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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 20


nanFor the LORD had fast closed up all the wombs of the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah Abraham’s wife.,And Abimelech said: ‘Behold, my land is before thee: dwell where it pleaseth thee.’,And it came to pass, when God caused me to wander from my father’s house, that I said unto her: This is thy kindness which thou shalt show unto me; at every place whither we shall come, say of me: He is my brother.’,And moreover she is indeed my sister, the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and so she became my wife.,And Abimelech rose early in the morning, and called all his servants, and told all these things in their ears; and the men were sore afraid.,And Abimelech said unto Abraham: ‘What sawest thou, that thou hast done this thing?’,And God said unto him in the dream: ‘Yea, I know that in the simplicity of thy heart thou hast done this, and I also withheld thee from sinning against Me. Therefore suffered I thee not to touch her.,But God came to Abimelech in a dream of the night, and said to him: ‘Behold, thou shalt die, because of the woman whom thou hast taken; for she is a man’s wife.’,And Abraham prayed unto God; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maid-servants; and they bore children.,And Abraham said of Sarah his wife: ‘She is my sister.’ And Abimelech king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah.,Said he not himself unto me: She is my sister? and she, even she herself said: He is my brother. In the simplicity of my heart and the innocency of my hands have I done this.’,And Abraham journeyed from thence toward the land of the South, and dwelt between Kadesh and Shur; and he sojourned in Gerar.,And Abimelech took sheep and oxen, and men-servants and women-servants, and gave them unto Abraham, and restored him Sarah his wife.,And unto Sarah he said: ‘Behold, I have given thy brother a thousand pieces of silver; behold, it is for thee a covering of the eyes to all that are with thee; and before all men thou art righted.’,And Abraham said: ‘Because I thought: Surely the fear of God is not in this place; and they will slay me for my wife’s sake.,Now Abimelech had not come near her; and he said: ‘Lord, wilt Thou slay even a righteous nation?,Then Abimelech called Abraham, and said unto him: ‘What hast thou done unto us? and wherein have I sinned against thee, that thou hast brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin? thou hast done deeds unto me that ought not to be done.’,Now therefore restore the man’s wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live; and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine.’


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

28 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.12 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 7.11, 14.19, 22.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.11. וַיִּקְרָא גַּם־פַּרְעֹה לַחֲכָמִים וְלַמְכַשְּׁפִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ גַם־הֵם חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶם כֵּן׃ 14.19. וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 7.11. Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did in like manner with their secret arts." 14.19. And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;" 22.20. And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "17.15" "17.15" "17 15" \n1 1 1 1 None\n2 10 10 10 None\n3 11 11 11 None\n4 11.1 11.1 11 1 \n.. ... ... .. .. \n315 9.24 9.24 9 24 \n316 9.25 9.25 9 25 \n317 9.26 9.26 9 26 \n318 9.27 9.27 9 27 \n319 9.28 9.28 9 28 \n\n[320 rows x 4 columns] (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 13.2, 13.15, 18.9, 18.15, 18.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.2. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה מַרְאֶהָ שָׁפָל מִן־הָעוֹר וּשְׂעָרָהּ הָפַךְ לָבָן וְטִמְּאוֹ הַכֹּהֵן נֶגַע־צָרַעַת הִוא בַּשְּׁחִין פָּרָחָה׃ 13.2. אָדָם כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְעוֹר־בְּשָׂרוֹ שְׂאֵת אוֹ־סַפַּחַת אוֹ בַהֶרֶת וְהָיָה בְעוֹר־בְּשָׂרוֹ לְנֶגַע צָרָעַת וְהוּבָא אֶל־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן אוֹ אֶל־אַחַד מִבָּנָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים׃ 13.15. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי וְטִמְּאוֹ הַבָּשָׂר הַחַי טָמֵא הוּא צָרַעַת הוּא׃ 18.9. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹתְךָ בַת־אָבִיךָ אוֹ בַת־אִמֶּךָ מוֹלֶדֶת בַּיִת אוֹ מוֹלֶדֶת חוּץ לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָן׃ 18.15. עֶרְוַת כַּלָּתְךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה אֵשֶׁת בִּנְךָ הִוא לֹא תְגַלֶּה עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 18.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחֹתָהּ לֹא תִקָּח לִצְרֹר לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ עָלֶיהָ בְּחַיֶּיהָ׃ 13.2. When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, or a scab, or a bright spot, and it become in the skin of his flesh the plague of leprosy, then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests." 13.15. And the priest shall look on the raw flesh, and pronounce him unclean; the raw flesh is unclean: it is leprosy." 18.9. The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter of thy father, or the daughter of thy mother, whether born at home, or born abroad, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover. ." 18.15. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter-in-law: she is thy son’wife; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness." 18.18. And thou shalt not take a woman to her sister, to be a rival to her, to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her lifetime."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.10-11.17, 22.8-22.13, 22.20-22.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.11. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לָמָה הֲרֵעֹתָ לְעַבְדֶּךָ וְלָמָּה לֹא־מָצָתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ לָשׂוּם אֶת־מַשָּׂא כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה עָלָי׃ 11.12. הֶאָנֹכִי הָרִיתִי אֵת כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה אִם־אָנֹכִי יְלִדְתִּיהוּ כִּי־תֹאמַר אֵלַי שָׂאֵהוּ בְחֵיקֶךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת־הַיֹּנֵק עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לַאֲבֹתָיו׃ 11.13. מֵאַיִן לִי בָּשָׂר לָתֵת לְכָל־הָעָם הַזֶּה כִּי־יִבְכּוּ עָלַי לֵאמֹר תְּנָה־לָּנוּ בָשָׂר וְנֹאכֵלָה׃ 11.14. לֹא־אוּכַל אָנֹכִי לְבַדִּי לָשֵׂאת אֶת־כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה כִּי כָבֵד מִמֶּנִּי׃ 11.15. וְאִם־כָּכָה אַתְּ־עֹשֶׂה לִּי הָרְגֵנִי נָא הָרֹג אִם־מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וְאַל־אֶרְאֶה בְּרָעָתִי׃ 11.16. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶסְפָה־לִּי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָדַעְתָּ כִּי־הֵם זִקְנֵי הָעָם וְשֹׁטְרָיו וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ שָׁם עִמָּךְ׃ 11.17. וְיָרַדְתִּי וְדִבַּרְתִּי עִמְּךָ שָׁם וְאָצַלְתִּי מִן־הָרוּחַ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיךָ וְשַׂמְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם וְנָשְׂאוּ אִתְּךָ בְּמַשָּׂא הָעָם וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא אַתָּה לְבַדֶּךָ׃ 22.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם לִינוּ פֹה הַלַּיְלָה וַהֲשִׁבֹתִי אֶתְכֶם דָּבָר כַּאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֵלָי וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׂרֵי־מוֹאָב עִם־בִּלְעָם׃ 22.9. וַיָּבֹא אֱלֹהִים אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיֹּאמֶר מִי הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה עִמָּךְ׃ 22.11. הִנֵּה הָעָם הַיֹּצֵא מִמִּצְרַיִם וַיְכַס אֶת־עֵין הָאָרֶץ עַתָּה לְכָה קָבָה־לִּי אֹתוֹ אוּלַי אוּכַל לְהִלָּחֶם בּוֹ וְגֵרַשְׁתִּיו׃ 22.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־בִּלְעָם לֹא תֵלֵךְ עִמָּהֶם לֹא תָאֹר אֶת־הָעָם כִּי בָרוּךְ הוּא׃ 22.13. וַיָּקָם בִּלְעָם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־שָׂרֵי בָלָק לְכוּ אֶל־אַרְצְכֶם כִּי מֵאֵן יְהוָה לְתִתִּי לַהֲלֹךְ עִמָּכֶם׃ 22.21. וַיָּקָם בִּלְעָם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיַּחֲבֹשׁ אֶת־אֲתֹנוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ עִם־שָׂרֵי מוֹאָב׃ 11.10. And Moses heard the people weeping, family by family, every man at the door of his tent; and the anger of the LORD was kindled greatly; and Moses was displeased." 11.11. And Moses said unto the LORD: ‘Wherefore hast Thou dealt ill with Thy servant? and wherefore have I not found favour in Thy sight, that Thou layest the burden of all this people upon me?" 11.12. Have I conceived all this people? have I brought them forth, that Thou shouldest say unto me: Carry them in thy bosom, as a nursing-father carrieth the sucking child, unto the land which Thou didst swear unto their fathers?" 11.13. Whence should I have flesh to give unto all this people? for they trouble me with their weeping, saying: Give us flesh, that we may eat." 11.14. I am not able to bear all this people myself alone, because it is too heavy for me." 11.15. And if Thou deal thus with me, kill me, I pray Thee, out of hand, if I have found favour in Thy sight; and let me not look upon my wretchedness.’" 11.16. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tent of meeting, that they may stand there with thee." 11.17. And I will come down and speak with thee there; and I will take of the spirit which is upon thee, and will put it upon them; and they shall bear the burden of the people with thee, that thou bear it not thyself alone." 22.8. And he said unto them: ‘Lodge here this night, and I will bring you back word, as the LORD may speak unto me’; and the princes of Moab abode with Balaam." 22.9. And God came unto Balaam, and said: ‘What men are these with thee?’" 22.10. And Balaam said unto God: ‘Balak the son of Zippor, king of Moab, hath sent unto me [saying]:" 22.11. Behold the people that is come out of Egypt, it covereth the face of the earth; now, come curse me them; peradventure I shall be able to fight against them, and shall drive them out.’" 22.12. And God said unto Balaam: ‘Thou shalt not go with them; thou shalt not curse the people; for they are blessed.’" 22.13. And Balaam rose up in the morning, and said unto the princes of Balak: ‘Get you into your land; for the LORD refuseth to give me leave to go with you.’" 22.20. And God came unto Balaam at night, and said unto him: ‘If the men are come to call thee, rise up, go with them; but only the word which I speak unto thee, that shalt thou do.’" 22.21. And Balaam rose up in the morning, and saddled his ass, and went with the princes of Moab."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3.4-3.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.4. וַיֵּלֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ גִּבְעֹנָה לִזְבֹּחַ שָׁם כִּי הִיא הַבָּמָה הַגְּדוֹלָה אֶלֶף עֹלוֹת יַעֲלֶה שְׁלֹמֹה עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַהוּא׃ 3.5. בְּגִבְעוֹן נִרְאָה יְהֹוָה אֶל־שְׁלֹמֹה בַּחֲלוֹם הַלָּיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים שְׁאַל מָה אֶתֶּן־לָךְ׃ 3.6. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁלֹמֹה אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ עִם־עַבְדְּךָ דָוִד אָבִי חֶסֶד גָּדוֹל כַּאֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ לְפָנֶיךָ בֶּאֱמֶת וּבִצְדָקָה וּבְיִשְׁרַת לֵבָב עִמָּךְ וַתִּשְׁמָר־לוֹ אֶת־הַחֶסֶד הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה וַתִּתֶּן־לוֹ בֵן יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסְאוֹ כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 3.7. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי אַתָּה הִמְלַכְתָּ אֶת־עַבְדְּךָ תַּחַת דָּוִד אָבִי וְאָנֹכִי נַעַר קָטֹן לֹא אֵדַע צֵאת וָבֹא׃ 3.8. וְעַבְדְּךָ בְּתוֹךְ עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרְתָּ עַם־רָב אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמָּנֶה וְלֹא יִסָּפֵר מֵרֹב׃ 3.9. וְנָתַתָּ לְעַבְדְּךָ לֵב שֹׁמֵעַ לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־עַמְּךָ לְהָבִין בֵּין־טוֹב לְרָע כִּי מִי יוּכַל לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־עַמְּךָ הַכָּבֵד הַזֶּה׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֵלָיו יַעַן אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַלְתָּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ יָמִים רַבִּים וְלֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ עֹשֶׁר וְלֹא שָׁאַלְתָּ נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ הָבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ מִשְׁפָּט׃ 3.12. הִנֵּה עָשִׂיתִי כִּדְבָרֶיךָ הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ לֵב חָכָם וְנָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר כָּמוֹךָ לֹא־הָיָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְאַחֲרֶיךָ לֹא־יָקוּם כָּמוֹךָ׃ 3.13. וְגַם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ נָתַתִּי לָךְ גַּם־עֹשֶׁר גַּם־כָּבוֹד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָיָה כָמוֹךָ אִישׁ בַּמְּלָכִים כָּל־יָמֶיךָ׃ 3.14. וְאִם תֵּלֵךְ בִּדְרָכַי לִשְׁמֹר חֻקַּי וּמִצְוֺתַי כַּאֲשֶׁר הָלַךְ דָּוִיד אָבִיךָ וְהַאַרַכְתִּי אֶת־יָמֶיךָ׃ 3.15. וַיִּקַץ שְׁלֹמֹה וְהִנֵּה חֲלוֹם וַיָּבוֹא יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־אֲדֹנָי וַיַּעַל עֹלוֹת וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלָמִים וַיַּעַשׂ מִשְׁתֶּה לְכָל־עֲבָדָיו׃ 3.4. And the king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there; for that was the great high place; a thousand burnt-offerings did Solomon offer upon that altar." 3.5. In Gibeon the LORD appeared to Solomon in a dream by night; and God said: ‘Ask what I shall give thee.’" 3.6. And Solomon said: ‘Thou hast shown unto Thy servant David my father great kindness, according as he walked before Thee in truth, and in righteousness, and in uprightness of heart with Thee; and Thou hast kept for him this great kindness, that Thou hast given him a son to sit on his throne, as it is this day." 3.7. And now, O LORD my God, Thou hast made Thy servant king instead of David my father; and I am but a little child; I know not how to go out or come in." 3.8. And Thy servant is in the midst of Thy people which Thou hast chosen, a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude." 3.9. Give Thy servant therefore an understanding heart to judge Thy people, that I may discern between good and evil; for who is able to judge this Thy great people?’" 3.10. And the speech pleased the LORD, that Solomon had asked this thing." 3.11. And God said unto him: ‘Because thou hast asked this thing, and hast not asked for thyself long life; neither hast asked riches for thyself, nor hast asked the life of thine enemies; but hast asked for thyself understanding to discern justice;" 3.12. behold, I have done according to thy word: lo, I have given thee a wise and an understanding heart; so that there hath been none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall any arise like unto thee." 3.13. And I have also given thee that which thou hast not asked, both riches and honour—so that there hath not been any among the kings like unto thee—all thy days." 3.14. And if thou wilt walk in My ways, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as thy father David did walk, then I will lengthen thy days.’" 3.15. And Solomon awoke, and, behold, it was a dream; and he came to Jerusalem, and stood before the ark of the covet of the LORD, and offered up burnt-offerings, and offered peace-offerings, and made a feast to all his servants."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 3.1, 3.10, 18.1, 28.8-28.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.1. וַיָּבֹא יְהוָה וַיִּתְיַצַּב וַיִּקְרָא כְפַעַם־בְּפַעַם שְׁמוּאֵל שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל דַּבֵּר כִּי שֹׁמֵעַ עַבְדֶּךָ׃ 3.1. וְהַנַּעַר שְׁמוּאֵל מְשָׁרֵת אֶת־יְהוָה לִפְנֵי עֵלִי וּדְבַר־יְהוָה הָיָה יָקָר בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֵין חָזוֹן נִפְרָץ׃ 18.1. וַיְהִי כְּכַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אֶל־שָׁאוּל וְנֶפֶשׁ יְהוֹנָתָן נִקְשְׁרָה בְּנֶפֶשׁ דָּוִד ויאהבו [וַיֶּאֱהָבֵהוּ] יְהוֹנָתָן כְּנַפְשׁוֹ׃ 18.1. וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַתִּצְלַח רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים רָעָה אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַיִּתְנַבֵּא בְתוֹךְ־הַבַּיִת וְדָוִד מְנַגֵּן בְּיָדוֹ כְּיוֹם בְּיוֹם וְהַחֲנִית בְּיַד־שָׁאוּל׃ 28.8. וַיִּתְחַפֵּשׂ שָׁאוּל וַיִּלְבַּשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וַיֵּלֶךְ הוּא וּשְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים עִמּוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לָיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר קסומי־[קָסֳמִי־] נָא לִי בָּאוֹב וְהַעֲלִי לִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֹמַר אֵלָיִךְ׃ 28.9. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֵלָיו הִנֵּה אַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הִכְרִית אֶת־הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת־הַיִּדְּעֹנִי מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְלָמָה אַתָּה מִתְנַקֵּשׁ בְּנַפְשִׁי לַהֲמִיתֵנִי׃ 28.11. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מִי אַעֲלֶה־לָּךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵל הַעֲלִי־לִי׃ 28.12. וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵל וַתִּזְעַק בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־שָׁאוּל לֵאמֹר לָמָּה רִמִּיתָנִי וְאַתָּה שָׁאוּל׃ 28.13. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי מָה רָאִית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־שָׁאוּל אֱלֹהִים רָאִיתִי עֹלִים מִן־הָאָרֶץ׃ 28.14. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַה־תָּאֳרוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר אִישׁ זָקֵן עֹלֶה וְהוּא עֹטֶה מְעִיל וַיֵּדַע שָׁאוּל כִּי־שְׁמוּאֵל הוּא וַיִּקֹּד אַפַּיִם אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ׃ 28.15. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־שָׁאוּל לָמָּה הִרְגַּזְתַּנִי לְהַעֲלוֹת אֹתִי וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל צַר־לִי מְאֹד וּפְלִשְׁתִּים נִלְחָמִים בִּי וֵאלֹהִים סָר מֵעָלַי וְלֹא־עָנָנִי עוֹד גַּם בְּיַד־הַנְּבִיאִם גַּם־בַּחֲלֹמוֹת וָאֶקְרָאֶה לְךָ לְהוֹדִיעֵנִי מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה׃ 28.16. וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל וְלָמָּה תִּשְׁאָלֵנִי וַיהוָה סָר מֵעָלֶיךָ וַיְהִי עָרֶךָ׃ 28.17. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה לוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיָדִי וַיִּקְרַע יְהוָה אֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָה מִיָּדֶךָ וַיִּתְּנָהּ לְרֵעֲךָ לְדָוִד׃ 28.18. כַּאֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה וְלֹא־עָשִׂיתָ חֲרוֹן־אַפּוֹ בַּעֲמָלֵק עַל־כֵּן הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה עָשָׂה־לְךָ יְהוָה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 28.19. וְיִתֵּן יְהוָה גַּם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמְּךָ בְּיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּים וּמָחָר אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ עִמִּי גַּם אֶת־מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל יִתֵּן יְהוָה בְּיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃ 28.21. וַתָּבוֹא הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַתֵּרֶא כִּי־נִבְהַל מְאֹד וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּה שָׁמְעָה שִׁפְחָתְךָ בְּקוֹלֶךָ וָאָשִׂים נַפְשִׁי בְּכַפִּי וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ אֵלָי׃ 28.22. וְעַתָּה שְׁמַע־נָא גַם־אַתָּה בְּקוֹל שִׁפְחָתֶךָ וְאָשִׂמָה לְפָנֶיךָ פַּת־לֶחֶם וֶאֱכוֹל וִיהִי בְךָ כֹּחַ כִּי תֵלֵךְ בַּדָּרֶךְ׃ 28.23. וַיְמָאֵן וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֹכַל וַיִּפְרְצוּ־בוֹ עֲבָדָיו וְגַם־הָאִשָּׁה וַיִּשְׁמַע לְקֹלָם וַיָּקָם מֵהָאָרֶץ וַיֵּשֶׁב אֶל־הַמִּטָּה׃ 28.24. וְלָאִשָּׁה עֵגֶל־מַרְבֵּק בַּבַּיִת וַתְּמַהֵר וַתִּזְבָּחֵהוּ וַתִּקַּח־קֶמַח וַתָּלָשׁ וַתֹּפֵהוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 28.25. וַתַּגֵּשׁ לִפְנֵי־שָׁאוּל וְלִפְנֵי עֲבָדָיו וַיֹּאכֵלוּ וַיָּקֻמוּ וַיֵּלְכוּ בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא׃ 3.1. And the child Shemu᾽el ministered to the Lord before ῾Eli. And the word of the Lord was precious in those days; there was no frequent vision." 3.10. And the Lord came, and stood, and called as on the previous occasions, Shemu᾽el, Shemu᾽el. Then Shemu᾽el answered, Speak; for Thy servant is listening." 18.1. And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking to Sha᾽ul, that the soul of Yehonatan was knit with the soul of David, and Yehonatan loved him as his own soul." 28.8. And Sha᾽ul disguised himself, and put on other clothes, and he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said, I pray thee, divine for me by means of the familiar spirit, and bring him up for me, whom I shall name to thee." 28.9. And the woman said to him, Behold, thou knowst what Sha᾽ul has done, how he has cut off the diviners, and the wizards, out of the land: why then layest thou a snare for my life, to cause me to die?" 28.10. And Sha᾽ul swore to her by the Lord, saying, As the Lord lives, no punishment shall befall thee for this thing." 28.11. Then said the woman, Whom shall I bring up to thee? And he said, Bring me up Shemu᾽el." 28.12. And when the woman saw Shemu᾽el, she cried with a loud voice: and the woman spoke to Sha᾽ul, saying, Why hast thou deceived me? for thou art Sha᾽ul." 28.13. And the king said to her, Be not afraid: for what sawest thou? And the woman said to Sha᾽ul, I saw a godlike man ascending out of the earth." 28.14. And he said to her, What form is he of? And she said, An old man comes up; and he is covered with a mantle. And Sha᾽ul knew that it was Shemu᾽el, and he stooped with his face to the ground, and bowed himself." 28.15. And Shemu᾽el said to Sha᾽ul, Why hast thou disquieted me, to bring me up? And Sha᾽ul answered, I am greatly distressed; for the Pelishtim make war against me, and God has departed from me, and answers me no more, neither by prophets, nor by dreams: therefore I have called thee, that thou mayst make known to me what I shall do." 28.16. Then said Shemu᾽el, Why then dost thou ask of me, seeing the Lord has departed from thee, and is become thy enemy?" 28.17. And the Lord has done for himself, as he spoke by me: for the Lord has rent the kingdom out of thy hand, and given it to thy neighbour, to David:" 28.18. because thou wouldst not obey the voice of the Lord nor wouldst execute his fierce wrath upon ῾Amaleq, therefore has the Lord done this thing to thee this day." 28.19. Moreover the Lord will also deliver Yisra᾽el with thee into the hand of the Pelishtim: and to morrow shalt thou and thy sons be with me: the Lord also shall deliver the camp of Yisra᾽el into the hand of the Pelishtim." 28.20. Then Sha᾽ul quickly fell full-length onto the ground and was greatly afraid at the words of Shemu᾽el; nor was there any strength in him, for he had eaten no bread all day and all night." 28.21. And the woman came to Sha᾽ul and saw that he was much terrified, and she said to him, Behold, thy handmaid has obeyed thy voice, and I have taken my life in my hand, and have hearkened to thy words which thou didst speak to me." 28.22. Now therefore, I pray thee, hearken thou also to the voice of thy handmaid, and let me set a morsel of bread before thee; and eat, that thou mayst have strength, when thou goest on thy way." 28.23. But he refused, and said, I will not eat. But his servants, together with the woman, compelled him; and he hearkened to their voice. So he arose from the earth, and sat upon the bed." 28.24. And the woman had a fatted calf in the house; and she hastened, and killed it, and took flour, and kneaded it, and baked unleavened bread of it:" 28.25. and she brought it before Sha᾽ul, and before his servants; and they did eat. Then they rose up, and went away that night."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 6.15-6.18, 6.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.15. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם מְשָׁרֵת אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים לָקוּם וַיֵּצֵא וְהִנֵּה־חַיִל סוֹבֵב אֶת־הָעִיר וְסוּס וָרָכֶב וַיֹּאמֶר נַעֲרוֹ אֵלָיו אֲהָהּ אֲדֹנִי אֵיכָה נַעֲשֶׂה׃ 6.16. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּירָא כִּי רַבִּים אֲשֶׁר אִתָּנוּ מֵאֲשֶׁר אוֹתָם׃ 6.17. וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֱלִישָׁע וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה פְּקַח־נָא אֶת־עֵינָיו וְיִרְאֶה וַיִּפְקַח יְהוָה אֶת־עֵינֵי הַנַּעַר וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה הָהָר מָלֵא סוּסִים וְרֶכֶב אֵשׁ סְבִיבֹת אֱלִישָׁע׃ 6.18. וַיֵּרְדוּ אֵלָיו וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֱלִישָׁע אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר הַךְ־נָא אֶת־הַגּוֹי־הַזֶּה בַּסַּנְוֵרִים וַיַּכֵּם בַּסַּנְוֵרִים כִּדְבַר אֱלִישָׁע׃ 6.23. וַיִּכְרֶה לָהֶם כֵּרָה גְדוֹלָה וַיֹּאכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתּוּ וַיְשַׁלְּחֵם וַיֵּלְכוּ אֶל־אֲדֹנֵיהֶם וְלֹא־יָסְפוּ עוֹד גְּדוּדֵי אֲרָם לָבוֹא בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 6.15. And when the servant of the man of God was risen early, and gone forth, behold, a host with horses and chariots was round about the city. And his servant said unto him: ‘Alas, my master! how shall we do?’" 6.16. And he answered: ‘Fear not: for they that are with us are more than they that are with them.’" 6.17. And Elisha prayed, and said: ‘LORD, I pray Thee, open his eyes, that he may see.’ And the LORD opened the eyes of the young man; and he saw; and, behold, the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha." 6.18. And when they came down to him, Elisha prayed unto the LORD, and said: ‘Smite this people, I pray Thee, with blindness.’ And He smote them with blindness according to the word of Elisha." 6.23. And he prepared great provision for them; and when they had eaten and drunk, he sent them away, and they went to their master. And the bands of Aram came no more into the land of Israel."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.4-7.17, 12.1-12.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.4. וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיְהִי דְּבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־נָתָן לֵאמֹר׃ 7.5. לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־עַבְדִּי אֶל־דָּוִד כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הַאַתָּה תִּבְנֶה־לִּי בַיִת לְשִׁבְתִּי׃ 7.6. כִּי לֹא יָשַׁבְתִּי בְּבַיִת לְמִיּוֹם הַעֲלֹתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם וְעַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וָאֶהְיֶה מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּאֹהֶל וּבְמִשְׁכָּן׃ 7.7. בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־הִתְהַלַּכְתִּי בְּכָל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲדָבָר דִּבַּרְתִּי אֶת־אַחַד שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי לִרְעוֹת אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר לָמָּה לֹא־בְנִיתֶם לִי בֵּית אֲרָזִים׃ 7.8. וְעַתָּה כֹּה־תֹאמַר לְעַבְדִּי לְדָוִד כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי לְקַחְתִּיךָ מִן־הַנָּוֶה מֵאַחַר הַצֹּאן לִהְיוֹת נָגִיד עַל־עַמִּי עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.9. וָאֶהְיֶה עִמְּךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הָלַכְתָּ וָאַכְרִתָה אֶת־כָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ וְעָשִׂתִי לְךָ שֵׁם גָּדוֹל כְּשֵׁם הַגְּדֹלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃ 7.11. וּלְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי שֹׁפְטִים עַל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַהֲנִיחֹתִי לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהִגִּיד לְךָ יְהוָה כִּי־בַיִת יַעֲשֶׂה־לְּךָ יְהוָה׃ 7.12. כִּי יִמְלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ וְשָׁכַבְתָּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִי אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ׃ 7.13. הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.14. אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 7.15. וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־יָסוּר מִמֶּנּוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מֵעִם שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מִלְּפָנֶיךָ׃ 7.16. וְנֶאְמַן בֵּיתְךָ וּמַמְלַכְתְּךָ עַד־עוֹלָם לְפָנֶיךָ כִּסְאֲךָ יִהְיֶה נָכוֹן עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 7.17. כְּכֹל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וּכְכֹל הַחִזָּיוֹן הַזֶּה כֵּן דִּבֶּר נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד׃ 12.1. וְעַתָּה לֹא־תָסוּר חֶרֶב מִבֵּיתְךָ עַד־עוֹלָם עֵקֶב כִּי בְזִתָנִי וַתִּקַּח אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 12.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוָה אֶת־נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד וַיָּבֹא אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים הָיוּ בְּעִיר אֶחָת אֶחָד עָשִׁיר וְאֶחָד רָאשׁ׃ 12.2. לְעָשִׁיר הָיָה צֹאן וּבָקָר הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 12.2. וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵהָאָרֶץ וַיִּרְחַץ וַיָּסֶךְ וַיְחַלֵּף שמלתו [שִׂמְלֹתָיו] וַיָּבֹא בֵית־יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיָּבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיִּשְׁאַל וַיָּשִׂימוּ לוֹ לֶחֶם וַיֹּאכַל׃ 12.3. וַיִּקַּח אֶת־עֲטֶרֶת־מַלְכָּם מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ וּמִשְׁקָלָהּ כִּכַּר זָהָב וְאֶבֶן יְקָרָה וַתְּהִי עַל־רֹאשׁ דָּוִד וּשְׁלַל הָעִיר הוֹצִיא הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 12.3. וְלָרָשׁ אֵין־כֹּל כִּי אִם־כִּבְשָׂה אַחַת קְטַנָּה אֲשֶׁר קָנָה וַיְחַיֶּהָ וַתִּגְדַּל עִמּוֹ וְעִם־בָּנָיו יַחְדָּו מִפִּתּוֹ תֹאכַל וּמִכֹּסוֹ תִשְׁתֶּה וּבְחֵיקוֹ תִשְׁכָּב וַתְּהִי־לוֹ כְּבַת׃ 12.4. וַיָּבֹא הֵלֶךְ לְאִישׁ הֶעָשִׁיר וַיַּחְמֹל לָקַחַת מִצֹּאנוֹ וּמִבְּקָרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לָאֹרֵחַ הַבָּא־לוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־כִּבְשַׂת הָאִישׁ הָרָאשׁ וַיַּעֲשֶׂהָ לָאִישׁ הַבָּא אֵלָיו׃ 12.5. וַיִּחַר־אַף דָּוִד בָּאִישׁ מְאֹד וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־נָתָן חַי־יְהוָה כִּי בֶן־מָוֶת הָאִישׁ הָעֹשֶׂה זֹאת׃ 12.6. וְאֶת־הַכִּבְשָׂה יְשַׁלֵּם אַרְבַּעְתָּיִם עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְעַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־חָמָל׃ 12.7. וַיֹּאמֶר נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד אַתָּה הָאִישׁ כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָנֹכִי מְשַׁחְתִּיךָ לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָנֹכִי הִצַּלְתִּיךָ מִיַּד שָׁאוּל׃ 12.8. וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־בֵּית אֲדֹנֶיךָ וְאֶת־נְשֵׁי אֲדֹנֶיךָ בְּחֵיקֶךָ וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה וְאִם־מְעָט וְאֹסִפָה לְּךָ כָּהֵנָּה וְכָהֵנָּה׃ 12.9. מַדּוּעַ בָּזִיתָ אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בעינו [בְּעֵינַי] אֵת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי הִכִּיתָ בַחֶרֶב וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ לָקַחְתָּ לְּךָ לְאִשָּׁה וְאֹתוֹ הָרַגְתָּ בְּחֶרֶב בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 12.11. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנְנִי מֵקִים עָלֶיךָ רָעָה מִבֵּיתֶךָ וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶת־נָשֶׁיךָ לְעֵינֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי לְרֵעֶיךָ וְשָׁכַב עִם־נָשֶׁיךָ לְעֵינֵי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ הַזֹּאת׃ 12.12. כִּי אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ בַסָּתֶר וַאֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 12.13. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־נָתָן חָטָאתִי לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד גַּם־יְהוָה הֶעֱבִיר חַטָּאתְךָ לֹא תָמוּת׃ 12.14. אֶפֶס כִּי־נִאֵץ נִאַצְתָּ אֶת־אֹיְבֵי יְהוָה בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה גַּם הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד לְךָ מוֹת יָמוּת׃ 12.15. וַיֵּלֶךְ נָתָן אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיִּגֹּף יְהוָה אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה אֵשֶׁת־אוּרִיָּה לְדָוִד וַיֵּאָנַשׁ׃ 7.4. And it came to pass that night, that the word of the Lord came to Natan, saying," 7.5. Go and tell my servant David, Thus says the Lord, shalt thou build me a house for me to dwell in?" 7.6. For I have not dwelt in any house since that time that I brought up the children of Yisra᾽el out of Miżrayim, even to this day, but I have walked in a tent and in a tabernacle." 7.7. In all the places where I have walked with all the children of Yisra᾽el, did I speak a word with any of the rulers of Yisra᾽el, whom I commanded as shepherds of my people Yisra᾽el, saying, Why do you not build me a house of cedar?" 7.8. Now therefore so shalt thou say to my servant David, Thus says the Lord of hosts, I took thee from the sheepfold, from following the sheep, to be ruler over my people, over Yisra᾽el:" 7.9. and I was with thee wherever thou didst go, and have cut off all thy enemies out of thy sight, and have made thee a great name, like the name of the great men that are on the earth." 7.10. Moreover I have appointed a place for my people Yisra᾽el, and planted them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and be troubled no more; neither shall the children of wickedness torment them any more, as at the beginning," 7.11. and as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Yisra᾽el; but I will give thee rest from all thy enemies, and the Lord tells thee that he will make thee a house." 7.12. And when the days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall issue from thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom." 7.13. He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever." 7.14. I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:" 7.15. but my covet love shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Sha᾽ul, whom I put away before thee." 7.16. And thy house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be firm for ever." 7.17. According to all these words, and according to all this vision, so did Natan speak to David." 12.1. And the Lord sent Natan to David. And he came to him, and said to him, There were two men in one city; the one rich, and the other poor." 12.2. The rich man had very many flocks and herds:" 12.3. but the poor man had nothing, except one little ewe lamb, which he had bought and reared: and it grew up together with him, and with his children; it did eat of his own bread, and drank of his own cup, and lay in his bosom, and was like a daughter to him." 12.4. And there came a traveller to the rich man, and he spared to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare it for the wayfaring man that was come to him; but took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him." 12.5. And David’s anger burned greatly against the man; and he said to Natan, As the Lord lives, the man that has done this is worthy to die:" 12.6. and he shall restore the lamb fourfold, because he did this thing, and because he had no pity." 12.7. And Natan said to David, Thou art the man. Thus says the Lord God of Yisra᾽el, I anointed thee king over Yisra᾽el, and I delivered thee out of the hand of Sha᾽ul;" 12.8. and I gave thee thy master’s house, and thy master’s wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Yisra᾽el and of Yehuda; and if that had been too little, I would moreover have given thee as much again." 12.9. Why hast thou despised the commandment of the Lord, to do evil in his sight? thou hast killed Uriyya the Ĥittite with the sword, and hast taken his wife to be thy wife, and hast slain him with the sword of the children of ῾Ammon." 12.10. Now therefore the sword shall never depart from thy house; because thou hast despised me, and hast taken the wife of Uriyya the Ĥittite to be thy wife." 12.11. Thus says the Lord, Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thy own house, and I will take thy wives before thy eyes, and give them to thy neighbour, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this sun." 12.12. For thou didst it secretly: but I will do this thing before all Yisra᾽el, and before the sun." 12.13. And David said to Natan, I have sinned against the Lord. And Natan said to David, The Lord also has commuted thy sin; thou shalt not die." 12.14. Howbeit because by this deed thou hast greatly blasphemed the Lord, the child also that is born to thee shall surely die." 12.15. And Natan departed to his house. And the Lord struck the child that Uriyya’s wife bore to David, and it was very sick."
10. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 1.13, 3.18-3.23, 6.21-6.22, 7.13-7.15, 13.2-13.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.13. וַיִּלְכְּדָהּ עָתְנִיאֵל בֶּן־קְנַז אֲחִי כָלֵב הַקָּטֹן מִמֶּנּוּ וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־עַכְסָה בִתּוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 3.18. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר כִּלָּה לְהַקְרִיב אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הָעָם נֹשְׂאֵי הַמִּנְחָה׃ 3.19. וְהוּא שָׁב מִן־הַפְּסִילִים אֲשֶׁר אֶת־הַגִּלְגָּל וַיֹּאמֶר דְּבַר־סֵתֶר לִי אֵלֶיךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר הָס וַיֵּצְאוּ מֵעָלָיו כָּל־הָעֹמְדִים עָלָיו׃ 3.21. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֵהוּד אֶת־יַד שְׂמֹאלוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַחֶרֶב מֵעַל יֶרֶךְ יְמִינוֹ וַיִּתְקָעֶהָ בְּבִטְנוֹ׃ 3.22. וַיָּבֹא גַם־הַנִּצָּב אַחַר הַלַּהַב וַיִּסְגֹּר הַחֵלֶב בְּעַד הַלַּהַב כִּי לֹא שָׁלַף הַחֶרֶב מִבִּטְנוֹ וַיֵּצֵא הַפַּרְשְׁדֹנָה׃ 3.23. וַיֵּצֵא אֵהוּד הַמִּסְדְּרוֹנָה וַיִּסְגֹּר דַּלְתוֹת הָעַלִיָּה בַּעֲדוֹ וְנָעָל׃ 6.21. וַיִּשְׁלַח מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־קְצֵה הַמִּשְׁעֶנֶת אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדוֹ וַיִּגַּע בַּבָּשָׂר וּבַמַּצּוֹת וַתַּעַל הָאֵשׁ מִן־הַצּוּר וַתֹּאכַל אֶת־הַבָּשָׂר וְאֶת־הַמַּצּוֹת וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הָלַךְ מֵעֵינָיו׃ 6.22. וַיַּרְא גִּדְעוֹן כִּי־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הוּא וַיֹּאמֶר גִּדְעוֹן אֲהָהּ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כִּי־עַל־כֵּן רָאִיתִי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים׃ 7.13. וַיָּבֹא גִדְעוֹן וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ מְסַפֵּר לְרֵעֵהוּ חֲלוֹם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה חֲלוֹם חָלַמְתִּי וְהִנֵּה צלול [צְלִיל] לֶחֶם שְׂעֹרִים מִתְהַפֵּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה מִדְיָן וַיָּבֹא עַד־הָאֹהֶל וַיַּכֵּהוּ וַיִּפֹּל וַיַּהַפְכֵהוּ לְמַעְלָה וְנָפַל הָאֹהֶל׃ 7.14. וַיַּעַן רֵעֵהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵין זֹאת בִּלְתִּי אִם־חֶרֶב גִּדְעוֹן בֶּן־יוֹאָשׁ אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נָתַן הָאֱלֹהִים בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־מִדְיָן וְאֶת־כָּל־הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 7.15. וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ גִּדְעוֹן אֶת־מִסְפַּר הַחֲלוֹם וְאֶת־שִׁבְרוֹ וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיָּשָׁב אֶל־מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר קוּמוּ כִּי־נָתַן יְהוָה בְּיֶדְכֶם אֶת־מַחֲנֵה מִדְיָן׃ 13.2. וַיְהִי בַעֲלוֹת הַלַּהַב מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וַיַּעַל מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה בְּלַהַב הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ רֹאִים וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם אָרְצָה׃ 13.2. וַיְהִי אִישׁ אֶחָד מִצָּרְעָה מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת הַדָּנִי וּשְׁמוֹ מָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלָדָה׃ 13.3. וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הִנֵּה־נָא אַתְּ־עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן׃ 13.4. וְעַתָּה הִשָּׁמְרִי נָא וְאַל־תִּשְׁתִּי יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר וְאַל־תֹּאכְלִי כָּל־טָמֵא׃ 13.5. כִּי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וּמוֹרָה לֹא־יַעֲלֶה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן־הַבָּטֶן וְהוּא יָחֵל לְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃ 13.6. וַתָּבֹא הָאִשָּׁה וַתֹּאמֶר לְאִישָׁהּ לֵאמֹר אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בָּא אֵלַי וּמַרְאֵהוּ כְּמַרְאֵה מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים נוֹרָא מְאֹד וְלֹא שְׁאִלְתִּיהוּ אֵי־מִזֶּה הוּא וְאֶת־שְׁמוֹ לֹא־הִגִּיד לִי׃ 13.7. וַיֹּאמֶר לִי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וְעַתָּה אַל־תִּשְׁתִּי יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר וְאַל־תֹּאכְלִי כָּל־טֻמְאָה כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן־הַבֶּטֶן עַד־יוֹם מוֹתוֹ׃ 1.13. And ῾Otni᾽el the son of Qenaz, Kalev’s younger brother, took it: and he gave him ῾Akhsa his daughter to wife." 3.18. And when he had finished offering the present, he sent away the people that bore the present." 3.19. But he himself turned back after reaching the carved stones that were by Gilgal, and said, I have a secret errand to thee, O king. The latter said, Keep silence, and all that stood by him went out from him." 3.20. And Ehud came to him; and he was sitting in a cool upper chamber, which he had for himself alone. And Ehud said, I have a message from God to thee. So he arose out of his seat." 3.21. And Ehud put forth his left hand, and took the sword from his right thigh, and thrust it into his belly:" 3.22. and the haft also went in after the blade; and the fat closed upon the blade, so that he could not draw the dagger out of his belly; and the dirt came out." 3.23. Then Ehud went out to the vestibule, and shut the doors of the chamber upon him, and locked them." 6.21. Then the angel of the Lord stretched out the end of the staff that was in his hand, and touched the meat and the unleavened cakes; and the fire rose up out of the rock, and consumed the meat and the unleavened cakes. Then the angel of the Lord departed out of his sight." 6.22. And when Gid῾on perceived that he was an angel of the Lord, Gid῾on said, Alas, O Lord God! because I have surely seen an angel of the Lord face to face." 7.13. And when Gid῾on was come, behold, there was a man that told a dream to his fellow, and said, Behold, I dreamed a dream, and, lo, a slice of barley bread was rolling through the camp of Midyan, and it came to a tent, and smote it so that it fell, and overturned it, so that the tent tumbled down." 7.14. And his fellow answered and said, This is nothing else but the sword of Gid῾on the son of Yo᾽ash, a man of Yisra᾽el: for into his hand has God delivered Midyan, and all the camp." 7.15. And it was, when Gid῾on heard the telling of the dream, and its interpretation, that he bowed himself down to the ground, and returned to the camp of Yisra᾽el and said, Arise; for the Lord has delivered into your hand the host of Midyan. 13.2. And there was a certain man of Żor῾a, of the family of the Dani, whose name was Manoaĥ; and his wife was barren, and bore not." 13.3. And the angel of the Lord appeared to the woman, and said to her, Behold now, thou art barren, and bearest not: but thou shalt conceive, and bear a son." 13.4. Now therefore beware, I pray thee, and drink neither wine nor strong drink, and eat no unclean thing:" 13.5. for, lo, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and no razor shall come on his head: for the child shall be a Nazir to God from the womb: and he shall begin to deliver Yisra᾽el out of the hand of the Pelishtim." 13.6. Then the woman came and told her husband, saying, A man of God came to me, and his appearance was like the appearance of an angel of God, very terrible: but I asked him not from where he was, neither did he tell me his name:" 13.7. but he said to me, Behold, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, neither eat any unclean thing: for the child shall be a Nazir to God from the womb to the day of his death."
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.12 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
14. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.44-2.45, 4.4-4.6, 4.15, 4.34-4.35, 4.37, 5.2-5.3, 5.5-5.29, 5.31, 8.2-8.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.44. וּבְיוֹמֵיהוֹן דִּי מַלְכַיָּא אִנּוּן יְקִים אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא מַלְכוּ דִּי לְעָלְמִין לָא תִתְחַבַּל וּמַלְכוּתָה לְעַם אָחֳרָן לָא תִשְׁתְּבִק תַּדִּק וְתָסֵיף כָּל־אִלֵּין מַלְכְוָתָא וְהִיא תְּקוּם לְעָלְמַיָּא׃ 2.45. כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־חֲזַיְתָ דִּי מִטּוּרָא אִתְגְּזֶרֶת אֶבֶן דִּי־לָא בִידַיִן וְהַדֶּקֶת פַּרְזְלָא נְחָשָׁא חַסְפָּא כַּסְפָּא וְדַהֲבָא אֱלָהּ רַב הוֹדַע לְמַלְכָּא מָה דִּי לֶהֱוֵא אַחֲרֵי דְנָה וְיַצִּיב חֶלְמָא וּמְהֵימַן פִּשְׁרֵהּ׃ 4.4. בֵּאדַיִן עללין [עָלִּין] חַרְטֻמַיָּא אָשְׁפַיָּא כשדיא [כַּשְׂדָּאֵי] וְגָזְרַיָּא וְחֶלְמָא אָמַר אֲנָה קֳדָמֵיהוֹן וּפִשְׁרֵהּ לָא־מְהוֹדְעִין לִי׃ 4.5. וְעַד אָחֳרֵין עַל קָדָמַי דָּנִיֵּאל דִּי־שְׁמֵהּ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר כְּשֻׁם אֱלָהִי וְדִי רוּחַ־אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין בֵּהּ וְחֶלְמָא קָדָמוֹהִי אַמְרֵת׃ 4.6. בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר רַב חַרְטֻמַיָּא דִּי אֲנָה יִדְעֵת דִּי רוּחַ אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין בָּךְ וְכָל־רָז לָא־אָנֵס לָךְ חֶזְוֵי חֶלְמִי דִי־חֲזֵית וּפִשְׁרֵהּ אֱמַר׃ 4.15. דְּנָה חֶלְמָא חֲזֵית אֲנָה מַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר ואנתה [וְאַנְתְּ] בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר פִּשְׁרֵא אֱמַר כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי כָּל־חַכִּימֵי מַלְכוּתִי לָא־יָכְלִין פִּשְׁרָא לְהוֹדָעֻתַנִי ואנתה [וְאַנְתְּ] כָּהֵל דִּי רוּחַ־אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין בָּךְ׃ 4.34. כְּעַן אֲנָה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מְשַׁבַּח וּמְרוֹמֵם וּמְהַדַּר לְמֶלֶךְ שְׁמַיָּא דִּי כָל־מַעֲבָדוֹהִי קְשֹׁט וְאֹרְחָתֵהּ דִּין וְדִי מַהְלְכִין בְּגֵוָה יָכִל לְהַשְׁפָּלָה׃ 5.2. וּכְדִי רִם לִבְבֵהּ וְרוּחֵהּ תִּקְפַת לַהֲזָדָה הָנְחַת מִן־כָּרְסֵא מַלְכוּתֵהּ וִיקָרָה הֶעְדִּיוּ מִנֵּהּ׃ 5.2. בֵּלְשַׁאצַּר אֲמַר בִּטְעֵם חַמְרָא לְהַיְתָיָה לְמָאנֵי דַּהֲבָא וְכַסְפָּא דִּי הַנְפֵּק נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר אֲבוּהִי מִן־הֵיכְלָא דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם וְיִשְׁתּוֹן בְּהוֹן מַלְכָּא וְרַבְרְבָנוֹהִי שֵׁגְלָתֵהּ וּלְחֵנָתֵהּ׃ 5.3. בֵּאדַיִן הַיְתִיו מָאנֵי דַהֲבָא דִּי הַנְפִּקוּ מִן־הֵיכְלָא דִּי־בֵית אֱלָהָא דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם וְאִשְׁתִּיו בְּהוֹן מַלְכָּא וְרַבְרְבָנוֹהִי שֵׁגְלָתֵהּ וּלְחֵנָתֵהּ׃ 5.3. בֵּהּ בְּלֵילְיָא קְטִיל בֵּלְאשַׁצַּר מַלְכָּא כשדיא [כַשְׂדָּאָה׃] 5.5. בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָה נפקו [נְפַקָה] אֶצְבְּעָן דִּי יַד־אֱנָשׁ וְכָתְבָן לָקֳבֵל נֶבְרַשְׁתָּא עַל־גִּירָא דִּי־כְתַל הֵיכְלָא דִּי מַלְכָּא וּמַלְכָּא חָזֵה פַּס יְדָה דִּי כָתְבָה׃ 5.6. אֱדַיִן מַלְכָּא זִיוֺהִי שְׁנוֹהִי וְרַעיֹנֹהִי יְבַהֲלוּנֵּהּ וְקִטְרֵי חַרְצֵהּ מִשְׁתָּרַיִן וְאַרְכֻבָּתֵהּ דָּא לְדָא נָקְשָׁן׃ 5.7. קָרֵא מַלְכָּא בְּחַיִל לְהֶעָלָה לְאָשְׁפַיָּא כשדיא [כַּשְׂדָּאֵי] וְגָזְרַיָּא עָנֵה מַלְכָּא וְאָמַר לְחַכִּימֵי בָבֶל דִּי כָל־אֱנָשׁ דִּי־יִקְרֵה כְּתָבָה דְנָה וּפִשְׁרֵהּ יְחַוִּנַּנִי אַרְגְּוָנָא יִלְבַּשׁ והמונכא [וְהַמְנִיכָא] דִי־דַהֲבָא עַל־צַוְּארֵהּ וְתַלְתִּי בְמַלְכוּתָא יִשְׁלַט׃ 5.8. אֱדַיִן עללין [עָלִּין] כֹּל חַכִּימֵי מַלְכָּא וְלָא־כָהֲלִין כְּתָבָא לְמִקְרֵא ופשרא [וּפִשְׁרֵהּ] לְהוֹדָעָה לְמַלְכָּא׃ 5.9. אֱדַיִן מַלְכָּא בֵלְשַׁאצַּר שַׂגִּיא מִתְבָּהַל וְזִיוֺהִי שָׁנַיִן עֲלוֹהִי וְרַבְרְבָנוֹהִי מִשְׁתַּבְּשִׁין׃ 5.11. אִיתַי גְּבַר בְּמַלְכוּתָךְ דִּי רוּחַ אֱלָהִין קַדִּישִׁין בֵּהּ וּבְיוֹמֵי אֲבוּךְ נַהִירוּ וְשָׂכְלְתָנוּ וְחָכְמָה כְּחָכְמַת־אֱלָהִין הִשְׁתְּכַחַת בֵּהּ וּמַלְכָּא נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר אֲבוּךְ רַב חַרְטֻמִּין אָשְׁפִין כַּשְׂדָּאִין גָּזְרִין הֲקִימֵהּ אֲבוּךְ מַלְכָּא׃ 5.12. כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי רוּחַ יַתִּירָה וּמַנְדַּע וְשָׂכְלְתָנוּ מְפַשַּׁר חֶלְמִין וַאַחֲוָיַת אֲחִידָן וּמְשָׁרֵא קִטְרִין הִשְׁתְּכַחַת בֵּהּ בְּדָנִיֵּאל דִּי־מַלְכָּא שָׂם־שְׁמֵהּ בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר כְּעַן דָּנִיֵּאל יִתְקְרֵי וּפִשְׁרָה יְהַחֲוֵה׃ 5.13. בֵּאדַיִן דָּנִיֵּאל הֻעַל קֳדָם מַלְכָּא עָנֵה מַלְכָּא וְאָמַר לְדָנִיֵּאל אנתה־[אַנְתְּ־] הוּא דָנִיֵּאל דִּי־מִן־בְּנֵי גָלוּתָא דִּי יְהוּד דִּי הַיְתִי מַלְכָּא אַבִי מִן־יְהוּד׃ 5.14. וְשִׁמְעֵת עליך [עֲלָךְ] דִּי רוּחַ אֱלָהִין בָּךְ וְנַהִירוּ וְשָׂכְלְתָנוּ וְחָכְמָה יַתִּירָה הִשְׁתְּכַחַת בָּךְ׃ 5.15. וּכְעַן הֻעַלּוּ קָדָמַי חַכִּימַיָּא אָשְׁפַיָּא דִּי־כְתָבָה דְנָה יִקְרוֹן וּפִשְׁרֵהּ לְהוֹדָעֻתַנִי וְלָא־כָהֲלִין פְּשַׁר־מִלְּתָא לְהַחֲוָיָה׃ 5.16. וַאֲנָה שִׁמְעֵת עליך [עֲלָךְ] דִּי־תוכל [תִיכּוּל] פִּשְׁרִין לְמִפְשַׁר וְקִטְרִין לְמִשְׁרֵא כְּעַן הֵן תוכל [תִּכוּל] כְּתָבָא לְמִקְרֵא וּפִשְׁרֵהּ לְהוֹדָעֻתַנִי אַרְגְּוָנָא תִלְבַּשׁ והמונכא [וְהַמְנִיכָא] דִי־דַהֲבָא עַל־צַוְּארָךְ וְתַלְתָּא בְמַלְכוּתָא תִּשְׁלַט׃ 5.17. בֵּאדַיִן עָנֵה דָנִיֵּאל וְאָמַר קֳדָם מַלְכָּא מַתְּנָתָךְ לָךְ לֶהֶוְיָן וּנְבָזְבְּיָתָךְ לְאָחֳרָן הַב בְּרַם כְּתָבָא אֶקְרֵא לְמַלְכָּא וּפִשְׁרָא אֲהוֹדְעִנֵּהּ׃ 5.18. אנתה [אַנְתְּ] מַלְכָּא אֱלָהָא עליא [עִלָּאָה] מַלְכוּתָא וּרְבוּתָא וִיקָרָא וְהַדְרָה יְהַב לִנְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר אֲבוּךְ׃ 5.19. וּמִן־רְבוּתָא דִּי יְהַב־לֵהּ כֹּל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא הֲווֹ זאעין [זָיְעִין] וְדָחֲלִין מִן־קֳדָמוֹהִי דִּי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָא קָטֵל וְדִי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָה מַחֵא וְדִי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָה מָרִים וְדִי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָה מַשְׁפִּיל׃ 5.21. וּמִן־בְּנֵי אֲנָשָׁא טְרִיד וְלִבְבֵהּ עִם־חֵיוְתָא שוי [שַׁוִּיְו] וְעִם־עֲרָדַיָּא מְדוֹרֵהּ עִשְׂבָּא כְתוֹרִין יְטַעֲמוּנֵּהּ וּמִטַּל שְׁמַיָּא גִּשְׁמֵהּ יִצְטַבַּע עַד דִּי־יְדַע דִּי־שַׁלִּיט אֱלָהָא עליא [עִלָּאָה] בְּמַלְכוּת אֲנָשָׁא וּלְמַן־דִּי יִצְבֵּה יְהָקֵים עליה [עֲלַהּ׃] 5.22. ואנתה [וְאַנְתְּ] בְּרֵהּ בֵּלְשַׁאצַּר לָא הַשְׁפֵּלְתְּ לִבְבָךְ כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי כָל־דְּנָה יְדַעְתָּ׃ 5.23. וְעַל מָרֵא־שְׁמַיָּא הִתְרוֹמַמְתָּ וּלְמָאנַיָּא דִי־בַיְתֵהּ הַיְתִיו קדמיך [קָדָמָךְ] ואנתה [וְאַנְתְּ] ורברבניך [וְרַבְרְבָנָךְ] שֵׁגְלָתָךְ וּלְחֵנָתָךְ חַמְרָא שָׁתַיִן בְּהוֹן וְלֵאלָהֵי כַסְפָּא־וְדַהֲבָא נְחָשָׁא פַרְזְלָא אָעָא וְאַבְנָא דִּי לָא־חָזַיִן וְלָא־שָׁמְעִין וְלָא יָדְעִין שַׁבַּחְתָּ וְלֵאלָהָא דִּי־נִשְׁמְתָךְ בִּידֵהּ וְכָל־אֹרְחָתָךְ לֵהּ לָא הַדַּרְתָּ׃ 5.24. בֵּאדַיִן מִן־קֳדָמוֹהִי שְׁלִיַחַ פַּסָּא דִי־יְדָא וּכְתָבָא דְנָה רְשִׁים׃ 5.25. וּדְנָה כְתָבָא דִּי רְשִׁים מְנֵא מְנֵא תְּקֵל וּפַרְסִין׃ 5.26. דְּנָה פְּשַׁר־מִלְּתָא מְנֵא מְנָה־אֱלָהָא מַלְכוּתָךְ וְהַשְׁלְמַהּ׃ 5.27. תְּקֵל תְּקִילְתָּה בְמֹאזַנְיָא וְהִשְׁתְּכַחַתְּ חַסִּיר׃ 5.28. פְּרֵס פְּרִיסַת מַלְכוּתָךְ וִיהִיבַת לְמָדַי וּפָרָס׃ 5.29. בֵּאדַיִן אֲמַר בֵּלְשַׁאצַּר וְהַלְבִּישׁוּ לְדָנִיֵּאל אַרְגְּוָנָא והמונכא [וְהַמְנִיכָא] דִי־דַהֲבָא עַל־צַוְּארֵהּ וְהַכְרִזוּ עֲלוֹהִי דִּי־לֶהֱוֵא שַׁלִּיט תַּלְתָּא בְּמַלְכוּתָא׃ 8.2. הָאַיִל אֲשֶׁר־רָאִיתָ בַּעַל הַקְּרָנָיִם מַלְכֵי מָדַי וּפָרָס׃ 8.2. וָאֶרְאֶה בֶּחָזוֹן וַיְהִי בִּרְאֹתִי וַאֲנִי בְּשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵילָם הַמְּדִינָה וָאֶרְאֶה בֶּחָזוֹן וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי עַל־אוּבַל אוּלָי׃ 8.3. וָאֶשָּׂא עֵינַי וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה אַיִל אֶחָד עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי הָאֻבָל וְלוֹ קְרָנָיִם וְהַקְּרָנַיִם גְּבֹהוֹת וְהָאַחַת גְּבֹהָה מִן־הַשֵּׁנִית וְהַגְּבֹהָה עֹלָה בָּאַחֲרֹנָה׃ 8.4. רָאִיתִי אֶת־הָאַיִל מְנַגֵּחַ יָמָּה וְצָפוֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וְכָל־חַיּוֹת לֹא־יַעַמְדוּ לְפָנָיו וְאֵין מַצִּיל מִיָּדוֹ וְעָשָׂה כִרְצֹנוֹ וְהִגְדִּיל׃ 8.5. וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי מֵבִין וְהִנֵּה צְפִיר־הָעִזִּים בָּא מִן־הַמַּעֲרָב עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וְאֵין נוֹגֵעַ בָּאָרֶץ וְהַצָּפִיר קֶרֶן חָזוּת בֵּין עֵינָיו׃ 8.6. וַיָּבֹא עַד־הָאַיִל בַּעַל הַקְּרָנַיִם אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי הָאֻבָל וַיָּרָץ אֵלָיו בַּחֲמַת כֹּחוֹ׃ 8.7. וּרְאִיתִיו מַגִּיעַ אֵצֶל הָאַיִל וַיִּתְמַרְמַר אֵלָיו וַיַּךְ אֶת־הָאַיִל וַיְשַׁבֵּר אֶת־שְׁתֵּי קְרָנָיו וְלֹא־הָיָה כֹחַ בָּאַיִל לַעֲמֹד לְפָנָיו וַיַּשְׁלִיכֵהוּ אַרְצָה וַיִּרְמְסֵהוּ וְלֹא־הָיָה מַצִּיל לָאַיִל מִיָּדוֹ׃ 8.8. וּצְפִיר הָעִזִּים הִגְדִּיל עַד־מְאֹד וּכְעָצְמוֹ נִשְׁבְּרָה הַקֶּרֶן הַגְּדוֹלָה וַתַּעֲלֶנָה חָזוּת אַרְבַּע תַּחְתֶּיהָ לְאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 8.9. וּמִן־הָאַחַת מֵהֶם יָצָא קֶרֶן־אַחַת מִצְּעִירָה וַתִּגְדַּל־יֶתֶר אֶל־הַנֶּגֶב וְאֶל־הַמִּזְרָח וְאֶל־הַצֶּבִי׃ 8.11. וְעַד שַׂר־הַצָּבָא הִגְדִּיל וּמִמֶּנּוּ הרים [הוּרַם] הַתָּמִיד וְהֻשְׁלַךְ מְכוֹן מִקְדָּשׁוֹ׃ 8.12. וְצָבָא תִּנָּתֵן עַל־הַתָּמִיד בְּפָשַׁע וְתַשְׁלֵךְ אֱמֶת אַרְצָה וְעָשְׂתָה וְהִצְלִיחָה׃ 8.13. וָאֶשְׁמְעָה אֶחָד־קָדוֹשׁ מְדַבֵּר וַיֹּאמֶר אֶחָד קָדוֹשׁ לַפַּלְמוֹנִי הַמְדַבֵּר עַד־מָתַי הֶחָזוֹן הַתָּמִיד וְהַפֶּשַׁע שֹׁמֵם תֵּת וְקֹדֶשׁ וְצָבָא מִרְמָס׃ 8.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי עַד עֶרֶב בֹּקֶר אַלְפַּיִם וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְנִצְדַּק קֹדֶשׁ׃ 8.15. וַיְהִי בִּרְאֹתִי אֲנִי דָנִיֵּאל אֶת־הֶחָזוֹן וָאֲבַקְשָׁה בִינָה וְהִנֵּה עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדִּי כְּמַרְאֵה־גָבֶר׃ 8.16. וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל־אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר גַּבְרִיאֵל הָבֵן לְהַלָּז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה׃ 8.17. וַיָּבֹא אֵצֶל עָמְדִי וּבְבֹאוֹ נִבְעַתִּי וָאֶפְּלָה עַל־פָּנָי וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הָבֵן בֶּן־אָדָם כִּי לְעֶת־קֵץ הֶחָזוֹן׃ 8.18. וּבְדַבְּרוֹ עִמִּי נִרְדַּמְתִּי עַל־פָּנַי אָרְצָה וַיִּגַּע־בִּי וַיַּעֲמִידֵנִי עַל־עָמְדִי׃ 8.19. וַיֹּאמֶר הִנְנִי מוֹדִיעֲךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה בְּאַחֲרִית הַזָּעַם כִּי לְמוֹעֵד קֵץ׃ 8.21. וְהַצָּפִיר הַשָּׂעִיר מֶלֶךְ יָוָן וְהַקֶּרֶן הַגְּדוֹלָה אֲשֶׁר בֵּין־עֵינָיו הוּא הַמֶּלֶךְ הָרִאשׁוֹן׃ 8.22. וְהַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת וַתַּעֲמֹדְנָה אַרְבַּע תַּחְתֶּיהָ אַרְבַּע מַלְכֻיוֹת מִגּוֹי יַעֲמֹדְנָה וְלֹא בְכֹחוֹ׃ 8.23. וּבְאַחֲרִית מַלְכוּתָם כְּהָתֵם הַפֹּשְׁעִים יַעֲמֹד מֶלֶךְ עַז־פָּנִים וּמֵבִין חִידוֹת׃ 8.24. וְעָצַם כֹּחוֹ וְלֹא בְכֹחוֹ וְנִפְלָאוֹת יַשְׁחִית וְהִצְלִיחַ וְעָשָׂה וְהִשְׁחִית עֲצוּמִים וְעַם־קְדֹשִׁים׃ 8.25. וְעַל־שִׂכְלוֹ וְהִצְלִיחַ מִרְמָה בְּיָדוֹ וּבִלְבָבוֹ יַגְדִּיל וּבְשַׁלְוָה יַשְׁחִית רַבִּים וְעַל־שַׂר־שָׂרִים יַעֲמֹד וּבְאֶפֶס יָד יִשָּׁבֵר׃ 8.26. וּמַרְאֵה הָעֶרֶב וְהַבֹּקֶר אֲשֶׁר נֶאֱמַר אֱמֶת הוּא וְאַתָּה סְתֹם הֶחָזוֹן כִּי לְיָמִים רַבִּים׃ 2.44. And in the days of those kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed; nor shall the kingdom be left to another people; it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, but it shall stand for ever." 2.45. Forasmuch as thou sawest that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter; and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.’" 4.4. Then came in the magicians, the enchanters, the Chaldeans, and the astrologers; and I told the dream before them; but they did not make known unto me the interpretation thereof." 4.5. But at the last Daniel came in before me, whose name was Belteshazzar, according to the name of my god, and in whom is the spirit of the holy gods; and I told the dream before him:" 4.6. O Belteshazzar, master of the magicians, because I know that the spirit of the holy gods is in thee, and no secret causeth thee trouble, tell me the visions of my dream that I have seen, and the interpretation thereof." 4.15. This dream I king Nebuchadnezzar have seen; and thou, O Belteshazzar, declare the interpretation, forasmuch as all the wise men of my kingdom are not able to make known unto me the interpretation; but thou art able, for the spirit of the holy gods is in thee.’" 4.34. Now I Nebuchadnezzar praise and extol and honour the King of heaven; for all His works are truth, and His ways justice; and those that walk in pride He is able to abase.’" 5.2. Belshazzar, while he tasted the wine, commanded to bring the golden and silver vessels which Nebuchadnezzar his father had taken out of the temple which was in Jerusalem; that the king and his lords, his consorts and his concubines, might drink therein." 5.3. Then they brought the golden vessels that were taken out of the temple of the house of God which was at Jerusalem; and the king, and his lords, his consorts and his concubines, drank in them." 5.5. In the same hour came forth fingers of a man’s hand, and wrote over against the candlestick upon the plaster of the wall of the king’s palace; and the king saw the palm of the hand that wrote." 5.6. Then the king’s countece was changed in him, and his thoughts affrighted him; and the joints of his loins were loosed, and his knees smote one against another." 5.7. The king cried aloud to bring in the enchanters, the Chaldeans, and the astrologers. The king spoke and said to the wise men of Babylon: ‘Whosoever shall read this writing, and declare unto me the interpretation thereof, shall be clothed with purple, and have a chain of gold about his neck, and shall rule as one of three in the kingdom.’" 5.8. Then came in all the king’s wise men: but they could not read the writing, nor make known to the king the interpretation." 5.9. Then was king Belshazzar greatly affrighted, and his countece was changed in him, and his lords were perplexed." 5.10. Now the queen by reason of the words of the king and his lords came into the banquet house; the queen spoke and said: ‘O king, live for ever! let not thy thoughts affright thee, nor let thy countece be changed;" 5.11. there is a man in thy kingdom, in whom is the spirit of the holy gods; and in the days of thy father light and understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was found in him; and the king Nebuchadnezzar thy father, the king, I say, thy father, made him master of the magicians, enchanters, Chaldeans, and astrologers;" 5.12. forasmuch as a surpassing spirit, and knowledge, and understanding, interpreting of dreams, and declaring of riddles, and loosing of knots, were found in the same Daniel, whom the king named Belteshazzar. Now let Daniel be called, and he will declare the interpretation.’" 5.13. Then was Daniel brought in before the king. The king spoke and said unto Daniel: ‘Art thou Daniel, who is of the children of the captivity of Judah, whom the king my father brought out of Judah?" 5.14. I have heard of thee, that the spirit of the gods is in thee, and that light and understanding and surpassing wisdom is found in thee." 5.15. And now the wise men, the enchanters, have been brought in before me, that they should read this writing, and make known unto me the interpretation thereof; but they could not declare the interpretation of the thing." 5.16. But I have heard of thee, that thou canst give interpretations, and loose knots; now if thou canst read the writing, and make known to me the interpretation thereof, thou shalt be clothed with purple, and have a chain of gold about thy neck, and shalt rule as one of three in the kingdom.’" 5.17. Then Daniel answered and said before the king: ‘Let thy gifts be to thyself, and give thy rewards to another; nevertheless I will read the writing unto the king, and make known to him the interpretation." 5.18. O thou king, God Most High gave Nebuchadnezzar thy father the kingdom, and greatness, and glory, and majesty;" 5.19. and because of the greatness that He gave him, all the peoples, nations, and languages trembled and feared before him: whom he would he slew, and whom he would he kept alive; and whom he would he raised up, and whom he would he put down." 5.20. But when his heart was lifted up, and his spirit was hardened that he dealt proudly, he was deposed from his kingly throne, and his glory was taken from him;" 5.21. and he was driven from the sons of men, and his heart was made like the beasts, and his dwelling was with the wild asses; he was fed with grass like oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of heaven; until he knew that God Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and that He setteth up over it whomsoever He will." 5.22. And thou his son, O Belshazzar, hast not humbled thy heart, though thou knewest all this;" 5.23. but hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of His house before thee, and thou and thy lords, thy consorts and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know; and the God in whose hand thy breath is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified;" 5.24. then was the palm of the hand sent from before Him, and this writing was inscribed." 5.25. And this is the writing that was inscribed: MENE MENE, TEKEL UPHARSIN." 5.26. This is the interpretation of the thing: MENE, God hath numbered thy kingdom, and brought it to an end." 5.27. TEKEL, Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting." 5.28. PERES, thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians.’" 5.29. Then commanded Belshazzar, and they clothed Daniel with purple, and put a chain of gold about his neck, and made proclamation concerning him, that he should rule as one of three in the kingdom." 8.2. And I saw in the vision; now it was so, that when I saw, I was in Shushan the castle, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in the vision, and I was by the stream Ulai." 8.3. And I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the stream a ram which had two horns; and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last." 8.4. I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; and no beasts could stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and magnified himself." 8.5. And as I was considering, behold, a he-goat came from the west over the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground; and the goat had a conspicuous horn between his eyes." 8.6. And he came to the ram that had the two horns, which I saw standing before the stream, and ran at him in the fury of his power." 8.7. And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and broke his two horns; and there was no power in the ram to stand before him; but he cast him down to the ground, and trampled upon him; and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand." 8.8. And the he-goat magnified himself exceedingly; and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and instead of it there came up the appearance of four horns toward the four winds of heaven." 8.9. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the beauteous land." 8.10. And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and some of the host and of the stars it cast down to the ground, and trampled upon them." 8.11. Yea, it magnified itself, even to the prince of the host; and from him the continual burnt-offering was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down." 8.12. And the host was given over to it together with the continual burnt-offering through transgression; and it cast down truth to the ground, and it wrought, and prospered." 8.13. Then I heard a holy one speaking; and another holy one said unto that certain one who spoke: ‘How long shall be the vision concerning the continual burnt-offering, and the transgression that causes appalment, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trampled under foot?’" 8.14. And he said unto me: ‘Unto two thousand and three hundred evenings and mornings; then shall the sanctuary be victorious.’" 8.15. And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, that I sought to understand it; and, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man." 8.16. And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, who called, and said: ‘Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.’" 8.17. So he came near where I stood; and when he came, I was terrified, and fell upon my face; but he said unto me: ‘Understand, O son of man; for the vision belongeth to the time of the end.’" 8.18. Now as he was speaking with me, I fell into a deep sleep with my face toward the ground; but he touched me, and set me upright." 8.19. And he said: ‘Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the latter time of the indignation; for it belongeth to the appointed time of the end." 8.20. The ram which thou sawest having the two horns, they are the kings of Media and Persia." 8.21. And the rough he-goat is the king of Greece; and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king." 8.22. And as for that which was broken, in the place whereof four stood up, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not with his power." 8.23. And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors have completed their transgression, there shall stand up a king of fierce countece, and understanding stratagems." 8.24. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power; and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper and do; and he shall destroy them that are mighty and the people of the saints." 8.25. And through his cunning he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and in time of security shall he destroy many; he shall also stand up against the prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand." 8.26. And the vision of the evenings and mornings which hath been told is true; but thou, shut thou up the vision; for it belongeth to many days to come.’"
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 167, 166 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 4.60-4.70 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.112, 14.451, 17.166, 17.345-17.348 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.112. He also told him, that “Theopompus was desirous of writing somewhat about them, but was thereupon disturbed in his mind for above thirty days’ time; and upon some intermission of his distemper, he appeased God [by prayer], as suspecting that his madness proceeded from that cause.” Nay, indeed, he further saw in a dream, that his distemper befell him while he indulged too great a curiosity about divine matters, and was desirous of publishing them among common men; but when he left off that attempt, he recovered his understanding again. 14.451. 11. At this time messengers came to Herod, and informed him of what had been done; and when he was come to Daphne by Antioch, they told him of the ill fortune that had befallen his brother; which yet he expected, from certain visions that appeared to him in his dreams, which clearly foreshowed his brother’s death. 17.166. The occasion was this: This Matthias the high priest, on the night before that day when the fast was to be celebrated, seemed, in a dream, to have conversation with his wife; and because he could not officiate himself on that account, Joseph, the son of Ellemus, his kinsman, assisted him in that sacred office. 17.345. 3. Now, before Archelaus was gone up to Rome upon this message, he related this dream to his friends: That he saw ears of corn, in number ten, full of wheat, perfectly ripe, which ears, as it seemed to him, were devoured by oxen. 17.346. And when he was awake and gotten up, because the vision appeared to be of great importance to him, he sent for the diviners, whose study was employed about dreams. And while some were of one opinion, and some of another, (for all their interpretations did not agree,) Simon, a man of the sect of the Essenes, desired leave to speak his mind freely, and said that the vision denoted a change in the affairs of Archelaus, and that not for the better; 17.347. that oxen, because that animal takes uneasy pains in his labors, denoted afflictions, and indeed denoted, further, a change of affairs, because that land which is ploughed by oxen cannot remain in its former state; and that the ears of corn being ten, determined the like number of years, because an ear of corn grows in one year; and that the time of Archelaus’s government was over. And thus did this man expound the dream. 17.348. Now on the fifth day after this dream came first to Archelaus, the other Archelaus, that was sent to Judea by Caesar to call him away, came hither also.
18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.328, 2.112-2.116, 3.351-3.354, 5.381 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.328. 3. Now when Herod was at Daphne, by Antioch, he had some dreams which clearly foreboded his brother’s death; and as he leaped out of his bed in a disturbed manner, there came messengers that acquainted him with that calamity. So when he had lamented this misfortune for a while, he put off the main part of his mourning, and made haste to march against his enemies; 2.112. But the report goes, that before he was sent for by Caesar, he seemed to see nine ears of corn, full and large, but devoured by oxen. When, therefore, he had sent for the diviners, and some of the Chaldeans, and inquired of them what they thought it portended; 2.113. and when one of them had one interpretation, and another had another, Simon, one of the sect of Essenes, said that he thought the ears of corn denoted years, and the oxen denoted a mutation of things, because by their ploughing they made an alteration of the country. That therefore he should reign as many years as there were ears of corn; and after he had passed through various alterations of fortune, should die. Now five days after Archelaus had heard this interpretation he was called to his trial. 2.114. 4. I cannot also but think it worthy to be recorded what dream Glaphyra, the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, had, who had at first been wife to Alexander, who was the brother of Archelaus, concerning whom we have been discoursing. This Alexander was the son of Herod the king, by whom he was put to death, as we have already related. 2.115. This Glaphyra was married, after his death, to Juba, king of Libya; and, after his death, was returned home, and lived a widow with her father. Then it was that Archelaus, the ethnarch, saw her, and fell so deeply in love with her, that he divorced Mariamne, who was then his wife, and married her. 2.116. When, therefore, she was come into Judea, and had been there for a little while, she thought she saw Alexander stand by her, and that he said to her,—“Thy marriage with the king of Libya might have been sufficient for thee; but thou wast not contented with him, but art returned again to my family, to a third husband; and him, thou impudent woman, hast thou chosen for thine husband, who is my brother. However, I shall not overlook the injury thou hast offered me; I shall [soon] have thee again, whether thou wilt or no.” Now Glaphyra hardly survived the narration of this dream of hers two days. 3.351. And now, as Nicanor lay hard at Josephus to comply, and he understood how the multitude of the enemies threatened him, he called to mind the dreams which he had dreamed in the nighttime, whereby God had signified to him beforehand both the future calamities of the Jews, and the events that concerned the Roman emperors. 3.352. Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the sacred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterity of priests: 3.353. and just then was he in an ecstasy; and setting before him the tremendous images of the dreams he had lately had, he put up a secret prayer to God 3.354. and said, “Since it pleaseth thee, who hast created the Jewish nation, to depress the same, and since all their good fortune is gone over to the Romans, and since thou hast made choice of this soul of mine to foretell what is to come to pass hereafter, I willingly give them my hands, and am content to live. And I protest openly that I do not go over to the Romans as a deserter of the Jews, but as a minister from thee.” 5.381. Was not our queen sent back, without any defilement, to her husband, the very next evening?—while the king of Egypt fled away, adoring this place which you have defiled by shedding thereon the blood of your own countrymen; and he also trembled at those visions which he saw in the night season, and bestowed both silver and gold on the Hebrews, as on a people beloved by God.
19. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.206-1.207 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.206. for when he was discoursing of the affairs of Stratonice, “how she came out of Macedonia into Syria, and left her husband Demetrius, while yet Seleucus would not marry her as she expected, but during the time of his raising an army at Babylon, stirred up a sedition about Antioch; 1.207. and how after that the king came back, and upon his taking of Antioch, she fled to Seleucia, and had it in her power to sail away immediately, yet did she comply with a dream which forbade her so to do, and so was caught and put to death.”
20. New Testament, Galatians, 3.6-3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. Even as Abraham "believed God, and it wascounted to him for righteousness. 3.7. Know therefore that those whoare of faith, the same are sons of Abraham. 3.8. The Scripture,foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached thegospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, "In you all the nations will beblessed. 3.9. So then, those who are of faith are blessed with thefaithful Abraham. 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem. 3.11. Now that no man is justified by the law before God isevident, for, "The righteous will live by faith. 3.12. The law is notof faith, but, "The man who does them will live by them. 3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree 3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith. 3.15. Brothers, I speak like men. Though it is only aman's covet, yet when it has been confirmed, no one makes it void,or adds to it. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.17. Now I say this. A covetconfirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundredand thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of noeffect. 3.18. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more ofpromise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.20. Now amediator is not between one, but God is one.
21. New Testament, Romans, 5.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous.
22. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. מעטרה ולמעלה אסור,אמר רב המקשה עצמו לדעת יהא בנדוי ולימא אסור דקמגרי יצה"ר אנפשיה ורבי אמי אמר נקרא עבריין שכך אומנתו של יצר הרע היום אומר לו עשה כך ולמחר אומר לו עשה כך ולמחר אומר לו לך עבוד עבודת כוכבים והולך ועובד,איכא דאמרי אמר רבי אמי כל המביא עצמו לידי הרהור אין מכניסין אותו במחיצתו של הקב"ה כתיב הכא (בראשית לח, י) וירע בעיני ה' וכתיב התם (תהלים ה, ה) כי לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך רע,ואמר ר' אלעזר מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו א, טו) ידיכם דמים מלאו אלו המנאפים ביד תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל (שמות כ, יג) לא תנאף לא תהא בך ניאוף בין ביד בין ברגל,ת"ר הגרים והמשחקין בתינוקות מעכבין את המשיח בשלמא גרים כדר' חלבו דא"ר חלבו קשין גרים לישראל כספחת אלא משחקין בתנוקות מאי היא,אילימא משכב זכור בני סקילה נינהו אלא דרך אברים בני מבול נינהו,אלא דנסיבי קטנות דלאו בנות אולודי נינהו דא"ר יוסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו כל הנשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי,באנשים תקצץ איבעיא להו דינא תנן או לטותא תנן דינא תנן כי הא דרב הונא קץ ידא או לטותא תנן,ת"ש דתניא רבי טרפון אומר יד לאמה תקצץ ידו על טבורו אמרו לו ישב לו קוץ בכריסו לא יטלנו א"ל לא אמר להן מוטב תבקע כריסו ואל ירד לבאר שחת,אי אמרת בשלמא דינא תנן היינו דאמרי והלא כריסו נבקעת אלא אי אמרת לטותא תנן מאי כריסו נבקעת אלא מאי דינא תנן לא סגי דלאו על טבורו,אלא ה"ק רבי טרפון כל המכניס ידו למטה מטבורו תקצץ אמרו לו לרבי טרפון ישב לו קוץ בכריסו לא יטלנו אמר להן לא והלא כריסו נבקעת אמר להן מוטב תבקע כריסו ואל ירד לבאר שחת, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big החרשת והשוטה והסומא ושנטרפה דעתה אם יש להן פקחות מתקנות אותן והן אוכלות בתרומה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big חרשת איהי תבדוק לנפשה דתניא אמר רבי חרשת היתה בשכונתינו לא דיה שבודקת לעצמה אלא שחברותיה רואות ומראות לה,התם במדברת ואינה שומעת הכא בשאינה מדברת ואינה שומעת כדתנן חרש שדברו חכמים בכל מקום אינו שומע ואינו מדבר,הסומא איהי תבדוק לנפשה ותיחזי לחבירתה א"ר יוסי ברבי חנינא סומא אינה משנה,ושנטרפה דעתה היינו שוטה שנטרפה דעתה מחמת חולי,תנו רבנן כהן שוטה מטבילין אותו ומאכילין אותו תרומה לערב ומשמרין אותו שלא יישן ישן טמא לא ישן טהור,רבי אליעזר ברבי צדוק אומר עושין לו כיס של עור אמרו לו כל שכן שמביא לידי חימום אמר להן לדבריכם שוטה אין לו תקנה,אמרו לו לדברינו ישן טמא לא ישן טהור לדבריך שמא יראה טפה כחרדל ותבלע בכיס,תנא משום רבי אלעזר אמרו עושין לו כיס של מתכת,אמר אביי ושל נחשת כדתניא רבי יהודה אומר רואין אותן גבעולין של אזוב כאילו הן של נחשת,אמר רב פפא שמע מינה מכנסים אסורים והכתיב (שמות כח, מב) ועשה להם מכנסי בד לכסות בשר ערוה,ההוא כדתניא מכנסי כהנים למה הן דומין כמין פמלניא של פרשים למעלה עד מתנים למטה עד ירכים ויש להם שנצים ואין להם לא בית הנקב ולא בית הערוה,אמר אביי 13b. bFrom the corona and above,toward the body, it is bprohibited. /b,§ bRav says: One who intentionally causes himself an erection shall be ostracized.The Gemara suggests: bAnd letRav bsaysimply that it is bprohibited.The Gemara explains that it is proper to ostracize such a man, bas he arouses the evil inclination upon himself. And Rabbi Ami says: He is calleda habitual btransgressor, as this is the craft of the evil inclination. Today he says toa person: bDo thissin, bandwhen the individual obeys his inclination, bon the following daythe evil inclination bsays to him: Do thatsin, band on the following day he says to him: Goand bworship idols, and he goes and worshipsidols., bSome saythat bRabbi Ami says:With regard to banyone who brings himself intoa state of barousal,they bdo not bring him within the boundary of the Holy One, Blessed be He.The proof is that bit is written here,with regard to O, son of Judah: b“And the thing that he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord,and He slew him also” (Genesis 38:10), band it is written there: “For You are not a God who has pleasure in wickedness; evil shall not sojourn with You.The boasters shall not stand in Your sight…But as for me, in the abundance of Your kindness will I come into Your house; I will bow down toward Your holy Temple in fear of You” (Psalms 5:5–8). This demonstrates that whoever does evil, like O, shall not sojourn with God., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says,with regard to the severity of this transgression: bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And when you spread forth your hands, I will hide My eyes from you; even when you make many prayers, I will not hear; byour hands are full of blood”(Isaiah 1:15)? bThese arethose men bwho commit adultery with the hand,by masturbating. Likewise, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:When it is stated in the Ten Commandments: b“You shall not commit adultery”(Exodus 20:13), this means that bthere shall not be adultery among you, whetheryou masturbate bby handor bwhether withone’s bfoot. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bConverts and those who play with children delaythe coming of bthe Messiah.The Gemara asks: bGrantedwith regard to bconverts,this is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Ḥelbo, as Rabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts are as harmful to the Jewish people as a leprous scabon the skin, as they are not proficient in the performance of the mitzvot and born Jews learn from them. bButwith regard to the category of bthose who play with children,to bwhat is itreferring?, bIf we saythat this is referring to bhomosexuality,such men bare liable tobe executed by bstoning,and their behavior is criticized not simply because they delay the Messiah. bRather,one might suggest that this is referring to those who emit semen bby way ofother blimbs,i.e., without engaging in intercourse; if so, bthey areconsidered as though they are bringing a flood, and are therefore bliable tobe punished themselves with ba flood. /b, bRather,the ibaraitameans bthat they marry minor girls who are notyet bcapable of bearing children,consequently emitting semen for naught. bAs Rabbi Yosei said: TheMessiah, bson of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished,i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies do so. bAs it is stated: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16). The verse is interpreted as follows: The spirit, i.e., the souls about which it has been decreed by Me that they are to be born, if they are not born, they enwrap the Messiah and prevent him from coming.,§ The mishna teaches that with regard to any hand that is diligent to examine bodily emissions, bamong men,such a hand bshould be severed. A dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bDo we learnthis statement as a practical ihalakha /i,i.e., that the court should actually sever his hand, bor do we learnit as a mere bcurse,but not as an actual instruction to punish him in that manner? The Gemara elaborates: bDo we learnit as a practical ihalakhalike thatprohibition against striking another, in which the same expression is used: With regard to anyone who raises his hand upon another, his hand should be severed, and bRav Hunaindeed acted accordingly and bsevered the handof an offender? bOrperhaps bdo we learnit as a mere bcurse? /b,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhear, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Tarfon says:If one’s bhandgoes btohis bpenis, his hand should be severed upon his navel.The Rabbis bsaid to him:If so, in a case where ba thorn was stuck inone’s bbelly, should he not remove it?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them:Indeed, he should bnotremove it, and if he does so his hand should be severed. The Rabbis replied: bButif his hand is severed while it is upon his navel, bwon’t his belly be split open?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them: It is preferable that the belly ofone who acts in this manner bshould be split open, and he should not descend into the pit of destruction. /b,The Gemara analyzes this discussion: bGranted, if you saythat bwe learnthe statement in the mishna as a practical ihalakha /i, this isthe meaning of that bwhichthe Rabbis bsaid: Butif his hand is severed upon his navel, bwon’t his belly be split open? But if you saythat bwe learnthe statement in the mishna as a mere bcurse, whatis the meaning of the phrase: Won’t bhis belly be split open?The Gemara responds: bRather, whatexplanation is the alternative? That bwe learnthe mishna as stating a practical ihalakha /i?That would not explain the exchange between the Rabbis to Rabbi Tarfon, because is it bnot sufficient thatthe hand be severed bnot upon his navel?In other words, even if the hand must actually be severed, it is not clear why it should be severed while it is upon his navel., bRather, thisis what bRabbi Tarfon is saying:With regard to banyone who inserts his hand below his navel,his hand bshould be severed.The Rabbis bsaid to Rabbi Tarfon:If ba thorn was stuck inone’s bbelly, should he not remove it?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them:He should bnot.They responded: bBut won’t his belly be split opendue to the thorn? Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them: It is preferable that his belly be split open, and he should not descend into the pit of destruction. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of a woman bwho is deaf [ ihaḥereshet /i], or an imbecile, or blind, or who went insane,and is therefore unable to examine herself reliably, bifsuch women bhave competentfriends, those friends bprepare themby examining them and immersing them in a ritual bath. bAndon that basis the incompetent women bmay partake of iteruma /iafter the sun sets., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna states that competent women must assist ba deaf woman.The Gemara asks: bLet her examine herself; as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: There was a deaf woman in our neighborhoodwho was so proficient in these matters that bnot only did she examine herself, butwhen bher friends would seestains similar to blood bandwere unsure whether or not the stains were ritually impure, they would bshow herthe stains.,The Gemara answers: bThere,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is referring btoa woman who bcan speak but cannot hear.It is possible for such a woman to be an expert in examining blood. But bhere,the mishna is dealing bwitha woman bwho can neither speak nor hear,and she is therefore considered incompetent and incapable of examining herself. bAs we learnedin a mishna ( iTerumot1:2): The bdeaf personof bwhom the Sages spoke everywhereis one bwho can neither hear nor speak,i.e., a deaf-mute.,§ The mishna further teaches that competent women must assist ba blindwoman. The Gemara similarly asks: bLet her examine herself and showthe cloth bto her friend. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:The correct version of the bmishnadoes bnotmention ba blindwoman.,§ The mishna also states that competent women must assist ba woman who went insane.The Gemara asks: With regard to her ability to examine herself, bisn’t thisthe same as ban imbecile,who is already mentioned in the mishna? The Gemara answers: Here, the mishna is referring to a woman bwho went insane due to illness,which is a different category than that of an imbecile.,The Gemara further discusses ihalakhotpertaining to an imbecile. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to ban imbecile priestwho was ritually impure, competent men deal with his purification: bThey immerse him, andthen benable him to partake of iterumain the evening,like any other priest who was impure. bAndthose taking care of him must bwatch over himto ensure bthat he does not sleepbefore he partakes of iteruma /i, in case he experiences a seminal emission, which would render him impure. If bhe slept,he is once again bimpure,and may not partake of iteruma /i; if he bdid not sleephe is bpure. /b, bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, saysthat there is another method of allowing an imbecile priest to partake of iteruma /i: bOne prepares for him a leather pouch,which is wrapped around his penis, and before giving him iterumato partake of one checks this pouch to see if he has emitted semen. The other Sages bsaid to him:It is improper to do this, as ball the more sohe will be prevented from partaking of iteruma /i; this pouch bwarms himand increases the likelihood of a seminal emission. Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, bsaid to them: According to your statement, an imbecilepriest bhas no remedythat will enable him to partake of iteruma /i., bThey said to him: According to our statementthere is a way he can partake of iteruma /i, as stated above: If bhe slept,he is bimpure;if he bdid not sleephe is bpure.But baccording to your statement,that one wraps a pouch around his penis, this is not a reliable method, as bperhaps he will see,i.e., experience the emission of, ba dropof semen as small bas a mustardseed, band it will be absorbed in the pouchand will not be noticed, which would mean that he is eating iterumain a state of ritual impurity.,The Gemara continues to discuss the methods by which an imbecile priest can partake of iteruma /i. It was btaughtin a ibaraitathat the Sages bsaid in the name of Rabbi Elazar: One prepares for him a metal pouch,which is placed on his penis and does not warm it.,In explanation of this statement, bAbaye says: Andwhen this itannaspeaks of metal, he means that the pouch should be made bof copper,which does not absorb liquid, and therefore any drop of semen would be visible. This is bas it is taughtin a mishna ( iPara12:5), with regard to the amount of water of purification that must be sprinkled on an individual who is impure due to impurity imparted by a corpse, that bRabbi Yehuda says: One considers those hyssop stems,with which the waters of purification are sprinkled, bas though they aremade bof copper,which does not absorb any of the water., bRav Pappa says:One can blearn fromthe statement of the Rabbis that a pouch wrapped around one’s penis can warm it enough to cause a seminal emission, that btrousers are prohibitedto be worn, as they too warm the penis, by being placed so they are tight against it. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the priestly garments: b“And you shall make them linen trousers to cover the flesh of their nakedness,from the loins even to the thighs they shall reach” (Exodus 28:42)?,The Gemara explains: bThatgarment, the trousers worn by priests, was different, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe trousers of priests, to what are they comparable?They are bsimilar to riding trousers [ ipamalanya /i] of horsemen,and this is what they look like: bAbove,they reach bup tothe bloins; below,they go bdown tothe bthighs, and they have straps, and they have no opening,neither bat the back nor at the front. /b, bAbaye says: /b
23. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

70b. אין שואלין בשלום אשה על ידי בעלה אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל אין שואלין בשלום אשה כלל שלחה ליה דביתהו שרי ליה תגריה דלא נישוויך כשאר עם הארץ,א"ל מאי שיאטיה דמר הכא אמר ליה טסקא דהזמנותא שדר מר אבתראי אמר ליה השתא שותא דמר לא גמירנא טסקא דהזמנותא משדרנא למר אפיק דיסקא דהזמנותא מבי חדיה ואחזי ליה אמר ליה הא גברא והא דסקא אמר ליה הואיל ואתא מר להכא לישתעי מיליה כי היכי דלא לימרו מחנפי רבנן אהדדי,אמר ליה מאי טעמא שמתיה מר לההוא גברא ציער שליחא דרבנן ונגדיה מר דרב מנגיד על מאן דמצער שלוחא דרבנן דעדיף מיניה עבדי ליה,מאי טעמא אכריז מר עליה דעבדא הוא אמר ליה דרגיל דקרי אינשי עבדי ותני כל הפוסל פסול ואינו מדבר בשבחא לעולם ואמר שמואל במומו פוסל אימר דאמר שמואל למיחש ליה לאכרוזי עליה מי אמר,אדהכי והכי (אתא ההוא בר דיניה מנהרדעי) א"ל ההוא בר דיניה לרב יהודה לדידי קרית לי עבדא דאתינא מבית חשמונאי מלכא אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל כל דאמר מדבית חשמונאי קאתינא עבדא הוא,א"ל לא סבר לה מר להא דא"ר אבא אמר רב הונא אמר רב כל ת"ח שמורה הלכה ובא אם קודם מעשה אמרה שומעין לו ואם לאו אין שומעין לו אמר ליה הא איכא רב מתנה דקאי כוותי,רב מתנה לא חזייה לנהרדעא תליסר שני ההוא יומא אתא אמר ליה דכיר מר מאי אמר שמואל כי קאי חדא כרעא אגודא וחדא כרעא במברא א"ל הכי אמר שמואל כל דאמר מדבית חשמונאי מלכא קאתינא עבדא הוא דלא אישתיור מינייהו אלא ההיא רביתא דסלקא לאיגרא ורמיא קלא ואמרה כל דאמר מבית חשמונאי אנא עבדא הוא,נפלה מאיגרא ומיתה אכרוז עליה דעבדא הוא,ההוא יומא אקרען כמה כתובתא בנהרדעא כי קא נפיק נפקי אבתריה למירגמיה אמר להו אי שתיקו שתיקו ואי לא מגלינא עלייכו הא דאמר שמואל תרתי זרעייתא איכא בנהרדעא חדא מיקריא דבי יונה וחדא מיקריא דבי עורבתי וסימניך טמא טמא טהור טהור שדיוה לההוא ריגמא מידייהו וקם אטמא בנהר מלכא,מכריז רב יהודה בפומבדיתא אדא ויונתן עבדי יהודה בר פפא ממזירא בטי בר טוביה ברמות רוחא לא שקיל גיטא דחירותא מכריז רבא במחוזא בלאי דנאי טלאי מלאי זגאי כולם לפסול אמר רב יהודה גובאי גבעונאי דורנוניתא דראי נתינאי אמר רב יוסף האי בי כובי דפומבדיתא כולם דעבדי,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ארבע מאות עבדים ואמרי לה ארבעת אלפים עבדים היו לו לפשחור בן אימר וכולם נטמעו בכהונה וכל כהן שיש בו עזות פנים אינו אלא מהם אמר אביי כולהו יתבן בשורא דבנהרדעא ופליגא דרבי אלעזר דאמר ר' אלעזר אם ראית כהן בעזות מצח אל תהרהר אחריו שנא' (הושע ד, ד) ועמך כמריבי כהן,אמר רבי אבין בר רב אדא אמר רב כל הנושא אשה שאינה הוגנת לו כשהקב"ה משרה שכינתו מעיד על כל השבטים ואין מעיד עליו שנאמר (תהלים קכב, ד) שבטי יה עדות לישראל אימתי הוי עדות לישראל בזמן שהשבטים שבטי יה,אמר ר' חמא ברבי חנינא כשהקב"ה משרה שכינתו אין משרה אלא על משפחות מיוחסות שבישראל שנא' (ירמיהו לא, א) בעת ההיא נאם ה' אהיה לאלהים לכל משפחות ישראל לכל ישראל לא נאמר אלא לכל משפחות,[והמה] יהיו לי לעם אמר רבה בר רב הונא זו מעלה יתירה יש בין ישראל לגרים דאילו בישראל כתיב בהו (יחזקאל לז, כז) והייתי להם לאלהים [והמה] יהיו לי לעם ואילו בגרים כתיב (ירמיהו ל, כא) מי הוא זה ערב את לבו לגשת אלי נאם ה' והייתם לי לעם ואנכי אהיה לכם לאלהים,אמר רבי חלבו קשים גרים לישראל כספחת שנאמר (ישעיהו יד, א) ונלוה הגר עליהם ונספחו על בית יעקב כתיב הכא ונספחו וכתיב התם (ויקרא יד, נו) לשאת ולספחת,אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כשהקדוש ברוך הוא 70b. bOne may not send greetings to a womaneven with a messenger, as this may cause the messenger and the woman to relate to each other inappropriately. Rav Naḥman countered by suggesting that he send his greetings bwith her husband,which would remove all concerns. Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel says: One may not send greetings to a woman at all.Yalta, bhis wife,who overheard that Rav Yehuda was getting the better of the exchange, bsenta message bto him: Release himand conclude your business with him, bso that he not equate you with another ignoramus. /b,Desiring to release Rav Yehuda, Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat bthe Master is here?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: The Master sent me a summons.Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Nowthat bI have noteven blearned the Master’sform of bspeech,as you have demonstrated your superiority to me by reproving me even over such matters, bcould Ihave bsent a summons to the Master?Rav Yehuda bremoved the summons from his bosom and showed it to him.While doing so, Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: Here is the man and here is the document.Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Since the Master has come here, let him present his statement, in order thatpeople bshould not say: The Sages flatter one anotherand do not judge each other according to the letter of the law.,Rav Naḥman commenced the deliberation, and bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat bthe Master excommunicated that man?Rav Yehuda replied: bHe caused discomfort to an agentof one bof the Sages,and therefore he deserved the punishment of one who causes discomfort to a Torah scholar. Rav Naḥman challenged this answer: If so, blet the Master flog him, as Rav would flog one who causes discomfort to an agent of the Sages.Rav Yehuda responded: bIpunished bhim more severely than that.Rabbi Yehuda held that excommunication is a more severe punishment than flogging.,Rav Naḥman further inquired: bWhat is the reasonthat bthe Master proclaimed about him that he is a slave?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him:Because he bis in the habit of calling people slaves, andit bis taught: Anyone who disqualifiesothers by stating that their lineage is flawed, that is a sign that he himself bisof bflawedlineage. Another indication of his lineage being flawed is that bhe never speaks in praiseof others. bAnd Shmuel said: He disqualifies with hisown bflaw.Rav Naḥman retorted: You can bsay that Shmuel saidthis ihalakhaonly btothe degree that one should bsuspect himof being of flawed lineage. But bdid heactually bsaythis btothe extent that one could bproclaim about himthat he is of flawed lineage?,The Gemara continues the story: bMeanwhile, that litigant arrived from Neharde’a. That litigant said to Rav Yehuda: You call me a slave? I, who come from the house of the Hasmonean kings?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel says: Anyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave.As will be explained, only slaves remained of their descendants.,Rav Naḥman, who heard this exchange, bsaid toRav Yehuda: bDoes the Master not hold in accordance with this ihalakha bthat Rabbi Abba saysthat bRav Huna saysthat bRav says:With regard to bany Torah scholar who proceeds to teacha ruling of ihalakha /iwith regard to a particular issue, bif he said it before an actionthat concerns himself occurred, btheyshould blisten to him,and his ruling is accepted. bBut if not,if he quoted the ihalakhaonly after he was involved in an incident related to the ihalakhahe is quoting, bthey do not listen to him,due to his personal involvement? Your testimony with regard to what Shmuel ruled should be ignored, as you stated it only after the incident. Rav Yehuda bsaid toRav Naḥman: bThere is Rav Mattana, who stands by myreport, since he has also heard this ruling of Shmuel.,The Gemara continues: bRav Mattana had not seenthe city of bNeharde’afor bthirteen years. Thatvery bday he arrived.Rav Yehuda bsaid to him:Does bthe Master remember what Shmuel said when he was standingwith bone foot on the bank and one foot on the ferry?Rav Mattana bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel saidat that time: bAnyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave, as none remained of them except for that young girl who ascended to the roof and raised her voice and said:From now on, banyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave.Other than this girl, the only members of the family who remained were descendants of Herod, and he was an Edomite slave.,The girl then bfell from the roof and died,leaving only slaves from the Hasmoneans. With the confirmation of the report of the statement of Shmuel, btheyalso bpublicizedin Neharde’a babout him,i.e., that man who claimed to come from the Hasmonean kings, bthat he was a slave. /b,The Gemara relates: On bthat day, several marriage contracts were torn up in Neharde’a,as many had their marriages annulled after having discovered that they had married slaves. bWhenRav Yehuda bwas leavingNeharde’a, bthey pursued him,seeking bto stone him,as because of him it was publicized that their lineage was flawed. Rav Yehuda bsaid to them: If you are silent,remain bsilent. And ifyou will bnotremain silent, bI will reveal about you thisstatement bthat Shmuel said: There are twolines of boffspring in Neharde’a. One is called the dove’s house, and one is called the raven’s house. And your mnemonicwith regard to lineage is: The bimpurebird, the raven, is bimpure,meaning flawed, and the bpureone, the dove, is bpure,meaning unflawed. Upon hearing this, bthey threwall bthosestones that they were intending bto stone himwith bfrom their hands,as they did not want him to reveal who had a flawed lineage. bAndas a result of all of the stones thrown into the river, ba dam arose in the Malka River. /b,§ The Gemara continues the discussion of those with a flawed lineage: bRav Yehuda proclaimed in Pumbedita: Adda and Yonatan,known residents of that town, are bslaves; Yehuda bar Pappais a imamzer /i; Bati bar Tuviyya, in his arrogance, did not accept a bill of manumissionand is still a slave. bRava proclaimed inhis city of bMeḥoza: Balla’ai, Danna’ai, Talla’ai, Malla’ai, Zagga’ai: Allthese families bareof bflawedlineage. bRav Yehudalikewise bsays: Gova’ai,the inhabitants of a place called Gova, are in fact bGibeonites,and their name has been corrupted. Similarly, those people known as bDorenunitaare from bthe village of Gibeonites,and they may not marry Jews with unflawed lineage. bRav Yosef says:With regard to bthisplace called bBei Kuvei of Pumbedita,its residents bare alldescendants bof slaves. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says: Four hundred slaves, and some say four thousand slaves, were owned by Pashḥur ben Immer,a priest in the time of Jeremiah, banddue to their greatness bthey were assimilated into the priesthoodand became known as priests. bAnd any priest who hasthe trait of binsolence is only from them. Abaye said: They all sit in the rowsof honor bthat are inthe city of bNeharde’a.The Gemara comments: And this statement bdisagrees withthe statement bof Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar says: If you see an insolent priest, do not speculate about himthat he may be of flawed lineage, bsince it is stated: “For your people are as those who strive with a priest”(Hosea 4:4), which indicates that priests had a reputation for being cantankerous.,§ The Gemara discusses an idea raised earlier. bRabbi Avin bar Rav Adda saysthat bRav says:Concerning banyone who marries a woman who is not suited for himto marry, bwhen the Holy One, Blessed be He, rests His Divine Presenceupon the Jewish people, bHe testifies with regard to all the tribesthat they are His people, bbut He does not testify with regard to hewho married improperly, bas it is stated: “The tribes of the Lord, as a testimony to Israel”(Psalms 122:4). bWhen is it a testimony to Israel? When the tribes are the tribes of the Lord,but not when their lineage is flawed., bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, rests His Divine Presence, He rests it only upon families ofunflawed lineage bamong Israel, as it is stated: “At that time, says the Lord, will I be the God of all the families of Israel”(Jeremiah 30:25). bof all Israel, is not stated, but “of all the families,”which includes only those of unflawed lineage, the renowned families of Israel.,The verse from Jeremiah ends with the words b“And they shall be my people.” Rabba bar Rav Huna says: This is a higher standardthat differentiates bbetweenthose born as bJews and converts, as with regard tothose born as bJews it is written about them: “And I will be their God, and they shall be My people”(Ezekiel 37:27), bwhereas with regard to converts it is written: “For who is he that has pledged his heart to approach unto Me? says the Lord. And you shall be My people, and I will be your God”(Jeremiah 30:21–22). This teaches that converts are not drawn close to God, as indicated by the words “And I will be your God,” until they first draw themselves near to God, as indicated by the subsequent phrase “And you shall be my people.”, bRabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts areas bdifficult for the Jewish people as a scab.The proof is bthat it is stated: “And the convert shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave [ ivenispeḥu /i] to the house of Jacob”(Isaiah 14:1). bIt is written here “ ivenispeḥu /i,” and it is written there,among the types of leprosy: b“And for a sore and for a scab [ isappaḥat /i]”(Leviticus 14:56). The use of a term with a similar root indicates that converts are like a scab for the Jewish people., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b
24. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. ושימש תלמידי חכמים הרבה מפני מה מת בחצי ימיו ולא היה אדם מחזירה דבר פעם אחת נתארחתי אצלה והיתה מסיחה כל אותו מאורע ואמרתי לה בתי בימי נדותך מה הוא אצלך אמרה לי חס ושלום אפי' באצבע קטנה לא נגע [בי] בימי לבוניך מהו אצלך אכל עמי ושתה עמי וישן עמי בקירוב בשר ולא עלתה דעתו על דבר אחר ואמרתי לה ברוך המקום שהרגו שלא נשא פנים לתורה שהרי אמרה תורה (ויקרא יח, יט) ואל אשה בנדת טומאתה לא תקרב כי אתא רב דימי אמר מטה חדא הואי במערבא אמרי אמר רב יצחק בר יוסף סינר מפסיק בינו לבינה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו מן ההלכות שאמרו בעליית חנניה בן חזקיה בן גרון שעלו לבקרו נמנו ורבו ב"ש על ב"ה וי"ח דברים גזרו בו ביום:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ל אביי לרב יוסף אלו תנן או ואלו תנן ואלו תנן הני דאמרן או אלו תנן דבעינן למימר קמן תא שמע אין פולין לאור הנר ואין קורין לאור הנר ואלו מן ההלכות שאמרו בעליית חנניה בן חזקיה בן גרון ש"מ ואלו תנן ש"מ:,ת"ר מי כתב מגילת תענית אמרו חנניה בן חזקיה וסיעתו שהיו מחבבין את הצרות,אמר רשב"ג אף אנו מחבבין את הצרות אבל מה נעשה שאם באנו לכתוב אין אנו מספיקין,ד"א אין שוטה נפגע,ד"א אין בשר המת מרגיש באיזמל איני והאמר רב יצחק קשה רימה למת כמחט בבשר החי שנא' (איוב יד, כב) אך בשרו עליו יכאב ונפשו עליו תאבל אימא אין בשר המת שבחי מרגיש באיזמל,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ברם זכור אותו האיש לטוב וחנניה בן חזקיה שמו שאלמלא הוא נגנז ספר יחזקאל שהיו דבריו סותרין דברי תורה מה עשה העלו לו ג' מאות גרבי שמן וישב בעלייה ודרשן:,ושמנה עשר דבר גזרו: מאי נינהו שמנה עשר דבר דתנן אלו פוסלין את התרומה האוכל אוכל ראשון והאוכל אוכל שני והשותה משקין טמאין והבא ראשו ורובו במים שאובין וטהור שנפלו על ראשו ורובו שלשה לוגין מים שאובין והספר והידים והטבול יום והאוכלים והכלים שנטמאו במשקין,מאן תנא האוכל אוכל ראשון והאוכל אוכל שני מפסל פסלי טמויי 13b. band served Torah scholars extensively, why did he die at half his days?Where is the length of days promised him in the verse? bNo one would respond to herastonishment bat all.Eliyahu said: bOne time I was a guest in herhouse, band she was relating that entire eventwith regard to the death of her husband. bAnd I said to her: My daughter, during the period of your menstruation, howdid bheact btoward you? She said to me: Heaven forbid, he did not touch me even withhis blittle finger.And I asked her: bIn the days of your whitegarments, after the menstrual flow ended, and you were just counting clean days, bhow did he act toward youthen? She said to me: bHe ate with me, and drank with me, and slept with me with bodily contact and,however, bit did not enter his mind about something else,i.e., conjugal relations. bAnd I said to her: Blessed is the Omnipresent who killed himfor this sin, basyour husband bdid not show respect to the Torah. The Torah said: “And to a woman in the separation of her impurity you should not approach”(Leviticus 18:19), even mere affectionate contact is prohibited. The Gemara relates that bwhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said:That student did not actually sleep with her with bodily contact; rather, bit wasin bone bedthat they slept without contact. bIn the West,in Eretz Yisrael, bthey saythat bRav Yitzḥak bar Yosef said:When they would sleep together in one bed, she wore ba belt [ isinar /i]from the waist down that bwould separate between him and her.Nevertheless, since the matter is prohibited, that student was punished., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnd these are among the ihalakhotthatthe Sages, bwho went up to visit him, said in the upper story of Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya ben Garon.The precise nature of these ihalakhotwill be explained in the Gemara. These ihalakhotare considered one unit because they share a distinctive element. Since many Sages were there, among them most of the generation’s Torah scholars in Eretz Yisrael, they engaged in discussion of various ihalakhotof the Torah. It turned out that when the people expressing opinions bwere counted,the students of bBeit Shammai outnumberedthe students of bBeit Hillel, and they issued decreeswith regard to beighteen matters on that dayin accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the language that introduces our mishna, bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: Did we learnin our mishna: bThese areamong the ihalakhot /i, bor did we learnin our mishna: bAnd these areamong the ihalakhot /i? The difference is significant. bDid we learn: And these,and if so, the reference would be to bthose that we saidearlier, i.e., that those ihalakhotare included in the decrees? bOr did we learn: These,and if so the reference would be to bthose that we seek to mention below? Comeand bheara solution to this dilemma from the fact that these matters were taught together in a ibaraita /i: bOne may not shakegarments to rid them of lice bby the light of the lamp and one may not read by the light of the lamp; and these are among the ihalakhotthatthe Sages bsaid in the attic of Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya ben Garon. Conclude from thisthat bwe learned: And thesein the mishna, and the reference is to the decrees mentioned earlier., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to iMegillat Ta’anit /i, which is a list of days of redemption that were established as celebrations for generations: bWho wrote iMegillat Ta’anit /i?This scroll was written by bḤaya ben Ḥizkiyaben Garon band his faction, who held dearthe memory of bthe troublesthat befell Israel and their salvation from them., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: We also hold dearthe memory of bthe troublesfrom which Israel was saved, bbut what can we do? If we came to writeall the days of that kind, bwe would not manage todo so, as the troubles that Israel experienced in every generation and era are numerous, and on each day there is an event worthy of commemoration., bAlternatively:Why do we not record the days of salvation from troubles? Just as ba crazy person is not hurt,as he is not aware of the troubles that befall him, so too, we cannot appreciate the magnitude of the calamities that befall us., bAlternatively: The flesh of a dead person does not feel the scalpel[iizemel/b] cutting into him, and we, too, are in such a difficult situation that we no longer feel the pains and troubles. With regard to the last analogy, the Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Rav Yitzḥak say: Thegnawing of bmaggots is as excruciating to the dead asthe stab of ba needle is to the flesh of the living,as bit is statedwith regard to the dead: b“But his flesh shall hurt him, and his soul mourns over him”(Job 14:22)? Rather, bsayand explain the matter: bThe dead fleshin parts of the body bof the living personthat are insensitive to pain bdoes not feel the scalpelthat cuts him., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Truly, that man is remembered for the good, and his name is Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya, as if not for him, the book of Ezekiel would have been suppressed because its contents,in many details, bcontradict matters of Torah.The Sages sought to suppress the book and exclude it from the canon. bWhat did he,Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya, bdo? They brought him three hundred jugs of oil,for light and food, bupto his upper story, band he satisolated bin the upper storyand did not move from there until bhe homiletically interpretedall of those verses in the book of Ezekiel that seemed contradictory, and resolved the contradictions.,We learned in the mishna that when the Sages went up to the upper story of the house of Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya ben Garon, they were counted band issued eighteen decreesin accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai. The Gemara asks: bWhat are those eighteen matters?The Gemara answers: bAs we learnedin a mishna, a list of the decrees that the Sages issued with regard to items whose level of impurity is such that if they come into contact with iterumathey disqualify it. By means of that contact, the iterumaitself becomes impure, but it does not transmit impurity to other items. bThese disqualify iteruma /i: One who eats foodwith bfirstdegree ritual impurity status acquired as a result of contact with a primary source of ritual impurity, e.g., a creeping animal; band one who eats foodwith bseconddegree ritual impurity status acquired as a result of contact with an item with first degree ritual impurity status; band one who drinks impure liquidsof any degree of impurity; band one whose head and most of hisbody bcome into drawn waterafter he immersed himself in a ritual bath to purify himself; band a ritually pure person that three ilog /iof bdrawn water fell on his head and most of hisbody; band a Torah scroll; and the handsof any person who did not purify himself for the purpose of handling iteruma /i; bandone bwho immersed himself during the day,i.e., one who was impure and immersed himself, and until evening he is not considered completely pure; band foods and vessels that became impure bycoming into contact with impure bliquids.Contact with any of these disqualifies the iteruma /i. The Gemara seeks to clarify these matters.,The Gemara asks first: bWho is the itanna /iwho holds that bone who eats foodwith bfirstdegree ritual impurity status, band one who eats foodwith bseconddegree ritual impurity status, bdisqualifythe iteruma,but
26. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

109b. ואמר רבי אבהו אתיא רדיפה רדיפה כתיב הכא (תהלים לד, טו) בקש שלום ורדפהו וכתיב התם (משלי כא, כא) רודף צדקה וחסד ימצא חיים צדקה וכבוד: בהפרת נדרים כרבי נתן דתניא רבי נתן אומר הנודר כאילו בנה במה והמקיימו כאילו הקריב עליה קרבן,ויתרחק משלשה דברים מן המיאונין דלמא גדלה ומיחרטא בה מן הפקדונות בבר מתא דבייתיה כי בייתיה דמי מן הערבון בערבי שלציון,דא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (משלי יא, טו) רע ירוע כי ערב זר רעה אחר רעה תבא למקבלי גרים ולערבי שלציון ולתוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה מקבלי גרים כר' חלבו דאמר ר' חלבו קשים גרים לישראל כספחת בעור,ערבי שלציון דעבדי שלוף דוץ תוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה דתניא רבי יוסי אומר כל האומר אין לו תורה אין לו תורה פשיטא אלא כל האומר אין לו אלא תורה אין לו אלא תורה,הא נמי פשיטא אלא דאפילו תורה אין לו מאי טעמא אמר רב פפא אמר קרא (דברים ה, א) ולמדתם ועשיתם כל שישנו בעשיה ישנו בלמידה כל שאינו בעשיה אינו בלמידה,ואיבעית אימא לעולם כדאמריתו מעיקרא כל האומר אין לו אלא תורה אין לו אלא תורה לא צריכא דקא מגמר לאחריני ואזלי ועבדי מהו דתימא אית ליה אגרא לדידיה קמ"ל,ואיבעית אימא תוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה בדיינא דאתי דינא לקמיה וגמר הלכה ומדמי מילתא למילתא ואית ליה רבה ולא אזיל משאיל,דאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן לעולם יראה דיין עצמו כאילו חרב מונחת לו בין יריכותיו וגיהנם פתוחה לו מתחתיו שנאמר (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים גבורים סביב לה מגבורי ישראל וגו' מפחד בלילות מפחד של גיהנם שדומה ללילה:,ר"ג אומר אם מיאנה וכו': בעא מיניה רבי אלעזר מרב מאי טעמא דר"ג משום דקסבר קידושי קטנה מיתלא תלו וכי גדלה גדלי בהדה אע"ג דלא בעל,או דלמא משום דקסבר המקדש אחות יבמה נפטרה יבמה והלכה לה אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא,אמר ליה היינו טעמא דר"ג משום דקסבר המקדש אחות יבמה נפטרה יבמה והלכה לה אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא,אמר רב ששת אמינא כי ניים ושכיב רב אמר להא שמעתא דתניא המקדש את הקטנה קידושיה תלויין מאי תלויין לאו כי גדלה גדלי בהדה ואע"ג דלא בעל,אמר ליה רבין בריה דרב נחמן הא מילתא דקטנה מיתלא תליא וקיימא אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא דאמרה הוא עדיף מינאי ואנא עדיפנא מיניה,וסבר רב אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא והא איתמר קטנה שלא מיאנה והגדילה ועמדה ונשאת רב אמר אינה צריכה גט משני ושמואל אמר צריכה גט משני 109b. bAnd Rabbi Abbahu said: It is derivedby verbal analogy from the terms bpursuitand bpursuit. It is written here: “Seek peace and pursue it”(Psalms 34:15) band it is written there: “He who pursues righteousness and mercy finds life, prosperity, and honor”(Proverbs 21:21), indicating that pursuing peace is a mitzva, just as pursuing righteousness and mercy is. As bfor the nullification of vows, this is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Natan, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Natan says:With regard to bone who vows, it is as if he builta personal baltarwhen it is prohibited to build an altar outside the Temple. bAnd one who fulfills thatvow, bit is as if he sacrificed an offering on thispersonal altar, thereby doubling his sin. Therefore, it is preferable that he ask a halakhic authority to dissolve the vow., bAnd one should distance himself from three things: From refusals,as bperhaps she will grow up and regrether decision, and it will turn out that she refused a husband who was suitable for her. bFrom depositsentrusted to him bby an inhabitant of the same city, ashe will treat the bailee’s bhome as his home.The owner might enter the bailee’s house and take the deposit without the latter’s knowledge, and subsequently falsely sue him for its return. bFrom serving as a guarantor: This is referring to Sheltziyyon guarantees,in which the lender is entitled to demand payment from the guarantor even before the borrower defaults on the loan., bAs Rabbi Yitzḥak said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “He who serves as a guarantor for a stranger shall suffer evil;but he who hates those who shake hands is secure” (Proverbs 11:15)? This means: bEvil after evil will befall those who accept converts, and Sheltziyyon guarantors, and one who confounds himself in matters of ihalakha /i.The Gemara clarifies. Evil will befall bthose who accept converts: This is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ḥelbo. As Rabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts are difficult for the Jewish people like a leprous sore on the skin. /b,Evil shall befall bSheltziyyon guarantors because they practice: Pull out, thrust in.That is, they pull out the borrower and thrust the guarantor in his place as the one responsible for the loan. Evil befalls bone who confounds himself in matters of ihalakha /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Anyone who says he has no Torah, has no Torah.The Gemara asks: Is this not bobvious? Rather, anyone who says he has nothing otherthan bTorah, has nothing otherthan bTorah. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’tthis balso obvious?One does not receive more reward than he deserves. bRather,it means that bhe does not even have Torah. What is the reason? Rav Pappa said: The verse states: That you may learn them and perform them,which is an abridged version of the verse “Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordices that I speak in your ears this day, that you may learn them, and take care to perform them” (Deuteronomy 5:1). The verse teaches that banyone who is engaged in performingmitzvot bis engaged inTorah bstudy, while anyone not engaged in performingmitzvot bis not engaged inTorah bstudy;the Torah study of one who wishes only to immerse himself in his studies without fulfilling the mitzvot is not considered to be fulfilling even the mitzva of Torah study., bAnd if you wish, say: Actually, it is as you initially said: Anyone who says he has nothing otherthan bTorah has nothing otherthan bTorah. Rather,this statement bis necessarywith regard to one who bteaches others and they go and performthe mitzvot. bLest you say that there is reward for him in it,Rabbi Yosei bteaches usthat since that person engaged in Torah study without the intention of observing the mitzvot himself, he does not receive a reward for the mitzvot that he taught others and which they performed., bAnd if you wish, saythat bone who confounds himself in matters of ihalakha /iis referring bto a judge who had a case come before him, and he learnedthe tradition about ba rulingin a similar case, band he likens one matter to the otherin order to reach a conclusion; band he has a teachernearby bbut he does not go and askhim. This is inappropriate, as judges must be very careful not to err in judgment., bAs Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: A judge should always view himself as if a sword were placed between his thighs,so that if he leans right or left he will be injured, band as if Gehenna was open beneath him, as it is stated: “Behold, it is the bed of Solomon; sixty mighty men are around it, of the mighty men of Israel.They all handle the sword, and are expert in war; every man has his sword upon his thigh, bbecause of dread in the night”(Song of Songs 3:7–8), i.e., bbecause of the dread of Gehenna, which is similar to the night.Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani understands the mighty men of Israel in this verse to refer to the judges who sit in judgment around the bed of Solomon, i.e., in the Temple.,§ It was taught in the mishna that bRabban Gamliel says: Ifthe minor brefusesof her own accord, her refusal is valid. And if not, she should wait until she reaches majority, whereupon her marriage is valid by Torah law, and the widowed adult sister shall be exempt from levirate marriage due to her status as the sister of a wife. bRabbi Elazar raised a dilemma to Rav: What is Rabban Gamliel’s reasoning?Is it bbecause he holds that the betrothal of a minor girl is in suspension and when she reaches majority, the betrothal reaches majority,i.e., is fully realized, bwith her?Accordingly, the betrothal would then be realized beven if he did not engage in intercoursewith her after she reached majority., bOr perhaps, is it because he holds thatwhen a iyavam bbetroths the sister of his iyevama /i,causing the iyevamato be forbidden to him, bthe iyevamais exempt and is releasedeven though her levirate bond came first? bIf he engaged in sexual intercourse withhis betrothed after she reached majority, then byes,the iyevamais exempt as a forbidden relative, because only then does Rabban Gamliel consider the betrothal to be fully realized, but bif he did not engage in intercourse with hisbetrothed, then the iyevamais bnot exemptfrom levirate marriage., bRav said to him: This is Rabban Gamliel’s reasoning: Because he holds thatin the case of bone who betroths the sister of his iyevama /i, the iyevamais exempt and is released,then bif he engaged in sexual intercoursewith the sister after she reached majority then byes,the iyevamais exempt from levirate marriage, but bif he did not engage in intercoursewith the sister after she reached majority, the iyevamais bnotexempt., bRav Sheshet said: I say that Rav said this ihalakhawhen he was dozing and lying down,as it is difficult. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who betroths a minor girl, her betrothal is in suspension. Whatdoes it mean that it is bin suspension? Is it not that when she reaches majority, the betrothal reaches majority with herand is fully realized beven if he did not have intercourse with herafter she reached majority?, bRavin, son of Rav Naḥman, said toRav Sheshet: bThis matter,that the betrothal bof a minor girl remains in suspension,should be understood differently. It means that her betrothal is provisional as long as she is still a minor: bIf he has sexual intercoursewith her after she reaches majority, byes,her betrothal is realized; bif he does not engage in intercoursewith her after she reaches majority, her betrothal is bnotrealized. bFor she saysto herself: bHe has an advantage over mein that he can divorce me, band I have an advantage over him,as I can refuse him. Since the marriage of a minor depends upon her ongoing consent, as she can refuse him at any time, it remains provisional until it is consummated when she is an adult.,The Gemara asks: bBut does Ravtruly bthink thatonly bif he has intercourse with herafter she becomes an adult, then byes, herbetrothal is realized, bbut if he did not engage in intercourse with her,then bno,it is not realized? bWasn’t it statedthat with regard to ba minor who had not refusedher husband band reached majority, andthen bwent and marriedanother, bRav said: She does not require a bill of divorce from the secondman, as she is fully married to the first and consequently her second marriage is invalid? bAnd Shmuel said: She does require a bill of divorce from the secondman, as it is uncertain whether her second marriage is valid.
27. Origen, Homiliae In Genesim (In Catenis), 6.2-6.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Origen, Homilies On Genesis, 6.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43, 249; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179
abraham, as universal exemplar Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43
abraham DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43; Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 109, 110, 169, 170, 173, 176, 177, 181; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59; Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 39, 40; Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 135
abraham\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 15
abraham and sodom and gomorrah Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 38
abram/abraham Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11
adam Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 170
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11
analysis Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 169, 181
angel DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43; Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 40
angels Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59
angels of the divine presence, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 200
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha of hebrew bible, rewritten scriptures Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 173
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha of hebrew bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 173
aramaic language Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179
babel, tower of babel Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 15
balaam Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 99
barren, barrenness Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 177
beneficent power, philos selection of passages from Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43
beneficent power, the bible Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43
birth and renewal Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 223
body, converts Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 223
book of biblical antiquities (liber antiquitatum biblicarum or lab, pseudo-philo) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 173
burial of death, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 200
canaan, canaanites Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 169, 170
chajes z.h. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 162
chaldean DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
circumcision, eighth–day Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 39, 40
circumcision Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 223
claudius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11
converts are as hard for israel as a scab (phrase) Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 223
covenant, omission of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43
cycle, patriarchal, noahic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11
death, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 200
demon / daimon DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
diaspora, eastern Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 200
dinah Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 135
discourses of divine law, in biblical literature Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 38
dispersion\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 15
divine law, in biblical israel Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 38
divine visits, josephus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 449
dreams and visions, examples, josephus Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 449
egypt, abrahams marriage preserved in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 249
egypt, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 249
egypt, negative depiction of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 249
egypt, sojourn in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43, 249
egypt / egyptian / aegyptium DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
eleazar (jewish martyr) Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 182
elephant mosaic Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 182
eliezer Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 109
endogamy Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 181
epictetus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
esau Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 110, 181; Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 135
esther, book of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 200
etiology\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 15
etymologies, of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 249
eusebius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
eve Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 170
evil DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
flesh Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 223
food, eating and drinking Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 200
gaius caligula Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
galen Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
genealogical anxiety, centrality of the body and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 223
genealogical anxiety, iranian context and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 223
genesis, book of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 200
genesis\u2002 Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 15
gilgamesh Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 91
hagar Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179; Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 109
harmonization, babylonian Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 223
hayes, christine Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 38
herod\u2002, primeval history Luther Hartog and Wilde, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Travel Experiences: 3rd century BCE – 8th century CE (2024) 15
incest Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 176, 181
incubation Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 99
isaac, search for wife for Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43
isaac Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11; Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 109, 110; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59
ishmael, ishmaelites Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 109, 110
ishmael Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59; Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 135
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11; Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 181
jerome Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
judah Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 176
judith, book of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 200
julius gaius alexander Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
justice, keturah, omission of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43
lab (liber antiquitatum biblicarum or book of biblical antiquities, pseudo-philo) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 173
laughter Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11
liber antiquitatum biblicarum or lab (book of biblical antiquities, pseudo-philo) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 173
lot Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 176
maccabean martyrs Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 182
magic / magia DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
marriage, marrying Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 169, 170, 173, 176, 177, 181
marriage, preservation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 249
mediation, mediators Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 181
mediator DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
miracles DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
monolatry DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
moses DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
myth, mythology Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 170, 173, 176, 181
mytheme Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 109, 110, 169, 170, 173
narrative Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179
natural law, in the bible Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 38
notariqon Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179
omissions Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43
pentateuch, dating of Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 176
pharaoh Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59
pharisees Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
philo of alexandria, apocrypha and pseudepigrapha Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 173
philo of alexandria Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
philodemus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
piety of abraham, marriage and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 249
piety of abraham, rewards for Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 249
plotinus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
prayer, supplication, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 200
priestly writer Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 39
psalms, book of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 162
psalms, the psalm titles Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 162
pseudo-philo, book of biblical antiquities (liber antiquitatum biblicarum or lab) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 173
qumran, fragments of tobit ix Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 200
reason, as grounding biblical divine law' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 38
rebekah Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 176, 177, 181
resuscitation Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 135
revelation of baruch, rewritten scriptures Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 173
rewards of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 249
sack / invasion of rome DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
sacrifice DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43; Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 110
sapahat Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 223
sarah, as sister Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43, 249
sarah, as virtue Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 249
sarah, burial of, omitted Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43
sarah, etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 249
sarah, omissions in story of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43
sarah, violation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 249
sarah Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 11; Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 109, 169, 173, 176, 177, 181; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59
sarah (sarai) Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179
seed Thiessen, Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity (2011) 40
sex, sexuality Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 173
shechem (city) Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 135
shechem (individual) Vargas, Time’s Causal Power: Proclus and the Natural Theology of Time (2021) 135
shimon bar yohai, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179
skin, scabs and Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 223
sodom, abraham bargaining over, omission of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43
symbolism, symbols Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 173
ten Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 59
therapeutae/therapeutrides Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
tiberius julius alexander Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 297
torah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 200
ugarit Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 91
virtue, abrahams life organized by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 43
wisdom DeMarco,, Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10 (2021) 43
women Kunin, We Think What We Eat : Structuralist Analysis of Israelite Food Rules and Other Mythological and Cultural Domains(2004) 169, 170, 173, 176, 177, 181
– doublets Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179
– of biblical names Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179
– pun Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179
– transmission of Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179
– trials of Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 179