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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.19-2.20


וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof.


nanAnd the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

65 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 3.4, 4.13-4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.4. כִּמְעַט שֶׁעָבַרְתִּי מֵהֶם עַד שֶׁמָּצָאתִי אֵת שֶׁאָהֲבָה נַפְשִׁי אֲחַזְתִּיו וְלֹא אַרְפֶּנּוּ עַד־שֶׁהֲבֵיאתִיו אֶל־בֵּית אִמִּי וְאֶל־חֶדֶר הוֹרָתִי׃ 4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 3.4. Scarce had I passed from them, When I found him whom my soul loveth: I held him, and would not let him go, Until I had brought him into my mother’s house, And into the chamber of her that conceived me. 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.41, 20.5-20.7, 21.15, 22.5, 28.28, 32.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.41. וַתַּעֲנוּ וַתֹּאמְרוּ אֵלַי חָטָאנוּ לַיהוָה אֲנַחְנוּ נַעֲלֶה וְנִלְחַמְנוּ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּנוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַתַּחְגְּרוּ אִישׁ אֶת־כְּלֵי מִלְחַמְתּוֹ וַתָּהִינוּ לַעֲלֹת הָהָרָה׃ 20.5. וְדִבְּרוּ הַשֹּׁטְרִים אֶל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר מִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה בַיִת־חָדָשׁ וְלֹא חֲנָכוֹ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יַחְנְכֶנּוּ׃ 20.6. וּמִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־נָטַע כֶּרֶם וְלֹא חִלְּלוֹ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יְחַלְּלֶנּוּ׃ 20.7. וּמִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֵרַשׂ אִשָּׁה וְלֹא לְקָחָהּ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יִקָּחֶנָּה׃ 21.15. כִּי־תִהְיֶיןָ לְאִישׁ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים הָאַחַת אֲהוּבָה וְהָאַחַת שְׂנוּאָה וְיָלְדוּ־לוֹ בָנִים הָאֲהוּבָה וְהַשְּׂנוּאָה וְהָיָה הַבֵּן הַבְּכוֹר לַשְּׂנִיאָה׃ 22.5. לֹא־יִהְיֶה כְלִי־גֶבֶר עַל־אִשָּׁה וְלֹא־יִלְבַּשׁ גֶּבֶר שִׂמְלַת אִשָּׁה כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה׃ 28.28. יַכְּכָה יְהוָה בְּשִׁגָּעוֹן וּבְעִוָּרוֹן וּבְתִמְהוֹן לֵבָב׃ 32.24. מְזֵי רָעָב וּלְחֻמֵי רֶשֶׁף וְקֶטֶב מְרִירִי וְשֶׁן־בְּהֵמוֹת אֲשַׁלַּח־בָּם עִם־חֲמַת זֹחֲלֵי עָפָר׃ 1.41. Then ye answered and said unto me: ‘We have sinned against the LORD, we will go up and fight, according to all that the LORD our God commanded us.’ And ye girded on every man his weapons of war, and deemed it a light thing to go up into the hill-country." 20.5. And the officers shall speak unto the people, saying: ‘What man is there that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it." 20.6. And what man is there that hath planted a vineyard, and hath not used the fruit thereof? let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man use the fruit thereof." 20.7. And what man is there that hath betrothed a wife, and hath not taken her? let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man take her.’" 21.15. If a man have two wives, the one beloved, and the other hated, and they have borne him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the first-born son be hers that was hated;" 22.5. A woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman’s garment; for whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD thy God." 28.28. The LORD will smite thee with madness, and with blindness, and with astonishment of heart." 32.24. The wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the fiery bolt, And bitter destruction; And the teeth of beasts will I send upon them, With the venom of crawling things of the dust."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 14.14, 20.11, 25.8, 25.39, 31.17, 38.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.14. יְהוָה יִלָּחֵם לָכֶם וְאַתֶּם תַּחֲרִישׁוּן׃ 20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 25.8. וְעָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם׃ 25.39. כִּכָּר זָהָב טָהוֹר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ אֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 31.17. בֵּינִי וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹת הִוא לְעֹלָם כִּי־שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שָׁבַת וַיִּנָּפַשׁ׃ 14.14. The LORD will fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.’" 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 25.8. And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them." 25.39. of a talent of pure gold shall it be made, with all these vessels." 31.17. It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He ceased from work and rested.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1, 1.1-2.4, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.9, 1.10, 1.12, 1.14, 1.16, 1.18, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.15, 4.26, 5.1, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 15.6, 20.7, 24.21, 27.3, 28.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.7. וְהֵמָּה כְּאָדָם עָבְרוּ בְרִית שָׁם בָּגְדוּ בִי׃ 6.7. But they like men have transgressed the covet; There have they dealt treacherously against Me."
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, 4.12, 42.11-42.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וְאֵלַי דָּבָר יְגֻנָּב וַתִּקַּח אָזְנִי שֵׁמֶץ מֶנְהוּ׃ 42.11. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־אֶחָיו וְכָל־אחיתיו [אַחְיוֹתָיו] וְכָל־יֹדְעָיו לְפָנִים וַיֹּאכְלוּ עִמּוֹ לֶחֶם בְּבֵיתוֹ וַיָּנֻדוּ לוֹ וַיְנַחֲמוּ אֹתוֹ עַל כָּל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִיא יְהוָה עָלָיו וַיִּתְּנוּ־לוֹ אִישׁ קְשִׂיטָה אֶחָת וְאִישׁ נֶזֶם זָהָב אֶחָד׃ 42.12. וַיהוָה בֵּרַךְ אֶת־אַחֲרִית אִיּוֹב מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ וַיְהִי־לוֹ אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר אֶלֶף צֹאן וְשֵׁשֶׁת אֲלָפִים גְּמַלִּים וְאֶלֶף־צֶמֶד בָּקָר וְאֶלֶף אֲתוֹנוֹת׃ 4.12. Now a word was secretly brought to me, And mine ear received a whisper thereof." 42.11. Then came there unto him all his brethren, and all his sisters, and all they that had been of his acquaintance before, and did eat bread with him in his house; and they bemoaned him, and comforted him concerning all the evil that the LORD had brought upon him; every man also gave him a piece of money, and every one a ring of gold." 42.12. So the LORD blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning; and he had fourteen thousand sheep, and six thousand camels, and a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she-asses. ."
7. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 1.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. וַיִּירְאוּ הַמַּלָּחִים וַיִּזְעֲקוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אֱלֹהָיו וַיָּטִלוּ אֶת־הַכֵּלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאֳנִיָּה אֶל־הַיָּם לְהָקֵל מֵעֲלֵיהֶם וְיוֹנָה יָרַד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי הַסְּפִינָה וַיִּשְׁכַּב וַיֵּרָדַם׃ 1.5. And the mariners were afraid, and cried every man unto his god; and they cast forth the wares that were in the ship into the sea, to lighten it unto them. But Jonah was gone down into the innermost parts of the ship; and he lay, and was fast asleep."
8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.8, 11.10, 11.24-11.25, 11.27-11.28, 11.31, 11.39-11.40, 11.46, 15.4, 15.16, 20.10, 21.1-21.4, 22.12-22.13, 24.17, 26.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.8. מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָם לֹא תִגָּעוּ טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם׃ 11.24. וּלְאֵלֶּה תִּטַּמָּאוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.25. וְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂא מִנִּבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.27. וְכֹל הוֹלֵךְ עַל־כַּפָּיו בְּכָל־הַחַיָּה הַהֹלֶכֶת עַל־אַרְבַּע טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.28. וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב טְמֵאִים הֵמָּה לָכֶם׃ 11.31. אֵלֶּה הַטְּמֵאִים לָכֶם בְּכָל־הַשָּׁרֶץ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.39. וְכִי יָמוּת מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר־הִיא לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 11.46. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף וְכֹל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם וּלְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶצֶת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 15.4. כָּל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו הַזָּב יִטְמָא וְכָל־הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵשֵׁב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 15.16. וְאִישׁ כִּי־תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 21.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו׃ 21.1. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו אֲ‍שֶׁר־יוּצַק עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמִלֵּא אֶת־יָדוֹ לִלְבֹּשׁ אֶת־הַבְּגָדִים אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ לֹא יִפְרָע וּבְגָדָיו לֹא יִפְרֹם׃ 21.2. כִּי אִם־לִשְׁאֵרוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו לְאִמּוֹ וּלְאָבִיו וְלִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ וּלְאָחִיו׃ 21.2. אוֹ־גִבֵּן אוֹ־דַק אוֹ תְּבַלֻּל בְּעֵינוֹ אוֹ גָרָב אוֹ יַלֶּפֶת אוֹ מְרוֹחַ אָשֶׁךְ׃ 21.3. וְלַאֲחֹתוֹ הַבְּתוּלָה הַקְּרוֹבָה אֵלָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָיְתָה לְאִישׁ לָהּ יִטַּמָּא׃ 21.4. לֹא יִטַּמָּא בַּעַל בְּעַמָּיו לְהֵחַלּוֹ׃ 22.12. וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ זָר הִוא בִּתְרוּמַת הַקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא תֹאכֵל׃ 22.13. וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וְזֶרַע אֵין לָהּ וְשָׁבָה אֶל־בֵּית אָבִיהָ כִּנְעוּרֶיהָ מִלֶּחֶם אָבִיהָ תֹּאכֵל וְכָל־זָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 24.17. וְאִישׁ כִּי יַכֶּה כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 26.22. וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּי בָכֶם אֶת־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְשִׁכְּלָה אֶתְכֶם וְהִכְרִיתָה אֶת־בְּהֶמְתְּכֶם וְהִמְעִיטָה אֶתְכֶם וְנָשַׁמּוּ דַּרְכֵיכֶם׃ 11.8. of their flesh ye shall not eat, and their carcasses ye shall not touch; they are unclean unto you." 11.10. And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that swarm in the waters, and of all the living creatures that are in the waters, they are a detestable thing unto you," 11.24. And by these ye shall become unclean; whosoever toucheth the carcass of them shall be unclean until even." 11.25. And whosoever beareth aught of the carcass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even." 11.27. And whatsoever goeth upon its paws, among all beasts that go on all fours, they are unclean unto you; whoso toucheth their carcass shall be unclean until the even." 11.28. And he that beareth the carcass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; they are unclean unto you." 11.31. These are they which are unclean to you among all that swarm; whosoever doth touch them, when they are dead, shall be unclean until the even." 11.39. And if any beast, of which ye may eat, die, he that toucheth the carcass thereof shall be unclean until the even." 11.40. And he that eateth of the carcass of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; he also that beareth the carcass of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even." 11.46. This is the law of the beast, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that swarmeth upon the earth;" 15.4. Every bed whereon he that hath the issue lieth shall be unclean; and every thing whereon he sitteth shall be unclean. ." 15.16. And if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even." 20.10. And the man that committeth adultery with another man’s wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour’s wife, both the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death." 21.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them: There shall none defile himself for the dead among his people;" 21.2. except for his kin, that is near unto him, for his mother, and for his father, and for his son, and for his daughter, and for his brother;" 21.3. and for his sister a virgin, that is near unto him, that hath had no husband, for her may he defile himself." 21.4. He shall not defile himself, being a chief man among his people, to profane himself." 22.12. And if a priest’s daughter be married unto a common man, she shall not eat of that which is set apart from the holy things." 22.13. But if a priest’s daughter be a widow, or divorced, and have no child, and is returned unto her father’s house, as in her youth, she may eat of her father’s bread; but there shall no common man" 24.17. And he that smiteth any man mortally shall surely be put to death." 26.22. And I will send the beast of the field among you, which shall rob you of your children, and destroy your cattle, and make you few in number; and your ways shall become desolate."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.15, 9.13, 11.29, 19.11, 19.13-19.16, 21.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.15. וְהֵבִיא הָאִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנָהּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵיפָה קֶמַח שְׂעֹרִים לֹא־יִצֹק עָלָיו שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלָיו לְבֹנָה כִּי־מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הוּא מִנְחַת זִכָּרוֹן מַזְכֶּרֶת עָוֺן׃ 9.13. וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־הוּא טָהוֹר וּבְדֶרֶךְ לֹא־הָיָה וְחָדַל לַעֲשׂוֹת הַפֶּסַח וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ כִּי קָרְבַּן יְהוָה לֹא הִקְרִיב בְּמֹעֲדוֹ חֶטְאוֹ יִשָּׂא הָאִישׁ הַהוּא׃ 11.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מֹשֶׁה הַמְקַנֵּא אַתָּה לִי וּמִי יִתֵּן כָּל־עַם יְהוָה נְבִיאִים כִּי־יִתֵּן יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 19.11. הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃ 19.14. זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה אָדָם כִּי־יָמוּת בְּאֹהֶל כָּל־הַבָּא אֶל־הָאֹהֶל וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאֹהֶל יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.15. וְכֹל כְּלִי פָתוּחַ אֲשֶׁר אֵין־צָמִיד פָּתִיל עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא׃ 19.16. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בַּחֲלַל־חֶרֶב אוֹ בְמֵת אוֹ־בְעֶצֶם אָדָם אוֹ בְקָבֶר יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 21.1. וַיִּשְׁמַע הַכְּנַעֲנִי מֶלֶךְ־עֲרָד יֹשֵׁב הַנֶּגֶב כִּי בָּא יִשְׂרָאֵל דֶּרֶךְ הָאֲתָרִים וַיִּלָּחֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּשְׁבְּ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁבִי׃ 21.1. וַיִּסְעוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּחֲנוּ בְּאֹבֹת׃ 5.15. then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is a meal-offering of jealousy, a meal-offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance." 9.13. But the man that is clean, and is not on a journey, and forbeareth to keep the passover, that soul shall be cut off from his people; because he brought not the offering of the LORD in its appointed season, that man shall bear his sin." 11.29. And Moses said unto him: ‘Art thou jealous for my sake? would that all the LORD’S people were prophets, that the LORD would put His spirit upon them! ’" 19.11. He that toucheth the dead, even any man’s dead body, shall be unclean seven days;" 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him." 19.14. This is the law: when a man dieth in a tent, every one that cometh into the tent, and every thing that is in the tent, shall be unclean seven days." 19.15. And every open vessel, which hath no covering close-bound upon it, is unclean." 19.16. And whosoever in the open field toucheth one that is slain with a sword, or one that dieth of himself, or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days." 21.1. And the Canaanite, the king of Arad, who dwelt in the South, heard tell that Israel came by the way of Atharim; and he fought against Israel, and took some of them captive."
10. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 24.12, 26.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.12. כִּי־תֹאמַר הֵן לֹא־יָדַעְנוּ זֶה הֲ‍לֹא־תֹכֵן לִבּוֹת הוּא־יָבִין וְנֹצֵר נַפְשְׁךָ הוּא יֵדָע וְהֵשִׁיב לְאָדָם כְּפָעֳלוֹ׃ 26.18. כְּמִתְלַהְלֵהַּ הַיֹּרֶה זִקִּים חִצִּים וָמָוֶת׃ 24.12. If thou sayest: ‘Behold, we knew not this’, Doth not He that weigheth the hearts consider it? And He that keepeth thy soul, doth not He know it? And shall not He render to every man according to his works?" 26.18. As a madman who casteth firebrands, Arrows, and death;"
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.6-8.8, 33.6, 79.9, 104.14, 104.17-104.18, 104.20-104.21, 104.24-104.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8. צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃ 33.6. בִּדְבַר יְהוָה שָׁמַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ וּבְרוּחַ פִּיו כָּל־צְבָאָם׃ 79.9. עָזְרֵנוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׁעֵנוּ עַל־דְּבַר כְּבוֹד־שְׁמֶךָ וְהַצִּילֵנוּ וְכַפֵּר עַל־חַטֹּאתֵינוּ לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ׃ 104.14. מַצְמִיחַ חָצִיר לַבְּהֵמָה וְעֵשֶׂב לַעֲבֹדַת הָאָדָם לְהוֹצִיא לֶחֶם מִן־הָאָרֶץ׃ 104.17. אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם צִפֳּרִים יְקַנֵּנוּ חֲסִידָה בְּרוֹשִׁים בֵּיתָהּ׃ 104.18. הָרִים הַגְּבֹהִים לַיְּעֵלִים סְלָעִים מַחְסֶה לַשְׁפַנִּים׃ 104.21. הַכְּפִירִים שֹׁאֲגִים לַטָּרֶף וּלְבַקֵּשׁ מֵאֵל אָכְלָם׃ 104.24. מָה־רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ׃ 104.25. זֶה הַיָּם גָּדוֹל וּרְחַב יָדָיִם שָׁם־רֶמֶשׂ וְאֵין מִסְפָּר חַיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת עִם־גְּדֹלוֹת׃ 104.26. שָׁם אֳנִיּוֹת יְהַלֵּכוּן לִוְיָתָן זֶה־יָצַרְתָּ לְשַׂחֶק־בּוֹ׃ 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 8.8. Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;" 33.6. By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; And all the host of them by the breath of His mouth." 79.9. Help us, O God of our salvation, for the sake of the glory of Thy name; And deliver us, and forgive our sins, for Thy name's sake." 104.14. Who causeth the grass to spring up for the cattle, And herb for the service of man; To bring forth bread out of the earth," 104.17. Wherein the birds make their nests; As for the stork, the fir-trees are her house." 104.18. The high mountains are for the wild goats; The rocks are a refuge for the conies." 104.20. Thou makest darkness, and it is night, Wherein all the beasts of the forest do creep forth." 104.21. The young lions roar after their prey, And seek their food from God." 104.24. How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures." 104.25. Yonder sea, great and wide, Therein are creeping things innumerable, Living creatures, both small and great." 104.26. There go the ships; There is leviathan, whom Thou hast formed to sport therein."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 22.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.23. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה נָתַן יְהוָה רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאֶיךָ אֵלֶּה וַיהוָה דִּבֶּר עָלֶיךָ רָעָה׃ 22.23. Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets; and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee.’"
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 42.1, 49.14-49.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

42.1. הֵן עַבְדִּי אֶתְמָךְ־בּוֹ בְּחִירִי רָצְתָה נַפְשִׁי נָתַתִּי רוּחִי עָלָיו מִשְׁפָּט לַגּוֹיִם יוֹצִיא׃ 42.1. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּתוֹ מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם וּמְלֹאוֹ אִיִּים וְיֹשְׁבֵיהֶם׃ 49.14. וַתֹּאמֶר צִיּוֹן עֲזָבַנִי יְהוָה וַאדֹנָי שְׁכֵחָנִי׃ 49.15. הֲתִשְׁכַּח אִשָּׁה עוּלָהּ מֵרַחֵם בֶּן־בִּטְנָהּ גַּם־אֵלֶּה תִשְׁכַּחְנָה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אֶשְׁכָּחֵךְ׃ 42.1. Behold My servant, whom I uphold; Mine elect, in whom My soul delighteth; I have put My spirit upon him, He shall make the right to go forth to the nations." 49.14. But Zion said: ‘The LORD hath forsaken me, And the Lord hath forgotten me.’" 49.15. Can a woman forget her sucking child, That she should not have compassion on the son of her womb? Yea, these may forget, Yet will not I forget thee."
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.16, 28.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.16. לֹא־כְאֵלֶּה חֵלֶק יַעֲקֹב כִּי־יוֹצֵר הַכֹּל הוּא וְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֵׁבֶט נַחֲלָתוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 10.16. Not like these is the portion of Jacob; For He is the former of all things, And Israel is the tribe of His inheritance; The LORD of hosts is His name."
15. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.6. וַיַּחְמֹס כַּגַּן שֻׂכּוֹ שִׁחֵת מוֹעֲדוֹ שִׁכַּח יְהוָה בְּצִיּוֹן מוֹעֵד וְשַׁבָּת וַיִּנְאַץ בְּזַעַם־אַפּוֹ מֶלֶךְ וְכֹהֵן׃ 2.6. And He hath stripped His tabernacle, as if it were a garden, He hath destroyed His place of assembly; The LORD hath caused to be forgotten in Zion Appointed season and sabbath, And hath rejected in the indignation of His anger The king and the priest."
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 11.19, 16.17, 36.26-36.27, 37.6, 37.14, 47.9 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.19. וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב אֶחָד וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשָׂרָם וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 16.17. וַתִּקְחִי כְּלֵי תִפְאַרְתֵּךְ מִזְּהָבִי וּמִכַּסְפִּי אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָךְ וַתַּעֲשִׂי־לָךְ צַלְמֵי זָכָר וַתִּזְנִי־בָם׃ 36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.27. וְאֶת־רוּחִי אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וְעָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־בְּחֻקַּי תֵּלֵכוּ וּמִשְׁפָּטַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם׃ 37.6. וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עוֹר וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 37.14. וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 47.9. וְהָיָה כָל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֲ‍שֶׁר־יִשְׁרֹץ אֶל כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא שָׁם נַחֲלַיִם יִחְיֶה וְהָיָה הַדָּגָה רַבָּה מְאֹד כִּי בָאוּ שָׁמָּה הַמַּיִם הָאֵלֶּה וְיֵרָפְאוּ וָחָי כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יָבוֹא שָׁמָּה הַנָּחַל׃ 11.19. And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh;" 16.17. Thou didst also take thy fair jewels of My gold and of My silver, which I had given thee, and madest for thee images of men, and didst play the harlot with them;" 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh." 36.27. And I will put My spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and ye shall keep Mine ordices, and do them." 37.6. And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; and ye shall know that I am the LORD.’" 37.14. And I will put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I will place you in your own land; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken, and performed it, saith the LORD.’" 47.9. And it shall come to pass, that every living creature wherewith it swarmeth, whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall live; and there shall be a very great multitude of fish; for these waters are come thither, that all things be healed and may live whithersoever the river cometh."
17. Anon., Jubilees, 2.8-2.14, 12.25-12.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.8. And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day--half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the whole earth. 2.9. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day. 2.10. And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear. 2.11. And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, and the dry land appeared. 2.12. And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth 2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 12.25. And he made an end of speaking and praying, and behold the word of the Lord was sent to him through me, saying: 12.26. Get thee up from thy country, and from thy kindred and from the house of thy father unto a land which I shall show thee 12.27. and I shall make thee a great and numerous nation. And I shall bless thee And I shall make thy name great, And thou wilt be blessed in the earth
18. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.1-17.8, 17.10, 25.24, 36.1, 40.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds. 17.6. He made for them tongue and eyes;he gave them ears and a mind for thinking. 17.7. He filled them with knowledge and understanding,and showed them good and evil. 17.8. He set his eye upon their hearts to show them the majesty of his works. 25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die. 36.1. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, the God of all, and look upon us 36.1. Crush the heads of the rulers of the enemy,who say, "There is no one but ourselves. 40.23. A friend or a companion never meets one amiss,but a wife with her husband is better than both.
19. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.24, 15.7-15.8, 17.1-17.3, 17.5-17.8, 25.24, 36.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.24. but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it. 15.7. For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides. 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 17.1. Great are thy judgments and hard to describe;therefore unintructed souls have gone astray. 17.2. For when lawless men supposed that they held the holy nation in their power,they themselves lay as captives of darkness and prisoners of long night,shut in under their roofs, exiles from eternal providence. 17.3. For thinking that in their secret sins they were unobserved behind a dark curtain of forgetfulness,they were scattered, terribly alarmed,and appalled by specters. 17.5. And no power of fire was able to give light,nor did the brilliant flames of the stars avail to illumine that hateful night. 17.6. Nothing was shining through to them except a dreadful, self-kindled fire,and in terror they deemed the things which they saw to be worse than that unseen appearance. 17.7. The delusions of their magic art lay humbled,and their boasted wisdom was scornfully rebuked. 17.8. For those who promised to drive off the fears and disorders of a sick soul were sick themselves with ridiculous fear.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 96-97, 95 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

95. But we must explain what is the enigmatical meaning which he conceals under this prayer, the name of Dan, being interpreted, means "judgment;" therefore he here likens that power of the soul which investigates, and accurately examines, and distinguishes between, and, in some degree, decides on each part of the soul, to a dragon (and the dragon is an animal various in its movements, and exceedingly cunning, and ready to display its courage, and very powerful to repel those who begin acts of violence), but not to that friendly serpent, the counsellor of life, which is wont to be called Eve in his national language, but to the one made by Moses, of the material of brass, which, when those who had been bitten by the poisonous serpents, and who were at the point of death beheld, they are said to have lived and not to have died. XXII.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 53, 57, 61, 63-65, 40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

40. And Adam knew his wife, and she conceived and brought forth Cain; and she said I have gotten a man by means of the Lord; and he caused her also to bring forth Abel his Brother." These men, to whose virtue the Jewish legislation bears testimony, he does not represent as knowing their wives, such as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and if there are any others of like zeal with them; 40. A third view of the question is, that no king or tyrant may ever despise an obscure private individual, from being full of insolence and haughty pride; but that such an one, coming as a pupil to the school of the sacred laws, may relax his eyebrows, unlearning his self-opinionativeness, and yielding rather to true reason.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 41, 146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

146. And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 171 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

171. Who, then, is so impious as to conceive that God is one who afflicts, and who brings that most pitiable death of hunger upon those who are not able to live without food? For God is good, and the cause of good things, bounteous, the saviour, the supporter, the giver of wealth, the giver of great gifts, driving out wickedness from the sacred boundaries; for thus did he drive out the burdens of the earth, Adam and Cain, from paradise.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 65 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

65. But the sons of earth removing their minds from contemplation, and becoming deserters so as to fly to the lifeless and immovable nature of the flesh, "for they two became one Flesh," as the lawgiver says, adulterated the excellent coinage, and abandoned the better rank which had been allotted to them as their own, and deserted to the worse rank, which was contrary to their original nature, Nimrod being the first to set the example of this desertion;
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 149, 151-177, 76, 148 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

148. And with great beauty Moses has attributed the giving of names to the different animals to the first created man, for it is a work of wisdom and indicative of royal authority, and man was full of intuitive wisdom and self-taught, having been created by the grace of God, and, moreover, was a king. And it is proper for a ruler to give names to each of his subjects. And, as was very natural, the power of domination was excessive in that first-created man, whom God formed with great care and thought worthy of the second rank in the creation, making him his own viceroy and the ruler of all other creatures. Since even those who have been born so many generations afterwards, when the race is becoming weakened by reason of the long intervals of time that have elapsed since the beginning of the world, do still exert the same power over the irrational beasts, preserving as it were a spark of the dominion and power which has been handed down to them by succession from their first ancestor.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 33 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. After he had said this he proceeds to say, "And Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bare Enoch; and he built a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son Enoch." Is it not here reasonable to raise the question, why Cain knew his wife? for there had been no birth of any one other woman since that of Eve who was formed out of the side of the man, until the woman who is here mentioned;
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 19-20, 27, 43, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. And he also added, that she should bring forth his Brother." The addition of one thing is a taking away of some other; as for instance, of particles in arithmetic, and of reasons in the soul. If then we must say that Abel is added, we must also think that Cain is taken away. But that the unusual character of expression may not cause perplexity to many we will endeavour to explain accurately the philosophy which is apparent beneath them, as clearly as may be in our power.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.178 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 199 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

199. Again, who is there who would deny that those men who were born of him who was made out of the earth were noble themselves, and the founders of noble families? persons who have received a birth more excellent than that of any succeeding generation, in being sprung from the first wedded pair, from the first man and woman, who then for the first time came together for the propagation of offspring resembling themselves. But, nevertheless, when there were two persons so born, the elder of them endured to slay the younger; and, having committed the great and most accursed crime of fratricide, he first defiled the ground with human blood.
30. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 69 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

69. And if some of those who were employed in the collection of sticks were too slow, they took their own furniture, of which they had plundered them, to burn their persons, robbing them of their most costly articles, and burning with them things of the greatest use and value, which they used as fuel instead of ordinary timber.
31. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.31-1.32, 2.1, 2.4-2.5, 2.49 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII.
32. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.21, 1.23-1.53 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 258, 48, 164 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

164. For it is equality which allotted night and day and light and darkness to existing things. It is equality also that divided the human race into man and woman, making two divisions, unequal in strength, but most perfectly equal for the purpose which nature had principally in view, the generation of a third human being like themselves. For, says Moses, "God made man; in the image of God created he him; male and female he created Them." He no longer says "him," but "them," in the plural number, adapting the species to the genus, which have, as I have already said, been divided with perfect equality. XXXIV.
34. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 9.3, 10.1, 29.5-29.6, 39.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

35. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.35. God also presented the living creatures, when he had made them, according to their kinds, both male and female, to Adam, who gave them those names by which they are still called. But when he saw that Adam had no female companion, no society, for there was no such created, and that he wondered at the other animals which were male and female, he laid him asleep, and took away one of his ribs, and out of it formed the woman;
36. Longinus, On The Sublime, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

37. Mishnah, Sotah, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. New Testament, 1 John, 3.24, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.24. He who keeps his commandments remains in him, and he in him. By this we know that he remains in us, by the Spirit which he gave us. 4.13. By this we know that we remain in him and he in us, because he has given us of his Spirit.
39. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.17-7.23, 11.3, 11.6, 11.9, 15.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.20. Let eachman stay in that calling in which he was called. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 11.3. But I wouldhave you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. 11.6. For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn.But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her becovered. 11.9. for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.
40. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.22, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

41. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. For God didn't give us a spirit of fear, but of power, love, and self-control.
42. New Testament, Acts, 5.32, 15.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.32. We are His witnesses of these things; and so also is the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those who obey him. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us.
43. New Testament, Apocalypse, 21.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.22. I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God, the Almighty, and the Lamb, are its temple.
44. New Testament, Colossians, 3.1-3.5, 3.18, 3.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. 3.2. Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. 3.3. For you died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 3.4. When Christ, our life, is revealed, then you will also be revealed with him in glory. 3.5. Put to death therefore your members which are on the earth: sexual immorality, uncleanness, depraved passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry; 3.18. Wives, be in subjection to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. 3.22. Servants, obey in all things those who are your masters according to the flesh, not just when they are looking, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing God.
45. New Testament, Ephesians, 6.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.5. Servants, be obedient to those who according to the flesh are your masters, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as to Christ;
46. New Testament, Galatians, 2.19, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.19. For I, through the law, died to the law,that I might live to God. 3.21. Is the law thenagainst the promises of God? Certainly not! For if there had been a lawgiven which could make alive, most assuredly righteousness would havebeen of the law.
47. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.14, 2.5-2.10, 2.14-2.15, 2.17-2.18, 4.15-4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. Aren't they all ministering spirits, sent out to do service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation? 2.5. For he didn't subject the world to come, whereof we speak, to angels. 2.6. But one has somewhere testified, saying, "What is man, that you think of him? Or the son of man, that you care for him? 2.7. You made him a little lower than the angels; You crowned him with glory and honor. 2.8. You have put all things in subjection under his feet."For in that he subjected all things to him, he left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we don't see all things subjected to him, yet. 2.9. But we see him who has been made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that by the grace of God he should taste of death for everyone. 2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 2.17. Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. 2.18. For in that he himself has suffered being tempted, he is able to help those who are tempted. 4.15. For we don't have a high priest who can't be touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but one who has been in all points tempted like we are, yet without sin. 4.16. Let us therefore draw near with boldness to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy, and may find grace for help in time of need.
48. New Testament, Philippians, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
49. New Testament, Romans, 3.1, 8.10-8.13, 8.19-8.21, 8.23, 9.2, 11.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.12. So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. 8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day.
50. New Testament, John, 2.19-2.21, 3.6, 3.12-3.13, 5.21, 6.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.19. Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. 2.20. The Jews therefore said, "Forty-six years was this temple in building, and will you raise it up in three days? 2.21. But he spoke of the temple of his body. 3.6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. That which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 3.12. If I told you earthly things and you don't believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things? 3.13. No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven. 5.21. For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life to whom he desires. 6.63. It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life.
51. New Testament, Luke, 7.38-7.50 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.38. Standing behind at his feet weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears, and she wiped them with the hair of her head, kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment. 7.39. Now when the Pharisee who had invited him saw it, he said to himself, "This man, if he were a prophet, would have perceived who and what kind of woman this is who touches him, that she is a sinner. 7.40. Jesus answered him, "Simon, I have something to tell you."He said, "Teacher, say on. 7.41. A certain lender had two debtors. The one owed five hundred denarii, and the other fifty. 7.42. When they couldn't pay, he forgave them both. Which of them therefore will love him most? 7.43. Simon answered, "He, I suppose, to whom he forgave the most."He said to him, "You have judged correctly. 7.44. Turning to the woman, he said to Simon, "Do you see this woman? I entered into your house, and you gave me no water for my feet, but she has wet my feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head. 7.45. You gave me no kiss, but she, since the time I came in, has not ceased to kiss my feet. 7.46. You didn't anoint my head with oil, but she has anointed my feet with ointment. 7.47. Therefore I tell you, her sins, which are many, are forgiven, for she loved much. But to whom little is forgiven, the same loves little. 7.48. He said to her, "Your sins are forgiven. 7.49. Those who sat at the table with him began to say to themselves, "Who is this who even forgives sins? 7.50. He said to the woman, "Your faith has saved you. Go in peace.
52. New Testament, Matthew, 20.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.10. When the first came, they supposed that they would receive more; and they likewise each received a denarius.
53. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.1, 14.4, 14.8, 56.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.1. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה פָּתַח (משלי ח, ל): וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים יוֹם יוֹם וגו', אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, וְאִית דַּאֲמַר אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא. אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יב): כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָֹּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק. אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ד, ה): הָאֱמֻנִים עֲלֵי תוֹלָע וגו'. אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (אסתר ב, ז): וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת הֲדַסָּה. אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא, כְּמָא דְתֵימָא (נחום ג, ח): הֲתֵיטְבִי מִנֹּא אָמוֹן, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן הַאַתְּ טָבָא מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָא רַבָּתָא דְּיָתְבָא בֵּין נַהֲרוֹתָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמוֹן, אֻמָּן. הַתּוֹרָה אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי הָיִיתִי כְּלִי אֻמְנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם בּוֹנֶה פָּלָטִין, אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת אֻמָּן, וְהָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא דִּפְתְּרָאוֹת וּפִנְקְסָאוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ, לָדַעַת הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חֲדָרִים, הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פִּשְׁפְּשִׁין. כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַבִּיט בַּתּוֹרָה וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. 1.1. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה סָתוּם מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וּפָתוּחַ מִלְּפָנָיו, כָּךְ אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לוֹמַר, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּפָנִים, מַה לְּאָחוֹר, אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וּלְהַבָּא. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, לְמִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ וְחוֹקֵר, וְאִי אַתָּה חוֹקֵר לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּבַר קַפָּרָא, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלָמָּה בְּב' שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁלֹא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לָאֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין לוֹמַר הֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד שֶׁהוּא נִבְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה בְּב' אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹקְצִין, אֶחָד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד מִלְּמַטָּה מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹמְרִים לַב' מִי בְּרָאֲךָ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה בְּעוּקְצוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה בְּרָאָנִי. וּמַה שְּׁמוֹ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה לָהֶן בְּעוּקְצוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו, וְאוֹמֵר ה' שְׁמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר חֲנִינָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲחָא, עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דוֹרוֹת הָיְתָה הָאָלֶ"ף קוֹרֵא תִּגָּר לִפְנֵי כִסְאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא בָּרָאתָ עוֹלָמְךָ בִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ וגו', לְמָחָר אֲנִי בָּא לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי וְאֵינִי פּוֹתֵחַ תְּחִלָה אֶלָּא בָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אָלֶ"ף, שֶׁהוּא מַסְכִּים מֵאָלֶ"ף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, ח): דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 14.4. וַיִּיצֶר, שְׁנֵי יְצָרִים, יֵצֶר טוֹב וְיֵצֶר הָרָע. שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה לִבְהֵמָה ב' יְצָרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה רוֹאָה סַכִּין בְּיַד אָדָם לְשָׁחֲטָהּ הָיְתָה מְפַחֶדֶת וּמֵתָה, וַהֲרֵי אָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ ב' יְצָרִים, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר אִידָא (זכריה יב, א): וְיֹצֵר רוּחַ אָדָם בְּקִרְבּוֹ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם צְרוּרָה בְּקִרְבּוֹ, אִלְּמָלֵא כֵּן כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה הַצָּרָה בָּאָה עָלָיו הָיָה שׁוֹמְטָהּ וּמַשְׁלִיכָהּ. 14.8. מִן הָאֲדָמָה (בראשית ב, ז), רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמְרוּ, מִמָּקוֹם כַּפָּרָתוֹ נִבְרָא, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כ, כז): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִּי, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ מִמְּקוֹם כַּפָּרָתוֹ וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו (בראשית ב, ז), מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוֹ גֹּלֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ וְעַד הָרָקִיעַ, וְזָרַק בּוֹ אֶת הַנְּשָׁמָה, לְפִי שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בִּנְפִיחָה, לְפִיכָךְ מֵת, אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד בִּנְתִינָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל לז, יד): וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָּכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם. 56.6. וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת (בראשית כב, י), רַב בְּעָא קוֹמֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה מִנַּיִן לִשְׁחִיטָה שֶׁהִיא בְּדָבָר הַמִּטַּלְטֵל, מִן הָכָא, וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת יָדוֹ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין מִן הַהַגָּדָה אֲמַר לָךְ, חָזַר הוּא בֵּיהּ, וְאִין מִן אוּלְפָּן אֲמַר לָךְ, לֵית הוּא חָזַר בֵּיהּ, דְּתָנֵי לֵוִי הָיוּ נְעוּצִים מִתְּחִלָּתָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּסוּלִים, תְּלוּשִׁין וּנְעָצָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּשֵׁרִים, דִּתְנַן הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּמַגַּל יָד בְּמַגַּל קָצִיר וּבְצֹר וּבְקָנֶה, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי חֲמִשָּׁה דְבָרִים נֶאֶמְרוּ בִּקְרוּמִיּוֹת שֶׁל קָנֶה, אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין בָּהּ, וְאֵין מוֹהֲלִין בָּהּ, וְאֵין חוֹתְכִין בָּהּ בָּשָׂר, וְאֵין מְקַנְחִין בָּהּ אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, וְלֹא מְחַצִּין בָּהּ אֶת הַשִּׁנַּיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרוּחַ רָעָה שׁוֹכֶנֶת עָלָיו. 1.1. The great Rabbi Hoshaya opened [with the verse (Mishlei 8:30),] \"I [the Torah] was an amon to Him and I was a plaything to Him every day.\" Amon means \"pedagogue\" (i.e. ny). Amon means \"covered.\" Amon means \"hidden.\" And there is one who says amon means \"great.\" Amon means \"ny,\" as in (Bamidbar 11:12) “As a ny (omein) carries the suckling child.\" Amon means \"covered,\" as in (Eichah 4:5) \"Those who were covered (emunim) in scarlet have embraced refuse heaps.\" Amon means \"hidden,\" as in (Esther 2:7) \"He hid away (omein) Hadassah.\" Amon means \"great,\" as in (Nahum 3:8) \"Are you better than No-amon [which dwells in the rivers]?\" which the Targum renders as, \"Are you better than Alexandria the Great (amon), which dwells between the rivers?\" Alternatively, amon means \"artisan.\" The Torah is saying, \"I was the artisan's tool of Hashem.\" In the way of the world, a king of flesh and blood who builds a castle does not do so from his own knowledge, but rather from the knowledge of an architect, and the architect does not build it from his own knowledge, but rather he has scrolls and books in order to know how to make rooms and doorways. So too Hashem gazed into the Torah and created the world. Similarly the Torah says, \"Through the reishis Hashem created [the heavens and the earth],\" and reishis means Torah, as in \"Hashem made me [the Torah] the beginning (reishis) of His way\" (Mishlei 8:22)." 14.4. Wayyiyzer: two formations, the good and the evil. For if an animal possessed two [such] formations, it would die of fright on seeing a man holding a knife to kill it. But surely a man does possess these two faculties! Said R. Hanina (rjinena) b. Idi: He bound up the spirit of man within him (Zechariah 12:1); for if that were not so, whenever a trouble came upon him he would remove and cast it from him." 14.8. ... ‘And He blew into his nostrils’—This teaches that He stood him up as a golem stretching from earth to the firmament and then threw breath/n’shamah into him." 56.6. And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife (Gen. 22:10). Rav asked R. Hiyya the Elder: How do we know that ritual slaughtering must be with a movable object? From here: \"And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife\" — he said: if he told you this from a Haggadah, he might retract; and if he stated it as a tradition, he cannot not retract from it, since Levi taught: If they [sharp flints] were attached [to the ground or rocks] from the very beginning, they are unfit; but if they had been originally detached but subsequently fixed in the ground, they are fit, since we learned: \"If one slaughters with a hand-sickle, a harvest sickle, a flint, or a reed, the slaughtering is fit.\" Said Rabbi Yosei: Five things were said of a reed stalk: You may not slaughter, circumcise, cut meat, wipe your hands, nor pick your teeth with it, because an evil spirit rests upon it."
54. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.30.5, 1.30.7, 1.30.15 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

55. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. ופדר קמא דכתב רחמנא למה לי מיבעי ליה לכדתניא כיצד הוא עושה חופה את הפדר על בית השחיטה ומעלהו וזהו דרך כבוד של מעלה,והאי תנא מייתי לה מהכא דתניא (ויקרא יא, מו) זאת תורת הבהמה והעוף וכי באיזו תורה שוותה בהמה לעוף ועוף לבהמה בהמה מטמאה במגע ובמשא עוף אינו מטמא במגע ובמשא עוף מטמא בגדים אבית הבליעה בהמה אינה מטמאה בגדים אבית הבליעה,באיזו תורה שוותה בהמה לעוף ועוף לבהמה לומר לך מה בהמה בשחיטה אף עוף בשחיטה אי מה להלן ברוב שנים אף כאן ברוב שנים ת"ל זאת,ר' אליעזר אומר באיזו תורה שוותה בהמה לעוף ועוף לבהמה לומר לך מה עוף הכשרו מן הצואר אף בהמה הכשרה מן הצואר,אי מה להלן ממול עורף אף כאן ממול עורף ת"ל (ויקרא ה, ח) ומלק את ראשו ממול ערפו ולא יבדיל ראשו של זה ממול עורף ואין ראשו של אחר ממול עורף,ור' אליעזר האי זאת מאי עביד ליה אי לאו זאת הוה אמינא מה עוף בסימן אחד אף בהמה בסימן אחד כתב רחמנא זאת,תני בר קפרא זאת תורת הבהמה והעוף הטיל הכתוב לעוף בין בהמה לדגים לחייבו בשני סימנין אי אפשר שכבר הוקש לדגים לפוטרו בלא כלום אי אפשר שכבר הוקש לבהמה הא כיצד הכשרו בסימן אחד,דגים דלאו בני שחיטה נינהו מנלן אילימא משום דכתיב (במדבר יא, כב) הצאן ובקר ישחט להם אם את כל דגי הים יאסף להם באסיפה בעלמא סגי להו,אלא מעתה גבי שליו דכתיב (במדבר יא, לב) ויאספו את השליו הכי נמי דלאו בשחיטה והא אמרת לפוטרו בולא כלום אי אפשר שכבר הוקש לבהמה התם לא כתיבא אסיפה במקום שחיטה דאחריני הכא כתיבא אסיפה במקום שחיטה דאחריני:,דרש עובר גלילאה בהמה שנבראת מן היבשה הכשרה בשני סימנים דגים שנבראו מן המים הכשירן בולא כלום עוף שנברא מן הרקק הכשרו בסימן אחד אמר רב שמואל קפוטקאה תדע שהרי עופות יש להן קשקשת ברגליהם כדגים:,ועוד שאלו כתוב אחד אומר (בראשית א, כ) ויאמר אלהים ישרצו המים שרץ נפש חיה ועוף יעופף אלמא ממיא איברו וכתיב (בראשית ב, יט) ויצר ה' אלהים מן האדמה כל חית השדה ואת כל עוף השמים אלמא מארעא איברו,אמר לו מן הרקק נבראו ראה תלמידיו מסתכלים זה בזה אמר להם קשה בעיניכם שדחיתי את אויבי בקש מן המים נבראו ולמה הביאן אל האדם לקרות להן שם,ויש אומרים בלשון אחר אמר לאותו הגמון ובלשון הראשון אמר להן לתלמידיו משום דכתיב על ויצר,אמר רב יהודה משום ר' יצחק בן פנחס אין שחיטה לעוף מן התורה שנאמר ושפך בשפיכה בעלמא סגי,א"ה חיה נמי איתקש לפסולי המוקדשין עוף נמי איתקש לבהמה דכתיב זאת תורת הבהמה והעוף הא כתיב (ויקרא יז, יג) ושפך את דמו,ומאי חזית דשדייה ליה על עוף שדייה אחיה מסתברא משום דסליק מיניה,(סימן נתנבל דם במליקה),מיתיבי השוחט ונתנבלה בידו הנוחר והמעקר פטור מלכסות ואי אמרת אין שחיטה לעוף מן התורה נחירתו זו היא שחיטתו ליבעי כסוי מי סברת בעוף לא בחיה,ת"ש השוחט וצריך לדם חייב לכסות כיצד הוא עושה או נוחרו או עוקרו 27b. The Gemara asks: bAnd why do Ineed bthe firstmention of bfat that the Merciful One writes:“The pieces, the head, and the fat” (Leviticus 1:8)? Wasn’t the derivation from that verse restricted to the head? The Gemara answers that it is bnecessary for that which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bHow doesthe priest who elevates the sacrificial portions of the animal to the altar bperformthat task? bHeuses bthe fatto bcover the place of slaughter,i.e., to conceal the bloody neck, band elevatesthe head to the top of the altar, band that is a deferential mannertoward bthe Most High. /b, bAnd this itannacitesproof that slaughter is from the neck bfrom here: As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat the Torah writes with regard to the impurity of carcasses: b“This is the law of the animal, and of the bird”(Leviticus 11:46), indicating that the two are somehow equated. bBut with regard to what law is an animal equal to a bird and a bird to an animal?The ihalakhotof ritual impurity governing animals and birds are not comparable; ban animal imparts impurity by contact and by carrying,whereas ba bird does not impart impurity by contact or by carrying.Furthermore, ba bird rendersthe bgarmentsof one who swallows it britually impurewhen it is bin the throat; an animal does not renderone’s bgarments impurewhen it is bin the throat. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: bWith regard to what law is an animal equal to a bird and a bird to an animal?The verse comes bto say to you: Just as an animalavoids the impurity of being an unslaughtered carcass bthrough slaughter, so too, a birdavoids the impurity of being an unslaughtered carcass bthrough slaughter.The Gemara objects: bIfso, say, based on the same juxtaposition: bJust as there,in the case of an animal, it avoids the impurity bthroughthe cutting of bthe majority of two isimanim /i, i.e., the windpipe and the gullet, bso too here,in the case of a bird, it avoids the impurity bthroughthe cutting of bthe majority of two isimanim /i. The Gemara explains that bthe verse states: “Thisis the law,” to restrict the scope of the juxtaposition in the sense that not all of the ihalakhotof birds and animals are equal.,The ibaraitacontinues. bRabbi Eliezer says: With regard to what law is an animal equal to a bird and a bird to an animal?The verse comes bto say to you: Just asin the case of ba bird, its fitnessfor sacrifice and for consumption is accomplished through pinching and slaughter bfrom the neck,as the Torah states with regard to bird offerings that one pinches off its head from the neck, bso too,in the case of ban animal, its fitnessfor sacrifice and for consumption is accomplished through slaughter bfrom the neck. /b,The Gemara objects: bIfso, say, based on the same juxtaposition: bJust as there,in the case of a bird, the pinching is performed badjacent tothe bnapeof the neck, bso too here,with regard to an animal, the slaughter is performed badjacent tothe bnapeof the neck and not from the throat. The Gemara explains that therefore, bthe verse stateswith regard to a bird: b“And pinch off its head adjacent to its nape, but shall not divide it asunder”(Leviticus 5:8), from which it is derived: bIts head,i.e., the bird’s head, is pinched badjacentto the bnape, but the head of another,the animal, bis notcut badjacentto the bnape. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Eliezer, what does he do with thisterm: b“Thisis the law,” from which the first itannarestricted the scope of the juxtaposition between animals and birds? The Gemara answers: bIf notfor the derivation from the term b“Thisis the law,” bI would say: Just asthe fitness of ba birdis accomplished bbycutting bone of the isimanimthat must be severed in ritual slaughter,i.e., either the windpipe or the gullet, bso too,the fitness of ban animalis accomplished bbycutting bone isiman /i.Therefore, bthe Merciful One writes: “Thisis the law,” to restrict the juxtaposition.,§ The Gemara proceeds to discuss the source for the slaughter of non-sacred birds. bBar Kappara teachesthat the verse states: b“This is the law of the animal, and of the bird,and of every living creature that moves in the waters, and of every creature that swarms upon the earth” (Leviticus 11:46). bThe verse situated the bird betweenthe banimal andthe bfish. To requirethe cutting of the btwo isimanim /ithat must be severed in ritual slaughter, i.e., the windpipe and the gullet, for the slaughter of a bird, bis impossible, as it was already juxtaposed to fish,which do not require slaughter at all. bTo exempt it with nothing,i.e., to exempt the bird from slaughter altogether, bis impossible, as it was already juxtaposed tothe banimal. How,then, bis fitnessof a bird for consumption accomplished? It is rendered fit bwiththe cutting of bone isiman /i. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive that bfish are not subject to slaughter? If we saythat it is bbecause it is written: “If flocks and herds be slaughtered for them…or if all the fish of the sea be gathered together for them,will they suffice them” (Numbers 11:22), which indicates that bmere gathering suffices for them,that is not a proof.,The Gemara clarifies: bBut if that is so, with regard to quailas well, concerning bwhich it is written:“And the people rose up… band gathered the quail”(Numbers 11:32), bso too,would one say with regard to birds bthat,like fish, their fitness is bnotaccomplished bwith slaughter?The Gemara responds with a question. bBut didn’t you say: To exemptbirds from slaughter altogether bwith nothing is impossible, as it was already juxtaposed tothe banimal?The Gemara answers: bThere, gatheringof quail bis not written inthe bcontextof the bslaughter of others;therefore, gathering is not to be understood as an alternative to slaughtering the birds. bHere, gatheringof fish bis written inthe bcontextof the bslaughter of others,i.e., the flocks and herds, which indicates that gathering is an alternative to slaughter.,The Gemara relates that ba passerby from the Galilee taught: Fitnessfor consumption of banimals, which were created from thedry bland,is accomplished bthroughcutting btwo isimanim /i,the gullet and the windpipe. bFitnessfor consumption of bfish, which were created from the water,is accomplished bwith nothing,as no slaughter is required. bFitnessfor consumption of bbirds, which were created from mud [ iharekak /i],a combination of dry land and water, is accomplished bthroughcutting bone isiman /i. Rav Shmuel of Cappadocia says: Knowthat bbirdswere created from a combination of dry land and water, bas they have scales on their feet like fish. /b,The Gemara relates an excerpt of an exchange between a Roman government official and Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. bAnd furthermore,the official baskedRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bOne verse states: “And God said: Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creeping animals, and birds will fly”(Genesis 1:20); bapparentlybirds bwere created from the water. And it is written: “And from the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every bird of the airand brought them unto the man to see what he would call them” (Genesis 2:19); bapparentlybirds bwere created from the land. /b,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: They were created from the mud. He saw his students looking at each other,wondering. bHe said to them: Does it trouble you that I dismissed my enemy with a flimsypretext? Actually, it is bfrom waterthat birds bwere created. And whydoes the verse state that they were formed from the ground and that God bbrought them to Adam?In other words, why are they mentioned in the second verse? It is not because they were actually formed from the ground, but only because they were brought to Adam so that bhe would call them names. /b, bAnd some saythat Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai spoke bto that officer with a different formulation,i.e., he said to him that the birds were created from the water. bAnd he stated the first formulation,that the birds were created from the mud, bto his students, because it is written: “Andfrom the ground the Lord God bformedevery beast of the field, and every bird of the air” (Genesis 2:19). According to this explanation, the birds are mentioned there not only because Adam called them names, but also because they too were created from the ground.,On the matter of slaughtering birds, bRav Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Pineḥas: Slaughter of a bird is notobligatory bby Torah law, as it is stated:“And whatever man there be of the children of Israel…who traps any undomesticated animal or bird that may be eaten, bhe shall spill its blood,and cover it in earth” (Leviticus 17:13). This indicates that bmere spillingof its blood bis sufficient. /b,The Gemara objects: bIf so,with regard to ban undomesticated animal,which is mentioned in the same verse, spilling should be sufficient balso.The Gemara explains: An undomesticated animal bis juxtaposed to disqualified consecratedanimals, for which slaughter is required, as explained later in the Gemara (28a). The Gemara asks: bBirds too are juxtaposed to animals,and therefore slaughter should be required, bas it is written: “This is the law of the animal, and of the bird”(Leviticus 11:46). The Gemara answers: bBut isn’t it written: “He shall spill its blood,”indicating that slaughter is not required?,The Gemara asks: bAndconcerning the derivation that slaughter is not required, based on the phrase in the verse “He shall spill,” bwhat did you see thatled you to bcast it upon,i.e., apply it to, the case of ba bird?Why not bcast it uponthe case of ban undomesticated animal?The Gemara answers: bIt stands to reasonto cast the derivation upon the case of a bird bdue tothe fact bthatthe verse bconcluded withthe bird, i.e., the bird is mentioned just prior to the directive to spill and cover the blood, as it is written: “Who traps any undomesticated animal or bird that may be eaten, he shall spill its blood.”,The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the proofs cited in the Gemara with regard to the slaughter of birds: bBecame a carcass, blood, through pinching. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionto the statement of Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Pineḥas from a mishna (85a): bOne who slaughtersan undomesticated animal band it becamean unslaughtered bcarcass by his handbecause the slaughter was not valid, or bone who stabbedthe animal by slicing the length of the isimanim /i, bor one who rippedthe gullet or windpipe of the animal, rendering the slaughter not valid, bis exempt from coveringthe blood because his slaughter was ineffective in permitting consumption of the animal, and it is written that the requirement of covering the blood applies only to “any undomesticated animal or bird that may be eaten.” bAnd if you saythat bslaughter of a bird is notobligatory bby Torah law,the halakhic status of bits stabbing islike that of bits slaughter; letits blood brequire covering.The Gemara answers: bDo you maintainthat this mishna is referring bto a bird? No,it is referring exclusively bto an undomesticated animal. /b,The Gemara cites another challenge: bComeand bhearthat which is taught in a ibaraita /i: bOne who slaughtersan undomesticated animal or a bird band requires the bloodand not the animal bis obligated to coverthe blood. Rather, bhow does he actif he seeks to make use of the blood rather than cover it? He beither stabsthe animal bor ripsthe isimanim /i, and then he is exempt from covering the blood.
56. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

34a. מאי טעמא דר' יוסי בר יהודה דאמר קרא (במדבר לה, ל) עד אחד לא יענה בנפש למות למות הוא דאינו עונה אבל לזכות עונה ורבנן אמר ריש לקיש משום דמיחזי כנוגע בעדותו,ורבנן האי למות מאי דרשי ביה מוקמי ליה באחד מן התלמידים כדתניא אמר אחד מן העדים יש לי ללמד עליו זכות מניין שאין שומעין לו ת"ל עד אחד לא יענה מניין לאחד מן התלמידים שאמר יש לי ללמד עליו חובה מניין שאין שומעין לו ת"ל אחד לא יענה בנפש למות:,דיני נפשות המלמד כו': אמר רב לא שנו אלא בשעת משא ומתן אבל בשעת גמר דין מלמד זכות חוזר ומלמד חובה,מיתיבי למחרת משכימין ובאין המזכה אומר אני המזכה ומזכה אני במקומי המחייב אומר אני המחייב ומחייב אני במקומי המלמד חובה מלמד זכות אבל המלמד זכות אינו יכול לחזור וללמד חובה,והא למחרת גמר דין הוא וליטעמיך למחרת משא ומתן מי ליכא כי קתני בשעת משא ומתן,ת"ש דנין אלו כנגד אלו עד שיראה אחד מן המחייבין דברי המזכין ואם איתא ליתני נמי איפכא תנא אזכות קא מהדר אחובה לא קא מהדר,ת"ש דאמר ר' יוסי בר חנינא אחד מן התלמידים שזיכה ומת רואין אותו כאילו חי ועומד במקומו ואמאי נימא אילו הוה קיים הדר ביה השתא מיהא לא הדר ביה,והא שלחו מתם לדברי ר' יוסי בר חנינא מוצא מכלל רבינו אין מוצא איתמר,תא שמע שני סופרי הדיינין עומדין לפניהן אחד מן הימין ואחד מן השמאל וכותבין דברי המזכין ודברי המחייבין,בשלמא דברי המחייבין למחר חזו טעמא אחרינא ובעו למעבד הלנת דין אלא דברי המזכין מאי טעמא לאו משום דאי חזו טעמא אחרינא לחובה לא משגחינן בהו,לא כדי שלא יאמרו שנים טעם אחד משני מקראות כדבעא מיניה רבי אסי מרבי יוחנן אמרו שנים טעם אחד משני מקראות מהו אמר ליה אין מונין להן אלא אחד,מנהני מילי אמר אביי דאמר קרא (תהלים סב, יב) אחת דבר אלהים שתים זו שמעתי כי עז לאלהים מקרא אחד יוצא לכמה טעמים ואין טעם אחד יוצא מכמה מקראות דבי ר' ישמעאל תנא (ירמיהו כג, כט) וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע מה פטיש זה מתחלק לכמה ניצוצות אף מקרא אחד יוצא לכמה טעמים,היכי דמי טעם אחד משני מקראות אמר רב זביד כדתנן מזבח מקדש את הראוי לו,רבי יהושע אומר כל הראוי לאשים אם עלה לא ירד שנאמר (ויקרא ו, ב) העולה על מוקדה מה עולה שהיא ראויה לאשים אם עלתה לא תרד אף כל שהוא ראוי לאשים אם עלה לא ירד,רבן גמליאל אומר כל הראוי למזבח אם עלה לא ירד שנאמר היא העולה על מוקדה על המזבח מה עולה שהיא ראויה לגבי מזבח אם עלתה לא תרד אף כל שהוא ראוי למזבח אם עלה לא ירד,ותרוייהו מאי קמרבו פסולין מר מייתי לה ממוקדה ומר מייתי לה ממזבח,והא התם מיפלג פליגי דקתני סיפא אין בין דברי רבן גמליאל לדברי ר' יהושע אלא הדם והנסכים שר"ג אומר לא ירדו ור' יהושע אומר ירדו,אלא אמר רב פפא כדתניא ר' יוסי הגלילי אומר מתוך שנאמר 34a. The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reason of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda? As the verse states: “But one witness shall not testify against any person that he die.”One can infer: bThat he die isthe matter concerning bwhich he does not testify, but he does testify to acquit.The Gemara asks: bAndwhat is the reasoning of bthe Rabbis? Reish Lakish says:A witness cannot offer any statements beyond his testimony bbecause it appears as though he is biased in his testimony.If the court finds the accused liable based on the witness’s testimony, the witness could later be accused of being a conspiring witness. Therefore, it is to his advantage to have the court acquit the accused.,The Gemara asks: bAndas for bthe Rabbis,in bwhatmanner do bthey interpret thisterm: b“That he die”?The Gemara answers: bThey establish itas teaching the ihalakha bwith regard to one of the students. As it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bone of the witnesses said: I havethe ability bto teacha reason to bacquit him, from whereis it derived bthatthe court bdoes not listen to him? The verse states: “One witness shall not testify.” From whereis it derived bthatif there is bone of the students who said: I havethe ability bto teacha reason to deem bhim liable, from whereis it derived bthatthe court bdoes not listen to him? The verse states:“But bonewitness bshall not testify against any person that he die.” /b,§ The mishna teaches: In cases of bcapital law, one whoinitially bteachesa reason to deem the accused liable may then teach a reason to acquit, but one who initially teaches a reason to acquit him may not return and teach a reason to deem him liable. bRav says: They taughtthis ihalakha bonly with regard to the time ofthe bdeliberationsof the court, bbut at the time ofthe bverdict,one who initially bteachesa reason to bacquit may return and teacha reason to deem him bliable. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a mishna (40a): bThe following day,i.e., the day after the initial deliberations, the judges would barise early and cometo court. bOne whoyesterday was of the opinion to bacquit says: Isaid to bacquit, and I acquit in my place,i.e., I stand by my statement to acquit. bAnd one whoyesterday was of the opinion to bdeemhim bliable says: Isaid to bdeemhim bliable, and I deemhim bliable in my place. One whoyesterday btaughta reason to deem him bliable maythen bteacha reason to bacquit, but one whoyesterday btaughta reason to bacquit may notthen bteacha reason to deem him bliable. /b,The Gemara explains the objection: bBut the following day isat the time of bthe verdict,and the mishna rules that a judge who had said to acquit may not change his opinion. The Gemara questions this reading of the mishna: bAnd according to your reasoning, are there no deliberations on the following day?The deliberations may resume on the next day. Therefore, one can say that bwhenthe mishna bteachesthat the judge may not change his opinion, it is bwith regard to the time ofthe bdeliberations. /b,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from the continuation of that mishna, which teaches that if the number of judges who deem him liable is one more than the number of judges who acquit, btheycontinue to bdeliberatethe matter, bthesejudges bagainst thosejudges, buntil one of those who deemshim bliable seesthe validity of bthe statements of those who acquitand changes his position, as the court does not condemn someone to death by a majority of one judge. The Gemara states its proof: bAnd if it is sothat one who initially bteachesa reason bto acquit may return and teacha reason to deem him bliable, letthe mishna balso teach the oppositepossibility. The Gemara explains: bThe itannais searching forscenarios of bacquittal,he bis not searching forscenarios of bliability.It may be that the ihalakhais the same in the opposite case, but the itannaprefers to employ an example of acquittal.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita /i: bAs Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says:In a case where there was bone of the students whoargued to bacquit andthen bdied,the court bviews him as ifhe were balive and standing in his placeand voting to acquit. The Gemara asks: bBut why?According to the opinion of Rav, that a judge may change his opinion at the time of the verdict, blet us say:Perhaps bifthat student bwere alive,he would bretracthis opinion and find the accused liable. The Gemara explains: bNow, in any event,he bdid not retract fromhis opinion. The assumption is that he would not have changed his opinion, although one can do so.,The Gemara questions this explanation: bButthe Sages bsenta statement bfrom there,Eretz Yisrael: bAccording tothis version of bthe statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina,he engages in ba dispute with our teacher,i.e., Rav. Apparently, the previous explanation, which reconciles their opinions, is incorrect. The Gemara answers: That tradition was not accurate, and it bwas statedthat he does bnotengage in ba disputewith Rav.,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a ibaraita /i: After the initial deliberations, btwo judges’ scribes stand beforethe court, bone on the right, and one on the left, and they write the statements of those who acquitthe accused band the statements of those who findhim bliable. /b,The Gemara explains the proof: bGranted,they write the bstatements of those who findthe accused bliableeven though they may not change their opinions, as bon the following day theymay bsee another reasonto find the accused liable, not the reason they gave the day before. bAndonce this new reason is given, the court bis required to perform a suspension of the trialuntil the following day, as they may not issue a verdict in cases of capital law on the same day as the deliberations. bBut what is the reasonthe scribes write bthe statements of those who acquitthe accused? Is it bnot becausethe ihalakhais that bifthe judges would bsee another reason tofind the accused bliable, we do not pay heed to them,and in order to ensure that the judges do not change their opinions, the scribes write their statements?,The Gemara answers: bNo,the reason they write their statements is bso that twoof the judges bshould not say one explanationto acquit bfrom twodifferent bverses.If two judges each say the same reason to acquit, but derive their reason from different verses, they are not counted as two votes. bAs Rabbi Asi asked of Rabbi Yoḥa:If btwoof the judges bsay one explanationto acquit bfrom twodifferent bverses, what isthe ihalakha /i? bRabbi Yoḥa said to him: We count them only as one,as it is clear that one of the derivations is in error.,§ The Gemara discusses the ruling of Rabbi Yoḥa: bFrom where is this matterderived? bAbaye says: As the verse states: “God has spoken once, twice I have heard this; that strength belongs to God”(Psalms 62:12). Abaye explains: bOne verseis stated by God and from it bemerge several explanations, but one explanation does not emerge from several verses.Alternatively, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat the verse states: “Is not My word like as fire? says the Lord; band like a hammer that breaks the rock in pieces”(Jeremiah 23:29). bJust as this hammer breaksa stone binto several fragments, so too, one verseis stated by God bandfrom it bemerge several explanations. /b,The Gemara clarifies: bWhat is considered one explanation from twodifferent bverses? Rav Zevid says: As we learnedin a mishna ( iZevaḥim83a): With regard to certain items that are disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, once they have been placed on the altar they are nevertheless sacrificed, but bthe altar sanctifiesonly items bthat are suited for it,as the Gemara will explain. The itanna’imdisagree as to what is considered suited for the altar., bRabbi Yehoshua says: Anyitem bthat is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, e.g., burnt-offerings and the portions of other offerings burned on the altar, bif it ascendedupon the altar, even if it is disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, bit shall not descend.Since it was sanctified by its ascent upon the altar, it is sacrificed upon it, bas it is stated:“It is bthe burnt-offering on the pyreupon the altar” (Leviticus 6:2), from which it is derived: bJust aswith regard to ba burnt-offering that is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, bif it ascended, it shall not descend, so toowith regard to banyitem bthat is suited tobe consumed by bthe fireon the altar, bif it ascended, it shall not descend. /b, bRabban Gamliel says:With regard to banyitem bthat is suited toascend upon bthe altar,even if it is not typically consumed, bif it ascended, it shall not descend,even if it is disqualified from being sacrificed iab initio /i, bas it is stated: “It is the burnt-offering on the pyre upon the altar,”from which it is derived: bJust as a burnt-offering that is fit for the altar, if it ascended, it shall not descend, so too anyitem bthat is fit for the altar, if it ascended, it shall not descend. /b,Rav Zevid explains: bAnd what do the two of them includeby means of these explanations? bDisqualifiedofferings, teaching that if they ascend they do not descend. One bSage,Rabbi Yehoshua, bbringsproof for bthis ihalakha bfromthe term b“on the pyre,” andone bSage,Rabban Gamliel, bbringsproof to bthis ihalakha bfromthe term “upon the baltar.”This is an example of one explanation from two different verses.,The Gemara questions this example: bBut there,Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabban Gamliel bdisagree,and their explanations cannot therefore be identical. bAs the latter clauseof that mishna bteaches: The difference between the statement of Rabban Gamliel and the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua is onlywith regard to disqualified bblood and libations,which are not consumed by the fire, but do ascend onto the altar, bas Rabban Gamliel says: They shall not descend,as they are fit to ascend on the altar, band Rabbi Yehoshua says: They shall descend,as they are not burned on the altar., bRather, Rav Pappa says:An example of one explanation from two different verses is bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: From the fact that it is stated: /b
57. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. רע כל היום אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש להמיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה שעוזר לו אינו יכול לו שנאמ' (תהלים לז, לג) ה' לא יעזבנו בידו ולא ירשיענו בהשפטו,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ אם אבן הוא נימוח דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ דכתיב (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן יצר הרע מסיתו לאדם בעוה"ז ומעיד עליו לעולם הבא שנאמר (משלי כט, כא) מפנק מנוער עבדו ואחריתו יהיה מנון שכן באטב"ח של ר' חייא קורין לסהדה מנון,רב הונא רמי כתיב (הושע ד, יב) כי רוח זנונים התעה וכתיב (הושע ה, ד) בקרבם בתחלה התעם ולבסוף בקרבם,אמר רבא בתחלה קראו הלך ולבסוף קראו אורח ולבסוף קראו איש שנאמר (שמואל ב יב, ד) ויבא הלך לאיש העשיר ויחמול לקחת מצאנו ומבקרו לעשות לאורח וכתיב ויקח את כבשת האיש הרש ויעשה לאיש הבא אליו,אמר רבי יוחנן אבר קטן יש לו לאדם מרעיבו שבע משביעו רעב שנאמר (הושע יג, ו) כמרעיתם וישבעו וגו',אמר רב חנא בר אחא אמרי בי רב ארבעה מתחרט עליהן הקב"ה שבראם ואלו הן גלות כשדים וישמעאלים ויצר הרע גלות דכתיב (ישעיהו נב, ה) ועתה מה לי פה נאם ה' כי לקח עמי חנם וגו' כשדים דכתיב (ישעיהו כג, יג) הן ארץ כשדים זה העם לא היה,ישמעאלים דכתיב (איוב יב, ו) ישליו אהלים לשודדים ובטוחות למרגיזי אל לאשר הביא אלוה בידו יצר הרע דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעתי,אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאיהן של ישראל חד דכתיב ואשר הרעתי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם וגו' ואידך (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסרתי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר,רב פפא אמר אף מהאי נמי (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם וגו',(זכריה ב, ג) ויראני ה' ארבעה חרשים מאן נינהו ארבעה חרשים אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא משיח בן דוד ומשיח בן יוסף ואליהו וכהן צדק מתיב רב ששת אי הכי היינו דכתיב (זכריה ב, ד) ויאמר אלי אלה הקרנות אשר זרו את יהודה הני לשובה אתו,א"ל שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ויבואו אלה להחריד אותם לידות את קרנות הגוים הנושאים קרן אל ארץ יהודה לזרותה וגו' א"ל בהדי חנא באגדתא למה לי,(מיכה ה, ד) והיה זה שלום אשור כי יבא בארצנו וכי ידרוך בארמנותינו והקמנו עליו שבעה רועים ושמנה נסיכי אדם מאן נינהו שבעה רועים דוד באמצע אדם שת ומתושלח מימינו אברהם יעקב ומשה בשמאלו ומאן נינהו שמנה נסיכי אדם ישי ושאול ושמואל עמוס וצפניה צדקיה ומשיח ואליהו:,ארבעה סולמות כו': תנא גובהה של מנורה חמשים אמה (כו'): וארבעה ילדים של פרחי כהונה ובידיהם כדי שמן של מאה ועשרים לוג: איבעיא להו מאה ועשרים לוג כולהו או דלמא לכל חד וחד תא שמע ובידיהם כדי שמן של שלשים שלשים לוג שהם כולם מאה ועשרים לוג,תנא והן משובחין היו יותר מבנה של מרתא בת בייתוס אמרו על בנה של מרתא בת בייתוס שהיה נוטל שתי יריכות של שור הגדול שלקוח באלף זוז ומהלך עקב בצד גודל ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים לעשות כן משום (משלי יד, כח) ברב עם הדרת מלך,מאי משובחים אילימא משום יוקרא הני יקירי טפי אלא התם כבש ומרובע ולא זקיף הכא סולמות וזקיף טובא:,ולא היה חצר בירושלים: תנא 52b. bevil all day”(Genesis 6:5). All day long his thoughts and desires are for evil. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: A person’sevil binclination overcomes him each day and seeks to kill him, as it stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to kill him”(Psalms 37:32); the wicked here is referring to the wickedness inside one’s heart. bAnd if not for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who assistshim with the good inclination, bhe would not overcome it, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand, nor suffer him to be condemned when he is judged”(Psalms 37:33)., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: If this scoundrel,the evil inclination, baccosted you,seeking to tempt you to sin, bdrag it to the study halland study Torah. bIf it islike ba stone, it will be dissolvedby the Torah. bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered.The Gemara elaborates: bIf it islike bstone, it will be dissolved, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who is thirsty, come you for the water”(Isaiah 55:1), water in this context meaning Torah; band it is written: “Stones were worn by water”(Job 14:19). bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered, as it is written: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord; and like a hammer that shatters rock”(Jeremiah 23:29)., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The evil inclination incites a personto sin bin this world, andthen btestifies against him in the next world, as it is stated: “He that delicately brings up his servant from a child shall have him become a master [ imanon /i] at the last”(Proverbs 29:21). Initially, in one’s youth, the evil inclination, which should have been enslaved to him, takes control of him and causes him to sin. Then, ultimately, that same evil inclination becomes his imanon /i. iManonmeans witness, bas in Rabbi Ḥiyya’scoded alphabet in which ialef /iand itet /iand ibeit /iand iḥet /i,etc., are interchanged. bWitness[isahada/b] bis called imanon /i.The letters imemand isamekh /i, inunand iheh /i, and ivavand idaletare interchanged with other letters., bRav Huna raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is written: “For the spirit of harlotry causedthem bto err”(Hosea 4:12), indicating that this spirit was a temporary phenomenon and not an integral part of their persona. bAnd it isalso bwritten:“For the spirit of harlotry bis within them”(Hosea 5:4), indicating that it is an integral part of their persona. The Gemara explains: bInitially, it causes them to errfrom without, band ultimately,it is from bwithin them. /b, bRava said: Initially,the verse bcalledthe evil inclination ba travelercoming from afar. bSubsequently,the verse bcalls it a guest,as one welcomes it. bUltimately,the verse bcalls it man,indicating significance, as it became the homeowner. bAs it is statedin the parable of the poor man’s lamb that Nathan the prophet said to David: b“And there came a traveler to the rich man, and he was reluctant to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare for the guest”(II Samuel 12:4). bAnd it is writtenin the same verse: b“And he took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him.”In other words, the evil inclination that began as a traveler gradually rose in prominence., bRabbi Yoḥa said: A man has a small organused in sexual relations. bIf he starvesthe organ, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated;however, bif he satiatesthe organ and overindulges in sexual relations, it bis starving,and desires more, bas it is stated: “When they were fed, they became full,they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten Me” (Hosea 13:6)., bRav Ḥana bar Aḥa saidthat the Sages bin the school of Rav say:There are bfourcreations that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,created, yet He, as it were, bregrets that He created them,as they do more harm than good. bAnd these are they: Exile, Chaldeans, and Ishmaelites, and the evil inclination. Exile, as it is written: “Now therefore, for what am I here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for naught”(Isaiah 52:5). God Himself is asking: For what am I here? bChaldeans, as it is written: “Behold the land of the Chaldeans, this is the people that was not”(Isaiah 23:13), meaning, if only they never were., bIshmaelites, as it is written: “The tents of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure, in whatsoever God brings with His hand”(Job 12:6). God brought upon Himself these Arabs that dwell in the deserts in tents. bThe evil inclination, as it is written:“On that day, says the Lord, will I assemble her that is lame, and I will gather her that is driven away, band her that I corrupted”(Micah 4:6). God is saying that He created the evil inclination that led the people to sin and to be cast into exile., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Were it not for these three versesthat follow that indicate that God controls people’s hearts, bthe legs of the enemies ofthe bJewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, bwould have collapsed,unable to withstand the repercussions of their sins. bOne, as it is written: “And her that I corrupted,”indicating God’s regret for doing so. bAnd one, as it is written: “Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are youin My hand, O house of Israel” (Jeremiah 18:6). bAnd the otherverse: b“And I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh”(Ezekiel 36:26), indicating that the matter is not solely in human hands, but in the hands of God as well., bRav Pappa said:It is derived bfrom thisverse bas well: “And I will put My spirit within you,and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordices, and do them” (Ezekiel 36:27).,§ Apropos the end of days, the Gemara cites another verse and interprets it homiletically. It is stated: b“The Lord then showed me four craftsmen”(Zechariah 2:3). bWho are these four craftsmen? Rav Ḥana bar Bizna saidthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida said:They are bMessiah ben David, Messiah ben Yosef, Elijah, and the righteousHigh bPriest,who will serve in the Messianic era. bRav Sheshet raised an objection: If so,if that is the identity of the four craftsmen, then bthat which is writtenin the previous verse: b“And he said to me: These are the horns that scattered Judea”(Zechariah 2:4), is difficult; bthesefour in the first verse bare coming for their enemies,and are not redeemers.,Rav Ḥana bsaid toRav Sheshet: bGo to the end of the verse: “These then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted uptheir bhorn against the land of Judah to scatter it.”This indicates that the horns refer to the nations that exiled the Jewish people and that the four craftsmen will hurl those horns aside. Rav Sheshet bsaid to him: Whyshould bIdisagree bwithRav bḤana inmatters of iaggada /i,where he is more expert than I, and I cannot prevail?,The Gemara continues homiletically interpreting verses that relate to the end of days. It is stated: b“And this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes among men”(Micah 5:4). The Gemara asks: bWho are these seven shepherds?The Gemara explains: bDavidis bin the middle; Adam, Seth, and Methuselah are to his right; Abraham, Jacob, and Moses are to his left. And who are the eight princes among men?They are bYishai, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephania, Zedekiah, Messiah, and Elijah. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there were four laddersfor each pole. One of the Sages btaught: The height of the candelabrumupon the pole bis fifty cubits. Andthere were bfour children from the priesthood traineesholding band in their hands jugs of oilwith a capacity bof 120 ilog /iof oil. bA dilemma was raised:Was it b120 ilogaltogether, or perhaps each and everychild carried that amount? bComeand bhearproof from this ibaraita /i: bAnd in their handswere bjugs of oil, eachwith a capacity bof thirty ilog /i, that were alltogether b120 ilog /i. /b,One of the Sages btaught: And theseyoung priests who held the pitchers bwere superiorin strength bto the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos,who was a priest renowned for his might. bThey said about the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, that he would take two thighs of a large bullthat was so large bthatit would be bpurchased for one thousand izuz /i, and walkup the ramp in small steps, bheel to toe,without hurrying, due to his strength. However, bhis brethren the priests would not allow him do so, due tothe principle: b“In the multitude of people is the King’s glory”(Proverbs 14:28). The more priests engaged in the Temple service, the greater glory for God. Therefore, it is preferable for the thighs to be carried to the altar by multiple priests.,The Gemara asks: In bwhatsense were these young priests bsuperior? If we say it is due to the weightof the pitchers that they carried, bthesetwo bthighs are heavierthan the thirty ilogof oil. The Gemara answers: bRather,the difference is that bthere,in the case of the son of Marta, he walked on a brampthat was wide, bandwith a moderate gradient of only one cubit every bfourcubits of length, bandit is bnot steep; herethey climbed bladders, andthose are bvery steep. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there was not a courtyard in Jerusalemthat was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water. One of the Sages btaught: /b
58. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 117.28-118.2, 125.5, 125.6, 127.7, 127.8, 127.9, 127.10, 127.11, 127.12, 127.13, 127.14, 127.15, 127.16, 127.17 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

59. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Philip, 55.6-55.14, 58.17, 58.20-58.22, 68.22-68.26, 69.25, 70.9-70.22, 70.25-70.26, 71.16-71.18, 71.24-71.27, 73.15-73.16, 74.5-74.7 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

60. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 22 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

61. Nag Hammadi, The Tripartite Tractate, 100.7-100.11, 100.13-100.14 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

62. Epiphanius, Panarion, 37 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

63. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 5

64. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 8.9, 15.5, 16.16, 19.5, 21.21

65. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 101-104, 11, 98-100

100. But in order that we might gain complete information, we ascended to the summit of the neighbouring citadel and looked around us. It is situated in a very lofty spot, and is fortified with many towers, which have been built up to the very top of immense stones, with the object, as we were informed, of


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399
abraham, trust of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81
adam, condition of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399
adam, confidence of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
adam, faculty of discernment Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
adam, gods handiwork, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
adam, name, spelling of Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
adam, pardoning of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
adam/adam, and dust Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14, 26
adam/adam, and wife/eve Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
adam/adam, creation of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
adam/adam, curses of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
adam/adam, the first Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14
adam Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 104, 107, 141, 149, 193; Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 90; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 147; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142, 204; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 118
adam and eve Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81, 82
agency Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 141
agent Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 141
aggadah, halakhah compared with Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 252
aging Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 86
akiva, rabbi, ribuy technique of Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 75
alcinous Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 90
all, Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 73
allegory Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
allotment, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 489
allotment, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
aloe Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
androgyny Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
angel Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
angels Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
anger, attacking seth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399
anger, god (lord), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
anger, paradise, in Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 489
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 399, 415, 489
anger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
animal Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14, 26
animals, created from four elements Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 75
animals Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 73
anthropology Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
anthropos (heavenly) Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 46
apocalypse, apocalyptic, apocalypticism, apocalypticist Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 118
arabic poetry Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 360
aramaic, square script Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
aramaic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
archangels Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
archon Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142, 204
aristarchus of samothrace Ward, Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian (2022) 40, 41
aristotle Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 90
arriano, and platonism Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
artifacts (kelim), usability, role of in purity system Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 88
ascend, ascension, ascent Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 118
aseneth Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 46
baer, richard Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
baier, annette Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 82
baptism, sethian Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
baptism Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 147
beast, attacking seth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399
beast, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 415, 489
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399, 415, 489
beauty Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 86
birds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399, 415
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 326
body, views of Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 132
body Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
body (human) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 235
boyarin, daniel, on logos vs. torah Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 30
cain, seven sins, judgement Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399
calamus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
carcass Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 392
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81, 82
carnales vs. spiritales Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
cattle Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
character Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
cherubs Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 489
children, children (grandchildren), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 489
children, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
children Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 489
christ, see also jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
christ Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 46
christian, conception of the spirit Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14, 26
christian/christianity Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
christology, adam/image- Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
christology, sophia/wisdom Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 446
cicero Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 90
cinnamon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
citadel Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 364
cleaning Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 392
corinthians Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
covenant, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399
creation, animals, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 326, 489
creation, metaphysics Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
creation, narratives, differences between Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 75
creation, new Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
creation, of the world Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
creation, story of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
creation, the first Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
creation Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 360; Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 73; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
creator archons, archons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
creator archons, yhwh ( Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
creator archons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
creatura spiritalis Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
curse, cursing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
curse, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399
de genesi ad litteram, and platonism Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
de genesi ad litteram, structure Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 93
death, suffering and Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 86
death Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14, 26; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
deception, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
deception Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 326, 489
demetrius of phalerum Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
devil, entering into the allotment of adam Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
devil, satan Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 235
diet, in the garden of eden Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 85
diogenes laertius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 90
division Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 90
dust Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14, 26
earth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14
echo Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 85
eilberg-schwartz, howard Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 88
ekphrasis Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
elazar, rabbi Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 86
eleazar, high priest Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
elements Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 75
elihu Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142, 204
eschatology Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14
ethics of care Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 82
eusebius of emesa, paradise narrative Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
eusebius of emesa, questions formulations Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
eve, nightmare of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 326, 399
eve, seeds of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399
eve Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 147; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142, 204; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
false claim Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
faur, josé Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 30
fear of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415, 784
fire, animals born from Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 75
fish Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
flesh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
flood, story of the Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
food, im/purity of, usability, role of in purity system Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 88
food, im/purity of Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 88
foot/feet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
four living beings Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
frankincense, tree of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
fruit, forbidden (illicit) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 326
gate, heavenly/paradisiacal Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
gender Estes, The Tree of Life (2020) 85
generation, and generative interpretations Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 75
glory, lord, of the Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
glory, loss of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
gnosis, gnostic, gnosticism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 118
gnosis, knowledge, tree of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
gnosis, knowledge Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
god, and adam Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14
god, anger of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, breath/inbreathing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
god, children of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
god, compassion of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, creating/creativity of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14
god, creator, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, decrees of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14
god, father of the whole creation, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
god, hands of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
god, holy one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
god, jael, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
god, praise/thanks of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
god, presence of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
god, sending of/by Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
god, suffering and Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 86
god, taking away/hiddenness of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
gold Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
grain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
grammatical archive, commentarial strategies, plausibility Ward, Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian (2022) 41
grammatical archive, commentarial strategies, solution from the character (λύσις ἐκ τοῦ προσώπου) Ward, Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian (2022) 40, 41
greed, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
greek-jewish (graeco-jewish), philosophy Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 446
greek Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
greek vocables and phrases, μίμησις Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 350
ground Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14, 26
halakhah, aggadah compared with Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 252
halakhah, refutation of opinions in Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 252
handelman, susan Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 30
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415, 779
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399, 784
hebrew Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
hellenism, summary of rabbinic interaction with Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 30
hellenistic judaism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
help Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
heresiology, heresiological, heresiologists, heresiographers Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 235
heresy, heretics, heretical Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 235
hidary, richard Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 30
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 392
hillel Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 252
homeric scholia Ward, Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian (2022) 41
homilies, on double letters Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 73
hope Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14, 26
ialdabaoth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
ignatius of antioch, literary project Doble and Kloha, Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott (2014) 350
illness Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 86
image Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
immortality Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 46
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
incorruptibility Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 46
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14, 26
interpretations, generative Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 75
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779, 784
jealousy, jealous, begrudge, grudge Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 235
jesus, philo Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
jesus christ Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 235
john hyrcanus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14
judaism Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
judaism and christianity Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 132
kinglessness Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
kings Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
knowledge, tree of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
knowledge Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
kutscher, yechezkel, language, conception of Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 30
lapidus, rina Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 252
leviathan Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
life, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
life, sophia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
life, tree of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
light, illumination Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 118
logos Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
loneliness Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 86
lucretius Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 90
man Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 68, 99
marriage Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 232
mercy of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779, 784
mortality/immortality Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 14
myrrh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
mysteries, mystery, lesemysterium Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 118
nag hammadi Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 235
nakedness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 326
names, giving of Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 90
natural law Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
new Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 46
newman j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 232
noah, sons Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
nous (spirit) Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
oil, healing Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
oil, medical Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
oil, mercy, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 784
ophites, ophitic Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 235
ordination Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 232
origen Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 90
paleo-hebrew Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
paradise, pardes Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 118
paradise, traveling (journey or foray) to/from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
paradise, vicinity of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
paradise Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
pardoning of adam Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 779
passions Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 90
paul Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
paul (apostle) Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece, Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent: New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 (2015) 147
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 446
perfection Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
philo of alexandria Ward, Clement and Scriptural Exegesis: The Making of a Commentarial Theologian (2022) 40, 41
plato, cratylus Geljon and Runia, Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2013) 90
platonism Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
plotinus Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
pollution Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 392
pomegranates Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
poverty and the poor Rubenstein, The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings (2018) 86
prayer Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 73
prayers, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 326
preacher, the Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 392
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
psalm/psalmist Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 26
psychic adam/eve/body, class Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
psychic adam/eve/body Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
purity, ritual Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 392
purity law Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 392
rabbis, divergent opinions of Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 252
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
resh lakish, on biblical texts Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 252
resh lakish Borowitz, The Talmud's Theological Language-Game: A Philosophical Discourse Analysis (2006) 252
resurrection, ancient views of Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 132
resurrection Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 118
revealer Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 204
reviya (multiplication) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 75
rhetorical devices Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 132
ribuy (expansiveness, inclusion) Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 75
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 82
sabaoth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142
saffron Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
salamanders Neis, When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species (2012) 75
salvation/soteriology Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 142, 204
salvation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
satan Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 489
seeds, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 399