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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.4


אֵלֶּה תוֹלְדוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ בְּהִבָּרְאָם בְּיוֹם עֲשׂוֹת יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמָיִם׃These are the generations of the heaven and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made earth and heaven.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

48 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.32, 32.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.32. כִּי שְׁאַל־נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ לְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם עַל־הָאָרֶץ וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד־קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם הֲנִהְיָה כַּדָּבָר הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה אוֹ הֲנִשְׁמַע כָּמֹהוּ׃ 32.6. הֲ־לַיְהוָה תִּגְמְלוּ־זֹאת עַם נָבָל וְלֹא חָכָם הֲלוֹא־הוּא אָבִיךָ קָּנֶךָ הוּא עָשְׂךָ וַיְכֹנְנֶךָ׃ 4.32. For ask now of the days past, which were before thee, since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other, whether there hath been any such thing as this great thing is, or hath been heard like it?" 32.6. Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? Is not He thy father that hath gotten thee? Hath He not made thee, and established thee?"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.8, 20.11, 31.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 31.17. בֵּינִי וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹת הִוא לְעֹלָם כִּי־שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שָׁבַת וַיִּנָּפַשׁ׃ 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 31.17. It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He ceased from work and rested.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "17.15" "17.15" "17 15" \n1 1 1 1 None\n2 1.1 1.1 1 1 \n3 1.1-2.4 1.1 1 1 \n4 1.10 1.10 1 10 \n.. ... ... .. .. \n151 9.5 9.5 9 5 \n152 9.6 9.6 9 6 \n153 9.7 9.7 9 7 \n154 9.8 9.8 9 8 \n155 9.9 9.9 9 9 \n\n[156 rows x 4 columns] (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.7. וְהֵמָּה כְּאָדָם עָבְרוּ בְרִית שָׁם בָּגְדוּ בִי׃ 6.7. But they like men have transgressed the covet; There have they dealt treacherously against Me."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 4.12, 9.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וְאֵלַי דָּבָר יְגֻנָּב וַתִּקַּח אָזְנִי שֵׁמֶץ מֶנְהוּ׃ 9.8. נֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם לְבַדּוֹ וְדוֹרֵךְ עַל־בָּמֳתֵי יָם׃ 4.12. Now a word was secretly brought to me, And mine ear received a whisper thereof." 9.8. Who alone stretcheth out the heavens, And treadeth upon the waves of the sea."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מֹשֶׁה הַמְקַנֵּא אַתָּה לִי וּמִי יִתֵּן כָּל־עַם יְהוָה נְבִיאִים כִּי־יִתֵּן יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 11.29. And Moses said unto him: ‘Art thou jealous for my sake? would that all the LORD’S people were prophets, that the LORD would put His spirit upon them! ’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22-8.31, 26.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 26.18. כְּמִתְלַהְלֵהַּ הַיֹּרֶה זִקִּים חִצִּים וָמָוֶת׃ 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men." 26.18. As a madman who casteth firebrands, Arrows, and death;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2, 139.13, 139.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 139.13. כִּי־אַתָּה קָנִיתָ כִלְיֹתָי תְּסֻכֵּנִי בְּבֶטֶן אִמִּי׃ 139.15. לֹא־נִכְחַד עָצְמִי מִמֶּךָּ אֲשֶׁר־עֻשֵּׂיתִי בַסֵּתֶר רֻקַּמְתִּי בְּתַחְתִּיּוֹת אָרֶץ׃ 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night." 139.13. For Thou hast made my reins; Thou hast knit me together in my mother's womb." 139.15. My frame was not hidden from Thee, When I was made in secret, And curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth."
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 22.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.23. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה נָתַן יְהוָה רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאֶיךָ אֵלֶּה וַיהוָה דִּבֶּר עָלֶיךָ רָעָה׃ 22.23. Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets; and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 24.21, 42.1, 42.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.21. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִפְקֹד יְהוָה עַל־צְבָא הַמָּרוֹם בַּמָּרוֹם וְעַל־מַלְכֵי הָאֲדָמָה עַל־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 42.1. הֵן עַבְדִּי אֶתְמָךְ־בּוֹ בְּחִירִי רָצְתָה נַפְשִׁי נָתַתִּי רוּחִי עָלָיו מִשְׁפָּט לַגּוֹיִם יוֹצִיא׃ 42.1. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּתוֹ מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם וּמְלֹאוֹ אִיִּים וְיֹשְׁבֵיהֶם׃ 42.5. כֹּה־אָמַר הָאֵל יְהוָה בּוֹרֵא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנוֹטֵיהֶם רֹקַע הָאָרֶץ וְצֶאֱצָאֶיהָ נֹתֵן נְשָׁמָה לָעָם עָלֶיהָ וְרוּחַ לַהֹלְכִים בָּהּ׃ 24.21. And it shall come to pass in that day, That the LORD will punish the host of the high heaven on high, And the kings of the earth upon the earth." 42.1. Behold My servant, whom I uphold; Mine elect, in whom My soul delighteth; I have put My spirit upon him, He shall make the right to go forth to the nations." 42.5. Thus saith God the LORD, He that created the heavens, and stretched them forth, He that spread forth the earth and that which cometh out of it, He that giveth breath unto the people upon it, And spirit to them that walk therein:"
11. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 27.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

27.20. which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon took not, when he carried away captive Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, from Jerusalem to Babylon, and all the nobles of Judah and Jerusalem;"
12. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.1. אֵיכָה יָעִיב בְּאַפּוֹ אֲדֹנָי אֶת־בַּת־צִיּוֹן הִשְׁלִיךְ מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶרֶץ תִּפְאֶרֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא־זָכַר הֲדֹם־רַגְלָיו בְּיוֹם אַפּוֹ׃ 2.1. יֵשְׁבוּ לָאָרֶץ יִדְּמוּ זִקְנֵי בַת־צִיּוֹן הֶעֱלוּ עָפָר עַל־רֹאשָׁם חָגְרוּ שַׂקִּים הוֹרִידוּ לָאָרֶץ רֹאשָׁן בְּתוּלֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 2.1. How hath the Lord covered with a cloud The daughter of Zion in His anger! He hath cast down from heaven unto the earth The beauty of Israel, And hath not remembered His footstool In the day of His anger."
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.8, 11.19, 36.20, 36.26-36.27, 37.6, 37.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. וידו [וִידֵי] אָדָם מִתַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם עַל אַרְבַּעַת רִבְעֵיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם וְכַנְפֵיהֶם לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם׃ 11.19. וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב אֶחָד וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשָׂרָם וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.27. וְאֶת־רוּחִי אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וְעָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־בְּחֻקַּי תֵּלֵכוּ וּמִשְׁפָּטַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם׃ 37.6. וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עוֹר וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 37.14. וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 1.8. And they had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; and as for the faces and wings of them four," 11.19. And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh;" 36.20. And when they came unto the nations, whither they came, they profaned My holy name; in that men said of them: These are the people of the LORD, and are gone forth out of His land." 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh." 36.27. And I will put My spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and ye shall keep Mine ordices, and do them." 37.6. And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; and ye shall know that I am the LORD.’" 37.14. And I will put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I will place you in your own land; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken, and performed it, saith the LORD.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 2.12 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.12. וּפָנִיתִי אֲנִי לִרְאוֹת חָכְמָה וְהוֹלֵלוֹת וְסִכְלוּת כִּי מֶה הָאָדָם שֶׁיָּבוֹא אַחֲרֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־כְּבָר עָשׂוּהוּ׃ 2.12. And I turned myself to behold wisdom, and madness and folly; for what can the man do that cometh after the king? even that which hath been already done."
15. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 53.4 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

16. Anon., Jubilees, 2.1-2.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying: 2.2. Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2.3. For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before Him 2.4. --the angels of the presence, and the angels of sanctification, and the angels [of the spirit of fire and the angels] of the spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirit of the clouds 2.5. and of darkness, and of snow and of hail and of hoar frost, and the angels of the voices and of the thunder and of the lightning, and the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of spring and of autumn and of summer 2.6. and of all the spirits of His creatures which are in the heavens and on the earth, (He created) the abysses and the darkness, eventide (and night), and the light, dawn and day, which He hath prepared in the knowledge of His heart. 2.7. And thereupon we saw His works, and praised Him, and lauded before Him on account of all His works; for seven great works did He create on the first day. 2.8. And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day--half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the whole earth. 2.9. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day. 2.10. And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear. 2.11. And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, and the dry land appeared. 2.12. And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth 2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 2.15. And on the fourth day He created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth 2.16. and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the light from the darkness. 2.17. And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 2.18. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. 2.19. These three kinds He made on the fourth day. 2.20. And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by His hands, the fish and everything that moves in the waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. 2.21. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. 2.22. These three kinds He created on the fifth day. 2.23. And on the sixth day He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. 2.24. And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them 2.25. and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave him dominion. 2.26. And these four kinds He created on the sixth day. br And there were altogether two and twenty kinds. 2.27. And He finished all His work on the sixth day--all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in everything. 2.28. And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. brAnd all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification 2.29. these two great classes--He hath hidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth. 2.30. And He said unto us: "Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day 2.31. and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless them, and they will be My people and I shall be their God. 2.32. And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My firstborn son, and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever; 2.33. and I will teach them the Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work."...
17. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.10, 36.1, 40.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

36.1. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, the God of all, and look upon us 36.1. Crush the heads of the rulers of the enemy,who say, "There is no one but ourselves. 40.23. A friend or a companion never meets one amiss,but a wife with her husband is better than both.
18. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 36.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 3-8, 87, 9, 90, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Why then do we wonder if God once for all banished Adam, that is to say, the mind out of the district of the virtues, after he had once contracted folly, that incurable disease, and if he never permitted him again to return, when he also drives out and banishes from wisdom and from the wise man every sophist, and the mother of sophists, the teaching that is of elementary instruction, while he calls the names of wisdom and of the wise man Abraham, and Sarah. IV. 10. He also considered this point, in the second place, that it is indispensable that the soul of the man who is about to receive sacred laws should be thoroughly cleansed and purified from all stains, however difficult to be washed out, which the promiscuous multitude of mixed men from all quarters has impregnated cities with;
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 101-105, 20-30, 96-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 63-64, 62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

62. Accordingly, Abraham, as long as he was abiding in the land of the Chaldaeans, that is to say, in opinion, before he received his new name, and while he was still called Abram, was a man born of heaven, investigating the sublime nature of things on high, and all that took place in these regions, and the causes of them, and studying everything of that kind in the true spirit of philosophy; on which account he received an appellation corresponding to the pursuits to which he devoted himself: for the name Abram, being interpreted, signifies the sublime father, and is a name very fitting for the paternal mind, which in every direction contemplates sublime and heavenly things: for the mind is the father of our composite being, reaching as high as the sky and even farther.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 199-207, 91, 198 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 122, 46, 60-80, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. Thus much we have thought fit to say on this subject. But, moreover, Moses also changes the name of Hosea into that of Joshua; displaying by his new name the distinctive qualities of his character;
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 101-128, 3, 66, 89-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. But seven alone, as I said before, neither produces nor is produced, on which account other philosophers liken this number to Victory, who had no mother, and to the virgin goddess, whom the fable asserts to have sprung from the head of Jupiter: and the Pythagoreans compare it to the Ruler of all things. For that which neither produces, nor is produced, remains immovable. For generation consists in motion, since that which is generated, cannot be so without motion, both to cause production, and to be produced. And the only thing which neither moves nor is moved, is the Elder, Ruler, and Lord of the universe, of whom the number seven may reasonably be called a likeness. And Philolaus gives his testimony to this doctrine of mine in the following Words:ù"for God," says he "is the ruler and Lord of all things, being one, eternal, lasting, immovable, himself like to himself, and different from all other beings." XXXIV.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 64-65, 63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

63. On which principle also it is that he also calls Israel, who was the younger brother in point of time, "the first born Son," judging of him by his merit, signifying thereby that, since to see God is the most clear proof of primogeniture, he is in consequence pardoned as the eldest offspring of the uncreate incomprehensible God, conceived by that virtue which is hated among men, and to whom the law enjoins that "the honours due to seniority shall be paid, as being the Eldest.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.149, 2.59 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.149. And the opposite to desire is temperance, which one must endeavour, and labour, and take pains by every contrivance imaginable to acquire, as the very greatest blessing and most perfect benefit both to an individual and to the state. 2.59. But the number seven is free from all such commixture, and is, if one must speak plainly, the light of the number six; for what the number six engendered, that the number seven displayed when brought to perfection. In reference to which fact it may properly be called the birthday of the world, as the day in which the work of the Father, being exhibited as perfect with all its parts perfect, was commanded to rest and abstain from all works.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.48. for he was not like any ordinary compiler of history, studying to leave behind him records of ancient transactions as memorials to future ages for the mere sake of affording pleasure without any advantage; but he traced back the most ancient events from the beginning of the world, commencing with the creation of the universe, in order to make known two most necessary principles. First, that the same being was the father and creator of the world, and likewise the lawgiver of truth; secondly, that the man who adhered to these laws, and clung closely to a connection with and obedience to nature, would live in a manner corresponding to the arrangement of the universe with a perfect harmony and union, between his words and his actions and between his actions and his words.
28. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.19, 1.21, 1.106, 3.244-3.245 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. This is the book of the generation of heaven and earth, when they were Created." This is perfect reason, which is put in motion in accordance with the number seven, being the beginning of the creation of that mind which was arranged according to the ideas, and also of the sensation arranged according to the ideas, and perceptible only by the intellect, if one can speak in such a manner. And Moses calls the word of God a book, in which it is come to pass that the formations of other things are written down and engraved. 1.21. On which day God created the heaven and the earth, and every green herb of the field, before it appeared upon the earth, and all the grass of the field before it sprang up. For God did not rain upon the earth, and man did not exist to cultivate the earth." This day Moses has previously called a book, since at least he describes the generation of both heaven and earth in each place. For by his most conspicuous and brilliant word, by one command, God makes both things: the idea of mind, which, speaking symbolically, he calls heaven, and the idea of sensation, which by a sign he named earth. 1.106. and consequently God calls that not merely "to die," but "to die the death;" showing that he is speaking not of common death, but of that peculiar and especial death which is the death of the soul, buried in its passions and in all kinds of evil. And we may almost say that one kind of death is opposed to the other kind. For the one is the separation of what was previously existing in combination, namely, of body and soul. But this other death, on the contrary, is a combination of them both, the inferior one, the body, having the predomice, and the superior one, the soul, being made subject to it.
29. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.41, 2.59 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 55, 170 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

170. The third law is one about the name of the Lord, not about that name which has not yet reached his creatures; for that name is unspeakable, but about the name which is constantly applied to him as displayed in his powers; for it is commanded that we shall not take his name in vain. The fourth commandment is concerning the seventh day, always virgin, and without any mother, in order that creation, taking care that it may be always free from labour, may in this way come to a recollection of him who does everything without being seen.
31. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 139 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

139. On which account Moses, after he had previously mentioned with respect to Enos that "he hoped to call upon the name of the Lord his God," adds in express words, "This is the book of the generation of Men;" speaking with perfect correctness: for it is written in the book of God that man is the only creature with a good hope. So that arguing by contraries, he who has no good hope is not a man. The definition, therefore, of our concrete being is that it is a living rational mortal being; but the definition of man, according to Moses, is a disposition of the soul hoping in the truly living God.
32. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 46, 45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

45. In such important points are animals superior to plants. Let us now see in what man is superior to the rest of the animal creation. X. Man, then, has received this one extraordinary gift, intellect, which is accustomed to comprehend the nature of all bodies and of all things at the same time; for, as in the body, the sight is the most important faculty, and since in the universe the nature of light is the most pre-eminent thing, in the same manner that part of us which is entitled to the highest rank is the mind.
33. Strabo, Geography, 1.2.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.2.10. Being acquainted with Colchis, and the voyage of Jason to Aea, and also with the historical and fabulous relations concerning Circe and Medea, their enchantments and their various other points of resemblance, he feigns there was a relationship between them, notwithstanding the vast distance by which they were separated, the one dwelling in an inland creek of the Euxine, and the other in Italy, and both of them beyond the ocean. It is possible that Jason himself wandered as far as Italy, for traces of the Argonautic expedition are pointed out near the Ceraunian mountains, by the Adriatic, at the Posidonian Gulf, and the isles adjacent to Tyrrhenia. The Cyaneae, called by some the Symplegades, or Jostling Rocks, which render the passage through the Strait of Constantinople so difficult, also afforded matter to our poet. The actual existence of a place named Aea, stamped credibility upon his Aeaea; so did the Symplegades upon the Planctae, (the Jostling Rocks upon the Wandering Rocks) and the passage of Jason through the midst of them; in the same way Scylla and Charybdis accredited the passage [of Ulysses] past those rocks. In his time people absolutely regarded the Euxine as a kind of second ocean, and placed those who had crossed it in the same list with navigators who had passed the Pillars. It was looked upon as the largest of our seas, and was therefore par excellence styled the Sea, in the same way as Homer [is called] the Poet. In order therefore to be well received, it is probable he transferred the scenes from the Euxine to the ocean, so as not to stagger the general belief. And in my opinion those Solymi who possess the highest ridges of Taurus, lying between Lycia and Pisidia, and those who in their southern heights stand out most conspicuously to the dwellers on this side Taurus, and the inhabitants of the Euxine by a figure of speech, he describes as being beyond the ocean. For narrating the voyage of Ulysses in his ship, he says, But Neptune, traversing in his return From Ethiopia's sons, the mountain heights of Solyme, descried him from afar. [Od. v. 282.] It is probable he took his account of the one-eyed Cyclopae from Scythian history, for the Arimaspi, whom Aristaeus of Proconnesus describes in his Tales of the Arimaspi, are said to be distinguished by this peculiarity.
34. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 9.3, 21.2, 21.6 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

35. New Testament, 1 John, 3.24, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.24. He who keeps his commandments remains in him, and he in him. By this we know that he remains in us, by the Spirit which he gave us. 4.13. By this we know that we remain in him and he in us, because he has given us of his Spirit.
36. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
37. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.3, 1.9, 15.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Grace to you and peace from God ourFather and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.9. God is faithful, through whom you were calledinto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.
38. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.22, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

39. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. For God didn't give us a spirit of fear, but of power, love, and self-control.
40. New Testament, Acts, 5.32, 15.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.32. We are His witnesses of these things; and so also is the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those who obey him. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us.
41. New Testament, Romans, 3.9, 11.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.9. What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day.
42. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.3, 9.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 9.4. I must work the works of him who sent me, while it is day. The night is coming, when no one can work.
43. New Testament, Luke, 12.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.33. Sell that which you have, and give gifts to the needy. Make for yourselves purses which don't grow old, a treasure in the heavens that doesn't fail, where no thief approaches, neither moth destroys.
44. New Testament, Mark, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
45. New Testament, Matthew, 6.19, 20.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.19. Don't lay up treasures for yourselves on the earth, where moth and rust consume, and where thieves break through and steal; 20.10. When the first came, they supposed that they would receive more; and they likewise each received a denarius.
46. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 12.10, 33.3, 39.11, 43.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

33.3. טוֹב ה' לַכֹּל וְרַחֲמָיו עַל כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו (תהלים קמה, ט), אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי טוֹב ה' לַכֹּל, עַל הַכֹּל, שֶׁהוּא מַעֲשָׂיו. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל טוֹב ה' לַכֹּל וְרַחֲמָיו עַל הַכֹּל שֶׁהֵן מִדּוֹתָיו הוּא מְרַחֵם. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר טוֹב ה' לַכֹּל, וּמֵרַחֲמָיו הוּא נוֹתֵן לִבְרִיּוֹתָיו. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא וְרַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר אָבִין בְּשֵׁם רַב אַחָא לְמָחָר שְׁנַת בַּצֹּרֶת בָּאָה וְהַבְּרִיּוֹת מְרַחֲמִין אֵלּוּ עַל אֵלּוּ, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְמַלֵּא עֲלֵיהֶן רַחֲמִים. בְּיוֹמֵי דְּרַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא הָיוּ צְרִיכִין יִשְׂרָאֵל לְתַעֲנִית, אָתוֹן לְגַבֵּיהּ אָמְרִין לֵיהּ רַבִּי גְּזָר תַּעֲנִיתָא, גָּזַר תַּעֲנִיתָא יוֹם קַדְמָאי יוֹם ב' יוֹם ג' וְלָא נְחַת מִטְרָא, עָאל וְדָרַשׁ לְהוֹן אֲמַר לְהוֹן בָּנַי הִתְמַלְּאוּ רַחֲמִים אֵלּוּ עַל אֵלּוּ וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְמַלֵּא עֲלֵיכֶם רַחֲמִים. עַד שֶׁהֵן מְחַלְּקִין צְדָקָה לַעֲנִיֵּיהֶם רָאוּ אָדָם אֶחָד נוֹתֵן מָעוֹת לִגְרוּשָׁתוֹ, אָתוֹן לְגַבֵּיהּ וַאֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ, רַבִּי מָה אֲנַן יָתְבִין הָכָא וַעֲבֵרְתָּא הָכָא. אֲמַר לָהֶן מָה רְאִיתֶם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ רָאִינוּ אָדָם פְּלוֹנִי נוֹתֵן מָעוֹת לִגְרוּשָׁתוֹ, שְׁלַח בַּתְרֵיהוֹן וְאַיְיתִינוֹן לְגוֹ צִבּוּרָא. אָמַר לֵיהּ מָה הִיא לָךְ זוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ גְּרוּשָׁתִי הִיא. אָמַר לוֹ מִפְּנֵי מָה נָתַתָּ לָהּ מָעוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי רָאִיתִי אוֹתָהּ בְּצָרָה וְהִתְמַלֵּאתִי עָלֶיהָ רַחֲמִים. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה הִגְבִּיהַּ רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא פָּנָיו כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה וְאָמַר רִבּוֹן כָּל הָעוֹלָמִים מָה אִם זֶה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ עָלָיו מְזוֹנוֹת רָאָה אוֹתָהּ בְּצָרָה וְנִתְמַלֵּא עָלֶיהָ רַחֲמִים, אַתָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּךָ (תהלים קמה, ח): חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם, וְאָנוּ בְּנֵי יְדִידֶיךָ בְּנֵי אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיַעֲקֹב עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁתִּתְמַלֵּא עָלֵינוּ רַחֲמִים, מִיָּד יָרְדוּ גְּשָׁמִים וְנִתְרַוָּה הָעוֹלָם. רַבֵּנוּ הֲוָה יָתֵיב לָעֵי בְּאוֹרַיְתָא קַמֵּי כְּנִשְׁתָּא דְּבַבְלָאי בְּצִפּוֹרִין, עֲבַר חַד עֵגֶל קוֹדָמוֹי, אָזֵל לְמִתְנְכָסָה וְשָׁרֵי גָּעֵי כְּמֵימַר שֵׁיזִבְנִי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וּמָה אֲנִי יָכוֹל לְמֶעְבַּד לָךְ לְכָךְ נוֹצַרְתָּ, וְחָשַׁשׁ רַבִּי אֶת שִׁנָּיו שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר אָבִין כָּל אוֹתָן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה שֶׁהָיָה חוֹשֵׁשׁ רַבִּי אֶת שִׁנָּיו, לֹא הִפִּילָה עֻבָּרָה בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְלֹא נִצְטַעֲרוּ הַיּוֹלְדוֹת, בָּתַר יוֹמִין עֲבַר חַד שֶׁרֶץ קַמֵּי בְּרַתֵּיהּ וּבְעָא לְמִקְטְלָא, אֲמַר לָהּ בְּרַתִּי שַׁבְקֵיהּ, דִּכְתִיב: וְרַחֲמָיו עַל כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו. רַבֵּנוּ הֲוָה עִנְוָתָן סַגֵּי, וַהֲוָה אֲמַר כָּל מַה דְּיֹאמַר לִי בַּר נַשׁ אֲנָא עָבֵיד חוּץ מִמַּה שֶּׁעָשׂוּ בְּנֵי בְתֵירָא לִזְקֵנִי, שֶׁיָּרְדוּ מִגְדֻלָּתָן וְהֶעֱלוּ אוֹתוֹ, וְאִין סָלֵיק רַב הוּנָא רֵישׁ גָּלוּתָא לְהָכָא, אֲנָא קָאֵים לִי מִן קֳדָמוֹהִי, לָמָּה דְּהוּא מִן יְהוּדָה וַאֲנָא מִן בִּנְיָמִין, וְהוּא מִן דִּכְרַיָא דִּיהוּדָה וַאֲנָא מִן נֻקְבְתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה וַהֲרֵי הוּא עוֹמֵד בַּחוּץ, נִתְכַּרְכְּמוּ פָּנָיו שֶׁל רַבִּי וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה שֶׁנִּתְכַּרְכְּמוּ פָּנָיו אָמַר לוֹ אֲרוֹנוֹ הוּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ פּוֹק חֲזֵי מַאן בָּעֵי לָךְ לְבָרָא, נָפַק וְלָא אַשְׁכַּח בַּר נָשׁ, וְיָדַע דְּהוּא נָזוּף וְאֵין נְזִיפָה פְּחוּתָה מִשְּׁלשִׁים יוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר רַבִּי אָבִין כָּל אוֹתָן שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם שֶׁהָיָה רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה נָזוּף מֵרַבֵּנוּ, אַלֵּיף לְרַב בַּר אֲחָתֵיהּ כָּל כְּלָלֵי דְאוֹרַיְתָא, וְאִלֵּין אִינוּן כְּלָלַיָיא דְאוֹרַיְתָא הִלְכְתָא דְּבַבְלָאֵי. לְסוֹף תְּלָתִין יוֹמִין אָתָא אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב בִּדְמוּתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה אֵצֶל רַבֵּנוּ וִיְהַב יְדֵיהּ עַל שִׁנֵּיהּ וְאִתְּסֵי, כֵּיוָן דְּאָתָא רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה לְגַבֵּי רַבֵּנוּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָה עֲבַדְתְּ בְּשִׁנָּךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִן עוֹנָתָא דִּיהַבְתְּ יְדָךְ עִלּוֹהִי אִתְנְשֵׁימַת, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית אֲנָא הֲוָה יָדַע מָה הוּא. כֵּיוָן דְּשָׁמַע כֵּן שָׁרֵי נָהֵיג בֵּיהּ יְקָרָא, וְקָרַב תַּלְמִידִים וּמְעַיֵּיל לֵיהּ מִלְּגַאו. אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְלִפְנִים מִמֶּנִּי, אָמַר לֵיהּ חַס וְשָׁלוֹם לֹא יֵעָשֶׂה כֵן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. רַבֵּנוּ הֲוָה מְתַנֵּי שִׁבְחֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אָמַר לֵיהּ אָדָם גָּדוֹל, אָדָם קָדוֹשׁ. חַד זְמַן חֲמִיתֵיהּ בֵּי בָנֵי וְלָא אִתְכְּנַע מִנֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ הַהוּא תַּלְמִידָךְ דַּהֲוַת מִשְׁתַּבַּח בֵּיהּ חֲמִיתֵּיהּ בֵּי בָנֵי וְלָא אִתְכְּנַע מִנָּאי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְלָמָּה לָא אִתְכְּנָעַת מִנֵּיהּ, אָמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי חִיָּא מִסְתַּכֵּל הָיִיתִי בְּאַגָּדַת תְּהִלִּים, כֵּיוָן דְּשָׁמַע כֵּן מְסַר לֵיהּ תְּרֵין תַּלְמִידוֹי וַהֲווֹ עָיְילִין עִמֵּיהּ לַאֲשׁוּנָה, דְּלָא יִשְׁהֵי וְתִזְעַר נַפְשֵׁיהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, טוֹב ה' לַכֹּל וגו', וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמֵנִי אוֹי לָהֶם לָרְשָׁעִים שֶׁהֵם הוֹפְכִים מִדַּת רַחֲמִים לְמִדַּת הַדִין, בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ה', מִדַּת רַחֲמִים, (שמות לד, ו): ה' ה' אֵל רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן, וּכְתִיב (בראשית ו, ה): וַיַּרְא ה' כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ, (בראשית ו, ו): וַיִּנָּחֶם ה' כִּי עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם (בראשית ו, ז): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶמְחֶה וגו', אַשְׁרֵיהֶם הַצַּדִּיקִים שֶׁהֵן הוֹפְכִים מִדַּת הַדִּין לְמִדַּת רַחֲמִים. בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אֱלֹהִים הוּא מִדַּת הַדִּין (שמות כב, כז): אֱלֹהִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל, (שמות כב, ח): עַד הָאֱלֹהִים יָבֹא דְּבַר שְׁנֵיהֶם, וּכְתִיב (שמות ב, כד): וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת נַאֲקָתָם וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת בְּרִיתוֹ וגו' (בראשית ל, כב): וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת רָחֵל וגו', וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ, מַה זְּכִירָה נִזְכַּר לוֹ שֶׁזָּן וּפִרְנֵס אוֹתָם כָּל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ בַּתֵּבָה, וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ, וְהַדִּין נוֹתֵן מִזְּכוּת הַטְּהוֹרִים שֶׁהִכְנִיס עִמּוֹ בַּתֵּבָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר לְשֵׁם קָרְבָּנוֹ נִקְרָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ח, כא): וַיָּרַח ה' אֶת רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא לְשֵׁם נַחַת הַתֵּבָה נִקְרָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ח, ד): וַתָּנַח הַתֵּבָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר (בראשית ח, כב): לֹא יִשְׁבֹּתוּ, מִכְּלַל שֶׁשָּׁבָתוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לֹא שִׁמְשׁוּ מַזָּלוֹת כָּל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ, אָמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן שִׁמְשׁוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹא הָיָה רִשּׁוּמָן נִכָּר. 39.11. וְאֶעֶשֶׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל (בראשית יב, ב), אָמַר לוֹ וּמִנֹחַ לֹא הֶעֱמַדְתָּ שִׁבְעִים אֻמּוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ אוֹתָהּ אֻמָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ (דברים ד, ז): כִּי מִי גּוֹי גָּדוֹל, אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד מִמָּךְ. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אֶתֶּנְךָ וַאֲשִׂימְךָ, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ, מִשֶּׁאֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתְךָ בְּרִיָּה חֲדָשָׁה אַתְּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר חִוְיָת וְרַבִּי אַבָּא בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא אָמְרוּ, שְׁלשָׁה גְּדֻלּוֹת וְאַרְבַּע בְּרָכוֹת כְּתִיב כָּאן, בִּשְֹּׂרוֹ שֶׁהֵן שְׁלשָׁה אָבוֹת וְאַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא לְפִי שֶׁהַדֶּרֶךְ מַגְרֶמֶת לִשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים, מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַיְצִיאָה, וּמְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם. מְמַעֶטֶת פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה, וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָדוֹל. מְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַיְצִיאָה, וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ. מְמַעֶטֶת אֶת הַשֵּׁם, וַאֲגַדְלָה שְׁמֶךָ. וּלְפוּם דְּאָמְרִין אִינְשֵׁי מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת, חֲלוּק, מֵאֲתַר לַאֲתַר, נָפֶשׁ. בְּרַם אַתְּ לֹא נֶפֶשׁ אַתְּ חָסֵר וְלֹא מָמוֹן. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ אָמַר, שֶׁיָּצָא מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ בָּעוֹלָם. אַרְבָּעָה הֵם שֶׁיָּצָא לָהֶם מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, אַבְרָהָם, וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין, וּמַהוּ מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ, זָקֵן וּזְקֵנָה מִכָּאן בָּחוּר וּבְתוּלָה מִכָּאן. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (יהושע ו, כז): וַיְהִי ה' אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיְהִי שָׁמְעוֹ בְּכָל הָאָרֶץ, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, מַהוּ, שׁוֹר מִכָּאן וּרְאֵם מִכָּאן, עַל שֵׁם (דברים לג, יז): בְּכוֹר שׁוֹרוֹ הָדָר לוֹ וְקַרְנֵי רְאֵם קַרְנָיו. דָּוִד (דברי הימים א יד, יז): וַיֵּצֵא שֵׁם דָּוִיד בְּכָל הָאֲרָצוֹת, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין בָּעוֹלָם, וּמָה הָיָה מוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ מַקֵּל וְתַרְמִיל מִכָּאן וּמִגְדָּל מִכָּאן, עַל שֵׁם (שיר השירים ד, ד): כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ. מָרְדְּכַי (אסתר ט, ד): כִּי גָּדוֹל מָרְדְּכַי בְּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְשָׁמְעוֹ הוֹלֵךְ בְּכָל הַמְדִינוֹת, יָצָא לוֹ מוֹנִיטִין, וּמַה מּוֹנִיטִין שֶׁלּוֹ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר מִכָּאן וַעֲטֶרֶת זָהָב מִכָּאן. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן קוֹבֵעַ אֲנִי לְךָ בְּרָכָה בִּשְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה, אֲבָל אֵין אַתְּ יוֹדֵעַ אִם שֶׁלִּי קוֹדֶמֶת אִם שֶׁלְּךָ קוֹדֶמֶת, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲחוּיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי זְעֵירָא שֶׁלְּךָ קוֹדֶמֶת לְשֶׁלִּי, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם אַחַר כָּךְ מְחַיֵּה הַמֵּתִים. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמַר הַבֶּט נָא שָׁמַיִם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא (בראשית טו, ה): הַשָּׁמַיְמָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּהֵ"א בָּרָאתִי אֶת הָעוֹלָם הֲרֵינִי מוֹסִיף הֵ"א עַל שִׁמְךָ וְאַתְּ פָּרֶה וְרָבֶה. וְאָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן וְהָיוּ אוֹתוֹתֶיךָ מִנְיַן אֲבָרֶכְכָה, מָאתַיִם וְאַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לֹא שָׁם אָדָם פָּרָה מֵאַבְרָהָם עַד שֶׁנִּתְבָּרֵךְ, וְלֹא שָׁמָהּ לוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּתְבָּרֵךְ מֵאַבְרָהָם, כֵּיצַד אַבְרָהָם הָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל עַל עֲקָרוֹת וְהֵם נִפְקָדוֹת, וְעַל הַחוֹלִים וְהֵם מַרְוִיחִים. רַב הוּנָא אָמַר לֹא סוֹף דָּבָר אַבְרָהָם הוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל הַחוֹלֶה, אֶלָּא הַחוֹלֶה רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ וּמַרְוִיחַ. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אֲפִלּוּ סְפִינוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ מְפָרְשׁוֹת בַּיָּם הַגָּדוֹל הָיוּ נִצּוֹלוֹת בִּזְכוּתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם. וְלֹא שֶׁל יַיִן נֶסֶךְ הָיוּ, אֶתְמְהָא, אֶלָּא חָלָא מֵזִיל חַמְרָא, בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיַּיִן עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים מָצוּי יַיִן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל נִמְכַּר בְּזוֹל. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אַף לְאִיּוֹב עָשָׂה כֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איוב א, י): מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו בֵּרַכְתָּ, לֹא נָטַל אָדָם פְרוּטָה מֵאִיּוֹב וְנִצְטָרֵךְ לִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה. וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, קְרִי בֵיהּ בְּרֵכָה, מַה בְּרֵכָה זוֹ מְטַהֶרֶת אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים, אַף אַתְּ מְקָרֵב רְחוֹקִים וּמְטַהֲרָם לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה כְּבָר כָּתוּב וַאֲבָרֶכְכָה, מַה תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר לוֹ עַד כָּאן הָיִיתִי זָקוּק לְבָרֵךְ אֶת עוֹלָמִי, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ הֲרֵי הַבְּרָכוֹת מְסוּרוֹת לָךְ, לְמַאן דְּחָזֵי לְךָ לִמְבָרְכָא בָּרֵיךְ. 43.7. וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ (בראשית יד, יט), מִמִּי קְנָאָן, רַבִּי אַבָּא בְּשֵׁם רַב כַּהֲנָא וְרַבִּי יִצְחָק, רַבִּי אַבָּא אָמַר כְּאִינָשׁ דַּאֲמַר פְּלַן עֵינוֹהִי יָאֵי, שַׂעֲרֵיהּ יָאֵי. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק הָיָה מְקַבֵּל אֶת הָעוֹבְרִים וְאֶת הַשָּׁבִים, וּמִשֶּׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִים וְשׁוֹתִין הָיָה אוֹמֵר לָהֶם בָּרֵכוּ, וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים לוֹ מַה נֹּאמַר, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לָהֶם אִמְּרוּ בָּרוּךְ אֵל עוֹלָם שֶׁאָכַלְנוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי לֹא הָיָה שְׁמִי נִכָּר לִבְרִיּוֹתַי וְהִכַּרְתָּ אוֹתִי בִּבְרִיּוֹתַי, מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עָלֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ אַתָּה שֻׁתָּף עִמִּי בִּבְרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: קוֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ. 33.3. bGod is good to all and His mercies are upon all of His works (Psalms 145:9):Rabbi Levi said, \"'God is good to all,' upon all, that He is their maker.\" Rabbi Shmuel said, \"'God is good to all and His mercies' - upon all that are His traits, He has mercy.” Rabbi Yehoshua of Sakhnin said in the name of Rabbi Levi, \"'God is good to all' and His merciful ones He give to His creatures.\" Rabbi Tanchuma and Rabbi Abba bar Avin [said] in the name of Rav Acha, “Tomorrow a famine will arrive and the creatures will have mercy, these upon those, and the Holy One, blessed be He, will be filled with mercy on them.” In the days of Rabbi Tanchuma, Israel required a fast (to bring about rain). They came to [Rabbi Tanchuma and] said to him, “Rabbi, decree a fast.” [So] he decreed a fast on the first day, on the second day, on the third day and rain did not fall. He got up and expounded to them. He said to them, \"My children, have mercy, these upon those, and the Holy One, blessed be He, will be filled with mercy on you.\" While they were still distributing charity to the poor, they saw a man giving money to his ex-wife. They came to [Rabbi Tanchuma] and said to him, \"Rabbi, how are we sitting here [while] there is a sin here.\" He said [back] to them, \"What did you see?\" They said to him, \"We saw Mr. x give money to his ex-wife.\" They sent for them and they brought them in front of the community. [Rabbi Tanchuma] said to him, \"What is she to you?\" He said [back] to him, \"She is my ex-wife.\" He said to him, \"Why did you give her money?\" He said to him, \"Rabbi, I saw her in distress and I was filled with mercy on her.\" At that time, Rabbi Tanchuma lifted his head towards above and said, \"Master over the worlds, just like this one that does not have an obligation to sustain [her] saw her in distress and he was filled with mercy for her, all the more so, You, that it is written about You, 'Compassionate and Merciful' and we are the children of Your friends, Avraham, Yitschak and Yaakov, will You be filled with mercy on us.\" Immediately, rains fell and the world was irrigated. Our rabbi (Yehuda Hanassi) was sitting, involved in Torah in front of the synagogue of the Babylonian [Jews] in Tzippori [when] a calf passed in front of him [and] was going to be slaughtered and started to yell out as if to say, \"Save me.\" He said to it, \"And what can I do for you? That is what you were created for.\" [As a result, Rabbi Yehuda Hanassi] had toothaches for thirteen years. Rabbi Yoss bar Avin said, \"[During] those entire thirteen years that [he] had toothaches, no pregt woman had a miscarriage in the Land of Israel and no birthing mother had pain. After some time, a crawling animal passed in front of his daughter and she wanted to kill it. He said to her, \"My daughter, let it go, as it is written, \"and His mercies are upon all of his works.\" Our rabbi had great modesty and said, \"I will do anything that people tell me except what the sons of Batira did to my forefather - that they came down from their greatness (office) and brought him up; and [even] if Rabbi Huna, the Exilarch, came here, I would get up in front of him. Why? As he is from [the tribe of] Yehuda and I am from Binyamin, and he is from the males of Yehuda and I am from the females.\" Rabbi Chiya the Great said to him, \"And behold, he is [waiting] outside.\" [Rabbi Yehuda Hanassi]'s face changed colors. And when he saw that his face changed colors, [Rabbi Chiya] said to him, \"It is [Rabbi Huna]'s coffin.\" He said [back] to [Rabbi Chiya], \"Go out and see who needs you outside.\" He went out and did not find a person and he knew that he was excommunicated - and there is no excommunication less than thirty days. Rabbi Yossi bar Avin said, \"[During] the entire thirty days that Rabbi Chiya the Great was excommunicated from our rabbi, he taught Rav, the son of his sister, the principles of the Torah.\" And what are the principles of the Torah? They are the laws of the Babylonians. At the end of thirty days, Eliyahu - may he be remembered for good - came in the likeness of Rabbi Chiya the Great to our rabbi and put his hand on his teeth and he became healed. When Rabbi Chiya the Great came to our rabbi, he said to him, \"What did you do to your teeth?\" He said [back] to him, \"From the time that you put your hand on them, they became better. He said, \"I do not know what this is.\" When he heard this, he began to treat him with respect and he brought close the students and brought up [Rabbi Chiya] to the top. Rabbi Yishmael bar Yose said, \"And [should he] come closer than I?\" He said [back] to him, \"God forbid, such should not be done in Israel.\" Our rabbi was teaching the praises of Rabbi Chiya the Great in front of Rabbi Yishmael bar Yose - he said, \"He is a great man, he is a holy man.\" One time, [Rabbi Yishmael bar Yose] saw [Rabbi Chiya] in the bathhouse and [the latter] did not humble himself before him. He said to [Rabbi Yehuda Hanassi], \"Is this your student that you have been praising? I saw him in the bathhouse and he did not humble himself before me.\" He said to him, \"Why did you not humble yourself before him?\" Rabbi Chiya said [back], I was looking at the homilies (aggadot) of Psalms.\" Once [Rabbi Yehudah Hanassi] heard this, he gave him two students to go with him to the dark places, that he not get confounded and lose himself. Another explanation: \"God is good to all, etc.\" \"And God remembered Noach, etc.\" - Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachmani said, \"Woe to the evildoers who switch the [Divine] trait of mercy to the [Divine] trait of [strict] justice. In every place that it states 'the Lord,' it is the trait of mercy: 'The Lord, the Lord, merciful and compassionate God' (Exodus 34:6). And [yet] it is written (Genesis 6:5-6), 'And the Lord saw that the evil of man on the earth was very great[...] And the Lord regretted that He had made man on the earth, and the Lord said, \"I will erase, etc.\"' Happy are the righteous who switch the trait of [Divine] justice to the [divine] trait of mercy. In every place that it states ' iElohim /i,' it is the trait of mercy: 'Judges ( iElohim /i) you shall not curse' (Exodus 22:27); 'to the judges ( ielohim /i) the matter of both of them will come' (Exodus 22:8). And [yet] it is written (Exodus 2:24), 'And God heard their cries and God remembered His covet'; '(Genesis 30:22), 'And God remembered Rachel'; 'And God remembered Noach.' And what memory did He remember for him? That he fed and sustained them all of the twelve months in the ark.\" \"And God remembered Noach\" - and justice requires it, from the merit of the pure ones that he brought with him into the ark. Rabbi Eliezer says, \"[Noach] was named corresponding to his sacrifice, as it states, 'And the Lord smelled the pleasant ( inichoach /i) fragrance.'\" Rabbi Yose bar Chaninah [says], \"He was named corresponding to the resting of the ark, as it states, 'And the ark rested ( itanach /i) on the seventh month, etc.'\" Rabbi Yehoshua says, \"'Will not cease' (Genesis 8:22) implies that they ceased.\""
47. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

2a. מתני׳ big strongהמקנא /strong /big לאשתו רבי אליעזר אומר מקנא לה על פי שנים ומשקה על פי עד אחד או ע"פ עצמו רבי יהושע אומר מקנא לה על פי שנים ומשקה ע"פ שנים,כיצד מקנא לה אומר לה בפני שנים אל תדברי עם איש פלוני ודברה עמו עדיין היא מותרת לביתה ומותרת לאכול בתרומה,נכנסה עמו לבית הסתר ושהתה עמו כדי טומאה אסורה לביתה ואסורה לאכול בתרומה ואם מת חולצת ולא מתייבמת, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מכדי תנא מנזיר סליק מאי תנא דקא תנא סוטה,כדרבי דתניא רבי אומר למה נסמכה פרשת נזיר לפרשת סוטה לומר לך שכל הרואה סוטה בקלקולה יזיר עצמו מן היין,וליתני סוטה והדר ליתני נזיר איידי דתנא כתובות ותנא המדיר תנא נדרים ואיידי דתנא נדרים תנא נזיר דדמי לנדרים וקתני סוטה כדרבי,המקנא דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא קסבר תנא דידן אסור לקנאות,א"ר שמואל בר רב יצחק כי הוה פתח ריש לקיש בסוטה אמר הכי אין מזווגין לו לאדם אשה אלא לפי מעשיו שנא' (תהלים קכה, ג) כי לא ינוח שבט הרשע על גורל הצדיקים אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן וקשין לזווגן כקריעת ים סוף, שנאמר (תהלים סח, ז) אלהים מושיב יחידים ביתה מוציא אסירים בכושרות,איני והא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ארבעים יום קודם יצירת הולד בת קול יוצאת ואומרת בת פלוני לפלוני בית פלוני לפלוני שדה פלוני לפלוני לא קשיא הא בזוג ראשון הא בזוג שני,ר"א אומר מקנא לה על פי שנים וכו' עד כאן לא פליגי אלא בקינוי וסתירה אבל בטומאה עד אחד מהימן,ותנן נמי עד אחד אומר אני ראיתי שניטמאת לא היתה שותה,מדאורייתא מנלן דמהימן עד אחד דתנו רבנן (במדבר ה, יג) ועד אין בה בשנים הכתוב מדבר,או אינו אלא אפילו באחד ת"ל (דברים יט, טו) לא יקום עד אחד באיש 2a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bone who issues a warning to his wifenot to seclude herself with a particular man, so that if she does not heed his warning she will assume the status of a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [ isota /i], bRabbi Eliezer says:He bissues a warning to her based on,i.e., in the presence of, btwowitnesses for the warning to be effective. If two witnesses were not present for the warning, she is not a isotaeven if two witnesses saw her seclusion with another man. bAndthe husband bgivesthe bitter water to her bto drink based onthe testimony of bone witnesswho saw the seclusion, boreven bbased on his owntestimony that he himself saw them secluded together, as Rabbi Eliezer holds that only the warning requires witnesses, not the seclusion. bRabbi Yehoshua says:He both bissues a warning to her based on twowitnesses band givesthe bitter water to her bto drink based onthe testimony of btwowitnesses.,The mishna asks: bHowdoes he bissue a warning to herin an effective manner? If he bsays to her in the presence of twowitnesses: bDo not speak withthe bmancalled bso-and-so, and shenevertheless bspoke with him, she is still permitted to her home,i.e., she is permitted to engage in sexual intercourse with her husband, bandif she is the wife of a priest bshe isstill bpermitted to partake of iteruma /i. /b,However, if after he told her not to speak with so-and-so, bshe entered into a secluded place and remained withthat man long benough tobecome bdefiled,i.e., sufficient time to engage in sexual intercourse, bshe is forbidden to her homefrom that moment until she undergoes the isotarite. bAndlikewise, if she was the wife of a priest bshe is prohibited from partaking of iteruma /i,as she was possibly disqualified by her infidelity, so long as her innocence is not proven by means of the bitter water. bAnd ifher husband bdieschildless before she drinks the bitter water, bshe perform iḥalitza /iwith her late husband’s brother band may not enter into levirate marriage,as, if she had been unfaithful, levirate marriage is forbidden., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara questions the placement of this tractate within the mishnaic order of iNashim /i. bNow,the itannaarose fromtractate iNazir /i,which is the tractate preceding iSotain the order of the Mishna. bWhatdid he bteachin iNazir bthatrequired that he bteachtractate iSota /iimmediately afterward, as at first glance there seems to be no connection between this tractate and iNazir /i?,The Gemara answers: This was done bin accordance withthe statement bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi with regard to the sequence of passages in the Torah, bas it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Why is the portion of a nazirite(Numbers, chapter 6) bplaced adjacent to the portion of a isota /i(Numbers, chapter 5)? This was done bto tell you that anyone who sees a isotain her disgraceas she undergoes the rite of the bitter water bshould renounce wine,as wine is one of the causes of sexual transgression, as it loosens inhibitions. For the same reason that the Torah teaches these passages one after the other, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi arranged these tractates one after the other.,The Gemara asks: bButif so, blethim bteachtractate iSotafirst and then lethim bteachtractate iNazir /i,which is the way these topics are ordered in the Torah, and also accords better with the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. The Gemara answers: bSincethe itanna btaughttractate iKetubot /i, andin that tractate he btaughta chapter that begins: bOne who vows,in which there are several imishnayotconcerning vows between husbands and wives, he then btaughttractate iNedarim /i,whose subject is the ihalakhotof vows. bAnd sincehe btaughttractate iNedarim /i,he then btaughttractate iNazir /i, which is similar totractate iNedarim /iin that one becomes a nazirite by taking a vow. bAndhe then bteachestractate iSota /i, in accordance withthe statement bof RabbiYehuda HaNasi.,§ The Gemara begins clarifying the mishna. The mishna states: bOne who issues a warningto his wife. By employing the descriptive phrase: One who issues a warning, and not the prescriptive phrase: One issues a warning, the itannaindicates that bafter the fact, yes,it is effective if he issues a warning in this manner, but ideally, bno,one should not issue a warning to his wife at all iab initio /i.Apparently, bthe itannaof ourmishna bholdsthat it bis prohibited to issue a warningto one’s wife iab initioin a manner that can cause her to become a isota /i, and all the ihalakhotconcerning a isotaare for one who issued a warning when not obligated to do so., bRav Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak says: When Reish Lakish would introducehis discussion of the Torah passage bof isota /ihe would bsay this:Heaven bmatches a woman to a man only according to his actions, as it is stated: “For the rod of wickedness shall not rest upon the lot of the righteous”(Psalms 125:3), indicating that if one has a wicked wife it is due to his own evil conduct. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: And it is as difficult to matcha couple together baswas bthe splitting of the Red Sea, as it is statedin a verse that speaks of the exodus from Egypt: b“God makes the solitary individuals dwell in a house; He brings out prisoners into prosperity [ ibakosharot /i]”(Psalms 68:7). God takes single individuals and causes them to dwell in a house by properly matching a man to a woman. This is similar to the exodus from Egypt, which culminated in the splitting of the Red Sea, where He released prisoners into prosperity.,The Gemara asks: bIs that sothat a man is matched to a woman according to his actions? bBut Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Forty days before an embryo is formed a Divine Voice issues forth and says: The daughter of so-and-so isdestined btomarry bso-and-so; such and such a house isdestined btobe inhabited by bso-and-so; such and such a field isdestined btobe farmed by bso-and-so.This clearly states that these matters, including marriage, are decreed for a person even before he is formed. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisstatement that Rav Yehuda says in the name of Rav is bwith regard to a first match [ izivug /i],while bthisstatement of Rabba bar bar Ḥana in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa is bwith regard to a second match.A first match is decreed in heaven; a second match is according to one’s actions.,§ The Gemara now clarifies the dispute in the mishna. bRabbi Eliezer says:The husband must bissue a warning to her based on,i.e., in the presence of, btwowitnesses, and he gives the bitter water to her to drink based on the testimony of one witness. Rabbi Yehoshua says: He both issues a warning to her based on two witnesses and gives the bitter water to her to drink based on the testimony of two witnesses who saw them secluded together. The Gemara notes: Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua bdisagree only with regard tothe requisite number of witnesses for the bwarning andthe bseclusion,whether one or two witnesses are required, bbut with regard tothe testimony concerning bdefilementafter the warning was issued and seclusion had occurred, they agree that even the testimony of bone witness is deemed credibleto establish that the woman actually engaged in sexual intercourse with the man while secluded.,The Gemara comments: bAnd we learned alsoin another mishna (31a) that if ba single witness says: I saw that she was defiled,then bshe would not drinkthe bitter water, as the testimony is accepted, and her husband must divorce her and she forfeits payment of her marriage contract. Therefore, there is no need to perform the isotarite.,The Gemara asks: bBy Torah law, from where do wederive bthat one witness is deemed crediblewith regard to testifying that a isotaengaged in sexual intercourse? The Gemara answers: bAs the Sages taughtin reference to the verse describing the circumstances in which a woman defiled through an act of adultery becomes forbidden to her husband, which states: “And a man lie with her carnally and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, band there is no witness [ ied /i] against her”(Numbers 5:13), bthe verse is speaking ofa lack of btwowitnesses. When the verse refers to the lack of an ied /i, written in the singular, it actually indicates that there are not two witnesses against her, but only one, as the ibaraitawill now explain.,The ibaraitacontinues and asks: bOrperhaps the verse is referring bonlyto a case where there was not beven onewitness to the act of sexual intercourse, as the singular usage of the word iedwould seem to indicate? The ibaraitanow proves that elsewhere the word iedis used to indicate two witnesses, as bthe verse states: “One witness [ ied /i] shall not rise up against a manfor any iniquity or any sin that he sins; by the mouth of two witnesses or by the mouth of three witnesses shall a matter be established” (Deuteronomy 19:15).
48. Origen, Against Celsus, 6.60 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.60. But after this investigation of his assertions, as if his object were to swell his book by many words, he repeats, in different language, the same charges which we have examined a little ago, saying: By far the most silly thing is the distribution of the creation of the world over certain days, before days existed: for, as the heaven was not yet created, nor the foundation of the earth yet laid, nor the sun yet revolving, how could there be days? Now, what difference is there between these words and the following: Moreover, taking and looking at these things from the beginning, would it not be absurd in the first and greatest God to issue the command, Let this (first thing) come into existence, and this second thing, and this (third); and after accomplishing so much on the first day, to do so much more again on the second, and third, and fourth, and fifth, and sixth? We answered to the best of our ability this objection to God's commanding this first, second, and third thing to be created, when we quoted the words, He said, and it was done; He commanded, and all things stood fast; remarking that the immediate Creator, and, as it were, very Maker of the world was the Word, the Son of God; while the Father of the Word, by commanding His own Son - the Word - to create the world, is primarily Creator. And with regard to the creation of the light upon the first day, and of the firmament upon the second, and of the gathering together of the waters that are under the heaven into their several reservoirs on the third (the earth thus causing to sprout forth those (fruits) which are under the control of nature alone ), and of the (great) lights and stars upon the fourth, and of aquatic animals upon the fifth, and of land animals and man upon the sixth, we have treated to the best of our ability in our notes upon Genesis, as well as in the foregoing pages, when we found fault with those who, taking the words in their apparent signification, said that the time of six days was occupied in the creation of the world, and quoted the words: These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abbahu, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 112
abraham, trust of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81
abraham (abram), loin / thigh Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 173
abraham (abram), promises Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 244
adam, faculty of discernment Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
adam, name, spelling of Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
adam, rib Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 174
adam Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159; Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 104, 107; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 20
adam and eve Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81
alexander polyhistor, theodotus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
alexander polyhistor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 162
allegory Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 162
anger, god (lord), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
anger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
anthropology, synecdoche Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 140
anthropomorphism, personality Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
anthropomorphism, sympathy/engagement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
arabic poetry Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 360
archetypes, the archon Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
attributes, divine, and divine names Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
attributes, divine, judgement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
attributes, divine, mercy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
beth-el, language of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
biography (bios), black, as ink Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
book of god Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
book of jubilees Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 90
cain, seven sins, judgement Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
canonical Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 375
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81
celsus, criticism of creation sequence Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 136
christian/christianity Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
christology Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 375
church, dogmas Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 136
church, typology of blood and water Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 174
circumcision Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
contradiction Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 140
creation, and divine name Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
creation, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
creation, gen 1-2 title, sequence Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 135
creation, logos model Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
creation Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 90; Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 375; Flynn, Children in Ancient Israel: The Hebrew Bible and Mesopotamia in Comparative Perspective (2018) 52; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 156; Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 360
creation in greece, in israel Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 340
cross Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 375
cycle, patriarchal, abrahamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
cycle, patriarchal, adamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
cycle, patriarchal, noahic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
de genesi ad litteram, structure Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 93
didactic, style Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 162
didactic Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 162
diodore, blessing of judah Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 137
diodore, jacobs bow Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 140
divine/god, assembly Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 332
divine/god, connection to human realm Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
divine/god, exile Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
divine/god, judgement Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 294
divine/god, retinue Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 332
divine/god, throne Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 294
dyad and monad, the earthborn Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
echo, eden, garden of Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 74
enoch Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 68
enos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
eros Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
estrangement Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
eunomian controversy Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 136
eusebius of caesarea, blessing of judah Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 137
eusebius of emesa, blessing of judah Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 137
eusebius of emesa, jacobs bow Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 140
eusebius of emesa, paradise narrative Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
eusebius of emesa, questions formulations Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
exegesis, and orthography Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 332
exegetical traditions, departure from antiochenes Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 140
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 153
expulsion, paradise, from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
fall, the Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 375
fear of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
genesis Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 162
glory, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
glory, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
glossing, scholastic contexts Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 140
god, anger of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, compassion of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, creator, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, eternal creativity Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
god, hands of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
god, indefatigable Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
godhead; see also attributes, hierarchy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 332
godhead; see also attributes, outer recesses Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 294
godhead; see also attributes, tif͗eret Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 294
gospels McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 20
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
heaven Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 112
hellenism Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 156
history Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 375
holy spirit, scripture and dogma Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 136
humility, prohibition anticipated Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 137
hēgemonikon Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 280
imagination Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 74
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
jacob, bowing of parents Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 140
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 294
jerusalem Butts and Gross, Jews and Syriac Christians: Intersections across the First Millennium. (2010) 181
jubilees Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 156
judaism, sabbath, birthday of world Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
judaism, sabbath observance Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
judaism, seven symbolism Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
king, narrative Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
king, parable Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
king, rhetoric Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 332
language, secret Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 156
law of nature, mosaic laws consonant with Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
lemma, main/primary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
light McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 20
literature Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 156
logos Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159; Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
mediation McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 20
melchizedek Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 112
mercy of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
middle platonism McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 20
monotheism, religious revolution of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
mosaic law, law of nature and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
moses, timaeus and genesis creation story Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
moses Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 162
mother Flynn, Children in Ancient Israel: The Hebrew Bible and Mesopotamia in Comparative Perspective (2018) 52
moths, destruction by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
multiplicity and multiformity within, ancient near east Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
multiplicity and multiformity within, polytheism Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
name (divine), change in Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
name (divine), full name Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
name (divine), profanation of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
narrative Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 375
nations Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
natural law Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
near eastern parallels, mesopotamian Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
noah, sons Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
non-literal interpretation, adams rib Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 174
non-literal interpretation, blessing of judah Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 137
non-literal interpretation, hexaplaric readings Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 174
numerology Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 156
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
paradise, traveling (journey or foray) to/from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
paradise, vicinity of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
philo Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 162
philo judeas Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 280
philo of alexandria, creation eternal Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
philo of alexandria, gods eternal creativity Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
philo of alexandria, gods indefatigability Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
philo of alexandria, gods resting Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
philo of alexandria Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
philosophy, jewish Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 156
plato Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
pre-born Flynn, Children in Ancient Israel: The Hebrew Bible and Mesopotamia in Comparative Perspective (2018) 52
pre-eminence, argument from Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
presence, divine Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 375
question and answer Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 162
questions and answers Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 162
reader, of philo Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 162
reader, of q&a Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 162
reason/rational Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 280
righteousness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
sabbath, birthday of world Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
sabbath Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 90
saga Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 375
salvation, history of Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 375
sea, boundaries Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 332
sea, divine strife with Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 332
sennacherib Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
simeon, rape of dinah (gen Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
simeon b. lakish (r.) Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 155
sin Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
sinner Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
skopos Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 174
son, sonship Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 90
soul; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 280
spirit, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
spirit, characterizations as, divine Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 280
spirit, characterizations as, indestructible (ἄφθαρτος) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 280
spirit, effects of, ψυχή (soul, life) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 280
supernal Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 294
symbol Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 375
testament genre Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 153
tetragram Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
text-world, cognitive dissonance Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 137
the beginning' McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 20
theodotus, circumcision and endogamy Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
theodotus, greek epic tradition Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
theodotus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
theomachy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 34
titus of bostra Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
tradition, medieval reception of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 332
transgression, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 645
transgression, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
tree, of knowledge of good and evil Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
tree Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611, 784
triads, first Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
violence Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
walls of paradise (or garden) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
weeds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
wisdom literature, distinctive function in education Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 153
womb Flynn, Children in Ancient Israel: The Hebrew Bible and Mesopotamia in Comparative Perspective (2018) 52
world, destruction of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 294
world, stabilization Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 332
yitzhak, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 112
yohanan, rabbi Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 112
κατ᾿ ἐξοχήν Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
λόγος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 159
ḥiyya bar abba (r.), creation of Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 332
ḥiyya bar abba (r.), influence on divine realms Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
ḥiyya bar abba (r.), righteous among Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
ḥiyya bar abba (r.), wicked among Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 100
– abraham and Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 112
– abraham as partner in Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 112
– promise to Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 112
– with abraham Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 112