Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.3


וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ כִּי בוֹ שָׁבַת מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת׃And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

68 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. מָשְׁכֵנִי אַחֲרֶיךָ נָּרוּצָה הֱבִיאַנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ חֲדָרָיו נָגִילָה וְנִשְׂמְחָה בָּךְ נַזְכִּירָה דֹדֶיךָ מִיַּיִן מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ׃ 1.4. Draw me, we will run after thee; The king hath brought me into his chambers; We will be glad and rejoice in thee, We will find thy love more fragrant than wine! Sincerely do they love thee.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.12-5.14, 5.33, 8.10, 12.10, 15.1-15.3, 25.19, 30.19, 32.43, 34.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 5.13. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ׃ 5.14. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ־וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְשׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרְךָ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ כָּמוֹךָ׃ 15.1. מִקֵּץ שֶׁבַע־שָׁנִים תַּעֲשֶׂה שְׁמִטָּה׃ 15.1. נָתוֹן תִּתֵּן לוֹ וְלֹא־יֵרַע לְבָבְךָ בְּתִתְּךָ לוֹ כִּי בִּגְלַל הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־מַעֲשֶׂךָ וּבְכֹל מִשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ׃ 15.2. לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תֹאכֲלֶנּוּ שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ׃ 15.2. וְזֶה דְּבַר הַשְּׁמִטָּה שָׁמוֹט כָּל־בַּעַל מַשֵּׁה יָדוֹ אֲשֶׁר יַשֶּׁה בְּרֵעֵהוּ לֹא־יִגֹּשׂ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־אָחִיו כִּי־קָרָא שְׁמִטָּה לַיהוָה׃ 15.3. אֶת־הַנָּכְרִי תִּגֹּשׂ וַאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֶת־אָחִיךָ תַּשְׁמֵט יָדֶךָ׃ 25.19. וְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח׃ 30.19. הַעִידֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַחַיִּים וְהַמָּוֶת נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה וּבָחַרְתָּ בַּחַיִּים לְמַעַן תִּחְיֶה אַתָּה וְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 32.43. הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃ 34.8. וַיִּבְכּוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־מֹשֶׁה בְּעַרְבֹת מוֹאָב שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וַיִּתְּמוּ יְמֵי בְכִי אֵבֶל מֹשֶׁה׃ 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 5.13. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 5.14. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; that thy man-servant and thy maid-servant may rest as well as thou." 8.10. And thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless the LORD thy God for the good land which He hath given thee." 12.10. But when ye go over the Jordan, and dwell in the land which the LORD your God causeth you to inherit, and He giveth you rest from all your enemies round about, so that ye dwell in safety;" 15.1. At the end of every seven years thou shalt make a release." 15.2. And this is the manner of the release: every creditor shall release that which he hath lent unto his neighbour; he shall not exact it of his neighbour and his brother; because the LORD’S release hath been proclaimed." 15.3. of a foreigner thou mayest exact it; but whatsoever of thine is with thy brother thy hand shall release." 25.19. Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget." 30.19. I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I have set before thee life and death, the blessing and the curse; therefore choose life, that thou mayest live, thou and thy seed;" 32.43. Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people." 34.8. And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days; so the days of weeping in the mourning for Moses were ended."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.15, 3.12, 12.13, 13.16, 16.21-16.25, 20.8-20.11, 23.12, 24.10, 25.9, 31.3, 31.12-31.18, 32.16, 32.19-32.20, 34.27, 35.2, 36.2, 40.17, 40.20-40.21, 40.24-40.25, 40.29-40.31, 40.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.15. וַיִּשְׁמַע פַּרְעֹה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְבַקֵּשׁ לַהֲרֹג אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וַיִּבְרַח מֹשֶׁה מִפְּנֵי פַרְעֹה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־מִדְיָן וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל־הַבְּאֵר׃ 3.12. וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־אֶהְיֶה עִמָּךְ וְזֶה־לְּךָ הָאוֹת כִּי אָנֹכִי שְׁלַחְתִּיךָ בְּהוֹצִיאֲךָ אֶת־הָעָם מִמִּצְרַיִם תַּעַבְדוּן אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים עַל הָהָר הַזֶּה׃ 12.13. וְהָיָה הַדָּם לָכֶם לְאֹת עַל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם שָׁם וְרָאִיתִי אֶת־הַדָּם וּפָסַחְתִּי עֲלֵכֶם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה בָכֶם נֶגֶף לְמַשְׁחִית בְּהַכֹּתִי בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃ 13.16. וְהָיָה לְאוֹת עַל־יָדְכָה וּלְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ כִּי בְּחֹזֶק יָד הוֹצִיאָנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרָיִם׃ 16.21. וַיִּלְקְטוּ אֹתוֹ בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר אִישׁ כְּפִי אָכְלוֹ וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמָס׃ 16.22. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לָקְטוּ לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה שְׁנֵי הָעֹמֶר לָאֶחָד וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־נְשִׂיאֵי הָעֵדָה וַיַּגִּידוּ לְמֹשֶׁה׃ 16.23. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה שַׁבָּתוֹן שַׁבַּת־קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה מָחָר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ בַּשֵּׁלוּ וְאֵת כָּל־הָעֹדֵף הַנִּיחוּ לָכֶם לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת עַד־הַבֹּקֶר׃ 16.24. וַיַּנִּיחוּ אֹתוֹ עַד־הַבֹּקֶר כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה וְלֹא הִבְאִישׁ וְרִמָּה לֹא־הָיְתָה בּוֹ׃ 16.25. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אִכְלֻהוּ הַיּוֹם כִּי־שַׁבָּת הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה הַיּוֹם לֹא תִמְצָאֻהוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה׃ 20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 23.12. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂיךָ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי תִּשְׁבֹּת לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ שׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרֶךָ וְיִנָּפֵשׁ בֶּן־אֲמָתְךָ וְהַגֵּר׃ 25.9. כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מַרְאֶה אוֹתְךָ אֵת תַּבְנִית הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְאֵת תַּבְנִית כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְכֵן תַּעֲשׂוּ׃ 31.3. וָאֲמַלֵּא אֹתוֹ רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים בְּחָכְמָה וּבִתְבוּנָה וּבְדַעַת וּבְכָל־מְלָאכָה׃ 31.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 31.13. וְאַתָּה דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אַךְ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ כִּי אוֹת הִוא בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם לָדַעַת כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃ 31.14. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת כִּי קֹדֶשׁ הִוא לָכֶם מְחַלְלֶיהָ מוֹת יוּמָת כִּי כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה בָהּ מְלָאכָה וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִקֶּרֶב עַמֶּיהָ׃ 31.15. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים יֵעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 31.16. וְשָׁמְרוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לְדֹרֹתָם בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 31.17. בֵּינִי וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹת הִוא לְעֹלָם כִּי־שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שָׁבַת וַיִּנָּפַשׁ׃ 31.18. וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּכַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ בְּהַר סִינַי שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת לֻחֹת אֶבֶן כְּתֻבִים בְּאֶצְבַּע אֱלֹהִים׃ 32.16. וְהַלֻּחֹת מַעֲשֵׂה אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה וְהַמִּכְתָּב מִכְתַּב אֱלֹהִים הוּא חָרוּת עַל־הַלֻּחֹת׃ 32.19. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר קָרַב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיַּרְא אֶת־הָעֵגֶל וּמְחֹלֹת וַיִּחַר־אַף מֹשֶׁה וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ מידו [מִיָּדָיו] אֶת־הַלֻּחֹת וַיְשַׁבֵּר אֹתָם תַּחַת הָהָר׃ 34.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּתָב־לְךָ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּי עַל־פִּי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כָּרַתִּי אִתְּךָ בְּרִית וְאֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 35.2. וַיֵּצְאוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִלִּפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה׃ 35.2. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יִהְיֶה לָכֶם קֹדֶשׁ שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן לַיהוָה כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה בוֹ מְלָאכָה יוּמָת׃ 36.2. וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־הַקְּרָשִׁים לַמִּשְׁכָּן עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים עֹמְדִים׃ 36.2. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּצַלְאֵל וְאֶל־אָהֳלִיאָב וְאֶל כָּל־אִישׁ חֲכַם־לֵב אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה חָכְמָה בְּלִבּוֹ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר נְשָׂאוֹ לִבּוֹ לְקָרְבָה אֶל־הַמְּלָאכָה לַעֲשֹׂת אֹתָהּ׃ 40.17. וַיְהִי בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.21. וַיָּבֵא אֶת־הָאָרֹן אֶל־הַמִּשְׁכָּן וַיָּשֶׂם אֵת פָּרֹכֶת הַמָּסָךְ וַיָּסֶךְ עַל אֲרוֹן הָעֵדוּת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 40.24. וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד נֹכַח הַשֻּׁלְחָן עַל יֶרֶךְ הַמִּשְׁכָּן נֶגְבָּה׃ 40.25. וַיַּעַל הַנֵּרֹת לִפְנֵי יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 40.29. וְאֵת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה שָׂם פֶּתַח מִשְׁכַּן אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד וַיַּעַל עָלָיו אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 40.31. וְרָחֲצוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם׃ 40.33. וַיָּקֶם אֶת־הֶחָצֵר סָבִיב לַמִּשְׁכָּן וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־מָסַךְ שַׁעַר הֶחָצֵר וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמְּלָאכָה׃ 2.15. Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of Midian; and he sat down by a well." 3.12. And He said: ‘Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be the token unto thee, that I have sent thee: when thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain.’" 12.13. And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and there shall no plague be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt." 13.16. And it shall be for a sign upon thy hand, and for frontlets between your eyes; for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.’" 16.21. And they gathered it morning by morning, every man according to his eating; and as the sun waxed hot, it melted." 16.22. And it came to pass that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each one; and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses." 16.23. And he said unto them: ‘This is that which the LORD hath spoken: To-morrow is a solemn rest, a holy sabbath unto the LORD. Bake that which ye will bake, and seethe that which ye will seethe; and all that remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.’" 16.24. And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade; and it did not rot, neither was there any worm therein." 16.25. And Moses said: ‘Eat that to-day; for to-day is a sabbath unto the LORD; to-day ye shall not find it in the field." 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy." 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 20.10. but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;" 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 23.12. Six days thou shalt do thy work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest; that thine ox and thine ass may have rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed." 24.10. and they saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness." 25.9. According to all that I show thee, the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the furniture thereof, even so shall ye make it." 31.3. and I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship," 31.12. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 31.13. ’Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying: Verily ye shall keep My sabbaths, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, that ye may know that I am the LORD who sanctify you." 31.14. Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore, for it is holy unto you; every one that profaneth it shall surely be put to death; for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people." 31.15. Six days shall work be done; but on the seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the LORD; whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death." 31.16. Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covet." 31.17. It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He ceased from work and rested.’" 31.18. And He gave unto Moses, when He had made an end of speaking with him upon mount Sinai, the two tables of the testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God." 32.16. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables." 32.19. And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf and the dancing; and Moses’anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and broke them beneath the mount." 32.20. And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it with fire, and ground it to powder, and strewed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it." 34.27. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Write thou these words, for after the tenor of these words I have made a covet with thee and with Israel.’" 35.2. Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you a holy day, a sabbath of solemn rest to the LORD; whosoever doeth any work therein shall be put to death." 36.2. And Moses called Bezalel and Oholiab, and every wise-hearted man, in whose heart the LORD had put wisdom, even every one whose heart stirred him up to come unto the work to do it." 40.17. And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the tabernacle was reared up." 40.20. And he took and put the testimony into the ark, and set the staves on the ark, and put the ark-cover above upon the ark." 40.21. And he brought the ark into the tabernacle, and set up the veil of the screen, and screened the ark of the testimony; as the LORD commanded Moses." 40.24. And he put the candlestick in the tent of meeting, over against the table, on the side of the tabernacle southward." 40.25. And he lighted the lamps before the LORD; as the LORD commanded Moses." 40.29. And the altar of burnt-offering he set at the door of the tabernacle of the tent of meeting, and offered upon it the burnt-offering and the meal-offering; as the LORD commanded Moses." 40.30. And he set the laver between the tent of meeting and the altar, and put water therein, wherewith to wash;" 40.31. that Moses and Aaron and his sons might wash their hands and their feet thereat;" 40.33. And he reared up the court round about the tabernacle and the altar, and set up the screen of the gate of the court. So Moses finished the work."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, a b c d\n0 "17.15" "17.15" "17 15" \n1 1 1 1 None\n2 1.1 1.1 1 1 \n3 1.1-2.4 1.1 1 1 \n4 1.10 1.10 1 10 \n.. ... ... .. .. \n108 9.5 9.5 9 5 \n109 9.6 9.6 9 6 \n110 9.7 9.7 9 7 \n111 9.8 9.8 9 8 \n112 9.9 9.9 9 9 \n\n[113 rows x 4 columns] (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 4.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וְאֵלַי דָּבָר יְגֻנָּב וַתִּקַּח אָזְנִי שֵׁמֶץ מֶנְהוּ׃ 4.12. Now a word was secretly brought to me, And mine ear received a whisper thereof."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.40, 25.1, 25.3-25.8, 25.20-25.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.1. וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּקְרָאתֶם דְּרוֹר בָּאָרֶץ לְכָל־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ יוֹבֵל הִוא תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם וְשַׁבְתֶּם אִישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתוֹ וְאִישׁ אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ תָּשֻׁבוּ׃ 25.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּהַר סִינַי לֵאמֹר׃ 25.3. שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְרַע שָׂדֶךָ וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְמֹר כַּרְמֶךָ וְאָסַפְתָּ אֶת־תְּבוּאָתָהּ׃ 25.3. וְאִם לֹא־יִגָּאֵל עַד־מְלֹאת לוֹ שָׁנָה תְמִימָה וְקָם הַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] חֹמָה לַצְּמִיתֻת לַקֹּנֶה אֹתוֹ לְדֹרֹתָיו לֹא יֵצֵא בַּיֹּבֵל׃ 25.4. כְּשָׂכִיר כְּתוֹשָׁב יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ עַד־שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַעֲבֹד עִמָּךְ׃ 25.4. וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה שָׂדְךָ לֹא תִזְרָע וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תִזְמֹר׃ 25.5. אֵת סְפִיחַ קְצִירְךָ לֹא תִקְצוֹר וְאֶת־עִנְּבֵי נְזִירֶךָ לֹא תִבְצֹר שְׁנַת שַׁבָּתוֹן יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ׃ 25.5. וְחִשַּׁב עִם־קֹנֵהוּ מִשְּׁנַת הִמָּכְרוֹ לוֹ עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְהָיָה כֶּסֶף מִמְכָּרוֹ בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים כִּימֵי שָׂכִיר יִהְיֶה עִמּוֹ׃ 25.6. וְהָיְתָה שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה לְךָ וּלְעַבְדְּךָ וְלַאֲמָתֶךָ וְלִשְׂכִירְךָ וּלְתוֹשָׁבְךָ הַגָּרִים עִמָּךְ׃ 25.7. וְלִבְהֶמְתְּךָ וְלַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצֶךָ תִּהְיֶה כָל־תְּבוּאָתָהּ לֶאֱכֹל׃ 25.8. וְסָפַרְתָּ לְךָ שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְהָיוּ לְךָ יְמֵי שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת הַשָּׁנִים תֵּשַׁע וְאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה׃ 25.21. וְצִוִּיתִי אֶת־בִּרְכָתִי לָכֶם בַּשָּׁנָה הַשִּׁשִּׁית וְעָשָׂת אֶת־הַתְּבוּאָה לִשְׁלֹשׁ הַשָּׁנִים׃ 25.22. וּזְרַעְתֶּם אֵת הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁמִינִת וַאֲכַלְתֶּם מִן־הַתְּבוּאָה יָשָׁן עַד הַשָּׁנָה הַתְּשִׁיעִת עַד־בּוֹא תְּבוּאָתָהּ תֹּאכְלוּ יָשָׁן׃ 23.40. And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days." 25.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses in mount Sinai, saying:" 25.3. Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the produce thereof." 25.4. But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath unto the LORD; thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard." 25.5. That which groweth of itself of thy harvest thou shalt not reap, and the grapes of thy undressed vine thou shalt not gather; it shall be a year of solemn rest for the land." 25.6. And the sabbath-produce of the land shall be for food for you: for thee, and for thy servant and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant and for the settler by thy side that sojourn with thee;" 25.7. and for thy cattle, and for the beasts that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be for food." 25.8. And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; and there shall be unto thee the days of seven sabbaths of years, even forty and nine years." 25.20. And if ye shall say: ‘What shall we eat the seventh year? behold, we may not sow, nor gather in our increase’;" 25.21. then I will command My blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth produce for the three years." 25.22. And ye shall sow the eighth year, and eat of the produce, the old store; until the ninth year, until her produce come in, ye shall eat the old store."
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 1.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.8. עַל־זֹאת אֶסְפְּדָה וְאֵילִילָה אֵילְכָה שילל [שׁוֹלָל] וְעָרוֹם אֶעֱשֶׂה מִסְפֵּד כַּתַּנִּים וְאֵבֶל כִּבְנוֹת יַעֲנָה׃ 1.8. For this will I wail and howl, I will go stripped and naked; I will make a wailing like the jackals, And a mourning like the ostriches."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.11-5.28, 7.1, 11.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.12. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־תִשְׂטֶה אִשְׁתּוֹ וּמָעֲלָה בוֹ מָעַל׃ 5.13. וְשָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְנֶעְלַם מֵעֵינֵי אִישָׁהּ וְנִסְתְּרָה וְהִיא נִטְמָאָה וְעֵד אֵין בָּהּ וְהִוא לֹא נִתְפָּשָׂה׃ 5.14. וְעָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִוא נִטְמָאָה אוֹ־עָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִיא לֹא נִטְמָאָה׃ 5.15. וְהֵבִיא הָאִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנָהּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵיפָה קֶמַח שְׂעֹרִים לֹא־יִצֹק עָלָיו שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלָיו לְבֹנָה כִּי־מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הוּא מִנְחַת זִכָּרוֹן מַזְכֶּרֶת עָוֺן׃ 5.16. וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶעֱמִדָהּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 5.17. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מַיִם קְדֹשִׁים בִּכְלִי־חָרֶשׂ וּמִן־הֶעָפָר אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בְּקַרְקַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן יִקַּח הַכֹּהֵן וְנָתַן אֶל־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.18. וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּפָרַע אֶת־רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן עַל־כַּפֶּיהָ אֵת מִנְחַת הַזִּכָּרוֹן מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הִוא וּבְיַד הַכֹּהֵן יִהְיוּ מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים׃ 5.19. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אִם־לֹא שָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָךְ וְאִם־לֹא שָׂטִית טֻמְאָה תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ הִנָּקִי מִמֵּי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 5.21. וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁבֻעַת הָאָלָה וְאָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לָאִשָּׁה יִתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת־בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה׃ 5.22. וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃ 5.23. וְכָתַב אֶת־הָאָלֹת הָאֵלֶּה הַכֹּהֵן בַּסֵּפֶר וּמָחָה אֶל־מֵי הַמָּרִים׃ 5.24. וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים׃ 5.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה אֵת מִנְחַת הַקְּנָאֹת וְהֵנִיף אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 5.26. וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְאַחַר יַשְׁקֶה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־הַמָּיִם׃ 5.27. וְהִשְׁקָהּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם וְהָיְתָה אִם־נִטְמְאָה וַתִּמְעֹל מַעַל בְּאִישָׁהּ וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים וְצָבְתָה בִטְנָהּ וְנָפְלָה יְרֵכָהּ וְהָיְתָה הָאִשָּׁה לְאָלָה בְּקֶרֶב עַמָּהּ׃ 5.28. וְאִם־לֹא נִטְמְאָה הָאִשָּׁה וּטְהֹרָה הִוא וְנִקְּתָה וְנִזְרְעָה זָרַע׃ 7.1. וַיַּקְרִיבוּ הַנְּשִׂאִים אֵת חֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בְּיוֹם הִמָּשַׁח אֹתוֹ וַיַּקְרִיבוּ הַנְּשִׂיאִם אֶת־קָרְבָּנָם לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 7.1. וַיְהִי בְּיוֹם כַּלּוֹת מֹשֶׁה לְהָקִים אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן וַיִּמְשַׁח אֹתוֹ וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וַיִּמְשָׁחֵם וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתָם׃ 11.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מֹשֶׁה הַמְקַנֵּא אַתָּה לִי וּמִי יִתֵּן כָּל־עַם יְהוָה נְבִיאִים כִּי־יִתֵּן יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 5.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.12. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: If any man’s wife go aside, and act unfaithfully against him," 5.13. and a man lie with her carnally, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, and there be no witness against her, neither she be taken in the act;" 5.14. and the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be defiled; or if the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be not defiled;" 5.15. then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is a meal-offering of jealousy, a meal-offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance." 5.16. And the priest shall bring her near, and set her before the LORD." 5.17. And the priest shall take holy water in an earthen vessel; and of the dust that is on the floor of the tabernacle the priest shall take, and put it into the water." 5.18. And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and put the meal-offering of memorial in her hands, which is the meal-offering of jealousy; and the priest shall have in his hand the water of bitterness that causeth the curse." 5.19. And the priest shall cause her to swear, and shall say unto the woman: ‘If no man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness, being under thy husband, be thou free from this water of bitterness that causeth the curse;" 5.20. but if thou hast gone aside, being under thy husband, and if thou be defiled, and some man have lain with thee besides thy husband—" 5.21. then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman—the LORD make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the LORD doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell;" 5.22. and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’" 5.23. And the priest shall write these curses in a scroll, and he shall blot them out into the water of bitterness." 5.24. And he shall make the woman drink the water of bitterness that causeth the curse; and the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter." 5.25. And the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy out of the woman’s hand, and shall wave the meal-offering before the LORD, and bring it unto the altar." 5.26. And the priest shall take a handful of the meal-offering, as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke upon the altar, and afterward shall make the woman drink the water." 5.27. And when he hath made her drink the water, then it shall come to pass, if she be defiled, and have acted unfaithfully against her husband, that the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter, and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall fall away; and the woman shall be a curse among her people." 5.28. And if the woman be not defiled, but be clean; then she shall be cleared, and shall conceive seed." 7.1. And it came to pass on the day that Moses had made an end of setting up the tabernacle, and had anointed it and sanctified it, and all the furniture thereof, and the altar and all the vessels thereof, and had anointed them and sanctified them;" 11.29. And Moses said unto him: ‘Art thou jealous for my sake? would that all the LORD’S people were prophets, that the LORD would put His spirit upon them! ’"
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.19-3.20, 8.22, 26.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.19. יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 26.18. כְּמִתְלַהְלֵהַּ הַיֹּרֶה זִקִּים חִצִּים וָמָוֶת׃ 3.19. The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens." 3.20. By His knowledge the depths were broken up, And the skies drop down the dew." 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 26.18. As a madman who casteth firebrands, Arrows, and death;"
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 5.12, 148.11-148.12, 148.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. וְיִשְׂמְחוּ כָל־חוֹסֵי בָךְ לְעוֹלָם יְרַנֵּנוּ וְתָסֵךְ עָלֵימוֹ וְיַעְלְצוּ בְךָ אֹהֲבֵי שְׁמֶךָ׃ 148.11. מַלְכֵי־אֶרֶץ וְכָל־לְאֻמִּים שָׂרִים וְכָל־שֹׁפְטֵי אָרֶץ׃ 148.12. בַּחוּרִים וְגַם־בְּתוּלוֹת זְקֵנִים עִם־נְעָרִים׃ 148.14. וַיָּרֶם קֶרֶן לְעַמּוֹ תְּהִלָּה לְכָל־חֲסִידָיו לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַם־קְרֹבוֹ הַלְלוּ־יָהּ׃ 5.12. So shall all those that take refuge in Thee rejoice, They shall ever shout for joy, And Thou shalt shelter them; Let them also that love Thy name exult in Thee." 148.11. Kings of the earth and all peoples, Princes and all judges of the earth;" 148.12. Both young men and maidens, Old men and children;" 148.14. And He hath lifted up a horn for His people, A praise for all His saints, Even for the children of Israel, a people near unto Him. Hallelujah."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.38, 22.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.38. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָאַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה בְּיֶרַח בּוּל הוּא הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁמִינִי כָּלָה הַבַּיִת לְכָל־דְּבָרָיו וּלְכָל־משפטו [מִשְׁפָּטָיו] וַיִּבְנֵהוּ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים׃ 22.23. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה נָתַן יְהוָה רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאֶיךָ אֵלֶּה וַיהוָה דִּבֶּר עָלֶיךָ רָעָה׃ 6.38. And in the eleventh year, in the month Bul, which is the eighth month, was the house finished throughout all the parts thereof, and according to all the fashion of it. So was he seven years in building it." 22.23. Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets; and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee.’"
12. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 8.8 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

8.8. הַעַל זֹאת לֹא־תִרְגַּז הָאָרֶץ וְאָבַל כָּל־יוֹשֵׁב בָּהּ וְעָלְתָה כָאֹר כֻּלָּהּ וְנִגְרְשָׁה ונשקה [וְנִשְׁקְעָה] כִּיאוֹר מִצְרָיִם׃ 8.8. Shall not the land tremble for this, And every one mourn that dwelleth therein? Yea, it shall rise up wholly like the River; And it shall be troubled and sink again, like the River of Egypt."
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 12.6, 42.1, 49.13, 58.13, 61.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.6. צַהֲלִי וָרֹנִּי יוֹשֶׁבֶת צִיּוֹן כִּי־גָדוֹל בְּקִרְבֵּךְ קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 42.1. הֵן עַבְדִּי אֶתְמָךְ־בּוֹ בְּחִירִי רָצְתָה נַפְשִׁי נָתַתִּי רוּחִי עָלָיו מִשְׁפָּט לַגּוֹיִם יוֹצִיא׃ 42.1. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּתוֹ מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם וּמְלֹאוֹ אִיִּים וְיֹשְׁבֵיהֶם׃ 49.13. רָנּוּ שָׁמַיִם וְגִילִי אָרֶץ יפצחו [וּפִצְחוּ] הָרִים רִנָּה כִּי־נִחַם יְהוָה עַמּוֹ וַעֲנִיָּו יְרַחֵם׃ 58.13. אִם־תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלֶךָ עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶיךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג לִקְדוֹשׁ יְהוָה מְכֻבָּד וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר׃ 61.3. לָשׂוּם לַאֲבֵלֵי צִיּוֹן לָתֵת לָהֶם פְּאֵר תַּחַת אֵפֶר שֶׁמֶן שָׂשׂוֹן תַּחַת אֵבֶל מַעֲטֵה תְהִלָּה תַּחַת רוּחַ כֵּהָה וְקֹרָא לָהֶם אֵילֵי הַצֶּדֶק מַטַּע יְהוָה לְהִתְפָּאֵר׃ 12.6. Cry aloud and shout, thou inhabitant of Zion, For great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee.’" 42.1. Behold My servant, whom I uphold; Mine elect, in whom My soul delighteth; I have put My spirit upon him, He shall make the right to go forth to the nations." 49.13. Sing, O heavens, and be joyful, O earth, And break forth into singing, O mountains; For the LORD hath comforted His people, And hath compassion upon His afflicted." 58.13. If thou turn away thy foot because of the sabbath, From pursuing thy business on My holy day; And call the sabbath a delight, And the holy of the LORD honourable; And shalt honour it, not doing thy wonted ways, Nor pursuing thy business, nor speaking thereof;" 61.3. To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, To give unto them a garland for ashes, The oil of joy for mourning, The mantle of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they might be called terebinths of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, wherein He might glory."
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.26, 17.21-17.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.26. בַּת־עַמִּי חִגְרִי־שָׂק וְהִתְפַּלְּשִׁי בָאֵפֶר אֵבֶל יָחִיד עֲשִׂי לָךְ מִסְפַּד תַּמְרוּרִים כִּי פִתְאֹם יָבֹא הַשֹּׁדֵד עָלֵינוּ׃ 17.21. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִשָּׁמְרוּ בְּנַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם וְאַל־תִּשְׂאוּ מַשָּׂא בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַהֲבֵאתֶם בְּשַׁעֲרֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 17.22. וְלֹא־תוֹצִיאוּ מַשָּׂא מִבָּתֵּיכֶם בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וְכָל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 6.26. O daughter of my people, gird thee with sackcloth, And wallow thyself in ashes; Make thee mourning, as for an only son, Most bitter lamentation; For the spoiler shall suddenly come upon us." 17.21. thus saith the LORD: Take heed for the sake of your souls, and bear no burden on the sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem;" 17.22. neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the sabbath day, neither do ye any work; but hallow ye the sabbath day, as I commanded your fathers;"
15. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.13. זָכוֹר אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֶתְכֶם מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מֵנִיחַ לָכֶם וְנָתַן לָכֶם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת׃ 1.13. ’Remember the word which Moses the servant of the LORD commanded, you, saying: The LORD your God giveth you rest, and will give you this land."
16. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.4. דַּרְכֵי צִיּוֹן אֲבֵלוֹת מִבְּלִי בָּאֵי מוֹעֵד כָּל־שְׁעָרֶיהָ שׁוֹמֵמִין כֹּהֲנֶיהָ נֶאֱנָחִים בְּתוּלֹתֶיהָ נּוּגוֹת וְהִיא מַר־לָהּ׃ 1.4. The roads of Zion are mournful because no one comes to the appointed season; all her gates are desolate, her priests moan; her maidens grieve while she herself suffers bitterly."
17. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 11.19, 36.26-36.27, 37.6, 37.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.19. וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב אֶחָד וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשָׂרָם וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.27. וְאֶת־רוּחִי אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וְעָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־בְּחֻקַּי תֵּלֵכוּ וּמִשְׁפָּטַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם׃ 37.6. וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עוֹר וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 37.14. וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 11.19. And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh;" 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh." 36.27. And I will put My spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and ye shall keep Mine ordices, and do them." 37.6. And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; and ye shall know that I am the LORD.’" 37.14. And I will put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I will place you in your own land; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken, and performed it, saith the LORD.’"
18. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 13.15-13.22 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13.15. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה רָאִיתִי בִיהוּדָה דֹּרְכִים־גִּתּוֹת בַּשַּׁבָּת וּמְבִיאִים הָעֲרֵמוֹת וְעֹמְסִים עַל־הַחֲמֹרִים וְאַף־יַיִן עֲנָבִים וּתְאֵנִים וְכָל־מַשָּׂא וּמְבִיאִים יְרוּשָׁלִַם בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וָאָעִיד בְּיוֹם מִכְרָם צָיִד׃ 13.16. וְהַצֹּרִים יָשְׁבוּ בָהּ מְבִיאִים דָּאג וְכָל־מֶכֶר וּמֹכְרִים בַּשַּׁבָּת לִבְנֵי יְהוּדָה וּבִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 13.17. וָאָרִיבָה אֵת חֹרֵי יְהוּדָה וָאֹמְרָה לָהֶם מָה־הַדָּבָר הָרָע הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹשִׂים וּמְחַלְּלִים אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת׃ 13.18. הֲלוֹא כֹה עָשׂוּ אֲבֹתֵיכֶם וַיָּבֵא אֱלֹהֵינוּ עָלֵינוּ אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת וְעַל הָעִיר הַזֹּאת וְאַתֶּם מוֹסִיפִים חָרוֹן עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְחַלֵּל אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת׃ 13.19. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צָלֲלוּ שַׁעֲרֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם לִפְנֵי הַשַּׁבָּת וָאֹמְרָה וַיִּסָּגְרוּ הַדְּלָתוֹת וָאֹמְרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִפְתָּחוּם עַד אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת וּמִנְּעָרַי הֶעֱמַדְתִּי עַל־הַשְּׁעָרִים לֹא־יָבוֹא מַשָּׂא בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת׃ 13.21. וָאָעִידָה בָהֶם וָאֹמְרָה אֲלֵיהֶם מַדּוּעַ אַתֶּם לֵנִים נֶגֶד הַחוֹמָה אִם־תִּשְׁנוּ יָד אֶשְׁלַח בָּכֶם מִן־הָעֵת הַהִיא לֹא־בָאוּ בַּשַּׁבָּת׃ 13.22. וָאֹמְרָה לַלְוִיִּם אֲשֶׁר יִהְיוּ מִטַּהֲרִים וּבָאִים שֹׁמְרִים הַשְּׁעָרִים לְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת גַּם־זֹאת זָכְרָה־לִּי אֱלֹהַי וְחוּסָה עָלַי כְּרֹב חַסְדֶּךָ׃ 13.15. In those days saw I in Judah some treading winepresses on the sabbath, and bringing in heaps of corn, and lading asses therewith; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the sabbath day; and I forewarned them in the day wherein they sold victuals." 13.16. There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, who brought in fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the sabbath unto the children of Judah, and in Jerusalem." 13.17. Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them: ‘What evil thing is this that ye do, and profane the sabbath day?" 13.18. Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon this city? yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel by profaning the sabbath.’" 13.19. And it came to pass that, when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the doors should be shut, and commanded that they should not be opened till after the sabbath; and some of my servants set I over the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath day." 13.20. So the merchants and sellers of all kind of ware lodged without Jerusalem once or twice." 13.21. Then I forewarned them, and said unto them: ‘Why lodge ye about the wall? if ye do so again, I will lay hands on you.’ From that time forth came they no more on the sabbath." 13.22. And I commanded the Levites that they should purify themselves, and that they should come and keep the gates, to sanctify the sabbath day. Remember unto me, O my God, this also, and spare me according to the greatness of Thy mercy."
19. Aristobulus Cassandreus, Fragments, 5 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20. Anon., Jubilees, 2.1-2.33, 20.9-20.11, 50.6-50.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying: 2.2. Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2.3. For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before Him 2.4. --the angels of the presence, and the angels of sanctification, and the angels [of the spirit of fire and the angels] of the spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirit of the clouds 2.5. and of darkness, and of snow and of hail and of hoar frost, and the angels of the voices and of the thunder and of the lightning, and the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of spring and of autumn and of summer 2.6. and of all the spirits of His creatures which are in the heavens and on the earth, (He created) the abysses and the darkness, eventide (and night), and the light, dawn and day, which He hath prepared in the knowledge of His heart. 2.7. And thereupon we saw His works, and praised Him, and lauded before Him on account of all His works; for seven great works did He create on the first day. 2.8. And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day--half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the whole earth. 2.9. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day. 2.10. And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear. 2.11. And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, and the dry land appeared. 2.12. And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth 2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 2.15. And on the fourth day He created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth 2.16. and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the light from the darkness. 2.17. And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 2.18. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. 2.19. These three kinds He made on the fourth day. 2.20. And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by His hands, the fish and everything that moves in the waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. 2.21. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. 2.22. These three kinds He created on the fifth day. 2.23. And on the sixth day He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. 2.24. And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them 2.25. and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave him dominion. 2.26. And these four kinds He created on the sixth day. br And there were altogether two and twenty kinds. 2.27. And He finished all His work on the sixth day--all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in everything. 2.28. And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. brAnd all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification 2.29. these two great classes--He hath hidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth. 2.30. And He said unto us: "Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day 2.31. and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless them, and they will be My people and I shall be their God. 2.32. And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My firstborn son, and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever; 2.33. and I will teach them the Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work."... 20.9. I implore you, my sons, love the God of heaven, And cleave ye to all His commandments. And walk not after their idols, and after their uncleannesses 20.10. And make not for yourselves molten or graven gods; For they are vanity, And there is no spirit in them; For they are work of (men's) hands, And all who trust in them, trust in nothing. Serve them not, nor worship them 20.11. But serve ye the Most High God, and worship Him continually: And hope for His countece always 50.6. and there are yet forty years to come (lit. "distant for learning the commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the west. 50.7. And the jubilees will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwelleth with confidence in all the land, and there will be no more a Satan or any evil one, and the land will be clean from that time for evermore. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. 50.9. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. brAnd the man that doeth any work on it shall die: 50.10. whoever desecrateth that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife or whoever saith he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draweth water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall die. 50.11. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save that ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. 50.13. For great is the honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongeth to the labour of the children of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths.
21. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.24, 12.4, 12.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.24. שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעִים נֶחְתַּךְ עַל־עַמְּךָ וְעַל־עִיר קָדְשֶׁךָ לְכַלֵּא הַפֶּשַׁע ולחתם [וּלְהָתֵם] חטאות [חַטָּאת] וּלְכַפֵּר עָוֺן וּלְהָבִיא צֶדֶק עֹלָמִים וְלַחְתֹּם חָזוֹן וְנָבִיא וְלִמְשֹׁחַ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים׃ 12.4. וְאַתָּה דָנִיֵּאל סְתֹם הַדְּבָרִים וַחֲתֹם הַסֵּפֶר עַד־עֵת קֵץ יְשֹׁטְטוּ רַבִּים וְתִרְבֶּה הַדָּעַת׃ 12.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ דָּנִיֵּאל כִּי־סְתֻמִים וַחֲתֻמִים הַדְּבָרִים עַד־עֵת קֵץ׃ 9.24. Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sin, and to forgive iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal vision and prophet, and to anoint the most holy place." 12.4. But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end; many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.’" 12.9. And he said: ‘Go thy way, Daniel; for the words are shut up and sealed till the time of the end."
22. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. And now see that you keep the feast of booths in the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and eighty-eighth year.'
23. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.9-17.10, 22.12, 36.1, 38.17, 40.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

22.12. Mourning for the dead lasts seven days,but for a fool or an ungodly man it lasts all his life. 22.12. There is an utterance which is comparable to death;may it never be found in the inheritance of Jacob!For all these errors will be far from the godly,and they will not wallow in sins. 36.1. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, the God of all, and look upon us 36.1. Crush the heads of the rulers of the enemy,who say, "There is no one but ourselves. 38.17. Let your weeping be bitter and your wailing fervent;observe the mourning according to his merit,for one day, or two, to avoid criticism;then be comforted for your sorrow. 40.23. A friend or a companion never meets one amiss,but a wife with her husband is better than both.
24. Septuagint, Judith, 16.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

16.24. and the house of Israel mourned for her seven days. Before she died she distributed her property to all those who were next of kin to her husband Manasseh, and to her own nearest kindred.
25. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 36.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 89 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

89. These, then, are the first principles of the man who loves God, and they are followed by actions which do not deserve to be lightly esteemed. But the greatness of them is not evident to every one, but only to those who have tasted of virtue, and who are wont to look with ridicule upon the objects which are admired by the multitude, by reason of the greatness of the good things of the soul.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 3-8, 87, 9, 90, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Why then do we wonder if God once for all banished Adam, that is to say, the mind out of the district of the virtues, after he had once contracted folly, that incurable disease, and if he never permitted him again to return, when he also drives out and banishes from wisdom and from the wise man every sophist, and the mother of sophists, the teaching that is of elementary instruction, while he calls the names of wisdom and of the wise man Abraham, and Sarah. IV. 10. He also considered this point, in the second place, that it is indispensable that the soul of the man who is about to receive sacred laws should be thoroughly cleansed and purified from all stains, however difficult to be washed out, which the promiscuous multitude of mixed men from all quarters has impregnated cities with;
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 101, 96-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 63-64, 62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

62. Accordingly, Abraham, as long as he was abiding in the land of the Chaldaeans, that is to say, in opinion, before he received his new name, and while he was still called Abram, was a man born of heaven, investigating the sublime nature of things on high, and all that took place in these regions, and the causes of them, and studying everything of that kind in the true spirit of philosophy; on which account he received an appellation corresponding to the pursuits to which he devoted himself: for the name Abram, being interpreted, signifies the sublime father, and is a name very fitting for the paternal mind, which in every direction contemplates sublime and heavenly things: for the mind is the father of our composite being, reaching as high as the sky and even farther.
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 199-207, 91, 198 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 121-122, 46, 60-80, 111 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

111. by which seven daughters are frequently intimated the powers of the irrational part of the soul, the power of generation and the voice, and the five outward senses, tending the flocks of their father; for by means of these seven powers it is that all the progresses and increases of their father, the mind, exist in the perceptions which are produced from him. These, then, coming each to its appropriate object, the power of sight to colours and shapes, the sense of hearing to sounds, the faculty of smelling to scents, taste to flavours, and all the other faculties to those objects which are adapted for their exercise do in a manner imbibe some of the external objects of the outward senses, until they have filled all the channels of the soul, and from these channels they give drink to the sheep of their father; I mean by these sheep that most pure flock of the reason which bears safety and ornament at the same time.
32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 101-128, 135, 66, 69, 71, 89-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. But seven alone, as I said before, neither produces nor is produced, on which account other philosophers liken this number to Victory, who had no mother, and to the virgin goddess, whom the fable asserts to have sprung from the head of Jupiter: and the Pythagoreans compare it to the Ruler of all things. For that which neither produces, nor is produced, remains immovable. For generation consists in motion, since that which is generated, cannot be so without motion, both to cause production, and to be produced. And the only thing which neither moves nor is moved, is the Elder, Ruler, and Lord of the universe, of whom the number seven may reasonably be called a likeness. And Philolaus gives his testimony to this doctrine of mine in the following Words:ù"for God," says he "is the ruler and Lord of all things, being one, eternal, lasting, immovable, himself like to himself, and different from all other beings." XXXIV.
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 64-65, 63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

63. On which principle also it is that he also calls Israel, who was the younger brother in point of time, "the first born Son," judging of him by his merit, signifying thereby that, since to see God is the most clear proof of primogeniture, he is in consequence pardoned as the eldest offspring of the uncreate incomprehensible God, conceived by that virtue which is hated among men, and to whom the law enjoins that "the honours due to seniority shall be paid, as being the Eldest.
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.59-2.60 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.59. But the number seven is free from all such commixture, and is, if one must speak plainly, the light of the number six; for what the number six engendered, that the number seven displayed when brought to perfection. In reference to which fact it may properly be called the birthday of the world, as the day in which the work of the Father, being exhibited as perfect with all its parts perfect, was commanded to rest and abstain from all works. 2.60. Not that the law is the adviser of idleness, for it is always accustoming its followers to submit to hardships, and training them to labour, and it hates those who desire to be indolent and idle; at all events, it expressly commands us to labour diligently for six days, {9}{#ex 20:9.} but in order to give some remission from uninterrupted and incessant toil, it refreshes the body with seasons of moderate relaxation exactly measured out, so as to renew it again for fresh works. For those who take breath in this way, I am speaking not merely about private individuals but even about athletes, collect fresh strength, and with more vigorous power, without any shrinking and with great endurance, encounter everything that must be done.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.7, 2.88 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.7. Therefore the connection of these four powers is beautiful and harmonious, for being all connected together and united one to another, they unite in concert, receiving and imparting a reciprocity of benefits from and to one another, imitating the virgin graces with whom it is an immutable law of their nature that they cannot be disunited, with respect to whom one might fairly say, what is habitually said of the virtues, that he who has one has them all. 2.88. Moreover, he chose the materials of this embroidery, selecting with great care what was most excellent out of an infinite quantity, choosing materials equal in number to the elements of which the world was made, and having a direct relation to them; the elements being the earth and the water, and the air and the fire. For the fine flax is produced from the earth, and the purple from the water, and the hyacinth colour is compared to the air (for, by nature, it is black
36. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.5-1.6, 3.244-3.245 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. First, therefore, having desisted from the creation of mortal creatures on the seventh day, he began the formation of other and more divine beings. III. For God never ceases from making something or other; but, as it is the property of fire to burn, and of snow to chill, so also it is the property of God to be creating. And much more so, in proportion as he himself is to all other beings the author of their working. 1.6. Therefore the expression, "he caused to rest," is very appropriately employed here, not "he rested." For he makes things to rest which appear to be producing others, but which in reality do not effect anything; but he himself never ceases from creating. On which account Moses says, "He caused to rest the things which he had begun." For all the things that are made by our arts when completed stand still and remain; but all those which are accomplished by the knowledge of God are moved at subsequent times. For their ends are the beginnings of other things; as, for instance, the end of day is the beginning of night. And in the same way we must look upon months and years when they come to an end as the beginning of those which are just about to follow them.
37. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.41, 2.59 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

38. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 232, 55, 170 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

170. The third law is one about the name of the Lord, not about that name which has not yet reached his creatures; for that name is unspeakable, but about the name which is constantly applied to him as displayed in his powers; for it is commanded that we shall not take his name in vain. The fourth commandment is concerning the seventh day, always virgin, and without any mother, in order that creation, taking care that it may be always free from labour, may in this way come to a recollection of him who does everything without being seen.
39. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 46, 45 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

45. In such important points are animals superior to plants. Let us now see in what man is superior to the rest of the animal creation. X. Man, then, has received this one extraordinary gift, intellect, which is accustomed to comprehend the nature of all bodies and of all things at the same time; for, as in the body, the sight is the most important faculty, and since in the universe the nature of light is the most pre-eminent thing, in the same manner that part of us which is entitled to the highest rank is the mind.
40. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 15.5-15.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15.5. And He rested on the seventh day. this He meaneth; when His Son shall come, and shall abolish the time of the Lawless One, and shall judge the ungodly, and shall change the sun and the moon and the stars, then shall he truly rest on the seventh day. 15.6. Yea and furthermore He saith; Thou shalt hallow it with pure hands and with a pure heart. If therefore a man is able now to hallow the day which God hallowed, though he be pure in heart, we have gone utterly astray. 15.7. But if after all then and not till then shall we truly rest and hallow it, when we shall ourselves be able to do so after being justified and receiving the promise, when iniquity is no more and all things have been made new by the Lord, we shall be able to hallow it then, because we ourselves shall have been hallowed first. 15.8. Finally He saith to them; Your new moons and your Sabbaths I cannot away with. Ye see what is His meaning ; it is not your present Sabbaths that are acceptable [unto Me], but the Sabbath which I have made, in the which, when I have set all things at rest, I will make the beginning of the eighth day which is the beginning of another world.
41. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 9.3, 21.2, 21.6, 39.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

42. Aristobulus Milesius, Fragments, 5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.179-3.180 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.179. 7. Now here one may wonder at the ill-will which men bear to us, and which they profess to bear on account of our despising that Deity which they pretend to honor;
44. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.1-2.2, 2.222 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. 1. Now the necessity which Archelaus was under of taking a journey to Rome was the occasion of new disturbances; for when he had mourned for his father seven days, and had given a very expensive funeral feast to the multitude (which custom is the occasion of poverty to many of the Jews, because they are forced to feast the multitude; for if anyone omits it, he is not esteemed a holy person), he put on a white garment, and went up to the temple 2.1. And, indeed, at the feast of unleavened bread, which was now at hand, and is by the Jews called the Passover, and used to be celebrated with a great number of sacrifices, an innumerable multitude of the people came out of the country to worship; some of these stood in the temple bewailing the Rabbins [that had been put to death], and procured their sustece by begging, in order to support their sedition. 2.1. but after this family distribution, he gave between them what had been bequeathed to him by Herod, which was a thousand talents, reserving to himself only some inconsiderable presents, in honor of the deceased. 2.2. where the people accosted him with various acclamations. He also spoke kindly to the multitude from an elevated seat and a throne of gold, and returned them thanks for the zeal they had shown about his father’s funeral, and the submission they had made to him, as if he were already settled in the kingdom; but he told them withal, that he would not at present take upon him either the authority of a king, or the names thereto belonging, until Caesar, who is made lord of this whole affair by the testament, confirm the succession; 2.2. 3. In the meantime, Antipas went also to Rome, to strive for the kingdom, and to insist that the former testament, wherein he was named to be king, was valid before the latter testament. Salome had also promised to assist him, as had many of Archelaus’s kindred, who sailed along with Archelaus himself also. 2.2. But as they could be no way prevailed upon, and he saw that the country was in danger of lying without tillage (for it was about seedtime that the multitude continued for fifty days together idle); so he at last got them together 2.222. and these, as I have formerly said, were the children of Aristobulus the son of Herod, which Aristobulus and Alexander were born to Herod by Mariamne, and were slain by him. But as for Alexander’s posterity, they reigned in Armenia.
45. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.195 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.195. The same person takes notice in his history, how large the country is which we inhabit, as well as of its excellent character; and says that “the land in which the Jews inhabit contains three millions of arourae, and is generally of a most excellent and most fruitful soil: nor is Judea of lesser dimensions.”
46. New Testament, 1 John, 3.24, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.24. He who keeps his commandments remains in him, and he in him. By this we know that he remains in us, by the Spirit which he gave us. 4.13. By this we know that we remain in him and he in us, because he has given us of his Spirit.
47. New Testament, 1 Peter, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. Let your beauty be not just the outward adorning of braiding the hair, and of wearing jewels of gold, or of putting on fine clothing;
48. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.9, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. God is faithful, through whom you were calledinto the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord. 8.6. yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him.
49. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.22, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

50. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. For God didn't give us a spirit of fear, but of power, love, and self-control.
51. New Testament, Acts, 3.2, 5.32, 15.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. A certain man who was lame from his mother's womb was being carried, whom they laid daily at the door of the temple which is called Beautiful, to ask gifts for the needy of those who entered into the temple. 5.32. We are His witnesses of these things; and so also is the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those who obey him. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us.
52. New Testament, Romans, 11.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day.
53. New Testament, John, 5.7, 9.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.7. The sick man answered him, "Sir, I have no one to put me into the pool when the water is stirred up, but while I'm coming, another steps down before me. 9.4. I must work the works of him who sent me, while it is day. The night is coming, when no one can work.
54. New Testament, Luke, 15.29, 21.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.29. But he answered his father, 'Behold, these many years I have served you, and I never disobeyed a commandment of yours, but you never gave me a goat, that I might celebrate with my friends. 21.5. As some were talking about the temple and how it was decorated with beautiful stones and gifts, he said
55. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 11.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

11.4. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אָמַר, מִפְּנֵי אִיסְטְנִיסִים בֵּרְכוֹ בְּמַטְעַמִּים. רַבֵּנוּ עָשָׂה סְעוּדָה לְאַנְטוֹנִינוּס בְּשַׁבָּת, הֵבִיא לְפָנָיו תַּבְשִׁילִין שֶׁל צוֹנֵן אָכַל מֵהֶם וְעָרַב לוֹ, עָשָׂה לוֹ סְעוּדָה בַּחוֹל הֵבִיא לְפָנָיו תַּבְשִׁילִין רוֹתְחִין, אָמַר לוֹ אוֹתָן עָרְבוּ לִי יוֹתֵר מֵאֵלּוּ. אָמַר לוֹ תֶּבֶל אֶחָד הֵן חֲסֵרִין. אָמַר לוֹ וְכִי יֵשׁ קֵילָרִין שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ חָסֵר כְּלוּם, אָמַר לוֹ שַׁבָּת הֵן חֲסֵרִין, אִית לָךְ שַׁבָּת. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי שַׁיְלֵיהּ לְרַבִּי, אָמַר לוֹ בְּנֵי בָּבֶל בִּזְכוּת מָה הֵן חַיִּים, אָמַר לוֹ בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה. וּבְנֵי אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּזְכוּת מָה, אָמַר לוֹ בִּזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת. וְאַנְשֵׁי חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ בִּזְכוּת מָה, אָמַר לוֹ בִּזְכוּת שֶׁהֵן מְכַבְּדִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא פַּעַם אַחַת זִמְנַנִי אָדָם אֶחָד בְּלוּדְקִיָא וְהֵבִיא לְפָנֵינוּ דְּיוֹסְקוּס אֶחָד טָעוּן בְּי"ו מוֹטוֹת, וּבוֹ מִכָּל מַה שֶּׁנִּבְרָא בְּשֵׁשֶׁת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית, וְתִינוֹק אֶחָד הָיָה יוֹשֵׁב בְּאֶמְצָעִיתוֹ, וְהָיָה מַכְרִיז וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים כד, א): לַה' הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ תֵּבֵל וְישְׁבֵי בָהּ, כָּל כָּךְ לָמָּה שֶׁלֹא תָּזוּחַ דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת עָלָיו. אָמַרְתִּי לוֹ בְּנִי מֵהֵיכָן זָכִיתָ לְכָל הַכָּבוֹד הַזֶּה. אָמַר לִי, טַבָּח הָיִיתִי, וְכָל בְּהֵמָה יָפָה שֶׁהָיִיתִי רוֹאֶה כָּל יְמוֹת הַשַּׁבָּת הָיִיתִי מַפְרִישָׁהּ לְשַׁבָּת. וְאָמַרְתִּי לוֹ לֹא עַל מַגָּן זָכִיתָ. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא, עוֹבָדָא הֲוָה בְּרוֹמִי בַּעֲרוֹבַת צוֹמָא רַבָּה, וַהֲוָה תַּמָּן חַד חַיָּט וַאֲזַל דְּיִזְדַּבַּן לֵיהּ חַד נוּן, אִשְׁתְּכַח הוּא וְטַלְיָא דְּאִיפַּרְכוֹס קָיְימִין עִילָוֵיהּ, הֲוָה הָדֵין מַסֵּיק לֵיהּ בְּטִימֵי וְהָדֵין מַסֵּיק לֵיהּ בְּטִימֵי, עַד דְּמָטְיָא לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר דִּינָרִין, וּנְסָבֵא הַהוּא חַיָּטָא. בְּעָנָתָא דַּאֲרִיסְטוֹן אֲמַר אִיפַּרְכוֹס לְטַלְיָה לָמָּה לָא אַיְתֵית לִי נוּן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ, מָרִי מָה לִכְפֹּר מִינָךְ, אֲזַלִּית וְלָא הֲוָה תַּמָּן אֶלָּא חַד נוּן, וְאִשְׁתְּכָחִית אֲנָא וְחַד יְהוּדָאי קָיְימִין עִילָוֵיהּ, וַהֲוָה הוּא מַסֵּיק לֵיהּ בְּטִימֵי וַאֲנָא מַסֵּיק לֵיהּ בְּטִימֵי, עַד דְּמָטְיָא לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר דִּנָּרִין, מָה הֲוַת בְּעָא דְּנַיְיתָא לָךְ נוּן בִּתְרֵי עֲשַׂר דִּנָּרִין, אֶתְמְהָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָאן הוּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בַּר נָשׁ פְּלַן, שְׁלַח בַּתְרֵיהּ וַאֲתָא לְגַבֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָה חֲמֵית חַיָּט יְהוּדָאי דַּאֲכַלְתְּ נוּן בִּתְרֵי עֲשַׂר דִּנָּרִין. אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָרִי אִית לָן חַד יוֹם, בְּכָל חוֹבִין דַּאֲנַן עָבְדִין כָּל יוֹמֵי שַׁתָּא, הוּא מְכַפֵּר עֲלֵינַן. וְכַד הוּא אֲתָא לֵית אֲנַן צְרִיכִין לְיַקּוּרֵי יָתֵיהּ. אֲמַר כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵבֵאתָ רְאָיָה לִדְבָרֶיךָ הֲרֵי אַתָּה פָּטוּר. מַה פָּרַע לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הָלַךְ וְקָרַע אוֹתָהּ וְזִמֵּן לוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ מַרְגָּלִיּוֹת טוֹבָה, וְהָיָה מִתְפַּרְנֵס הֵימֶנָּהּ כָּל יָמָיו. 11.4. ...Bless it (the day) with delicacies. Rabbeinu (Rabbi Yehudah/Rebbi) made a feast for Antoninus on the Shabbat. They brought before him prepared foods that were cold. He ate from them and found them very tasty. He (Rebbi) made a feast for him (Antoninus) on a weekday and brought before him steaming foods. He (Antoninus) said to him (Rebbi) those (the cold food on Shabbat) tasted better to me than these (warm foods). He (Rebbi) explained that the warm weekday food was missing a single spice. He (Antoninus) said to him, ‘and is there anything in the king’s treasury that is lacking? He (Rebbi) said that the food was missing Shabbat, Do you have Shabbat?"
56. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. שית שנין יתירתא סבור רבנן קמיה דרב' למימר האי שטר מאוחר הוא ניעכביה עד דמטיא זמניה ולא טריף אמר רב נחמן האי ספרא דוקנא כתביה והנך שית שנין דמלכו בעילם דאנן לא חשבינן להו הוא קחשיב ליה ובזמניה כתביה,דתניא ר' יוסי אומר שש שנים מלכו בעילם ואח"כ פשטה מלכותן בכל העולם כולו:,מתקיף לה רב אחא בר יעקב ממאי דלמלכות יונים מנינן דלמא ליציאת מצרים מנינן ושבקיה לאלפא קמא ונקטיה אלפא בתרא והאי מאוחר הוא אמר רב נחמן בגולה אין מונין אלא למלכי יונים בלבד,הוא סבר דחויי קא מדחי ליה נפק דק ואשכח דתניא בגולה אין מונין אלא למלכי יונים בלבד,אמר רבינא מתניתין נמי דיקא דתנן באחד בניסן ר"ה למלכים ולרגלים ואמרינן למלכים למאי הלכתא אמר רב חסדא לשטרות,ותנן באחד בתשרי ר"ה לשנים ולשמיטין ואמרינן לשנים למאי הלכתא ואמר רב חסדא לשטרות קשיא שטרות אהדדי,ומשנינן כאן למלכי ישראל כאן למלכי עובדי כוכבים למלכי עובדי כוכבים מתשרי מנינן למלכי ישראל מניסן מנינן,ואנן השתא מתשרי מנינן ואי ס"ד ליציאת מצרים מנינן מניסן בעינן למימני אלא לאו ש"מ למלכי יונים מנינן ש"מ:,ויום גינוסיא של מלכיהם וכו': מאי ויום גינוסיא של מלכיהם אמר רב יהודה יום שמעמידין בו עובדי כוכבים את מלכם והתניא יום גינוסיא ויום שמעמידין בו את מלכם לא קשיא הא דידיה הא דבריה,ומי מוקמי מלכא בר מלכא והתני רב יוסף (עובדיה א, ב) הנה קטן נתתיך בגוים שאין מושיבין מלך בן מלך (עובדיה א, ב) בזוי אתה מאד שאין להן לא כתב ולא לשון אלא מאי יום גינוסיא יום הלידה,והתניא יום גינוסיא ויום הלידה לא קשיא הא דידיה הא דבריה,והתניא יום גינוסיא שלו יום גינוסיא של בנו ויום הלידה שלו ויום הלידה של בנו אלא מאי יום גינוסיא יום שמעמידין בו מלכם ולא קשיא הא דידיה הא דבריה,ואי קשיא לך דלא מוקמי מלכא בר מלכא ע"י שאלה מוקמי כגון אסוירוס בר אנטונינוס דמלך,א"ל אנטונינוס לרבי בעינא דימלוך אסוירוס ברי תחותי ותתעביד טבריא קלניא ואי אימא להו חדא עבדי תרי לא עבדי אייתי גברא ארכביה אחבריה ויהב ליה יונה לעילאי בידיה וא"ל לתתאה אימר לעילא דלמפרח מן ידיה יונה אמר שמע מינה הכי קאמר לי את בעי מינייהו דאסוירוס ברי ימלוך תחותי ואימא ליה לאסוירוס דתעביד טבריא קלניא,א"ל מצערין לי חשובי [רומאי] מעייל ליה לגינא כל יומא עקר ליה פוגלא ממשרא קמיה אמר ש"מ הכי קאמר לי את קטול חד חד מינייהו ולא תתגרה בהו בכולהו 10a. a date that had bsix additional yearsrelative to the correct scribal date, which takes for its starting point the beginning of Greek rule. bThe Sageswho studied bbefore Rabba thought to say: This is a postdatedpromissory bnote,which can be used only from the date it specifies. Therefore, blet us hold it until its time arrivesso that the creditor bwill not repossessproperty that the debtor sold prior to the date that appears in the note. bRav Naḥmandisagreed and bsaid: Thispromissory note bwas written by an exacting scribe, and those six yearsare referring to the years bwhenthe Greeks bruledonly bin Elam. We do not count them,as Greek rule had not yet spread throughout the world, but bhe does count them. Andtherefore bhe wrote inthe promissory note the correct btime,as the date does in fact match the year in which the promissory note was written.,Rav Naḥman cites a proof for his resolution: bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says:The Greeks bruled for six years in Elamalone, band afterward their dominion spread throughout the entire world.It is the later event that serves as the basis for the dating system used by most scribes., bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov objects toRav Naḥman’s answer: bFrom whereis it known bthat we countyears according btothe bGreek rule,and that this promissory note was dated according to a system that uses the Greek rule as a starting point and was written by an exacting scribe? bPerhaps we countthe years using bthe exodus from Egyptas the starting point, which occurred one thousand years before the start of the Greek rule, bandin this case the scribe bleftout bthe first thousand yearsfrom the time of the exodus band held ononly bto the last thousand years,omitting the thousands digit and writing merely the hundreds, tens, and single digits. bAndif so, bthispromissory note bis postdated. Rav Naḥman saidin response: The practice is that bin the exile we countyears bonlyaccording bto the Greek kings. /b,Upon hearing this reply, Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bthought:Rav Naḥman bismerely bdeflectingmy legitimate questions with this answer. Afterward, bhe went out, examinedthe matter, band discoveredthat it was as Rav Naḥman said. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIn the exile we countyears bonlyaccording bto the Greek kings. /b, bRavina said: The mishna is also preciselyformulated, as it teaches that we calculate years according to the Greek kings. bAs we learnedin a mishna ( iRosh HaShana2a): bOn the first of Nisan is the New Year for kings and for the Festivals. And we sayabout this: bWith regard to what ihalakha /iis it stated that the first of Nisan is the New Year bfor kings? Rav Ḥisda said:It is said bwith regard todating bdocumentsand determining their validity., bAnd we learnedin the same mishna: bOn the first of Tishrei is the New Year forcounting byears and forcalculating bSabbaticalcycles. bAnd we say: With regard to what ihalakha /iis it stated that the first of Tishrei is the New Year bforcounting byears? And Rav Ḥisda said:It is said bwith regard todating bdocuments.These two statements with regard to the dating of bdocumentsare bdifficultin light of beach other,as according to one statement the dating system is based on Nisan as the first month, whereas according to the other the year begins in Tishrei., bAnd we resolvedthe contradiction by explaining that bherethe dating is according bto kings of Israel,and btherethe dating is according bto the kings of thegentile bnations of the world.That is, when we date years according bto the kings of the nations of the world, we count fromthe month of bTishrei,whereas when we date years according bto the kings of Israel, we count fromthe month of bNisan. /b,Ravina explains his proof: bAnd nowthat bwe count fromthe month of bTishreiwhen dating documents, one can claim as follows: bIf it enters your mindthat bwe countand date years using bthe exodus from Egyptas the starting point, while leaving off the first thousand years, then bwe should count fromthe month of bNisan,when the exodus occurred. bRather, isn’t itcorrect to bconclude fromthe mishna that bwe countyears according bto the Greek kings?The Gemara affirms: bConclude from itthat the scribal years are in fact calculated according to the Greek kings. Therefore, one should explain as did Rav Naḥman: A promissory note that appears to be postdated by six years may not actually be a postdated promissory note; rather, it is assumed to have been written by an exacting scribe.,§ One of the gentile festivals listed in the mishna is bthe day of the festival [ igeinuseya /i] of their kings.The Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by: bThe day of igeinuseyaof their kings? Rav Yehuda says:This is referring to the bday on which the gentiles appointand crown btheir king.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: Two gentile festivals are bthe day of igeinuseyaandthe bday on which the gentiles appoint their king?This indicates that these are two separate occasions. The Gemara answers that it is bnot difficult: This,the day of igeinuseya /i, is referring to the coronation of the king bhimself,whereas bthat,the day on which the gentiles appoint and crown their king, is referring to the coronation bof his son,when a son is crowned during his father’s lifetime.,The Gemara asks: bAnd dothe Romans actually bappointas bking the son of the king? But didn’t Rav Yosef teach:The verse relating a prophesy about Edom, associated with the Roman Empire: b“Behold, I made you small among the nations”(Obadiah 1:2), is a reference to the fact bthatthe Romans bdo not placeon the throne as bking the son of the king.The continuation of the verse: b“You are greatly despised,”is a reference to the fact bthatthe Romans bhave neithertheir own bscript northeir own blanguage,but use those of other nations. The Gemara therefore rejects the explanation of the ibaraitathat distinguishes between coronation of a king and coronation of the king’s son: bRather, what is the day of igeinuseya /i?It is btheking’s bbirthday. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: Two gentile festivals are bthe day of igeinuseyaand the birthday.Once again, these two events cannot be the same. The Gemara answers: It is bnot difficult: This,the day of igeinuseya /i, is referring to the birthday of the king bhimself,whereas bthat,the birthday mentioned in the ibaraita /i, is referring to the birthday bof his son. /b,The Gemara further asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe day of igeinuseyaofthe king, bthe day of igeinuseyaof his son, andthe king’s bbirthday and the birthday of his son?If so, the igeinuseyacannot be either his or his son’s birthday. bRather, whatis meant by the bday of igeinuseya /i?In fact it is referring to the bday on whichthe gentiles bappointand crown btheir king. Andthe fact that a ibaraitamentions both the day of igeinuseyaand the day on which the gentiles appoint and crown their king is bnot difficult,as bthis,the day of igeinuseya /i, is referring to bhisown coronation, whereas bthat,the day on which the gentiles appoint and crown their king, is referring to the coronation bof his son. /b, bAnd ifit is bdifficult for you thatwhich was stated earlier, bthatthe Romans bdo not appointas bking the son of the king,in fact bthey do appointa son of the king as king bthrough the requestof the king. bFor example,there was bAsveirus, son of Antoninus, who ruledat the request of Antoninus.,The Gemara provides the background for this assertion. It is related that bAntoninus said to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bI wish for Asveirus my son to rule instead of me, and thatthe city bTiberias be released[ikelaneya/b] from paying taxes. bAnd if I tellthe Roman senate boneof my wishes, bthey will doas I wish, but if I ask for btwoof them bthey will not doas I wish. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi conveyed his answer in the following manner: bHe brought a man, placed him onthe shoulders of banotherman, band put a dove in the hands of the one on top. And he said to the one on the bottom: Tell the one on top that he should cause the dove to fly from his hands.Antoninus bsaidto himself: bLearn from itthat bthisis what Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bis saying to me: Youshould baskthe Senate: bLet Asveirus my son rule instead of me, and say to Asveirus that he should release Tiberiasfrom paying taxes.,Antoninus also bsaid toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bImportant Romans are upsetting me;what can I do about them? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bbrought him tohis bgarden,and bevery day he uprooted a radish from the garden bed before him.Antoninus bsaidto himself: bLearn from itthat bthisis what Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bis saying to me: Youshould bkill them oneby bone, and do not incite all of themat once.
57. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

91a. אמרה ליה ברתיה שבקיה ואנא מהדרנא ליה שני יוצרים יש בעירנו אחד יוצר מן המים ואחד יוצר מן הטיט איזה מהן משובח א"ל זה שיוצר מן המים א"ל מן המים צר מן הטיט לא כל שכן,דבי ר' ישמעאל תנא ק"ו מכלי זכוכית מה כלי זכוכית שעמלן ברוח בשר ודם נשברו יש להן תקנה בשר ודם שברוחו של הקב"ה על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ל ההוא מינא לר' אמי אמריתו דשכבי חיי והא הוו עפרא ועפרא מי קא חיי א"ל אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו לכו ובנו לי פלטרין גדולים במקום שאין מים ועפר הלכו ובנו אותו לימים נפלו אמר להם חזרו ובנו אותו במקום שיש עפר ומים אמרו לו אין אנו יכולין,כעס עליהם ואמר להן במקום שאין מים ועפר בניתם עכשיו שיש מים ועפר על אחת כמה וכמה ואם אי אתה מאמין צא לבקעה וראה עכבר שהיום חציו בשר וחציו אדמה למחר השריץ ונעשה כלו בשר שמא תאמר לזמן מרובה עלה להר וראה שהיום אין בו אלא חלזון אחד למחר ירדו גשמים ונתמלא כולו חלזונות,א"ל ההוא מינא לגביהא בן פסיסא ווי לכון חייביא דאמריתון מיתי חיין דחיין מיתי דמיתי חיין א"ל ווי לכון חייביא דאמריתון מיתי לא חיין דלא הוו חיי דהוי חיי לא כ"ש א"ל חייביא קרית לי אי קאימנא בעיטנא בך ופשיטנא לעקמותך מינך א"ל אם אתה עושה כן רופא אומן תקרא ושכר הרבה תטול,ת"ר בעשרים וארבעה בניסן איתנטילו דימוסנאי מיהודה ומירושלים כשבאו בני אפריקיא לדון עם ישראל לפני אלכסנדרוס מוקדון אמרו לו ארץ כנען שלנו היא דכתיב (במדבר לד, ב) ארץ כנען לגבולותיה וכנען אבוהון דהנהו אינשי הוה,אמר להו גביהא בן פסיסא לחכמים תנו לי רשות ואלך ואדון עמהן לפני אלכסנדרוס מוקדון אם ינצחוני אמרו הדיוט שבנו נצחתם ואם אני אנצח אותם אמרו להם תורת משה נצחתכם נתנו לו רשות והלך ודן עמהם,אמר להם מהיכן אתם מביאים ראייה אמרו לו מן התורה אמר להן אף אני לא אביא לכם ראייה אלא מן התורה שנאמר (בראשית ט, כה) ויאמר ארור כנען עבד עבדים יהיה לאחיו עבד שקנה נכסים עבד למי ונכסים למי ולא עוד אלא שהרי כמה שנים שלא עבדתונו,אמר להם אלכסנדרוס מלכא החזירו לו תשובה אמרו לו תנו לנו זמן שלשה ימים נתן להם זמן בדקו ולא מצאו תשובה מיד ברחו והניחו שדותיהן כשהן זרועות וכרמיהן כשהן נטועות ואותה שנה שביעית היתה,שוב פעם אחת באו בני מצרים לדון עם ישראל לפני אלכסנדרוס מוקדון אמרו לו הרי הוא אומר (שמות יב, לו) וה' נתן את חן העם בעיני מצרים וישאילום תנו לנו כסף וזהב שנטלתם ממנו,אמר גביהא בן פסיסא לחכמים תנו לי רשות ואלך ואדון עמהן לפני אלכסנדרוס אם ינצחוני אמרו להם הדיוט שבנו נצחתם ואם אני אנצח אותם אמרו להם תורת משה רבינו נצחתכם נתנו לו רשות והלך ודן עמהן,אמר להן מהיכן אתם מביאין ראייה אמרו לו מן התורה אמר להן אף אני לא אביא לכם ראייה אלא מן התורה שנאמר (שמות יב, מ) ומושב בני ישראל אשר ישבו במצרים שלשים שנה וארבע מאות שנה תנו לנו שכר עבודה של ששים ריבוא ששיעבדתם במצרים שלשים שנה וארבע מאות שנה,אמר להן אלכסנדרוס מוקדון החזירו לו תשובה אמרו לו תנו לנו זמן שלשה ימים נתן להם זמן בדקו ולא מצאו תשובה מיד הניחו שדותיהן כשהן זרועות וכרמיהן כשהן נטועות וברחו ואותה שנה שביעית היתה,ושוב פעם אחת באו בני ישמעאל ובני קטורה לדון עם ישראל לפני אלכסנדרוס מוקדון אמרו לו ארץ כנען שלנו ושלכם דכתיב (בראשית כה, יב) ואלה תולדות ישמעאל בן אברהם וכתיב (בראשית כה, יט) אלה תולדות יצחק בן אברהם,אמר להן גביהא בן פסיסא לחכמים תנו לי רשות ואלך ואדון עמהם לפני אלכסנדרוס מוקדון אם ינצחוני אמרו הדיוט שבנו נצחתם ואם אני אנצח אותם אמרו להם תורת משה רבינו נצחתכם נתנו לו רשות הלך ודן עמהן,אמר להם מהיכן אתם מביאין ראייה אמרו לו מן התורה אמר להן אף אני לא אביא ראייה אלא מן התורה שנאמר (בראשית כה, ה) ויתן אברהם את כל אשר לו ליצחק ולבני הפילגשים אשר לאברהם נתן אברהם מתנות אב שנתן אגטין לבניו בחייו ושיגר זה מעל זה כלום יש לזה על זה כלום מאי מתנות אמר ר' ירמיה בר אבא מלמד שמסר להם שם טומאה,אמר ליה אנטונינוס לרבי גוף ונשמה יכולין לפטור עצמן מן הדין כיצד גוף אומר נשמה חטאת שמיום שפירשה ממני הריני מוטל כאבן דומם בקבר ונשמה אומרת גוף חטא שמיום שפירשתי ממנו הריני פורחת באויר כצפור אמר ליה אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה למלך בשר ודם שהיה לו פרדס נאה והיה בו 91a. bThe daughter ofthe emperor bsaidto Rabban Gamliel: bLeave him, and I will respond to himwith a parable. She said: bThere are two craftsmen in our city; one fashionsvessels bfrom water, and one fashionsvessels bfrom mortar. Which is more noteworthy?The emperor bsaid to her:It is bthatcraftsman bthat fashionsvessels bfrom water.His daughter bsaid to him:If bhe fashionsa vessel bfrom the water, all the more sois it bnotclear that he can fashion vessels bfrom mortar?By the same token, if God was able to create the world from water, He is certainly able to resurrect people from dust., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat resurrection of the dead ia fortiorifrom glass vessels: Ifconcerning bglass vessels, which are fashioned by the breath ofthose of bflesh and blood,who blow and form the vessels, and yet if bthey break they can be repaired,as they can be melted and subsequently blown again, then with regard to those of bflesh and blood, whosesouls are a product of bthe breath of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more socan God restore them to life.,The Gemara relates that ba certain heretic said to Rabbi Ami: You say that the dead will live. Aren’t they dust? And does dust come to life?Rabbi Ami bsaid to him: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable bto a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Go and construct for me a great palace [ ipalterin /i] in a place where there is no water and earthavailable. bThey went and constructed it. Sometimelater, the palace bcollapsed.The king bsaid to them: Returnto your labor band constructthe palace bin a place where there is earth and wateravailable. bThey said to him: We are unableto do so.,The king bbecame angry at them and said to them:If bin a place where there is no water and earthavailable byou constructeda palace, bnow that there is water and earthavailable ball the more soshould you be able to do so. Similarly, concerning man, whom God created iex nihilo /i, all the more so will God be able to resurrect him from dust. bAnd if you do not believethat a being can be created from dust, bgo out to the valley and see an iakhbar /i,a creature bthat today is half flesh and half earth,and btomorrowthe being will bdevelop and all of it will become flesh. Lest you saythat creation of living creatures is a matter that develops bover an extended period, ascend a mountain and see that today there is only one snail there;then ascend btomorrow,after brainwill bhave fallen, andsee that bitwill be bentirely filled with snails. /b,The Gemara relates that ba certain heretic said to Geviha ben Pesisa: Woe unto you, the wicked, as you say: The dead will come to life.The way of the world is that bthosewho are balive die.How can you say bthat the dead will come to life?Geviha ben Pesisa bsaid to him: Woe unto you, the wicked, as you say: The dead will not come to life.If bthose who were notin existence bcome to life, is it notreasonable ball the more sothat bthose who wereonce balivewill come to life again? The heretic bsaid toGeviha ben Pesisa angrily: bYou called me wicked? If I stand, I will kick you and flatten your hump,as Geviha ben Pesisa was a hunchback. Geviha ben Pesisa bsaid to himjocularly: bIf you do so, you will be called an expert doctor and will take high wagesfor your services.,§ Apropos Geviha ben Pesisa and his cleverness in debate, the Gemara cites additional incidents where he represented the Jewish people in debates. bThe Sages taughtin iMegillat Ta’anit /i: bOn the twenty-fourthday bin Nisanit is a joyous day, since the busurpers [ idimusana’ei /i] were expelled from Judea and Jerusalem. When the people of Afrikiya came to judgment with the Jewish people beforethe emperor, bAlexander of Macedon, they said to him: The land of Canaan is ours, as it is written:“This is the land that shall fall to you as an inheritance, bthe land of Canaan according to its borders”(Numbers 34:2). bAndthe people of Afrikiya said, referring to themselves: bCanaan is the forefather of these people. /b, bGeviha ben Pesisa said to the Sages: Give me permission and I will go and deliberate with them before Alexander of Macedon. If they will defeat me, sayto them: bYou have defeated an ordinaryperson bfrom among us,and until you overcome our Sages, it is no victory. bAnd if I will defeat them, say to them: The Torah of Moses defeated you,and attribute no significance to me. The Sages bgave him permission, and he went and deliberated with them. /b,Geviha ben Pesisa bsaid to them: From where are you citing proofthat the land of Canaan is yours? bThey said to him: From the Torah.Geviha ben Pesisa bsaid to them: I too will cite proof to you only from the Torah, as it is stated: “And he said: Cursed will be Canaan; a slave of slaves shall he be to his brethren”(Genesis 9:25). And with regard to ba slave who acquired property,the bslavebelongs bto whomand the bpropertybelongs bto whom?The slave and his property belong to the master. bAnd moreover,it is bseveral yearsnow bthat you have not served us.Therefore, not only are you not entitled to the land, there are additional debts that must be repaid, as well as a return to enslavement., bAlexander the king said tothe people of Afrikiya: bProvideGeviha ben Pesisa with ba responseto his claims. bThey said toAlexander: bGive us time;give us bthree daysto consider the matter. The emperor bgave themthe requested btimeand bthey examinedthe matter band did not find a responseto the claims. bImmediately, they fled and abandoned their fields when theywere bsown and their vineyards when theywere bplanted.The Gemara adds: bAndsince bthat year was a SabbaticalYear, with the accompanying restrictions on agricultural activity, this benefited the Jewish people, as they were able to consume the produce of those fields and vineyards.,The Gemara relates: On banother occasion, the people of Egypt came to judgment with the Jewish people before Alexander of Macedon.The Egyptian people bsaid toAlexander: bIt saysin the Torah: b“And the Lord gave the people favor in the eyes of Egypt, and they lent them”(Exodus 12:36). bGive us the silver and gold that you took from us;you claimed that you were borrowing it and you never returned it., bGeviha ben Pesisa said to the Sages: Give me permission and I will go and deliberate with them before Alexanderof Macedon. bIf they will defeat me, sayto them: bYou have defeated an ordinaryperson bfrom among us,and until you overcome our Sages, it is no victory. bAnd if I will defeat them, say to them: The Torah of Moses, our teacher, defeated you,and attribute no significance to me. The Sages bgave him permission, and he went and deliberated with them. /b,Geviha ben Pesisa bsaid to them: From where are you citing proofthat you are entitled to the silver and gold? bThey said to him: From the Torah.Geviha ben Pesisa bsaid to them: I too will cite proof to you only from the Torah, as it is stated: “And the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years”(Exodus 12:40), during which they were enslaved to Egypt, engaged in hard manual labor. bGive us the wages for the workperformed bbythe b600,000men above the age of twenty (see Exodus 12:37) bwhom you enslaved in Egyptfor bfour hundred and thirty years. /b, bAlexander of Macedon said tothe people of Egypt: bProvideGeviha ben Pesisa with ba responseto his claims. bThey said to him: Give us time;give us bthree daysto consider the matter. The emperor bgave themthe requested btimeand bthey examinedthe matter band did not find a responseto the claims. bImmediately, they abandoned their fields when theywere bsown and their vineyards when theywere bplanted, and fled.The Gemara adds: bAnd that year was a SabbaticalYear.,The Gemara relates: bAndon banother occasion, the descendants of Ishmael and the descendants of Keturah came to judgment with the Jewish people before Alexander of Macedon. They said tothe Jewish people before Alexander: bThe land of Canaan isboth bours and yours, as it is written: “And these are the generations of Ishmael, son of Abraham,whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s maidservant, bore unto Abraham” (Genesis 25:12), band it is written: “And these are the generations of Isaac, son of Abraham”(Genesis 25:19). Therefore, the land should be divided between Abraham’s heirs., bGeviha ben Pesisa said to the Sages: Give me permission and I will go and deliberate with them before Alexander of Macedon. If they will defeat me, sayto them: bYou have defeated an ordinaryperson bfrom among us,and until you overcome our Sages, it is no victory. bAnd if I will defeat them, say to them: The Torah of Moses, our teacher, defeated you,and attribute no significance to me. The Sages bgave him permission, and he went and deliberated with them. /b,Geviha ben Pesisa bsaid tothe descendants of Ishmael: bFrom where are you citing proofthat the land of Canaan belongs to both you and the Jewish people? bThey said to him: From the Torah.Geviha ben Pesisa bsaid to them: I too will cite proof to you only from the Torah, as it is stated: “And Abraham gave all that he had to Isaac. But to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts,and he sent them away from his son, while he yet lived, eastward, to the east country” (Genesis 25:5–6). In the case of ba father who gave a document of bequest [ iagatin /i] to his sons during his lifetime and sent oneof the sons baway from the other, doesthe one who was sent away bhave any claim against the other?The father himself divided his property. The Gemara asks: bWhatwere these bgiftsthat Abraham gave to the sons of the concubines? bRabbi Yirmeya bar Abba says:This bteaches thatAbraham bprovided themwith the bnameof the supernatural spirit of bimpurity,enabling them to perform witchcraft.,§ Apropos exchanges with prominent gentile leaders, the Gemara cites an exchange where bAntoninos,the Roman emperor, bsaid to RabbiYehuda HaNasi: bThe body and the soul are able to exempt themselves from judgmentfor their sins. bHow so? The body says: The soul sinned, as from the dayof my death bwhen it departed from me, I am cast like a silent stone in the grave,and do not sin. bAnd the soul says: The body sinned, as from the day that I departed from it, I am flying in the air like a bird,incapable of sin. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable bto a king of flesh and blood who had a fine orchard, and in it there were /b
58. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

119a. עבידנא יומא טבא לרבנן אמר רבא תיתי לי דכי אתא צורבא מרבנן לקמאי לדינא לא מזיגנא רישי אבי סדיא כמה דלא מהפיכנא בזכותי' אמר מר בר רב אשי פסילנא ליה לצורבא מרבנן לדינא מ"ט דחביב עלי כגופאי ואין אדם רואה חובה לעצמו,רבי חנינא מיעטף וקאי אפניא דמעלי שבתא אמר בואו ונצא לקראת שבת המלכה רבי ינאי לביש מאניה מעלי שבת ואמר בואי כלה בואי כלה רבה בר רב הונא איקלע לבי רבה בר רב נחמן קריבו ליה תלת סאוי טחיי א"ל מי הוה ידעיתון דאתינא אמרו ליה מי עדיפת לן מינה,רבי אבא זבן בתליסר אסתירי פשיטי בישרא מתליסר טבחי ומשלים להו אצינורא דדשא ואמר להו אשור הייא אשור הייא ר' אבהו הוה יתיב אתכתקא דשינא ומושיף נורא רב ענן לביש גונדא דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל בגדים שבישל בהן קדירה לרבו אל ימזוג בהן כוס לרבו,רב ספרא מחריך רישא רבא מלח שיבוטא רב הונא מדליק שרגי רב פפא גדיל פתילתא רב חסדא פרים סילקא רבה ורב יוסף מצלחי ציבי ר' זירא מצתת צתותי רב נחמן בר יצחק מכתף ועייל מכתף ונפיק אמר אילו מקלעין לי ר' אמי ור' אסי מי לא מכתיפנא קמייהו ואיכא דאמרי ר' אמי ורבי אסי מכתפי ועיילי מכתפי ונפקי אמרי אילו איקלע לן רבי יוחנן מי לא מכתפינן קמיה,יוסף מוקיר שבי הוה ההוא נכרי בשבבותיה דהוה נפישי נכסיה טובא אמרי ליה כלדאי כולהו נכסי יוסף מוקר שבי אכיל להו אזל זבנינהו לכולהו ניכסי זבן בהו מרגניתא אותבה בסייניה בהדי דקא עבר מברא אפרחיה זיקא שדייה במיא בלעיה כוורא אסקוה אייתוה אפניא דמעלי שבתא אמרי מאן זבין כי השתא אמרי להו זילו אמטיוהו לגבי יוסף מוקר שבי דרגיל דזבין אמטיוה ניהליה זבניה קרעיה אשכח ביה מרגניתא זבניה בתליסר עיליתא דדינרי דדהבא פגע ביה ההוא סבא אמר מאן דיזיף שבתא פרעיה שבתא,בעא מיניה רבי מר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי עשירים שבא"י במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמעשרין שנאמר (דברים יד, כב) עשר תעשר עשר בשביל שתתעשר שבבבל במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמכבדין את התורה,ושבשאר ארצות במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמכבדין את השבת דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא פעם אחת נתארחתי אצל בעל הבית בלודקיא והביאו לפניו שלחן של זהב משוי ששה עשר בני אדם ושש עשרה שלשלאות של כסף קבועות בו וקערות וכוסות וקיתוניות וצלוחיות קבועות בו ועליו כל מיני מאכל וכל מיני מגדים ובשמים וכשמניחים אותו אומרים (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה וגו' וכשמסלקין אותו אומרים (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם אמרתי לו בני במה זכית לכך אמר לי קצב הייתי ומכל בהמה שהיתה נאה אמרתי זו תהא לשבת אמרתי לו [אשריך שזכית] וברוך המקום שזיכך לכך,א"ל קיסר לרבי יהושע בן חנניא מפני מה תבשיל של שבת ריחו נודף אמר לו תבלין אחד יש לנו ושבת שמו שאנו מטילין לתוכו וריחו נודף אמר לו תן לנו הימנו אמר לו כל המשמר את השבת מועיל לו ושאינו משמר את השבת אינו מועיל לו,א"ל ריש גלותא לרב המנונא מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו נח, יג) ולקדוש ה' מכובד א"ל זה יוה"כ שאין בו לא אכילה ולא שתיה אמרה תורה כבדהו בכסות נקיה וכבדתו רב אמר להקדים ושמואל אמר לאחר אמרו ליה בני רב פפא בר אבא לרב פפא כגון אנן דשכיח לן בישרא וחמרא כל יומא במאי נישנייה אמר להו אי רגיליתו לאקדומי אחרוה אי רגיליתו לאחרוה אקדמוה רב ששת בקיטא מותיב להו לרבנן היכא דמטיא שימשא בסיתוא מותיב להו לרבנן היכא דמטיא טולא כי היכי דליקומו הייא ר' זירא 119a. bI make a feast for the Sages. Rava said: May I receivemy reward bbecause when a young Torah scholar comes before me for judgment, I do not put my head on the pillow until I seekas many of bhis meritsas possible, based on conditions and his claims. bMar bar Rav Ashi said: I am disqualified tosit in bjudgment of a young Torah scholar. What is the reasonthat I am disqualified? It is bbecausethe Torah scholar bis as beloved to me as myown bself, and a person does not find fault in himself. /b,The Gemara now returns to the issue of delight in and deference to Shabbat. bRabbi Ḥanina would wrap himselfin his garment band stand at nightfall on Shabbat eve,and bsay: Come and we will go out to greet Shabbat the queen. Rabbi Yannai put on his garment on Shabbat eve and said: Enter, O bride. Enter, O bride.The Gemara relates: bRabba bar Rav Huna happenedto come bto the house of Rabba bar Rav Naḥman. They broughtbefore bhim three se’a of oiled biscuits.He bsaid to them: Did you know I was comingand prepared all of this in my honor? bThey said to him: Are youmore bimportant to us thanShabbat? The biscuits were prepared in deference to Shabbat., bRabbi Abba bought thirteen plain staters [ iastirei peshitei /i]worth half a izuz bof meat from thirteen butchersin deference to Shabbat, so that he would have various types of fine meat. bAnd he would placethe meats bat the door hingeat the entrance to his house to hurry to bring another type of meat. bAndhe bsaid tothe cooks, in order to rush them: bHurry and prepare it, hurry and prepare it.The Gemara also relates: bRabbi Abbahu would sit on an ivory chair [ itakhteka /i] and fan the firecooking the food for Shabbat, in order to play a role in preparations for Shabbat. bRav A would don asimple bblack garmentfor the Shabbat preparations, bas the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:While wearing the bgarments in which he cooked a potof food bfor his master, one should not dilute a cup of wine for his Master.One should wear a garment appropriate for the task at hand., bRav Safrawould broast the headof an animal to prepare it for Shabbat. bRava salteda ishibuta /ifish in deference to Shabbat. bRav Huna kindled lampsin deference to Shabbat. bRav Pappa spun the wicksfor the Shabbat lamp. bRav Ḥisda cut the beetsin preparation for Shabbat. bRabba and Rav Yosef cut wood. Rabbi Zeira prepared thin sticksfor kindling. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥakwould bloadobjects bon his shoulder and enter, loadobjects bon his shoulder and exit. He said: If Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi happened tovisit bme, would I not loadobjects bon my shoulder before them?So too, it is fitting to do so in deference to Shabbat. bAnd some saythat bRabbi Ami and Rabbi Asiwould bloadobjects bon their shoulders and enter, loadobjects bon their shoulders and exit. They said: If Rabbi Yoḥa happenedto come btovisit bus, would we not loadobjects bon our shoulders before him? /b,The Gemara relates with regard to bYosef who cherishes Shabbat: There was a gentile in his neighborhood whose property was extremely plentiful. The astrologers said tothe gentile with regard to ball his property: Yosef who cherishes Shabbat will consume it.The gentile bwent and sold all of his property,and with the money he received bhe bought a pearl,and he bplaced it in his hat. When he was crossing a riverin ba ferry, the wind blewhis hat band cast it into the water,and ba fish swallowed it.The fish bwascaught and bremovedfrom the water and bit was broughtto shore adjacent to bnightfall on Shabbat eve.The fishermen bsaid: Who buysfish at a time blike this?The townspeople bsaid tothe fishermen: bGo bring it to Yosef who cherishes Shabbat, as he regularly purchasesdelicacies in deference to Shabbat. bThey brought it to himand bhe purchased it. He rippedthe fish open and bfound a pearl inside it. He sold it for thirteen vessels filled with golden dinars( iTosafot /i). bThis elderly manwho bencountered him and said: One who lendsto bShabbat, Shabbat repays him. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei:With regard to bthe wealthy of Eretz Yisrael, by whatvirtue bdo they merittheir wealth? He bsaid to him: Because they tithe, as it is stated: “A tithe you shall tithe [ iasser te’asser /i]from all the crops of your seed that come out of the field each year” (Deuteronomy 14:22). The Sages interpreted this homiletically: bTake a tithe [ iasser /i] so that you will become wealthy [ ititasher /i].He asked: With regard to bthe wealthy of Babylonia,who are not obligated to tithe, bby whatvirtue bdo they merittheir wealth? He bsaid to him: Because they honor the Torahand the Sages in Babylonia.,With regard to bthe wealthy of other countries,where there are no Sages, bby whatvirtue bdo they merittheir wealth? He bsaid to him: Because they honor Shabbat, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: One time I was hosted atthe home of ba homeowner in Laodicea andthey bbrought before him a table of goldthat was so heavy it required bsixteen people to carry it, andthere were bsixteen chains of silver attached to it, andthere were bbowls and cups and pitchers and flasks attached to it, andthere were ball sorts of food, and delicacies, and fragrant spices on it. And when they placed itthere btheywould bsay: “The earth and all that fills it is God’s,the world and all that inhabit it” (Psalms 24:1). bAnd when they removed it theywould bsay: “The heavens are God’s heavens, but the earth He gave to mankind”(Psalms 115:16). bI said to him: My son, what did youdo to bmerit this? He said to me: I was a slaughterer, andwhen I would come across parts bfrom every animalthat I slaughtered that was bfine, I would say: This will be for Shabbat. I said to him: Happy are you that you meritedthis, band blessed is God, Who has afforded you this merit. /b,The Roman bemperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Why does the fragrance of a cooked Shabbat dish diffuse?He bsaid to him: We have a certain spice called dill [ ishevet /i], which we place inthe cooked dishes band its fragrance diffuses.The emperor bsaid to him: Give ussome bof it.He bsaid to him: For anyone who observes Shabbat,the spice bis effective, and for one who does not observe Shabbat, it is not effective. /b, bThe Exilarch said to Rav Hamnuna: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written, “The holy one of God is honored”(Isaiah 58:13)? Rav Hamnuna bsaid to him: That is Yom Kippur, when there is no eating or drinking,and so the bTorah said: Honor it with a clean garment.And with regard to that which is stated about Shabbat, b“And you shall honor it,” Rav said: Tohonor Shabbat, bmakethe Shabbat feast bearlierthan on other days, in order to show that one delights in eating it. bAnd Shmuel said: Tohonor Shabbat, bmakethe Shabbat feast blater,so that one’s appetite will be greater. bThe sons of Rav Pappa bar Abba said to Rav Pappa:People blike us, for whom meat and wine is foundon our table bevery day, in whatmanner bcan we change iton Shabbat? He bsaid to them: If you are accustomed toeating your meal bearly, make it lateron Shabbat; bif you are accustomed to making it late, make it earlieron Shabbat. This difference will underscore the uniqueness of Shabbat. The Gemara relates: bIn the summer, Rav Sheshet would seat the Sageswho attended his lecture in a place bwhere the sun would reach; in the winter, he would seat the Sagesin a place bwhere the shade would reach.He did this bsothat bthey would stand quicklyafter the lecture ended and not engage in discussion, which would detract from the time devoted to delighting in Shabbat. bRabbi Zeira /b
59. Origen, Against Celsus, 6.61 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.61. Again, not understanding the meaning of the words, And God ended on the sixth day His works which He had made, and ceased on the seventh day from all His works which He had made: and God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it, because on it He had ceased from all His works which He had begun to make; and imagining the expression, He ceased on the seventh day, to be the same as this, He rested on the seventh day, he makes the remark: After this, indeed, he is weary, like a very bad workman, who stands in need of rest to refresh himself! For he knows nothing of the day of the Sabbath and rest of God, which follows the completion of the world's creation, and which lasts during the duration of the world, and in which all those will keep festival with God who have done all their works in their six days, and who, because they have omitted none of their duties, will ascend to the contemplation (of celestial things), and to the assembly of righteous and blessed beings. In the next place, as if either the Scriptures made such a statement, or as if we ourselves so spoke of God as having rested from fatigue, he continues: It is not in keeping with the fitness of things that the first God should feel fatigue, or work with His hands, or give forth commands. Celsus says, that it is not in keeping with the fitness of things that the first God should feel fatigue. Now we would say that neither does God the Word feel fatigue, nor any of those beings who belong to a better and diviner order of things, because the sensation of fatigue is peculiar to those who are in the body. You can examine whether this is true of those who possess a body of any kind, or of those who have an earthly body, or one a little better than this. But neither is it consistent with the fitness of things that the first God should work with His own hands. If you understand the words work with His own hands literally, then neither are they applicable to the second God, nor to any other being partaking of divinity. But suppose that they are spoken in an improper and figurative sense, so that we may translate the following expressions, And the firmament shows forth His handywork, and the heavens are the work of Your hands, and any other similar phrases, in a figurative manner, so far as respects the hands and limbs of Deity, where is the absurdity in the words, God thus working with His own hands? And as there is no absurdity in God thus working, so neither is there in His issuing commands; so that what is done at His bidding should be beautiful and praiseworthy, because it was God who commanded it to be performed.
60. Anon., Midrash Psalms, 50.1 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)

50.1. ... “From the rising of the sun until its setting…” (Psalms 113:3) When flesh and blood wants to make an image, it begins with the head and ends with the feet or begins with the feet and ends with the head. Not so the Holy One! When He makes man, He shapes him all at once, as it says “…for He is the One Who formed everything…” (Jeremiah 10:16) This is ‘from the rising of the sun until its setting.’ And from where do we learn that He created it from Zion? As it says “From Zion, the finery (miclal) of beauty…” (Psalms 50:2) From out of (m’clal) the beauty of the world. What does ‘appeared’ mean? Illuminated. Appearance always refers to light, as it says “…and causes the light of His cloud to appear.” (Job 37:15) From where do we learn that this is speaking of the world? It says here miclal and it says elsewhere “Now the heavens and the earth were completed (vay’chulu)…” (Genesis 2:1) And when He destroys it, He will start from Zion, as it says “And I will make Jerusalem heaps of ruin…” (Jeremiah 9:10) and afterwards “All the land shall be a desolation…” (Jeremiah 4:27) And it says “And the land shall become desolate with its inhabitants…” (Micah 7:13) And at the time when the Holy One renews His world He will renew it from Zion, as it says “…the mountain of the Lord's house shall be firmly established at the top of the mountains…” (Isaiah 2:2)"
61. Didymus, In Genesim, 57, 56 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

62. Eunapius, Lives of The Philosophers, 475 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

63. Anon., 4 Ezra, 6.20, 14.5

6.20. and when the seal is placed upon the age which is about to pass away, then I will show these signs: the books shall be opened before the firmament, and all shall see it together. 14.5. and I told him many wondrous things, and showed him the secrets of the times and declared to him the end of the times. Then I commanded him, saying
64. Anon., 4 Baruch, 3.8, 6.13, 8.2

3.8. And Jeremiah said: Behold, Lord, now we know that you are delivering the city into the hands of its enemies, and they will take the people away to Babylon. What do you want me to do with the holy vessels of the temple service? 6.13. We beseech and beg of your goodness -- you whose great name no one is able to know -- hear the voice of your servants and let knowledge come into our hearts. 6.13. These, then, are the words which the Lord, the God of Israel, spoke, who led us out of Egypt, out of the great furnace: Because you did not keep my ordices, but your heart was lifted up, and you were haughty before me, in anger and wrath I delivered you to the furnace in Babylon. 8.2. And the Lord said to Jeremiah: Rise up -- you and the people -- and come to the Jordan and say to the people: Let anyone who desires the Lord forsake the works of Babylon.
65. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 66, 74, 59

59. wrought on its three sides. For it was triangular in shape and the style of the work was exactly the same on each of the sides, so that whichever side they were turned, they presented the same appearance. of the two sides under the border, the one which sloped down to the table was a very
66. Aristobulus, Ap. Euseb. Praep. Evang., 13.12.9, 13.12.12

67. Rutilius Namatianus Claudius, Itinerarium, 1.391-1.392

68. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 3.462



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(artapanus), source of greek wisdom Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144
abel Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
abraham Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
abraham (abram), promises Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 244
abrham ibn ezra Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
adam, birth Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 51
adam, condition of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
adam, creation of Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 51
adam, faculty of discernment Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
adam, name, spelling of Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
adam, naming of the beasts Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 276
adam, rib Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 174
adam, yearning of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
admonition on the flood Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35
ages of the world Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 155
alexander polyhistor, theodotus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
alexander polyhistor Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
alexandria Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 73
allegorical commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
analogy Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 72
angels Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 91, 92; Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35
anger, god (lord), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
anger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
anthropomorphism Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 276
antoninus Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 41
appropriation (οἰκείωσις), philo of alexandria on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
appropriation (οἰκείωσις), stoics on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
aristobulus, exegetical interests Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144
aristobulus, gods resting Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144, 146
aristobulus, sabbath, philosophical respectability Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144, 146
aristobulus, walter, n. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144
aristobulus Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 72, 73; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144, 146
aristotelian tradition Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 72, 73
aristotle Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 72, 73
ben sira Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35
blessing Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1062
blessing , goes together with sanctity Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
book of jubilees Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 90, 91, 92
boyarin, daniel Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
buber, martin, emphasized the active way Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
buber, martin Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 208
cain, seven sins, judgement Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
cain Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
carrying, prohibited on sabbath, biblical referents, in dead dea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 200
cassuto, umberto Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
catena(e) Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 188
chaos, answers gods appeal by giving birth Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171
chaos Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171
choice (αἵρεσις), philo of alexandria on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
chosenness Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 60
christian/christianity Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
church, typology of blood and water Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 51, 65, 174
church, typology phares zara Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 65
circumcision Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
commentary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
contradiction Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 86
cosmology Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 72
creation, and divine name Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 130
creation, as a dialogic act Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 208
creation, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
creation, ex nihilo or ex materia? Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 185, 188
creation, in midrashim, and their relation to the dialogic reading Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185, 188
creation, reflects parallelism between the work of man and god Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
creation, significance of, by joining together opposites Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
creation Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 90, 91, 92; Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 8; Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 185, 188, 208
creation myths, in feminine and masculine respect Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 185, 188
creation myths Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 185, 188
creation of the world Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 72, 73
creativity, and dialogic life Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
creativity, as gods gift to man Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
creativity Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 185, 188, 208
cult of ištar, non-alignment with priestly sabbath Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 60
curses Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35
cycle, patriarchal, abrahamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
cycle, patriarchal, adamic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
cycle, patriarchal, noahic Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
day, seven Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
day, seventh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061, 1062
day, six Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061, 1062
de genesi ad litteram, structure Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 93
delight Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1062
dialogue, and creation as a dialogic act Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 185, 188, 208
dialogue, difference between sexual mundane act and sanctified act of Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
dialogue, in midrashim Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185
dialogue Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
divine presence Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
divine presence (shekhinah) Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
divine transcendence Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
dualistic conception, is it in the priestly creation myth? Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185
eden, as a condition Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 3
eden, localization of Neusner, The Theology of Halakha (2001) 3
eden, restored Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
eden Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 51, 86
egyptian god, amo(u)n, ʾehyeh Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
elect group Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35
election, church from gentiles Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 65
enoch Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 65
enosh Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 65
estrangement Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
etymologies, of noah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 178
eucharist Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 55
euripides Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 146
eusebius of emesa, paradise narrative Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
eusebius of emesa, questions formulations Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
eve, ignorance of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
evil, in the creation myth, according to knohl Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185, 188
evil, was not created by god Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185, 188
evil Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185, 188
expulsion, paradise, from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
extant Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35
fear of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
festival Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35
flood Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 130
flood narrative, in bible Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 60
food Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95
formal structure of law in dead sea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 200
frazer, j. Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 55
frisch, amos Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
fruit, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
fruit Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 8; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
gehenna Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 60
gideon son of joash (biblical figure) Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171
ginzberg, louis Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
glory, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
glory, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
glory, shekhinah related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
goat Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1062
god, and the creation Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 185, 188
god, anger of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, compassion of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, creator, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, eternal creativity Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 146, 147
god, hands of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
god, indefatigable Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
god, laziness, pagan critique Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144
god, resting Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144
god Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 185, 188; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 72, 73
gods, philo of alexandria on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
gog and magog Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 60
golden calf Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 130
good, god found all that he had made very good Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185
greek culture Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 178
ha-kohen, zadok (zadok hakohen rabinowitz of lublin) Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
halakhah, theology of Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
heaven Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 51
heavenly voice Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
hellenistic synagogal prayers Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 126
hesiod Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144
holy coupling Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
holy spirit, scriptural interpretation Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 86
homeric commentary, contradiction Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 268
hovering, ruach elohim over the waters Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185
hovering Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185
hypostasis, voice as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
hypostasis, yahweh as Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
hēgemonikon Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 280
i-thou Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
idolatry Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 60
imago dei Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188, 208
inauguration of the tabernacle, as paralleling creation narrative Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 88
inauguration of the tabernacle, in exodus Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 88
israel, in halakhic theology Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
israel, restoration to the land Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784, 1061
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35
jacob, altar Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 67
jacob Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
jerusalem Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
jesus Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 55
jews, alexandrian Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 73
jews and jewish tradition, apologetic for Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 178
josephus, titus flavius Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
joy Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1062
jubilees, literary unit Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 274
judaism, sabbath, birthday of world Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
judaism, sabbath observance Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
judaism, seven symbolism Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
judaism, source of greek wisdom Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144
judaism Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
kasher, shimon Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171
kaufmann, yehezkel Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185
king, narrative Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 130
knohl, israel, against kaufmanns reading in the creation myth Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185
koren, israel Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
kosman, admiel Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
labor, as intimate contact with the material Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
labor, as punishment, using alienated material Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
labor Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
land of israel Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
lemma, main/primary Cover, Philo of Alexandria: On the Change of Names (2023) 9
lent Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 51
literal interpretation Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 73
liturgy Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35
logos Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 8
love-rites Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 55
love of god (θεοφιλία) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
love of self (φιλαυτία) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
magic, late 19th and early 20th century definitions of Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 55
masculine-feminine relationship Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 185
masculinity, and feeling guilt for having vulgar structure Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
melchizedek Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 65
memra, shekhinah (and voice) related to Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
mercy of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
mesopotamian account Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 88
metaphorical interpretation, of the timaeus Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 72
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1062
midrash, based on intertextual technique, creative, freedom of the rabbis Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
midrash, based on intertextual technique Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
moses, timaeus and genesis creation story Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
moses Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 130; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
moses (mosaic) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
mourning Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061, 1062
nahmanides (moses ben nahman)nan Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171
name (divine), creation with Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 130
natural law Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
noah, flood Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 86
noah, name of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 178
noah, sons Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 65, 94
noah Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 178
non-literal interpretation, adams rib Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 174
non-literal interpretation, hexaplaric readings Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 174
non-literal interpretation, typology Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 65
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
okeanos Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 130
opposites, significance of creation in joining together opposites Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
origen, scholia on genesis Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 276
osiris, other Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
oxen, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
pagan Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 33
paradise, traveling (journey or foray) to/from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
paradise, vicinity of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
passions, unnatural motion denoting Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 178
peripatetics Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 73
pharaoh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
philo Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 73
philo judeas Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 280
philo of alexandria, and hellenistic judaism Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, creation eternal Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
philo of alexandria, gods eternal creativity Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 146, 147
philo of alexandria, gods indefatigability Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
philo of alexandria, gods resting Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 146, 147
philo of alexandria, on abel Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on appropriation (οἰκείωσις) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on cain Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on choice (προαίρεσις) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on likeness to/imitating god (ὁμοίωσις θεῷ) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on love for (one-)self (φιλαυτία) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on love for god/being loved by god (θεοφιλία) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria, on virtue (ἀρετή) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90
philo of alexandria Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 90; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 146, 147
philosopher, conversation with rabban gamaliel Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
philosophy Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 73
piyyut Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 8
plato Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 72; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
plutarch Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 72
prayers Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35
pride, priest, vestments of Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
priest, temple sacrifice and Heo, Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages (2023) 99
priestly creation myth, reflects the birth from womb of chaos Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 185, 188
priestly creation myth Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171, 185, 188
qedushat ha-yom Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 126
questions-and-answers Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 51
rabban gamaliel, his conversation with the philosopher Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
rabbis (khazal), their awareness of the simple meaning of scripture Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
rabbis (khazal) Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
reader, of aristobulus Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 73
reason, senses controlled by Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 178
reason/rational Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 280
rejoicing Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1062
rest, noahs name meaning Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 178
rest, sabbath and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 178
resurrection Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 65
righteousness/the righteous/the just Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 155
righteousness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 611
sabbath, and sanctity, end of the creation passage Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 185, 188
sabbath, birthday of world Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 147
sabbath, in p Ganzel and Holtz, Contextualizing Jewish Temples (2020) 60
sabbath, philosophical respectability Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144
sabbath, the Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 55
sabbath Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 90, 91, 92; Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 35; Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 178; Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 95; Kattan Gribetz et al., Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (2016) 33; Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 274; Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 126
sackcloth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1061
sacrifice, hindu Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 55
sadism, against women, as part of the act of intercourse Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 208
sammael Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 8
satayēl Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 8
savoraitic redaction, does it refers to gods will? Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171
savoraitic redaction, means also reaching a conclusion Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171
savoraitic redaction, saying, in biblical hebrew Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 171
schalit a. Kosman, Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism (2012) 188
scripture, and halakhah Neusner Green and Avery-Peck, Judaism from Moses to Muhammad: An Interpretation: Turning Points and Focal Points (2022) 222
sea, boundaries Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 130
sea, divine strife with Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 130
septuagint Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 72
seven, the number, associated with peace Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 178
seven benedictions for the sabbath Van der Horst, Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2014) 126
seven seals Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 155
seven symbolism Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 144