (providence) archontic, sophia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 141, 147, 155
protoplasts Scopello, The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas (2008) 206
pruncius, see also sophia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 45, 135
psychic adam/eve/body, essence Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135
purification Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 485
rabbis Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
raphael , demon Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
rebellion, animals, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
reincarnation Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135
repentance adonaios, sophia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135
reproduction, multiplicity of modes of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
resurrection Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 727; Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 271
retelling Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
rewriting Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 727
rešit Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 49
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 82
sabaoth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 137
sacrifice, human Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 32
salvation/soteriology Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 135, 137, 141, 147, 155
sanctuary Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 485
satan, and heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
savior, christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 45, 132
savior, sophia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135
scripture, as weapon/criterion against heresy Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
seeds, food (sustece), for Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 728
sentencing, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
sentencing, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
septuagint Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 103
serapis Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
serpent, devil/in paradise Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 155
serpent, of eve Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 188
serpent, of moses Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 188
serpent, raphael Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
serpent, sophia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 155
serpent, tool of devil, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4
serpent Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 56
seth, generation of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
sethian tradition Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 56
sethians, sethianism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 45, 132, 135, 137, 141, 147, 155
sins, sinful, sinners Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
sophia, see also prunicus, wisdom, zoe Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 45, 132, 135, 137, 141, 147, 155
sophists Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 188
soul, individual Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135, 141
soul, world Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 137
soul Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 62, 188
species, simanim (signs) spirits, eve or adam generating Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
spices Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 728
spirit, divine Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 135, 147
spirit Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 35
spirit (pneuma), essence of Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 56
spiritual, class Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 137, 147
spiritual Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 141, 155
stewardship Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 82
sun Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
suriel, demon Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
sword Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 727, 728
syriac Fraade, Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel (2023) 21
testament of eve Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 4, 709, 728
thaphtabaoth/thartharaoth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
thautabaoth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18
theriomorphism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 18, 141
titans Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 56
tree, life, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 709, 727, 728
tree Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 727
tree of knowledge of good and evil Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 56
tree of life Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 400
triad Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 45
typology, greek terms for' Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 39
valentinians Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 56
valentinus, valentinians Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 137, 147
varro Kaplan, My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs (2015) 39
verba philonica Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 188
voice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 709
von rad, gerhard Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 56
water, primeval Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 135
wisdom, and cosmos Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 49
wisdom, concept Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132
wisdom, jewish Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 135, 155
wisdom, soteriology Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 132, 135, 147, 155
woman Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 103
women Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 170
wrath, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 709
yoḥanan, rabbi Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
zoe, sophia-zoe Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 137, 141, 155
zoe, zoe-eve Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 141
zoe Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 141, 147, 155
zoroastrianism Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 157
βλασφημεῖν Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
πανουργία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 335
πορνεία Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 352
πορνεύειν Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 335