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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.18-2.24


וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לֹא־טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃And the LORD God said: ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.’


וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof.


nanAnd the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him.


וַיַּפֵּל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו וַיִּסְגֹּר בָּשָׂר תַּחְתֶּנָּה׃And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof.


וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man.


וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם זֹאת הַפַּעַם עֶצֶם מֵעֲצָמַי וּבָשָׂר מִבְּשָׂרִי לְזֹאת יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה כִּי מֵאִישׁ לֻקֳחָה־זֹּאת׃And the man said: ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’


עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

77 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 7.12-7.14, 8.6 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.12. So Raguel said, "Take her right now, in accordance with the law. You are her relative, and she is yours. The merciful God will guide you both for the best. 7.13. Then he called his daughter Sarah, and taking her by the hand he gave her to Tobias to be his wife, saying, "Here she is; take her according to the law of Moses, and take her with you to your father." And he blessed them. 8.6. Thou madest Adam and gavest him Eve his wife as a helper and support.From them the race of mankind has sprung.Thou didst say, `It is not good that the man should be alone;let us make a helper for him like himself.
2. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 4.13-4.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.13. שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃ 4.14. נֵרְדְּ וְכַרְכֹּם קָנֶה וְקִנָּמוֹן עִם כָּל־עֲצֵי לְבוֹנָה מֹר וַאֲהָלוֹת עִם כָּל־רָאשֵׁי בְשָׂמִים׃ 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants 4.14. Spikenard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, With all trees of frankincense; Myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices.
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 10.9, 15.7-15.8, 20.5-20.7, 21.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.9. עַל־כֵּן לֹא־הָיָה לְלֵוִי חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה עִם־אֶחָיו יְהוָה הוּא נַחֲלָתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לוֹ׃ 15.7. כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְךָ אֶבְיוֹן מֵאַחַד אַחֶיךָ בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ בְּאַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא תְאַמֵּץ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ וְלֹא תִקְפֹּץ אֶת־יָדְךָ מֵאָחִיךָ הָאֶבְיוֹן׃ 15.8. כִּי־פָתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח אֶת־יָדְךָ לוֹ וְהַעֲבֵט תַּעֲבִיטֶנּוּ דֵּי מַחְסֹרוֹ אֲשֶׁר יֶחְסַר לוֹ׃ 20.5. וְדִבְּרוּ הַשֹּׁטְרִים אֶל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר מִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה בַיִת־חָדָשׁ וְלֹא חֲנָכוֹ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יַחְנְכֶנּוּ׃ 20.6. וּמִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־נָטַע כֶּרֶם וְלֹא חִלְּלוֹ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יְחַלְּלֶנּוּ׃ 20.7. וּמִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֵרַשׂ אִשָּׁה וְלֹא לְקָחָהּ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יִקָּחֶנָּה׃ 21.15. כִּי־תִהְיֶיןָ לְאִישׁ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים הָאַחַת אֲהוּבָה וְהָאַחַת שְׂנוּאָה וְיָלְדוּ־לוֹ בָנִים הָאֲהוּבָה וְהַשְּׂנוּאָה וְהָיָה הַבֵּן הַבְּכוֹר לַשְּׂנִיאָה׃ 10.9. Wherefore Levi hath no portion nor inheritance with his brethren; the LORD is his inheritance, according as the LORD thy God spoke unto him.—" 15.7. If there be among you a needy man, one of thy brethren, within any of thy gates, in thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not harden thy heart, nor shut thy hand from thy needy brother;" 15.8. but thou shalt surely open thy hand unto him, and shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need in that which he wanteth." 20.5. And the officers shall speak unto the people, saying: ‘What man is there that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it." 20.6. And what man is there that hath planted a vineyard, and hath not used the fruit thereof? let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man use the fruit thereof." 20.7. And what man is there that hath betrothed a wife, and hath not taken her? let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man take her.’" 21.15. If a man have two wives, the one beloved, and the other hated, and they have borne him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the first-born son be hers that was hated;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.1, 19.2, 20.11, 31.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וַיִגְדַּל הַיֶּלֶד וַתְּבִאֵהוּ לְבַת־פַּרְעֹה וַיְהִי־לָהּ לְבֵן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ מֹשֶׁה וַתֹּאמֶר כִּי מִן־הַמַּיִם מְשִׁיתִהוּ׃ 2.1. וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ מִבֵּית לֵוִי וַיִּקַּח אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִי׃ 19.2. וַיִּסְעוּ מֵרְפִידִים וַיָּבֹאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינַי וַיַּחֲנוּ בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיִּחַן־שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל נֶגֶד הָהָר׃ 19.2. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה עַל־הַר סִינַי אֶל־רֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה לְמֹשֶׁה אֶל־רֹאשׁ הָהָר וַיַּעַל מֹשֶׁה׃ 20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 31.17. בֵּינִי וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹת הִוא לְעֹלָם כִּי־שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שָׁבַת וַיִּנָּפַשׁ׃ 2.1. And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi." 19.2. And when they were departed from Rephidim, and were come to the wilderness of Sinai, they encamped in the wilderness; and there Israel encamped before the mount." 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 31.17. It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He ceased from work and rested.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1-1.5, 1.7, 1.16, 1.21-1.22, 1.24-1.31, 2.1-2.17, 2.19-2.27, 3.1-3.24, 4.3-4.6, 4.9, 4.15, 4.26, 5.1-5.2, 6.6, 9.1-9.27, 11.5, 15.6, 15.15-15.16, 18.21, 20.7, 24.21, 24.57-24.58, 28.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃ 1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃ 1.5. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד׃ 1.7. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.16. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃ 1.21. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת אֲשֶׁר שָׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם לְמִינֵהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף כָּנָף לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.22. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים לֵאמֹר פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וְהָעוֹף יִרֶב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 1.24. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ בְּהֵמָה וָרֶמֶשׂ וְחַיְתוֹ־אֶרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.25. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֵת כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.29. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כָּל־עֵשֶׂב זֹרֵעַ זֶרַע אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ וְאֶת־כָּל־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ פְרִי־עֵץ זֹרֵעַ זָרַע לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה׃ 1.31. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה־טוֹב מְאֹד וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי׃ 2.1. וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃ 2.1. וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃ 2.2. וַיְכַל אֱלֹהִים בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃ 2.2. וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁמוֹת לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּלְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וּלְאָדָם לֹא־מָצָא עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃ 2.3. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ כִּי בוֹ שָׁבַת מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 2.4. אֵלֶּה תוֹלְדוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ בְּהִבָּרְאָם בְּיוֹם עֲשׂוֹת יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמָיִם׃ 2.5. וְכֹל שִׂיחַ הַשָּׂדֶה טֶרֶם יִהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ וְכָל־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה טֶרֶם יִצְמָח כִּי לֹא הִמְטִיר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְאָדָם אַיִן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 2.6. וְאֵד יַעֲלֶה מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־כָּל־פְּנֵי־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.8. וַיִּטַּע יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים גַּן־בְעֵדֶן מִקֶּדֶם וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁם אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יָצָר׃ 2.9. וַיַּצְמַח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־עֵץ נֶחְמָד לְמַרְאֶה וְטוֹב לְמַאֲכָל וְעֵץ הַחַיִּים בְּתוֹךְ הַגָּן וְעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע׃ 2.11. שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פִּישׁוֹן הוּא הַסֹּבֵב אֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ הַחֲוִילָה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם הַזָּהָב׃ 2.12. וּזֲהַב הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא טוֹב שָׁם הַבְּדֹלַח וְאֶבֶן הַשֹּׁהַם׃ 2.13. וְשֵׁם־הַנָּהָר הַשֵּׁנִי גִּיחוֹן הוּא הַסּוֹבֵב אֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ כּוּשׁ׃ 2.14. וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי חִדֶּקֶל הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ קִדְמַת אַשּׁוּר וְהַנָּהָר הָרְבִיעִי הוּא פְרָת׃ 2.15. וַיִּקַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּנִּחֵהוּ בְגַן־עֵדֶן לְעָבְדָהּ וּלְשָׁמְרָהּ׃ 2.16. וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃ 2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 2.19. וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃ 2.21. וַיַּפֵּל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו וַיִּסְגֹּר בָּשָׂר תַּחְתֶּנָּה׃ 2.22. וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃ 2.23. וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם זֹאת הַפַּעַם עֶצֶם מֵעֲצָמַי וּבָשָׂר מִבְּשָׂרִי לְזֹאת יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה כִּי מֵאִישׁ לֻקֳחָה־זֹּאת׃ 2.24. עַל־כֵּן יַעֲזָב־אִישׁ אֶת־אָבִיו וְאֶת־אִמּוֹ וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד׃ 2.25. וַיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם עֲרוּמִּים הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וְלֹא יִתְבֹּשָׁשׁוּ׃ 3.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־קֹלְךָ שָׁמַעְתִּי בַּגָּן וָאִירָא כִּי־עֵירֹם אָנֹכִי וָאֵחָבֵא׃ 3.1. וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.2. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ מִפְּרִי עֵץ־הַגָּן נֹאכֵל׃ 3.2. וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ חַוָּה כִּי הִוא הָיְתָה אֵם כָּל־חָי׃ 3.3. וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בּוֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.4. וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מוֹת תְּמֻתוּן׃ 3.5. כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃ 3.6. וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב הָעֵץ לְמַאֲכָל וְכִי תַאֲוָה־הוּא לָעֵינַיִם וְנֶחְמָד הָעֵץ לְהַשְׂכִּיל וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל וַתִּתֵּן גַּם־לְאִישָׁהּ עִמָּהּ וַיֹּאכַל׃ 3.7. וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת׃ 3.8. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים בְּתוֹךְ עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר מִי הִגִּיד לְךָ כִּי עֵירֹם אָתָּה הֲמִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לְבִלְתִּי אֲכָל־מִמֶּנּוּ אָכָלְתָּ׃ 3.12. וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה עִמָּדִי הִוא נָתְנָה־לִּי מִן־הָעֵץ וָאֹכֵל׃ 3.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לָאִשָּׁה מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הַנָּחָשׁ הִשִּׁיאַנִי וָאֹכֵל׃ 3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.15. וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃ 3.16. אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אָמַר הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ בְּעֶצֶב תֵּלְדִי בָנִים וְאֶל־אִישֵׁךְ תְּשׁוּקָתֵךְ וְהוּא יִמְשָׁל־בָּךְ׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.18. וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 3.21. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵׁם׃ 3.22. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃ 3.23. וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִגַּן־עֵדֶן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר לֻקַּח מִשָּׁם׃ 3.24. וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃ 4.3. וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ יָמִים וַיָּבֵא קַיִן מִפְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה מִנְחָה לַיהוָה׃ 4.4. וְהֶבֶל הֵבִיא גַם־הוּא מִבְּכֹרוֹת צֹאנוֹ וּמֵחֶלְבֵהֶן וַיִּשַׁע יְהוָה אֶל־הֶבֶל וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ׃ 4.5. וְאֶל־קַיִן וְאֶל־מִנְחָתוֹ לֹא שָׁעָה וַיִּחַר לְקַיִן מְאֹד וַיִּפְּלוּ פָּנָיו׃ 4.6. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קָיִן לָמָּה חָרָה לָךְ וְלָמָּה נָפְלוּ פָנֶיךָ׃ 4.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל אָחִיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי׃ 4.15. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ יְהוָה לָכֵן כָּל־הֹרֵג קַיִן שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקָּם וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוָה לְקַיִן אוֹת לְבִלְתִּי הַכּוֹת־אֹתוֹ כָּל־מֹצְאוֹ׃ 4.26. וּלְשֵׁת גַּם־הוּא יֻלַּד־בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ אֱנוֹשׁ אָז הוּחַל לִקְרֹא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 5.1. זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 5.1. וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־קֵינָן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.2. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי־יֶרֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃ 5.2. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמָם אָדָם בְּיוֹם הִבָּרְאָם׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 9.1. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.1. וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם בָּעוֹף בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אִתְּכֶם מִכֹּל יֹצְאֵי הַתֵּבָה לְכֹל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.2. וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם׃ 9.2. וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה עַל כָּל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְעַל כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ׃ 9.3. כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃ 9.4. אַךְ־בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃ 9.5. וְאַךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶם לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם אֶדְרֹשׁ מִיַּד כָּל־חַיָּה אֶדְרְשֶׁנּוּ וּמִיַּד הָאָדָם מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו אֶדְרֹשׁ אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם׃ 9.6. שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃ 9.7. וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָהּ׃ 9.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ וְאֶל־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ לֵאמֹר׃ 9.9. וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם וְאֶת־זַרְעֲכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם׃ 9.11. וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם וְלֹא־יִכָּרֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר עוֹד מִמֵּי הַמַּבּוּל וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד מַבּוּל לְשַׁחֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.12. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים זֹאת אוֹת־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי נֹתֵן בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם לְדֹרֹת עוֹלָם׃ 9.13. אֶת־קַשְׁתִּי נָתַתִּי בֶּעָנָן וְהָיְתָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵין הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.14. וְהָיָה בְּעַנְנִי עָנָן עַל־הָאָרֶץ וְנִרְאֲתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן׃ 9.15. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד הַמַּיִם לְמַבּוּל לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר׃ 9.16. וְהָיְתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן וּרְאִיתִיהָ לִזְכֹּר בְּרִית עוֹלָם בֵּין אֱלֹהִים וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.17. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ זֹאת אוֹת־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר הֲקִמֹתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵין כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.18. וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי־נֹחַ הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַתֵּבָה שֵׁם וְחָם וָיָפֶת וְחָם הוּא אֲבִי כְנָעַן׃ 9.19. שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי־נֹחַ וּמֵאֵלֶּה נָפְצָה כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.21. וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּיִן וַיִּשְׁכָּר וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה׃ 9.22. וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן אֵת עֶרְוַת אָבִיו וַיַּגֵּד לִשְׁנֵי־אֶחָיו בַּחוּץ׃ 9.23. וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת־הַשִּׂמְלָה וַיָּשִׂימוּ עַל־שְׁכֶם שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּלְכוּ אֲחֹרַנִּית וַיְכַסּוּ אֵת עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם אֲחֹרַנִּית וְעֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם לֹא רָאוּ׃ 9.24. וַיִּיקֶץ נֹחַ מִיֵּינוֹ וַיֵּדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה־לוֹ בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן׃ 9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 9.26. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 9.27. יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּאָהֳלֵי־שֵׁם וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃ 11.5. וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה לִרְאֹת אֶת־הָעִיר וְאֶת־הַמִּגְדָּל אֲשֶׁר בָּנוּ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 15.15. וְאַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶל־אֲבֹתֶיךָ בְּשָׁלוֹם תִּקָּבֵר בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה׃ 15.16. וְדוֹר רְבִיעִי יָשׁוּבוּ הֵנָּה כִּי לֹא־שָׁלֵם עֲוֺן הָאֱמֹרִי עַד־הֵנָּה׃ 18.21. אֵרֲדָה־נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה הַכְּצַעֲקָתָהּ הַבָּאָה אֵלַי עָשׂוּ כָּלָה וְאִם־לֹא אֵדָעָה׃ 20.7. וְעַתָּה הָשֵׁב אֵשֶׁת־הָאִישׁ כִּי־נָבִיא הוּא וְיִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַדְךָ וֶחְיֵה וְאִם־אֵינְךָ מֵשִׁיב דַּע כִּי־מוֹת תָּמוּת אַתָּה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ׃ 24.21. וְהָאִישׁ מִשְׁתָּאֵה לָהּ מַחֲרִישׁ לָדַעַת הַהִצְלִיחַ יְהוָה דַּרְכּוֹ אִם־לֹא׃ 24.57. וַיֹּאמְרוּ נִקְרָא לַנַּעֲרָ וְנִשְׁאֲלָה אֶת־פִּיהָ׃ 24.58. וַיִּקְרְאוּ לְרִבְקָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלֶיהָ הֲתֵלְכִי עִם־הָאִישׁ הַזֶּה וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלֵךְ׃ 28.11. וַיִּפְגַּע בַּמָּקוֹם וַיָּלֶן שָׁם כִּי־בָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וַיִּקַּח מֵאַבְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם וַיָּשֶׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיִּשְׁכַּב בַּמָּקוֹם הַהוּא׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 1.2. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters." 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." 1.5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day." 1.7. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so." 1.16. And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars." 1.21. And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that creepeth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.22. And God blessed them, saying: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.’" 1.24. And God said: ‘Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind.’ And it was so." 1.25. And God made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.29. And God said: ‘Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed—to you it shall be for food;" 1.30. and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is a living soul, [I have given] every green herb for food.’ And it was so." 1.31. And God saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day." 2.1. And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them." 2.2. And on the seventh day God finished His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made." 2.3. And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made." 2.4. These are the generations of the heaven and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made earth and heaven." 2.5. No shrub of the field was yet in the earth, and no herb of the field had yet sprung up; for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground;" 2.6. but there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 2.8. And the LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed." 2.9. And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil." 2.10. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became four heads." 2.11. The name of the first is Pishon; that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold;" 2.12. and the gold of that land is good; there is bdellium and the onyx stone." 2.13. And the name of the second river is Gihon; the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Cush." 2.14. And the name of the third river is Tigris; that is it which goeth toward the east of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates." 2.15. And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it." 2.16. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;" 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’" 2.19. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof." 2.20. And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him." 2.21. And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof." 2.22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man." 2.23. And the man said: ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’" 2.24. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh." 2.25. And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed." 3.1. Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman: ‘Yea, hath God said: Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden?’" 3.2. And the woman said unto the serpent: ‘of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat;" 3.3. but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’" 3.4. And the serpent said unto the woman: ‘Ye shall not surely die;" 3.5. for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’" 3.6. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and she gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat." 3.7. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles." 3.8. And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden." 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’" 3.10. And he said: ‘I heard Thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.’" 3.11. And He said: ‘Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?’" 3.12. And the man said: ‘The woman whom Thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.’" 3.13. And the LORD God said unto the woman: ‘What is this thou hast done?’ And the woman said: ‘The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.’" 3.14. And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life." 3.15. And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’" 3.16. Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’" 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’" 3.20. And the man called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living." 3.21. And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them." 3.22. And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’" 3.23. Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken." 3.24. So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life." 4.3. And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the LORD." 4.4. And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering;" 4.5. but unto Cain and to his offering He had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countece fell." 4.6. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Why art thou wroth? and why is thy countece fallen?" 4.9. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Where is Abel thy brother?’ And he said: ‘I know not; am I my brother’s keeper?’" 4.15. And the LORD said unto him: ‘Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold.’ And the LORD set a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should smite him." 4.26. And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh; then began men to call upon the name of the LORD." 5.1. This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;" 5.2. male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart." 9.1. And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth." 9.2. And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered." 9.3. Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all." 9.4. Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat." 9.5. And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it; and at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s brother, will I require the life of man." 9.6. Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man." 9.7. And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; swarm in the earth, and multiply therein.’ ." 9.8. And God spoke unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying:" 9.9. ’As for Me, behold, I establish My covet with you, and with your seed after you;" 9.10. and with every living creature that is with you, the fowl, the cattle, and every beast of the earth with you; of all that go out of the ark, even every beast of the earth." 9.11. And I will establish My covet with you; neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of the flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.’" 9.12. And God said: ‘This is the token of the covet which I make between Me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations:" 9.13. I have set My bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covet between Me and the earth." 9.14. And it shall come to pass, when I bring clouds over the earth, and the bow is seen in the cloud," 9.15. that I will remember My covet, which is between Me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh." 9.16. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covet between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth.’" 9.17. And God said unto Noah: ‘This is the token of the covet which I have established between Me and all flesh that is upon the earth.’" 9.18. And the sons of Noah, that went forth from the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth; and Ham is the father of Canaan." 9.19. These three were the sons of Noah, and of these was the whole earth overspread." 9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard." 9.21. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent." 9.22. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without." 9.23. And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father’s nakedness." 9.24. And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his youngest son had done unto him." 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 9.26. And he said: Blessed be the LORD, the God of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 9.27. God enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be their servant." 11.5. And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded." 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness." 15.15. But thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age." 15.16. And in the fourth generation they shall come back hither; for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet full.’" 18.21. I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it, which is come unto Me; and if not, I will know.’" 20.7. Now therefore restore the man’s wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live; and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine.’" 24.21. And the man looked stedfastly on her; holding his peace, to know whether the LORD had made his journey prosperous or not." 24.57. And they said: ‘We will call the damsel, and inquire at her mouth.’" 24.58. And they called Rebekah, and said unto her: ‘Wilt thou go with this man?’ And she said: ‘I will go.’" 28.11. And he lighted upon the place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took one of the stones of the place, and put it under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep."
6. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 5.7, 6.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.7. בַּיהוָה בָּגָדוּ כִּי־בָנִים זָרִים יָלָדוּ עַתָּה יֹאכְלֵם חֹדֶשׁ אֶת־חֶלְקֵיהֶם׃ 6.7. וְהֵמָּה כְּאָדָם עָבְרוּ בְרִית שָׁם בָּגְדוּ בִי׃ 5.7. They have dealt treacherously against the LORD, For they have begotten strange children; Now shall the new moon devour them with their portions." 6.7. But they like men have transgressed the covet; There have they dealt treacherously against Me."
7. Hebrew Bible, Job, 4.12, 29.12, 42.11-42.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.12. וְאֵלַי דָּבָר יְגֻנָּב וַתִּקַּח אָזְנִי שֵׁמֶץ מֶנְהוּ׃ 29.12. כִּי־אֲמַלֵּט עָנִי מְשַׁוֵּעַ וְיָתוֹם וְלֹא־עֹזֵר לוֹ׃ 42.11. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־אֶחָיו וְכָל־אחיתיו [אַחְיוֹתָיו] וְכָל־יֹדְעָיו לְפָנִים וַיֹּאכְלוּ עִמּוֹ לֶחֶם בְּבֵיתוֹ וַיָּנֻדוּ לוֹ וַיְנַחֲמוּ אֹתוֹ עַל כָּל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִיא יְהוָה עָלָיו וַיִּתְּנוּ־לוֹ אִישׁ קְשִׂיטָה אֶחָת וְאִישׁ נֶזֶם זָהָב אֶחָד׃ 42.12. וַיהוָה בֵּרַךְ אֶת־אַחֲרִית אִיּוֹב מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ וַיְהִי־לוֹ אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר אֶלֶף צֹאן וְשֵׁשֶׁת אֲלָפִים גְּמַלִּים וְאֶלֶף־צֶמֶד בָּקָר וְאֶלֶף אֲתוֹנוֹת׃ 4.12. Now a word was secretly brought to me, And mine ear received a whisper thereof." 29.12. Because I delivered the poor that cried, The fatherless also, that had none to help him." 42.11. Then came there unto him all his brethren, and all his sisters, and all they that had been of his acquaintance before, and did eat bread with him in his house; and they bemoaned him, and comforted him concerning all the evil that the LORD had brought upon him; every man also gave him a piece of money, and every one a ring of gold." 42.12. So the LORD blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning; and he had fourteen thousand sheep, and six thousand camels, and a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she-asses. ."
8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 15.16, 16.8, 20.10, 22.12-22.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.16. וְאִישׁ כִּי־תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 16.8. וְנָתַן אַהֲרֹן עַל־שְׁנֵי הַשְּׂעִירִם גּוֹרָלוֹת גּוֹרָל אֶחָד לַיהוָה וְגוֹרָל אֶחָד לַעֲזָאזֵל׃ 22.12. וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ זָר הִוא בִּתְרוּמַת הַקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא תֹאכֵל׃ 22.13. וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וְזֶרַע אֵין לָהּ וְשָׁבָה אֶל־בֵּית אָבִיהָ כִּנְעוּרֶיהָ מִלֶּחֶם אָבִיהָ תֹּאכֵל וְכָל־זָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 15.16. And if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even." 16.8. And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats: one lot for the LORD, and the other lot for Azazel." 20.10. And the man that committeth adultery with another man’s wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour’s wife, both the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death." 22.12. And if a priest’s daughter be married unto a common man, she shall not eat of that which is set apart from the holy things." 22.13. But if a priest’s daughter be a widow, or divorced, and have no child, and is returned unto her father’s house, as in her youth, she may eat of her father’s bread; but there shall no common man"
9. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 3.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.9. כּוּשׁ עָצְמָה וּמִצְרַיִם וְאֵין קֵצֶה פּוּט וְלוּבִים הָיוּ בְּעֶזְרָתֵךְ׃ 3.9. Ethiopia and Egypt were thy strength, and it was infinite; Put and Lubim were thy helpers."
10. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.15, 11.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.15. וְהֵבִיא הָאִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנָהּ עָלֶיהָ עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵיפָה קֶמַח שְׂעֹרִים לֹא־יִצֹק עָלָיו שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלָיו לְבֹנָה כִּי־מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הוּא מִנְחַת זִכָּרוֹן מַזְכֶּרֶת עָוֺן׃ 11.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מֹשֶׁה הַמְקַנֵּא אַתָּה לִי וּמִי יִתֵּן כָּל־עַם יְהוָה נְבִיאִים כִּי־יִתֵּן יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 5.15. then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense thereon; for it is a meal-offering of jealousy, a meal-offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance." 11.29. And Moses said unto him: ‘Art thou jealous for my sake? would that all the LORD’S people were prophets, that the LORD would put His spirit upon them! ’"
11. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22, 26.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 26.18. כְּמִתְלַהְלֵהַּ הַיֹּרֶה זִקִּים חִצִּים וָמָוֶת׃ 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 26.18. As a madman who casteth firebrands, Arrows, and death;"
12. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 79.9, 139.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

79.9. עָזְרֵנוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׁעֵנוּ עַל־דְּבַר כְּבוֹד־שְׁמֶךָ וְהַצִּילֵנוּ וְכַפֵּר עַל־חַטֹּאתֵינוּ לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ׃ 139.11. וָאֹמַר אַךְ־חֹשֶׁךְ יְשׁוּפֵנִי וְלַיְלָה אוֹר בַּעֲדֵנִי׃ 79.9. Help us, O God of our salvation, for the sake of the glory of Thy name; And deliver us, and forgive our sins, for Thy name's sake." 139.11. And if I say: ‘Surely the darkness shall envelop me, And the light about me shall be night';"
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 22.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.23. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה נָתַן יְהוָה רוּחַ שֶׁקֶר בְּפִי כָּל־נְבִיאֶיךָ אֵלֶּה וַיהוָה דִּבֶּר עָלֶיךָ רָעָה׃ 22.23. Now therefore, behold, the LORD hath put a lying spirit in the mouth of all these thy prophets; and the LORD hath spoken evil concerning thee.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 42.1, 63.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

42.1. הֵן עַבְדִּי אֶתְמָךְ־בּוֹ בְּחִירִי רָצְתָה נַפְשִׁי נָתַתִּי רוּחִי עָלָיו מִשְׁפָּט לַגּוֹיִם יוֹצִיא׃ 42.1. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּתוֹ מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם וּמְלֹאוֹ אִיִּים וְיֹשְׁבֵיהֶם׃ 63.5. וְאַבִּיט וְאֵין עֹזֵר וְאֶשְׁתּוֹמֵם וְאֵין סוֹמֵךְ וַתּוֹשַׁע לִי זְרֹעִי וַחֲמָתִי הִיא סְמָכָתְנִי׃ 42.1. Behold My servant, whom I uphold; Mine elect, in whom My soul delighteth; I have put My spirit upon him, He shall make the right to go forth to the nations." 63.5. And I looked, and there was none to help, and I beheld in astonishment, and there was none to uphold; therefore Mine own arm brought salvation unto Me, And My fury, it upheld Me."
16. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 3.16, 10.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.16. וַיַּעַמְדוּ הַמַּיִם הַיֹּרְדִים מִלְמַעְלָה קָמוּ נֵד־אֶחָד הַרְחֵק מְאֹד באדם [מֵאָדָם] הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר מִצַּד צָרְתָן וְהַיֹּרְדִים עַל יָם הָעֲרָבָה יָם־הַמֶּלַח תַּמּוּ נִכְרָתוּ וְהָעָם עָבְרוּ נֶגֶד יְרִיחוֹ׃ 10.6. וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ אַנְשֵׁי גִבְעוֹן אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה הַגִּלְגָּלָה לֵאמֹר אַל־תֶּרֶף יָדֶיךָ מֵעֲבָדֶיךָ עֲלֵה אֵלֵינוּ מְהֵרָה וְהוֹשִׁיעָה לָּנוּ וְעָזְרֵנוּ כִּי נִקְבְּצוּ אֵלֵינוּ כָּל־מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי יֹשְׁבֵי הָהָר׃ 3.16. that the waters which came down from above stood, and rose up in one heap, a great way off from Adam, the city that is beside Zarethan; and those that went down toward the sea of the Arabah, even the Salt Sea, were wholly cut off; and the people passed over right against Jericho." 10.6. And the men of Gibeon sent unto Joshua to the camp to Gilgal, saying: ‘Slack not thy hands from thy servants; come up to us quickly, and save us, and help us; for all the kings of the Amorites that dwell in the hill-country are gathered together against us.’"
17. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 14.14-14.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.14. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם מֵהָאֹכֵל יָצָא מַאֲכָל וּמֵעַז יָצָא מָתוֹק וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לְהַגִּיד הַחִידָה שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים׃ 14.15. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְאֵשֶׁת־שִׁמְשׁוֹן פַּתִּי אֶת־אִישֵׁךְ וְיַגֶּד־לָנוּ אֶת־הַחִידָה פֶּן־נִשְׂרֹף אוֹתָךְ וְאֶת־בֵּית אָבִיךְ בָּאֵשׁ הַלְיָרְשֵׁנוּ קְרָאתֶם לָנוּ הֲלֹא׃ 14.16. וַתֵּבְךְּ אֵשֶׁת שִׁמְשׁוֹן עָלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר רַק־שְׂנֵאתַנִי וְלֹא אֲהַבְתָּנִי הַחִידָה חַדְתָּ לִבְנֵי עַמִּי וְלִי לֹא הִגַּדְתָּה וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ הִנֵּה לְאָבִי וּלְאִמִּי לֹא הִגַּדְתִּי וְלָךְ אַגִּיד׃ 14.17. וַתֵּבְךְּ עָלָיו שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיָה לָהֶם הַמִּשְׁתֶּה וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיַּגֶּד־לָהּ כִּי הֱצִיקַתְהוּ וַתַּגֵּד הַחִידָה לִבְנֵי עַמָּהּ׃ 14.18. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּטֶרֶם יָבֹא הַחַרְסָה מַה־מָּתוֹק מִדְּבַשׁ וּמֶה עַז מֵאֲרִי וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לוּלֵא חֲרַשְׁתֶּם בְּעֶגְלָתִי לֹא מְצָאתֶם חִידָתִי׃ 14.14. And he said to them, Out of the eater came forth food, and out of the strong came forth sweetness. And they could not in three days expound the riddle." 14.15. And it came to pass on the seventh day, that they said to Shimshon’s wife, Entice thy husband, that he may declare to us the riddle, lest we burn thee and thy father’s house with fire: have you called us to take possession of our goods?" 14.16. And Shimshon’s wife wept before him, and said, Thou dost but hate me, and lovest me not: thou hast propounded a riddle to the children of my people, and hast not told it me. And he said to her, Behold, I have not told it my father nor my mother and shall I tell it thee?" 14.17. And she wept before him the seven days, while their feast lasted: and it came to pass on the seventh day, that he told her, because she harassed him: and she told the riddle to the children of her people." 14.18. And the men of the city said to him on the seventh day before the sun went down, What is sweeter than honey? and what is stronger than a lion? And he said to them, If you had not ploughed with my heifer, you would not have found out my riddle."
18. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 11.19, 36.26-36.27, 37.6, 37.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.19. וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב אֶחָד וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשָׂרָם וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.27. וְאֶת־רוּחִי אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וְעָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־בְּחֻקַּי תֵּלֵכוּ וּמִשְׁפָּטַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם׃ 37.6. וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עוֹר וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 37.14. וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 11.19. And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh;" 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh." 36.27. And I will put My spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and ye shall keep Mine ordices, and do them." 37.6. And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; and ye shall know that I am the LORD.’" 37.14. And I will put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I will place you in your own land; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken, and performed it, saith the LORD.’"
19. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 3.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.10. And next unto them repaired Jedaiah the son of Harumaph, even over against his house. And next unto him repaired Hattush the son of Hashabneiah."
20. Septuagint, Tobit, 7.12-7.14, 8.6 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.12. So Raguel said, "Take her right now, in accordance with the law. You are her relative, and she is yours. The merciful God will guide you both for the best. 7.13. Then he called his daughter Sarah, and taking her by the hand he gave her to Tobias to be his wife, saying, "Here she is; take her according to the law of Moses, and take her with you to your father." And he blessed them. 8.6. Thou madest Adam and gavest him Eve his wife as a helper and support.From them the race of mankind has sprung.Thou didst say, `It is not good that the man should be alone;let us make a helper for him like himself.
21. Anon., Jubilees, 2.8-2.14, 12.25-12.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.8. And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day--half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the whole earth. 2.9. And this was the only work (God) created on the second day. 2.10. And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear. 2.11. And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, and the dry land appeared. 2.12. And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth 2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 12.25. And he made an end of speaking and praying, and behold the word of the Lord was sent to him through me, saying: 12.26. Get thee up from thy country, and from thy kindred and from the house of thy father unto a land which I shall show thee 12.27. and I shall make thee a great and numerous nation. And I shall bless thee And I shall make thy name great, And thou wilt be blessed in the earth
22. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.10, 25.23-25.25, 36.1, 40.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

25.23. A dejected mind, a gloomy face,and a wounded heart are caused by an evil wife. Drooping hands and weak knees are caused by the wife who does not make her husband happy. 25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die. 25.25. Allow no outlet to water,and no boldness of speech in an evil wife. 36.1. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, the God of all, and look upon us 36.1. Crush the heads of the rulers of the enemy,who say, "There is no one but ourselves. 40.23. A friend or a companion never meets one amiss,but a wife with her husband is better than both.
23. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.24, 25.24-25.25, 36.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.24. but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 96-97, 95 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

95. But we must explain what is the enigmatical meaning which he conceals under this prayer, the name of Dan, being interpreted, means "judgment;" therefore he here likens that power of the soul which investigates, and accurately examines, and distinguishes between, and, in some degree, decides on each part of the soul, to a dragon (and the dragon is an animal various in its movements, and exceedingly cunning, and ready to display its courage, and very powerful to repel those who begin acts of violence), but not to that friendly serpent, the counsellor of life, which is wont to be called Eve in his national language, but to the one made by Moses, of the material of brass, which, when those who had been bitten by the poisonous serpents, and who were at the point of death beheld, they are said to have lived and not to have died. XXII.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 53, 57, 61, 63-65, 40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

40. And Adam knew his wife, and she conceived and brought forth Cain; and she said I have gotten a man by means of the Lord; and he caused her also to bring forth Abel his Brother." These men, to whose virtue the Jewish legislation bears testimony, he does not represent as knowing their wives, such as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and if there are any others of like zeal with them; 40. A third view of the question is, that no king or tyrant may ever despise an obscure private individual, from being full of insolence and haughty pride; but that such an one, coming as a pupil to the school of the sacred laws, may relax his eyebrows, unlearning his self-opinionativeness, and yielding rather to true reason.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 171 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

171. Who, then, is so impious as to conceive that God is one who afflicts, and who brings that most pitiable death of hunger upon those who are not able to live without food? For God is good, and the cause of good things, bounteous, the saviour, the supporter, the giver of wealth, the giver of great gifts, driving out wickedness from the sacred boundaries; for thus did he drive out the burdens of the earth, Adam and Cain, from paradise.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 65 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

65. But the sons of earth removing their minds from contemplation, and becoming deserters so as to fly to the lifeless and immovable nature of the flesh, "for they two became one Flesh," as the lawgiver says, adulterated the excellent coinage, and abandoned the better rank which had been allotted to them as their own, and deserted to the worse rank, which was contrary to their original nature, Nimrod being the first to set the example of this desertion;
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 152-177, 28, 76, 151 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

151. But since nothing in creation lasts for ever, but all mortal things are liable to inevitable changes and alterations, it was unavoidable that the first man should also undergo some disaster. And the beginning of his life being liable to reproach, was his wife. For, as long as he was single, he resembled, as to his creation, both the world and God; and he represented in his soul the characteristics of the nature of each, I do not mean all of them, but such as a mortal constitution was capable of admitting. But when woman also was created, man perceiving a closely connected figure and a kindred formation to his own, rejoiced at the sight, and approached her and embraced her.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 33 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. After he had said this he proceeds to say, "And Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bare Enoch; and he built a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son Enoch." Is it not here reasonable to raise the question, why Cain knew his wife? for there had been no birth of any one other woman since that of Eve who was formed out of the side of the man, until the woman who is here mentioned;
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 19-20, 27, 43, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. And he also added, that she should bring forth his Brother." The addition of one thing is a taking away of some other; as for instance, of particles in arithmetic, and of reasons in the soul. If then we must say that Abel is added, we must also think that Cain is taken away. But that the unusual character of expression may not cause perplexity to many we will endeavour to explain accurately the philosophy which is apparent beneath them, as clearly as may be in our power.
31. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. Moses moreover represents two persons as leaders of these two companies. The leader of the noble and good company is the self-taught and self-instructed Isaac; for he records that he was weaned, not choosing to avail himself at all of tender, and milk-like, and childish, and infantine food, but only of such as was vigorous and perfect, inasmuch as he was formed by nature, from his very infancy, for acts of virtue, and was always in the prime and vigour of youth and energy. But the leader of the company, which yields and which is inclined to softer measures, is Joseph;
32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.49-1.50, 3.178 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.49. Do not, then, ever expect to be able to comprehend me nor any one of my powers, in respect of our essence. But, as I have said, I willingly and cheerfully grant unto you such things as you may receive. And this gift is to call you to the beholding of the world and all the things that are in it, which must be comprehended, not indeed by the eyes of the body, but by the sleepless vision of the soul. 1.50. The desire of wisdom alone is continual and incessant, and it fills all its pupils and disciples with famous and most beautiful doctrines." When Moses heard this he did not cease from his desire, but he still burned with a longing for the understanding of invisible things. [...]{7}{mangey thinks that there is a considerable hiatus here. What follows relates to the regulations respecting proselytes, which as the text stands is in no way connected with what has gone before about the worship of God.}IX. 3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature.
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 199 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

199. Again, who is there who would deny that those men who were born of him who was made out of the earth were noble themselves, and the founders of noble families? persons who have received a birth more excellent than that of any succeeding generation, in being sprung from the first wedded pair, from the first man and woman, who then for the first time came together for the propagation of offspring resembling themselves. But, nevertheless, when there were two persons so born, the elder of them endured to slay the younger; and, having committed the great and most accursed crime of fratricide, he first defiled the ground with human blood.
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. And first of all we must speak of the matters which relate to his character and conduct as a lawgiver. I am not ignorant that the man who desires to be an excellent and perfect lawgiver ought to exercise all the virtues in their complete integrity and perfection, since in the houses of his nation some are near relations and some distant, but still they are all related to one another. And in like manner we must look upon some of the virtues as connected more closely with some matters, and on others as being more removed from them.
35. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.19-1.20, 1.31, 2.1-2.8, 2.49 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.19. This is the book of the generation of heaven and earth, when they were Created." This is perfect reason, which is put in motion in accordance with the number seven, being the beginning of the creation of that mind which was arranged according to the ideas, and also of the sensation arranged according to the ideas, and perceptible only by the intellect, if one can speak in such a manner. And Moses calls the word of God a book, in which it is come to pass that the formations of other things are written down and engraved. 1.20. But, lest you should imagine that the Deity does anything according to definite periods of time, while you should rather think that everything done by him is inscrutable in its nature, uncertain, unknown to, and incomprehensible by the race of mortal men. Moses adds the words, "when they were created," not defining the time when by any exact limitation, for what has been made by the Author of all things has no limitation. And in this way the idea is excluded, that the universe was created in six days. IX. 1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker.
36. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.8, 1.23-1.53, 2.56 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

37. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 258, 48, 164 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

164. For it is equality which allotted night and day and light and darkness to existing things. It is equality also that divided the human race into man and woman, making two divisions, unequal in strength, but most perfectly equal for the purpose which nature had principally in view, the generation of a third human being like themselves. For, says Moses, "God made man; in the image of God created he him; male and female he created Them." He no longer says "him," but "them," in the plural number, adapting the species to the genus, which have, as I have already said, been divided with perfect equality. XXXIV.
38. Anon., Didache, 15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Therefore, appoint for yourselves bishops and deacons worthy of the Lord, men meek, and not lovers of money, 1 Timothy 3:4 and truthful and proven; for they also render to you the service of prophets and teachers. Despise them not therefore, for they are your honoured ones, together with the prophets and teachers. And reprove one another, not in anger, but in peace, as you have it in the Gospel; Matthew 18:15-17 but to every one that acts amiss against another, let no one speak, nor let him hear anything from you until he repents. But your prayers and alms and all your deeds so do, as you have it in the Gospel of our Lord.
39. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 4.1-4.2, 9.3, 10.1, 12.1, 29.5-29.6, 39.2, 40.6 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

40. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.3. Μετανοήσατε, οἶκος Ἰσραήλ, ἀπὸ τῆς ἀνομίας ὑμῶν: εἶπον τοῖς υἱοῖς τοῦ λαοῦ μου. Ἐὰν ὦσιν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ὑμῶν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἕως τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἐὰν ὦσιν πυρρότεραι κόκκου καὶ μελανώτεραι σάκκου, καὶ ἐπιστραφῆτε πρός με ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας καὶ εἴπητε: Πάτερ: ἐπακούσομαι ὑμῶν ὡς λαοῦ ἁγίου.
41. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.35. God also presented the living creatures, when he had made them, according to their kinds, both male and female, to Adam, who gave them those names by which they are still called. But when he saw that Adam had no female companion, no society, for there was no such created, and that he wondered at the other animals which were male and female, he laid him asleep, and took away one of his ribs, and out of it formed the woman;
42. Longinus, On The Sublime, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

43. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 6.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.6. If an orphan was given in marriage by her mother or her brothers with her consent and they gave her a dowry of a hundred, or fifty zuz, she may, when she reaches majority age, legally claim from them the amount that was due to her. Rabbi Judah says: if the father had given his first daughter in marriage, the second must receive as much as the first. The Sages say: sometimes a man is poor and becomes rich or rich and becomes poor. Rather the estate should evaluated and [the appropriate amount] given to her."
44. New Testament, 1 John, 3.24, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.24. He who keeps his commandments remains in him, and he in him. By this we know that he remains in us, by the Spirit which he gave us. 4.13. By this we know that we remain in him and he in us, because he has given us of his Spirit.
45. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.10-7.14, 7.17-7.23, 11.3, 11.6, 11.9, 15.22, 15.42-15.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.10. But to the married I command-- not I, but the Lord -- that the wife not leave her husband 7.11. (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled toher husband), and that the husband not leave his wife. 7.12. But to the rest I -- not the Lord -- say, if any brother hasan unbelieving wife, and she is content to live with him, let him notleave her. 7.13. The woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he iscontent to live with her, let her not leave her husband. 7.14. For theunbelieving husband is sanctified in the wife, and the unbelieving wifeis sanctified in the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean,but now are they holy. 7.17. Only, as the Lord hasdistributed to each man, as God has called each, so let him walk. So Icommand in all the assemblies. 7.18. Was anyone called having been circumcised? Let him not becomeuncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? Let him not becircumcised. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 7.20. Let eachman stay in that calling in which he was called. 7.21. Were you calledbeing a bondservant? Don't let that bother you, but if you get anopportunity to become free, use it. 7.22. For he who was called in theLord being a bondservant is the Lord's free man. Likewise he who wascalled being free is Christ's bondservant. 7.23. You were bought witha price. Don't become bondservants of men. 11.3. But I wouldhave you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. 11.6. For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn.But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her becovered. 11.9. for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly.
46. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 3.2, 4.14, 5.17, 5.19, 6.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. The overseer therefore must be without reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, sensible, modest, hospitable, good at teaching; 4.14. Don't neglect the gift that is in you, which was given to you by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the elders. 5.17. Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and in teaching. 5.19. Don't receive an accusation against an elder, except at the word of two or three witnesses. 6.20. Timothy, guard that which is committed to you, turning away from the empty chatter and oppositions of the knowledge which is falsely so called;
47. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 1.22, 5.5, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

48. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.6-1.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.6. For this cause, I remind you that you should stir up the gift of God which is in you through the laying on of my hands. 1.7. For God didn't give us a spirit of fear, but of power, love, and self-control.
49. New Testament, Acts, 5.32, 6.6, 14.23, 15.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.32. We are His witnesses of these things; and so also is the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those who obey him. 6.6. whom they set before the apostles. When they had prayed, they laid their hands on them. 14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed. 15.8. God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit, just like he did to us.
50. New Testament, Apocalypse, 20.13-20.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.13. The sea gave up the dead who were in it. Death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them. They were judged, each one according to his works. 20.14. Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. 20.15. If anyone was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire.
51. New Testament, James, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.14. Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the assembly, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord
52. New Testament, Colossians, 3.18, 3.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.18. Wives, be in subjection to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. 3.22. Servants, obey in all things those who are your masters according to the flesh, not just when they are looking, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of heart, fearing God.
53. New Testament, Ephesians, 6.5, 6.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.5. Servants, be obedient to those who according to the flesh are your masters, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as to Christ; 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.
54. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.14, 2.5-2.10, 2.12, 2.14-2.15, 2.17-2.18, 4.15-4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. Aren't they all ministering spirits, sent out to do service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation? 2.5. For he didn't subject the world to come, whereof we speak, to angels. 2.6. But one has somewhere testified, saying, "What is man, that you think of him? Or the son of man, that you care for him? 2.7. You made him a little lower than the angels; You crowned him with glory and honor. 2.8. You have put all things in subjection under his feet."For in that he subjected all things to him, he left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we don't see all things subjected to him, yet. 2.9. But we see him who has been made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that by the grace of God he should taste of death for everyone. 2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 2.12. saying, "I will declare your name to my brothers. In the midst of the congregation I will sing your praise. 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 2.17. Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. 2.18. For in that he himself has suffered being tempted, he is able to help those who are tempted. 4.15. For we don't have a high priest who can't be touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but one who has been in all points tempted like we are, yet without sin. 4.16. Let us therefore draw near with boldness to the throne of grace, that we may receive mercy, and may find grace for help in time of need.
55. New Testament, Romans, 3.1, 7.2, 9.2, 11.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? 7.2. For the woman that has a husband is bound by law to the husband while he lives, but if the husband dies, she is discharged from the law of the husband. 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 11.8. According as it is written, "God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear, to this very day.
56. New Testament, Titus, 1.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. holding to the faithful word which is according to the teaching, that he may be able to exhort in the sound doctrine, and to convict those who contradict him.
57. New Testament, John, 2.1-2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. The third day, there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee. Jesus' mother was there. 2.2. Jesus also was invited, with his disciples, to the marriage. 2.3. When the wine ran out, Jesus' mother said to him, "They have no wine. 2.4. Jesus said to her, "Woman, what does that have to do with you and me? My hour has not yet come. 2.5. His mother said to the servants, "Whatever he says to you, do it. 2.6. Now there were six water pots of stone set there after the Jews' manner of purifying, containing two or three metretes apiece. 2.7. Jesus said to them, "Fill the water pots with water." They filled them up to the brim. 2.8. He said to them, "Now draw some out, and take it to the ruler of the feast." So they took it. 2.9. When the ruler of the feast tasted the water now become wine, and didn't know where it came from (but the servants who had drawn the water knew), the ruler of the feast called the bridegroom 2.10. and said to him, "Everyone serves the good wine first, and when the guests have drunk freely, then that which is worse. You have kept the good wine until now! 2.11. This beginning of his signs Jesus did in Cana of Galilee, and revealed his glory; and his disciples believed in him.
58. New Testament, Matthew, 8.12, 20.10, 22.11-22.14, 25.1-25.13, 25.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.12. but the sons of the kingdom will be thrown out into the outer darkness. There will be weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 20.10. When the first came, they supposed that they would receive more; and they likewise each received a denarius. 22.11. But when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man who didn't have on wedding clothing 22.12. and he said to him, 'Friend, how did you come in here not wearing wedding clothing?' He was speechless. 22.13. Then the king said to the servants, 'Bind him hand and foot, take him away, and throw him into the outer darkness; there is where the weeping and grinding of teeth will be.' 22.14. For many are called, but few chosen. 25.1. Then the Kingdom of Heaven will be like ten virgins, who took their lamps, and went out to meet the bridegroom. 25.2. Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. 25.3. Those who were foolish, when they took their lamps, took no oil with them 25.4. but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. 25.5. Now while the bridegroom delayed, they all slumbered and slept. 25.6. But at midnight there was a cry, 'Behold! The bridegroom is coming! Come out to meet him!' 25.7. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. 25.8. The foolish said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.' 25.9. But the wise answered, saying, 'What if there isn't enough for us and you? You go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.' 25.10. While they went away to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the marriage feast, and the door was shut. 25.11. Afterward the other virgins also came, saying, 'Lord, Lord, open to us.' 25.12. But he answered, 'Most assuredly I tell you, I don't know you.' 25.13. Watch therefore, for you don't know the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming. 25.30. Throw out the unprofitable servant into the outer darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.'
59. Tosefta, Peah, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

60. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 17.3, 19.11, 22.9, 27.4, 56.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

17.3. אֶעֱשֶׂה לוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ, אִם זָכָה עֵזֶר, וְאִם לָאו כְּנֶגְדּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה אִם זָכָה, כְּאִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר חֲכִינָאי, וְאִם לָאו, כְּאִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הֲוָה לֵיהּ אִנְתְּתָא בִּישָׁא, וַהֲוַת בְּרַתָּא דַּאֲחָתֵיהּ, וַהֲוַת בָּזֵית לֵיהּ קֳדָם תַּלְמִידוֹי, אָמְרִין תַּלְמִידָיו שַׁבְקָא לַהֲדָא אִנְתְּתָא בִּישָׁא דְּלֵיתָא מְיַקְרָךְ. אֲמַר לְהוֹן פּוּרְנָא רַב עָלַי, לֵית בְּיָדִי מָה אֶשְׁבּוֹק לָהּ. חַד זְמַן הֲווֹן יָתְבִין פָּשְׁטִין הוּא וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, דְּמִן חַסְלִין אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַשְׁגַּח רַבִּי וַאֲנַן סָלְקִין בְּבֵיתָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, סָלֵיק, כִּי סְלֵיק אַמַּכַת לְאַפָּהּ וּנְפַקַת לָהּ, צָפָה בְּהַהִיא קְדֵרָה, אֲמַר לָהּ אִית בְּהַהִיא קְדֵרָה כְּלוּם, אֲמַרָה לֵיהּ אִית פַּרְפְּרָיִין, אָזַל גַּלֵּיתָהּ וְאַשְׁכַּח פַּרְגָיִין, יָדַע רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה מַה הוּא שָׁמַע, יָתְבוּן לְהוֹן אָכְלִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי לָא אֲמַרַת אֶלָּא פַּרְפְּרָיִין וְהָא אַשְׁכַּחְנַן בְּגַוָּהּ פַּרְגָיִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַעֲשֶׂה נִסִּים הֵן. מִן דְּחַסְלִין אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי שְׁבוֹקָא הַהִיא אִנְתְּתָא מִינָךְ, דְּלֵית הִיא עָבְדָא לִיקְרָתָךְ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ פּוּרְנָא רַב עָלַי וְלֵית בִּי מָה אֶשְׁבּוֹק לָהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנַן יַהֲבִינַן לָהּ פּוּרְנָא וְשַׁבְקֵית מִינָךְ. עֲבַדּוּן לֵיהּ כֵּן פְּסַק לָהּ פּוּרְנָא וּשְׁבַק יָתָהּ מִינֵיהּ וְאַסְבוּן יָתֵיהּ אִתְּתָא אָחֳרָא טָבָא מִינַהּ, גַּרְמוּן חוֹבִין דְּהַהִיא אִתְּתָא וַאֲזַלַּת וְאִתְנַסְבֵית לְסַנְטְרִין דְּקַרְתָּא, לְבָתַר יוֹמִין אֲתוֹן יִסּוּרִין עָלָיו וְאִתְעַוֵּר, וַהֲוַת צָיְירַת בִּיְדֵיהּ וּמְחַזְרָא לֵיהּ עַל שְׁקָקַיָא דְּקַרְתָּא, כֵּיוָן דַּהֲוַת מַטְיָא בִּשְׁקָקַיָא דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי הֲוַת קָיְימָא לָהּ וְחָזְרָה לַאֲחוֹרָהּ, מִן דַּהֲוָה הַהוּא גַבְרָא חַכִּים קַרְתָּא אֲמַר לָהּ לָמָּה אַתְּ לֹא מוֹבַלְתְּ לִי לִשְׁכוּנְתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי, דַּאֲנָא שָׁמַע דְּהַהוּא עָבִיד מִצְוָה. אֲמַרַת לֵיהּ מַשְׁבַּקְתֵּיהּ אֲנָא, וְלֵית בִּי דְּלֶחֱמֵי סְבַר אַפּוֹהִי. חַד זְמַן אֲתוֹן קָרוֹן בִּשְׁכוּנְתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אַרְגֵּישׁ בַּהּ יוֹם קֳדָמוֹי, וְיוֹם תִּנְיָן וּשְׁרֵי מָחֵי לָהּ, וַאֲזֵיל קָלְהוֹן וַהֲווֹן מִתְבַּזִּין בְּכָל קַרְתָּא, אוֹדִיק רַבִּי יוֹסֵי לְקָלְהוֹן וַחֲמְהוֹן מִתְבַּזִּין בְּגוֹ שׁוּקָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַתְּ מָחֵי לָהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ כָּל יוֹם הִיא מוֹבְדָה פַּרְנָסָתֵיהּ דְּהָדֵין שְׁקָקַיָּה מִנִּי, כֵּיוָן דִּשְׁמַע רַבִּי יוֹסֵי כֵּן נְסַבֵיהוֹן וִיהֵיב יָתְהוֹן בְּחָדָא בֵּיתָא מִן דִּידֵיהּ, וַהֲוָה מְפַרְנֵס יָתְהוֹן כָּל יוֹמֵי חַיֵּיהוֹן, עַל שֵׁם (ישעיה נח, ז): וּמִבְּשָׂרְךָ לֹא תִתְעַלָּם. 19.11. וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם וגו' (בראשית ג, יב), אַרְבָּעָה הֵן שֶׁהֵקִישׁ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל קַנְקַנָּן וּמְצָאָן קַנְקַנִּין שֶׁל מֵימֵי רַגְלַיִם, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, אָדָם, וְקַיִן, וּבִלְעָם, וְחִזְקִיָּהוּ. אָדָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם הָאִשָּׁה. קַיִן (בראשית ד, ט): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל וגו' וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי. בִּלְעָם הָרָשָׁע, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כב, ט י): מִי הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה עִמָּךְ, וַיֹּאמֶר בִּלְעָם אֶל הָאֱלֹהִים וגו'. חִזְקִיָּהוּ (מלכים ב כ, יד) (ישעיה לט, ג): מָה אָמְרוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה וגו'. אֲבָל יְחֶזְקֵאל מְצָאוֹ בָּקִי מִכֻּלָּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל לז, ג): בֶּן אָדָם הֲתִחְיֶינָה הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וָאֹמַר ה' אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה יָדָעְתָּ, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פָּפָּא לְצִפּוֹר שֶׁהָיְתָה נְתוּנָה בְּיַד צַיָּד, פָּגַע בְּאֶחָד אָמַר לוֹ זוֹ שֶׁבְּיָדִי מָה הִיא חַיָּה אוֹ מֵתָה, אָמַר לוֹ אִי בָּעִית חַיָּה, אִי בָּעִית מֵתָה, כָּךְ בֶּן אָדָם הֲתִחְיֶינָה הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וָאֹמַר ה' אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה יָדָעְתָּ. 22.9. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, כְּתִיב (תהלים לז, יד): חֶרֶב פָּתְחוּ רְשָׁעִים וגו', חֶרֶב פָּתְחוּ רְשָׁעִים וְדָרְכוּ קַשְׁתָּם, זֶה קַיִן. (תהלים לז, יד): לְהַפִּיל עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן לִטְבוֹחַ יִשְׁרֵי דָרֶךְ זֶה הֶבֶל. (תהלים לז, טו): חַרְבָּם תָּבוֹא בְלִבָּם וגו', (בראשית ד, יב): נָע וְנָד תִּהְיֶה בָּאָרֶץ. (בראשית ד, ט): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל אָחִיךָ וגו', מָשָׁל לְאִיפַּרְכוֹס שֶׁהָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בְּאֶמְצַע פְּלַטְיָא, מָצָא הָרוּג וְאֶחָד עוֹמֵד עַל גַּבָּיו, אָמַר לוֹ מִי הֲרָגוֹ, וַאֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנָא בָּעֵי לֵיהּ גַּבָּךְ, וְאַתְּ בָּעֵי לֵיהּ גַּבִּי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֹא אָמַרְתָּ כְּלוּם, מָשָׁל לְאֶחָד שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְגִנָּה וְלִקֵּט תּוּתִין וְאָכַל, וְהָיָה בַּעַל הַגִּנָּה רָץ אַחֲרָיו אָמַר לוֹ מַה בְּיָדְךָ, אָמַר לוֹ אֵין בְּיָדִי כְּלוּם, אָמַר לוֹ וַהֲרֵי יָדֶיךָ מְלֻכְלָכוֹת. כָּךְ אָמַר לוֹ קַיִן לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית ד, ט): הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָא רָשָׁע (בראשית ד, י): קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים וגו', מָשָׁל לְאֶחָד שֶׁנִכְנַס לְמִרְעֶה וְחָטַף גְּדִי אֶחָד וְהִפְשִׁילוֹ לַאֲחוֹרָיו, וְהָיָה בַּעַל הַמִּרְעֶה רָץ אַחֲרָיו אָמַר לוֹ מַה בְּיָדְךָ, אָמַר לוֹ אֵין בְּיָדִי כְּלוּם, אָמַר לוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא מַפְעֶה אַחֲרֶיךָ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְקַיִן: קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יוּדָן וְרַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבָּנָן. רַבִּי יוּדָן אוֹמֵר דַּם אָחִיךָ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו. רַבִּי הוּנָא אָמַר (מלכים ב ט, כו): אֶת דְּמֵי נָבוֹת, דַּם נָבוֹת וְדַם בָּנָיו אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֶת דְּמֵי נָבוֹת וְאֶת דְּמֵי בָנָיו, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו. רַבָּנָן אָמְרִין (דברי הימים ב כד, כה): וַיָּמָת בְּדַם יְהוֹיָדָע, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא בִּדְמֵי יְהוֹיָדָע, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי קָשֶׁה הַדָּבָר לְאָמְרוֹ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַפֶּה לְפָרְשׁוֹ, לִשְׁנֵי אַתְּלִיטִין שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹמְדִין וּמִתְגּוֹשְׁשִׁים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ, אִלּוּ רָצָה הַמֶּלֶךְ פֵּרְשָׁן, וְלֹא רָצָה הַמֶּלֶךְ לְפָרְשָׁן, נִתְחַזֵּק אֶחָד עַל חֲבֵרוֹ וַהֲרָגוֹ, וְהָיָה מְצַוֵּחַ וְאָמַר מַאן יִבְעֵי דִּינִי קֳדָם מַלְכָּא, כָּךְ קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צוֹעֲקִים אֵלַי מִן הָאֲדָמָה, לַעֲלוֹת לְמַעְלָה לֹא הָיְתָה יְכוֹלָה שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא עָלְתָה לְשָׁם נְשָׁמָה, וּלְמַטָּה לֹא הָיְתָה יְכוֹלָה לַעֲמֹד שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִקְבַּר שָׁם אָדָם, וְהָיָה דָּמוֹ מֻשְׁלָךְ עַל הָעֵצִים וְעַל הָאֲבָנִים. 27.4. וַיִּנָּחֶם ה' כִּי עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ (בראשית ו, ו), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אָמַר תַּוְהוּת הָיְתָה לְפָנַי שֶׁבָּרָאתִי אוֹתוֹ מִלְּמַטָּה, שֶׁאִלּוּ בָּרָאתִי אוֹתוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה לֹא הָיָה מוֹרֵד בִּי. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר מִתְנַחֵם אֲנִי שֶׁבָּרָאתִי אוֹתוֹ מִלְּמַטָּה שֶׁאִלּוּ בָּרָאתִי אוֹתוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהִמְרִיד בִּי אֶת הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, כָּךְ הָיָה מַמְרִיד בִּי אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנִים. אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ תְּוָהוּת הָיְתָה לְפָנַי שֶׁבָּרָאתִי בּוֹ יֵצֶר הָרָע, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי לֹא בָּרָאתִי בּוֹ יֵצֶר הָרָע לֹא הָיָה מוֹרֵד בִּי. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מִתְנַחֵם אֲנִי שֶׁעָשִׂיתִי אוֹתוֹ וְנִתַּן בָּאָרֶץ. (בראשית ו, ו): וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל לִבּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה, מָשָׁל לְשַׂר שֶׁבָּנָה פָּלָטִין עַל יְדֵי אַדְרִיכַל, רָאָה אוֹתָהּ וְלֹא עָרְבָה לוֹ, עַל מִי יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהִתְכָּעֵס לֹא עַל אַדְרִיכַל, כָּךְ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל לִבּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אָסֵי מָשָׁל לְשַׂר שֶׁעָשָׂה סְחוֹרָה עַל יְדֵי סַרְסוּר וְהִפְסִיד, עַל מִי יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהִתְרָעֵם לֹא עַל הַסַּרְסוּר, כָּךְ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל לִבּוֹ. אֶפִּיקוֹרֶס אֶחָד שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה, אָמַר לוֹ אֵין אַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא רוֹאֶה אֶת הַנּוֹלָד, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן. וְהָא כְתִיב וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל לִבּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ נוֹלַד לְךָ בֶּן זָכָר מִיָּמֶיךָ, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן, אָמַר לוֹ מֶה עָשִׂיתָ, אָמַר לוֹ שָׂמַחְתִּי וְשִׂמַּחְתִּי אֶת הַכֹּל, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא הָיִיתָ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁסּוֹפוֹ לָמוּת, אָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁעַת חֶדְוָתָא חֶדְוָתָא, בִּשְׁעַת אֶבְלָה אֶבְלָה. אָמַר לוֹ כָּךְ מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי שִׁבְעָה יָמִים נִתְאַבֵּל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל עוֹלָמוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁלֹא יָבוֹא מַבּוּל לָעוֹלָם, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל לִבּוֹ, וְאֵין עֲצִיבָה אֶלָא אֲבֵלוּת, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמואל ב יט, ג): נֶעֱצַב הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל בְּנוֹ. 56.1. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וַיִּשָֹּׂא אַבְרָהָם אֶת עֵינָיו (בראשית כב, ד), כְּתִיב (הושע ו, ב): יְחַיֵּנוּ מִיֹּמָיִם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יְקִמֵנוּ וְנִחְיֶה לְפָנָיו, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל שְׁבָטִים, כְּתִיב (בראשית מב, יח): וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם יוֹסֵף בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל מְרַגְלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע ב, טז): וְנַחְבֵּתֶם שָׁמָּה שְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יט, טז): וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל יוֹנָה, דִּכְתִיב (יונה ב, א): וַיְהִי יוֹנָה בִּמְעֵי הַדָּגָה שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים וּשְׁלשָׁה לֵילוֹת, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל עוֹלֵי גוֹלָה, דִּכְתִיב (עזרא ח, לב): וַנֵּשֶׁב שָׁם יָמִים שְׁלשָׁה, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל תְּחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים, דִּכְתִיב: יְחַיֵּנוּ מִיֹּמָיִם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי יְקִמֵנוּ, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל אֶסְתֵּר, (אסתר ה, א): וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וַתִּלְבַּשׁ אֶסְתֵּר מַלְכוּת, לָבְשָׁה מַלְכוּת בֵּית אָבִיהָ. בְּאֵיזֶה זְכוּת, רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי לֵוִי, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי בִּזְכוּת יוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיֹת הַבֹּקֶר. וְרַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר בִּזְכוּת שֶׁל יוֹם שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי. וַיַּרְא אֶת הַמָּקוֹם מֵרָחֹק, מָה רָאָה רָאָה עָנָן קָשׁוּר בָּהָר, אָמַר דּוֹמֶה שֶׁאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁאָמַר לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַקְרִיב אֶת בְּנִי שָׁם. 56.1. וַיִּקְרָא אַבְרָהָם שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא ה' יִרְאֶה (בראשית כב, יד), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָמַרְתָּ לִי (בראשית כב, ב): קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ אֶת יְחִידְךָ, הָיָה לִי מַה לְּהָשִׁיב, אֶתְמוֹל אָמַרְתָּ (בראשית כא, כב): כִּי בְיִצְחָק וגו', וְעַכְשָׁו קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ וגו' וְחַס וְשָׁלוֹם לֹא עָשִׂיתִי כֵן אֶלָּא כָּבַשְׁתִּי רַחֲמַי לַעֲשׂוֹת רְצוֹנְךָ, יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בָּנָיו שֶׁל יִצְחָק בָּאִים לִידֵי עֲבֵרוֹת וּמַעֲשִׂים רָעִים תְּהֵא נִזְכַּר לָהֶם אוֹתָהּ הָעֲקֵדָה וְתִתְמַלֵּא עֲלֵיהֶם רַחֲמִים. אַבְרָהָם קָרָא אוֹתוֹ יִרְאֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּקְרָא אַבְרָהָם שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא ה' יִרְאֶה. שֵׁם קָרָא אוֹתוֹ שָׁלֵם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יד, יח): וּמַלְכִּי צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִם קוֹרֵא אֲנִי אוֹתוֹ יִרְאֶה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקָּרָא אוֹתוֹ אַבְרָהָם, שֵׁם אָדָם צַדִּיק מִתְרָעֵם, וְאִם קוֹרֵא אֲנִי אוֹתוֹ שָׁלֵם, אַבְרָהָם אָדָם צַדִּיק מִתְרָעֵם, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי קוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם כְּמוֹ שֶׁקָּרְאוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם, יִרְאֶה שָׁלֵם, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ אָמַר עַד שֶׁהוּא שָׁלֵם עָשָׂה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא סֻכָּה וְהָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל בְּתוֹכָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עו, ג): וַיְהִי בְשָׁלֵם סֻכּוֹ וּמְעוֹנָתוֹ בְּצִיּוֹן, וּמָה הָיָה אוֹמֵר יְהִי רָצוֹן שֶׁאֶרְאֶה בְּבִנְיַן בֵּיתִי. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֶרְאָה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ חָרֵב וּבָנוּי חָרֵב וּבָנוּי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא ה' יִרְאֶה, הֲרֵי בָּנוּי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים טז, טז): שָׁלוֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה. אֲשֶׁר יֵאָמֵר הַיּוֹם בְּהַר ה', הֲרֵי חָרֵב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ה, יח): עַל הַר צִיּוֹן שֶׁשָּׁמֵם. ה' יֵרָאֶה, בָּנוּי וּמְשֻׁכְלָל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קב, יז): כִּי בָנָה ה' צִיּוֹן נִרְאָה בִּכְבוֹדוֹ. 22.9. ... The voice of your brother’s bloods [are] screaming to me from [the surface of] the ground” [Gn 4:10]—[this means that] she (the voice of Hevel’s blood) could not go up above/l’ma`lah, for as yet no soul/n’shamah had gone up to there; and below/l’matah she could not stand (i.e., stay or sink into the ground), for as yet no adam had been buried there, and [so] “his blood was cast upon the trees and the stones." 56.1. “On the third day, Abraham lifted up his eyes…” (Genesis 22:4) It is written “He will revive us from the two days, on the third day He will set us up, and we will live before Him.” (Hoshea 6:2) On the third day of the tribes it is written “On the third day, Joseph said to them…” (Genesis 42:18) On the third day of the spies, as it says “…and hide yourselves there three days…” (Joshua 2:16) On the third day of the giving of the Torah, as it says “It came to pass on the third day…” (Exodus 19:16) On the third day of Jonah, as it is written “…and Jonah was in the belly of the fish for three days and three nights.” (Jonah 2:1) On the third day of those who came up from exile, as it is written “…and stayed there three days.” (Ezra 8:32) On the third day of the resurrection of the dead, as it is written “He will revive us from the two days, on the third day He will set us up, and we will live before Him.” (Hoshea 6:2) On Esther’s third day “Now it came to pass on the third day, that Esther clothed herself regally…” (Esther 5:1) The royalty of her father’s house. In what merit? This is an argument of the Rabbis and Rabbi Levi. The Rabbis say: in the merit of the third day of the giving of the Torah, as it says “It came to pass on the third day when it was morning…” (Exodus 19:16) Rabbi Levi said: in the merit of the third day of our father Avraham, as it says \"On the third day, Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place from afar.” (Genesis 22:4) What did he see? He saw a cloud attached to the mountain. He said: it appears that this is the place where the Holy One told me to offer up my son."
61. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

62. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.5.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

63. Palestinian Talmud, Bikkurim, 3.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

64. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8a. רבי יהושע סבר ילפינן ממשה ור"א סבר לא ילפינן ממשה שאני משה דרב גובריה וחכ"א לא כדברי זה ולא כדברי זה אלא שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב אע"פ שאמרו שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אבל אם בא לומר בסוף כל ברכה וברכה מעין כל ברכה וברכה אומר,א"ר חייא בר אשי אמר רב אע"פ שאמרו שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אם יש לו חולה בתוך ביתו אומר בברכת חולים ואם צריך לפרנסה אומר בברכת השנים,אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי אע"פ שאמרו שואל אדם צרכיו בשומע תפלה אבל אם בא לומר אחר תפלתו אפילו כסדר יוה"כ אומר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו אידיהן של עובדי כוכבים קלנדא וסטרנורא וקרטיסים ויום גנוסיא של מלכיהם ויום הלידה ויום המיתה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים כל מיתה שיש בה שריפה יש בה עבודת כוכבים ושאין בה שריפה אין בה עבודת כוכבים אבל יום תגלחת זקנו ובלוריתו ויום שעלה בו מן הים ויום שיצא מבית האסורין ועובד כוכבים שעשה משתה לבנו אינו אסור אלא אותו היום ואותו האיש בלבד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב חנן בר רבא קלנדא ח' ימים אחר תקופה סטרנורא ח' ימים לפני תקופה וסימנך (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני וגו',ת"ר לפי שראה אדם הראשון יום שמתמעט והולך אמר אוי לי שמא בשביל שסרחתי עולם חשוך בעדי וחוזר לתוהו ובוהו וזו היא מיתה שנקנסה עלי מן השמים עמד וישב ח' ימים בתענית [ובתפלה],כיון שראה תקופת טבת וראה יום שמאריך והולך אמר מנהגו של עולם הוא הלך ועשה שמונה ימים טובים לשנה האחרת עשאן לאלו ולאלו ימים טובים הוא קבעם לשם שמים והם קבעום לשם עבודת כוכבים,בשלמא למ"ד בתשרי נברא העולם יומי זוטי חזא יומי אריכי אכתי לא חזא אלא למ"ד בניסן נברא העולם הא חזא ליה יומי זוטי ויומי אריכי דהוי זוטי כולי האי לא חזא,ת"ר יום שנברא בו אדם הראשון כיון ששקעה עליו חמה אמר אוי לי שבשביל שסרחתי עולם חשוך בעדי ויחזור עולם לתוהו ובוהו וזו היא מיתה שנקנסה עלי מן השמים היה יושב בתענית ובוכה כל הלילה וחוה בוכה כנגדו כיון שעלה עמוד השחר אמר מנהגו של עולם הוא עמד והקריב שור שקרניו קודמין לפרסותיו שנאמר (תהלים סט, לב) ותיטב לה' משור פר מקרין מפריס,ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שור שהקריב אדם הראשון קרן אחת היתה [לו] במצחו שנאמר ותיטב לה' משור פר מקרין מפריס מקרין תרתי משמע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מקרן כתיב,אמר רב מתנה רומי שעשתה קלנדא וכל העיירות הסמוכות לה משתעבדות לה אותן עיירות אסורות או מותרות רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר קלנדא אסורה לכל היא רבי יוחנן אמר אין אסורה אלא לעובדיה בלבד,תנא כוותיה דר' יוחנן אע"פ שאמרו רומי עשתה קלנדא וכל עיירות הסמוכות לה משתעבדות לה היא עצמה אינה אסורה אלא לעובדיה בלבד,סטרנליא וקרטסים ויום גנוסיא של מלכיהם ויום שהומלך בו מלך לפניו אסור אחריו מותר ועובד כוכבים שעשה (בו) משתה לבנו אין אסור אלא אותו היום ואותו האיש,אמר רב אשי אף אנן נמי תנינא דקתני יום תגלחת זקנו ובלוריתו ויום שעלה בו מן הים ויום שיצא בו מבית האסורין אין אסור אלא אותו היום בלבד ואותו האיש,בשלמא אותו היום לאפוקי לפניו ולאחריו אלא אותו האיש לאפוקי מאי לאו לאפוקי משעבדיו ש"מ,תניא רבי ישמעאל אומר ישראל שבחוצה לארץ עובדי עבודת כוכבים בטהרה הן כיצד עובד כוכבים שעשה משתה לבנו וזימן כל היהודים שבעירו אע"פ שאוכלין משלהן ושותין משלהן ושמש שלהן עומד לפניהם מעלה עליהם הכתוב כאילו אכלו מזבחי מתים שנאמר (שמות לד, טו) וקרא לך ואכלת מזבחו,ואימא עד דאכיל אמר רבא אם כן נימא קרא ואכלת מזבחו מאי וקרא לך משעת קריאה הלכך 8a. bRabbi Yehoshua holdsthat bwe derive fromthe case of bMosesthat one should first praise God in prayer and only afterward issue personal requests. bAnd Rabbi Eliezer holdsthat bwe do not derive from Moseshow to act, since bMoses is different, as his might is great,i.e., he knew how to pray to God in this order. bAnd the Rabbis say:The ihalakha bis not in accordance with the statement of thisSage, who says that one should issue personal requests before praying, bnoris it bin accordance with the statement of thatSage, who says that personal requests should follow prayer. bRather, a person requests his own needs inthe blessing ending: bWho listens to prayer.Therefore, when Naḥum the Mede stated that this is the ihalakha /i, he was merely concurring with the opinion of the Rabbis.,With regard to the halakhic ruling, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis that ba person requests his own needsduring the iAmidaprayer binthe blessing ending: bWho listens to prayer. Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, says in the name of Rav: Althoughthe Sages bsaidthat ba person requests his own needs inthe blessing ending: bWho listens to prayer,that is not the only option. bRather, if he wishes to recite at the conclusion of each and every blessingpersonal requests that breflect the nature of each and every blessing, he may recitethem.,Similarly, bRav Ḥiyya bar Ashi saysthat bRav says: Althoughthe Sages bsaidthat ba person requests his own needs inthe blessing ending: bWho listens to prayer, if he has a sick person in his house he recitesa special prayer for him bduring the blessing of the sick. And if he is in need of sustece, he recitesa request bduring the blessing of the years. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Althoughthe Sages bsaidthat ba person requests his own needs inthe blessing ending: bWho listens to prayer; but if one wishes to reciteprayers and supplications bafterfinishing bhis iAmida bprayer, evenif his personal requests bare aslong as bthe orderof the confession of bYom Kippur, he may recitethem., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnd these are the festivals of gentiles: Kalenda, Saturnalia, and Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings, and the birthdayof the king, bandthe anniversary of bthe day of the deathof the king. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Every death that includespublic bburningis a festival that bincludes idol worship, andany death bthat does not includepublic bburningis bnota festival that bincludes idol worship. Butin the case of bthe day of shaving his,i.e., a gentile’s, bbeard and his locks, and the day ofhis bascent from the sea, and the day that he left prison, andalso in the case of ba gentile who prepareda wedding bfeast for his sonand celebrates on that day, engaging in business bis prohibited onlyon bthat day andwith bthat man. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Ḥa bar Rava says:When are these festivals celebrated? bKalendais celebrated during the beight days afterthe winter bsolstice,and bSaturnaliais celebrated during the beight days beforethe winter bsolstice. And your mnemonicto remember which festival is that the one that occurs after the solstice is mentioned first in the mishna, and the festival that takes place before the solstice is mentioned after, as in the verse: b“You have hemmed me in behind and before,and laid Your Hand upon me” (Psalms 139:5), where the word “before” appears after the term “behind.”,With regard to the dates of these festivals, bthe Sages taught: When Adam the firstman bsawthat bthe day was progressively diminishing,as the days become shorter from the autumnal equinox until the winter solstice, he did not yet know that this is a normal phenomenon, and therefore he bsaid: Woeis bme; perhaps because I sinned the world is becoming dark around me andwill ultimately breturn tothe primordial state of bchaos and disorder. And this is the death that was sentenced upon me from Heaven,as it is written: “And to dust shall you return” (Genesis 3:19). bHe arose and spent eight days in fasting and in prayer. /b, bOnce he sawthat the bseason of Tevet,i.e., the winter solstice, had arrived, band sawthat bthe day was progressively lengtheningafter the solstice, he bsaid:Clearly, the days become shorter and then longer, and this bis the order of the world. He went and observed a festivalfor beight days. Upon the next year, he observedboth btheseeight days on which he had fasted on the previous year, band theseeight days of his celebration, as bdays of festivities. He,Adam, bestablishedthese festivals bfor the sake of Heaven, but they,the gentiles of later generations, bestablished them for the sake of idol worship. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bGranted, according to the one who saysthat bthe world was created inthe month of bTishrei,one can understand why Adam believed that the days were becoming shorter as part of his punishment, as bhe saw the short daysof the winter and bhad not yet seen the long daysof summer. bBut according to the one who saysthat bthe world was created inthe month of bNisan, he hadalready bseenthe difference between bthe short days and the long days,as the days in the month of Nisan become progressively longer with the passage of time. The Gemara answers: Although Adam had experienced short days, bhe had not seen days that were this short,as in the days before the winter solstice., bThe Sages taught:On bthe day that Adam the firstman bwas created, when the sun set upon him he said: Woeis bme, as because I sinned, the world is becoming dark around me, and the world will return tothe primordial state of bchaos and disorder. And this is the death that was sentenced upon me from Heaven. He spent all night fasting and crying, and Eve was crying opposite him. Once dawn broke, he said:Evidently, the sun sets and night arrives, and bthis is the order of the world. He arose and sacrificed a bull whose horns preceded its hoofsin the order that they were created, bas it is stated: “And it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that has horns and hoofs”(Psalms 69:32). This verse is referring to the one particular bull whose horns preceded its hoofs., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The bbull that Adam the firstman bsacrificed had one horn in its forehead, as it is stated: “And it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that has horns [ imakrin /i] and hooves.”The Gemara raises a difficulty: Isn’t imakrin /iplural, which bindicates twohorns? bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: iMikkerenis written,i.e., the letter iyodis missing from the word, indicating that there was only one horn.,§ bRav Mattana says:Since bRome establishedthe festival of bKalendaon a specific date, band all of the nearby towns are ruled byRome, i.e., they pay their tax to Rome and provide its needs but do not themselves celebrate the festival, is it bprohibited or permittedto engage in business transactions with the gentile residents of bthose towns? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: It is prohibitedto engage in business during the time of the bKalenda with everyone. Rabbi Yoḥa says: It is prohibitedto engage in business bonly with its worshippers,whereas it is permitted to engage in business transactions with gentiles who do not celebrate the festival.,The Sage btaughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Yoḥa: Although they saidthat bRomehas bestablishedthe festival of bKalenda and all of the nearby towns are ruled byRome, bit is prohibitedto engage in business bonly with its worshippers. /b,The ibaraitacontinues: With regard to the festivals bSaturnalia and Kratesis, and the day of the festival of their kings, andthe bday on whichthe bking was crowned,the ihalakhais that bbeforethe festival it is bprohibitedto engage in business transactions, whereas bafterthe festival it is bpermitted. Butin the case of ba gentile who prepared a feast for his sonand celebrates on that day, engaging in business bis prohibited onlyon bthat dayitself bandwith bthat man. /b, bRav Ashi said: We learnin the mishna bas wellin accordance with Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement that the prohibition applies only to gentiles who celebrate the festival, not to people who are ruled by them. bAsthe mishna bteaches:With regard to bthe day of shaving his beard and his locks, and the day of his ascent from the sea, and the day that he left prison,engaging in business bis prohibited onlyon bthat day andwith bthat man. /b,Rav Ashi explains the proof: bGranted,the mishna specifies that the prohibition is limited to bthat dayalone, in order bto excludethe days bbefore and after it. Butwhen it states that the prohibition applies only to bthat man, what doesthe mishna bexclude?Obviously the prohibition does not extend to all gentiles, as it is a personal festival. bDoesn’tthe mishna’s ruling serve bto exclude those who are ruled by him?Therefore, bconclude fromthe language of the mishna that a prohibition extends only to gentiles who celebrate the festival, not to those who are ruled by them., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael says: Jews who are outside of EretzYisrael bareconsidered to bengage in idol worship in purity,i.e., unwittingly. bHowdoes this occur? In the case of ba gentile who prepared a feast forthe marriage of bhis son, and invited all of the Jews in his town, even though they eat of their ownkosher food band drink of their ownkosher beverages, band their own attendant stands before them, the verse ascribesguilt bto them as though they ate ofthe bofferings to the dead,i.e., idols, bas it is stated:“And sacrifice to their gods, band they call you, and you eat of their sacrifice”(Exodus 34:15). Since Jews participate in a feast in which the gentile sacrifices offerings to his idol, it is as though they partook of the offering themselves.,The Gemara asks: bButwhy not bsaythat the verse is criticizing the Jews only bonce they eatfrom the sacrifice? bRava said: Ifthat biswhat is meant, blet the verse sayonly: bAnd you eat of their sacrifice. Whatis meant by the additional phrase: b“And they call you”?This indicates that the prohibition occurs bfrom the time of the call. Therefore, /b
65. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

63b. ואמרו לאחינו שבגולה אם שומעין מוטב ואם לאו יעלו להר אחיה יבנה מזבח חנניה ינגן בכנור ויכפרו כולם ויאמרו אין להם חלק באלהי ישראל,מיד געו כל העם בבכיה ואמרו חס ושלום יש לנו חלק באלהי ישראל,וכל כך למה משום שנאמר (ישעיהו ב, ג) כי מציון תצא תורה ודבר ה' מירושלים,בשלמא הוא מטהר והם מטמאין לחומרא אלא הוא מטמא והם מטהרין היכי הוי והא תניא חכם שטמא אין חברו רשאי לטהר אסר אין חברו רשאי להתיר קסברי כי היכי דלא נגררו בתריה:,תנו רבנן כשנכנסו רבותינו לכרם ביבנה היו שם רבי יהודה ורבי יוסי ור' נחמיה ור' אליעזר בנו של רבי יוסי הגלילי פתחו כולם בכבוד אכסניא ודרשו,פתח רבי יהודה ראש המדברים בכל מקום בכבוד תורה ודרש (שמות לג, ז) ומשה יקח את האהל ונטה לו מחוץ למחנה והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה ארון ה' שלא היה מרוחק אלא שנים עשר מיל אמרה תורה (שמות לג, ז) והיה כל מבקש ה' יצא אל אהל מועד תלמידי חכמים שהולכים מעיר לעיר וממדינה למדינה ללמוד תורה על אחת כמה וכמה,(שמות לג, יא) ודבר ה' אל משה פנים אל פנים אמר ר' יצחק אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה אני ואתה נסביר פנים בהלכה איכא דאמרי כך אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה כשם שאני הסברתי לך פנים כך אתה הסבר פנים לישראל והחזר האהל למקומו,(שמות לג, יא) ושב אל המחנה וגו' אמר רבי אבהו אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה עכשו יאמרו הרב בכעס ותלמיד בכעס ישראל מה תהא עליהם אם אתה מחזיר האהל למקומו מוטב ואם לאו יהושע בן נון תלמידך משרת תחתיך,והיינו דכתיב ושב אל המחנה אמר רבא אף על פי כן לא יצא הדבר לבטלה שנאמר (שמות לג, יא) ומשרתו יהושע בן נון נער לא ימיש מתוך האהל:,ועוד פתח ר' יהודה בכבוד תורה ודרש (דברים כז, ט) הסכת ושמע ישראל היום הזה נהיית לעם וכי אותו היום נתנה תורה לישראל והלא אותו יום סוף ארבעים שנה היה אלא ללמדך שחביבה תורה על לומדיה בכל יום ויום כיום שנתנה מהר סיני,אמר ר' תנחום בריה דר' חייא איש כפר עכו תדע שהרי אדם קורא קריאת שמע שחרית וערבית וערב אחד אינו קורא דומה כמי שלא קרא קריאת שמע מעולם,הסכת עשו כתות כתות ועסקו בתורה לפי שאין התורה נקנית אלא בחבורה כדר' יוסי ברבי חנינא דאמר ר' יוסי ברבי חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נ, לו) חרב (על) הבדים ונואלו חרב על שונאיהם של תלמידי חכמים שיושבים בד בבד ועוסקים בתורה ולא עוד אלא שמטפשים כתיב הכא ונואלו וכתיב התם (במדבר יב, יא) אשר נואלנו ולא עוד אלא שחוטאים שנאמר ואשר חטאנו,איבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו יט, יג) נואלו שרי צוען,דבר אחר הסכת ושמע ישראל כתתו עצמכם על דברי תורה כדאמר ריש לקיש דאמר ריש לקיש מנין שאין דברי תורה מתקיימין אלא במי שממית עצמו עליה שנאמר (במדבר יט, יד) זאת התורה אדם כי ימות באהל,דבר אחר הסכת ושמע ישראל הס ואחר כך כתת כדרבא דאמר רבא לעולם ילמוד אדם תורה ואחר כך יהגה,אמרי דבי ר' ינאי מאי דכתיב (משלי ל, לג) כי מיץ חלב יוציא חמאה ומיץ אף יוציא דם ומיץ אפים יוציא ריב,במי אתה מוצא חמאה של תורה במי שמקיא חלב שינק משדי אמו עליה,ומיץ אף יוציא דם כל תלמיד שכועס עליו רבו פעם ראשונה ושותק זוכה להבחין בין דם טמא לדם טהור,ומיץ אפים יוציא ריב כל תלמיד שכועס עליו רבו פעם ראשונה ושניה ושותק זוכה להבחין בין דיני ממונות לדיני נפשות דתנן ר' ישמעאל אומר הרוצה שיתחכם יעסוק בדיני ממונות שאין לך מקצוע בתורה יותר מהן שהן כמעין נובע,אמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני מאי דכתיב (משלי ל, לב) אם נבלת בהתנשא ואם זמות יד לפה כל המנבל עצמו על דברי תורה סופו להתנשא ואם זמם יד לפה:,פתח ר' נחמיה בכבוד אכסניא ודרש מאי דכתיב (שמואל א טו, ו) ויאמר שאול אל הקיני לכו סורו רדו מתוך עמלקי פן אוסיפך עמו ואתה עשיתה חסד עם כל בני ישראל והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה יתרו שלא קרב את משה אלא לכבוד עצמו כך המארח תלמיד חכם בתוך ביתו ומאכילו ומשקהו ומהנהו מנכסיו על אחת כמה וכמה:,פתח ר' יוסי בכבוד אכסניא ודרש (דברים כג, ח) לא תתעב אדומי כי אחיך הוא לא תתעב מצרי כי גר היית בארצו והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה מצריים שלא קרבו את ישראל אלא לצורך עצמן שנאמר (בראשית מז, ו) ואם ידעת ויש בם אנשי חיל ושמתם שרי מקנה על אשר לי כך המארח תלמיד חכם בתוך ביתו ומאכילו ומשקהו ומהנהו מנכסיו על אחת כמה וכמה:,פתח ר' אליעזר בנו של ר' יוסי הגלילי בכבוד אכסניא ודרש (שמואל ב ו, יא) ויברך ה' את עובד אדום (הגתי) בעבור ארון האלהים והלא דברים ק"ו ומה ארון שלא אכל ושתה אלא כבד ורבץ לפניו כך המארח תלמיד חכם בתוך ביתו ומאכילו ומשקהו ומהנהו מנכסיו עאכ"ו,מאי היא ברכה שברכו אמר רב יהודה בר זבידא זו חמות וח' כלותיה שילדו ששה ששה בכרס אחד 63b. bAndin order to underscore this, btell our brethren in exile: If they obeythe Sages of Eretz Yisrael to excommunicate Ḥanina, bfine; and ifthey do bnotobey us, it is as if they are seceding from the Jewish people. bThey should climb a mountain; Aḥiya,one of the leaders of the Babylonian Jewish community, bwill build an altar, Ḥaya,son of Rabbi Yehoshua’s brother, who was a Levite, bwill play the lute, and all willproclaim bheresy and say that they have no portion in the God of Israel. /b,This message had a profound impact on the people, and bimmediately the entire nation burst into tears, saying: God forbid. We do have a portion in the God of Israel.They reconsidered their plans to establish Babylonia as the center of the Jewish people.,The Gemara asks: bWhydid the Sages of Eretz Yisrael go bto that extentto stop Ḥanina? The Gemara answers: bBecause it is stated: “For out of Zion shall go forth the Torah, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem”(Isaiah 2:3).,The Gemara considers the details of this event: bGranted,Ḥanina would rule an item bpure andthe Sages from Eretz Yisrael would rule it bimpure;they ruled bstringently. Butin a case where bheruled an item bimpure and theyruled it bpure, what arethe circumstances? How could they rule pure that which he ruled impure? bWas it not taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIf a Sageruled an item bimpure, his colleague is not permittedto rule it bpure;if he bprohibitedit, bhis colleague may not permitit? The Gemara explains: bThey heldthat they must do so in this case, bso that people would not be drawn after him;due to the exigencies of the time they overturned his rulings., bThe Sages taught: When our Rabbis,the Sages of the Mishna, bentered the vineyard,the academy, bin Yavne, Rabbi Yehuda, Rabbi Yosei, Rabbi Neḥemya, and Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, were therepresiding over the Sages. bThey all beganto speak bin honor oftheir bhosts,the local population hosting them and their students as guests, band they taught. /b, bRabbi Yehuda, head of the speakers in every place, openedhis speech bin honor of Torah, and taught:It is stated: b“Now Moses used to take the tent and pitch it outside the camp,far off from the camp; and he called it the Tent of Meeting. And it came to pass, that every seeker of God went out unto the Tent of Meeting, which was outside the camp” (Exodus 33:7). He said: bIsn’t this an ia fortioriinference? Just as the Torah saysof bthe ark of God, which was only twelve imilfrom the camp: “Every seeker of God went out unto the Tent of Meeting”; all the more soshould bTorah scholars,who wander great distances and bgo from city to city and country to country to study Torah,be called seekers of God.,The Gemara continues: It is stated: b“And the Lord spoke unto Moses, face to face”(Exodus 33:11). bRabbi Yitzḥak said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Moses, you and I will show cheerful faces inthe study of ihalakha /ito those who come to study. bSome saythat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, told Moses: Just as I showed you a cheerful face, so too you will show Israel a cheerful face and restore the tent to its placein the camp.,It is said: b“And he would return into the camp;but his minister, Joshua bin-Nun, a young man, departed not out of the Tent” (Exodus 33:11). bRabbi Abbahu said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, told Moses: Now,they will say: bThe Master,God, bis angry andthe bstudent,Moses, is also bangry, and what will happen to Israel?Rather, you must restore the tent to its place among the people. bIf you restore the tent to its place, fine; and if not, Joshua bin-Nun, your student,will bserveas Israel’s leader bin your place. /b, bAnd that is what is written: “And he would return into the camp;but his minister, Joshua bin-Nun, a young man, departed not out of the Tent.” bRava said: Nevertheless,though Moses obeyed and restored the tent, bthe statementwritten with regard to the role of Joshua bwas not uttered for naught.Joshua bin-Nun remained as deputy to Moses, and ultimately served in his place, as it is stated: b“But his minister, Joshua bin-Nun, a young man, departed not out of the Tent.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Yehuda again beganto speak bin honor of Torah and taught:When Moses took leave of Israel on his last day in this world, he said: b“Keep silence [ ihasket /i] and hear, Israel; this day you have become a peopleunto the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 27:9). This is surprising: bWas the Torah given to Israel on that day? Wasn’t that day at the end of forty yearssince the Torah was given? bRather,it comes bto teach that each and every day the Torah is as dear to those who study it, asit was bon the day it was given from Mount Sinai. /b, bRabbi Tanḥum, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, of the village of Akko, said: Knowthat the Torah is indeed beloved, bas one who recites iShema /i, morning and evening,for his entire life, and bdoes not recite it one evening, it is as if he never recited iShema /i.He cannot compensate for what he missed.,The Gemara interprets the word ihasket /iin this verse homiletically, as an acronym of the words ias /i, make, and ikat /i, group. bForm [ iasu /i] many groups [ ikitot /i] and study Torah, for the Torah is only acquiredthrough study bin a group.This is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina; as Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “A sword is upon the boasters [ ihabaddim /i], and they shall become fools [ inoalu /i]”(Jeremiah 50:36)? This verse can be interpreted homiletically: bA sword upon the enemies of Torah scholars,a euphemism for the Torah scholars themselves, bwho sit alone [ ibad bevad /i] and study Torah. And furthermore,those who study alone bgrow foolish, as it is written here, inoalu /i, and elsewhere it is writtenthat after Miriam was afflicted with leprosy, Aaron told Moses: b“For that we have done foolishly [ inoalnu /i]”(Numbers 12:11). bAnd furthermore, they sindue to that ignorance, basat the end of that same verse bit is stated:“For that we have done foolishly, band for that we have sinned.” /b, bIf you wish, sayinstead that it is derived bfrom here: “The princes of Tzoan are become fools [ inoalu /i]”(Isaiah 19:13).,The Gemara offers ban alternativeexplanation of this verse: b“Keep silence [ ihasket /i] and hear, Israel”; break [ ikattetu /i] yourselves over words of the Torah.This is bin accordance withthe opinion of bReish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: From whereis it derived bthat matters of Torah are only retained by one who kills himself over it? As it is stated: “This is the Torah: When one dies in a tent”(Numbers 19:14); true Torah study demands the total devotion of one who is willing to dedicate his life in the tent of Torah.,The Gemara offers yet another balternative explanationof this verse: b“Keep silence [ ihasket /i] and hear, Israel”;first bbe silent [ ihas /i]and listen and bthenstudy intensively in order to banalyze [ ikattet /i]and clarify the details. This is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRava, as Rava said: One must always study Torahand gain expertise in it, bandonly bthen analyzeand delve into it., bIn the school of Rabbi Yannai they said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “For the churning of milk brings forth curd, and the wringing of the nose [ iaf /i] brings forth blood, so the forcing of wrath [ iappayim /i] brings forth strife”(Proverbs 30:33)?,With regard to the beginning of the verse: For the churning of milk brings forth curd; bin whom do you find the cream of Torah? With one who spits out the milk that he nursed from his mother’s breasts over it;one who struggles with all his might to study Torah.,With regard to: bAnd the wringing of the nose brings forth blood, any student whose rabbi is angry [ iaf /i] with him the first time and he is silentand does not react, bwill meritto be able bto distinguish between blood that is ritually impure and blood that is ritually pure. /b,As for: bAnd the forcing of wrath [ iappayim /i] brings forth strife; any student whose rabbi is angry with him for the first and second times, iappayimbeing the plural of iaf /i, band he is silent, merits to distinguish between monetary cases,strife, band capital cases,as that is the highest level of learning. bAs we learnedin a mishna: bRabbi Yishmael says: One who seeks to become wise should engage in monetary laws, as there is no greater discipline in Torah, as they are like a flowing wellin which innovations constantly spring forth.,Similarly, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “If you have done foolishly in lifting up yourself, or if you have planned devices [ izamota /i], lay your hand over your mouth”(Proverbs 30:32)? bAnyone who abases himself over matters of Torah,asking questions despite the shame he feels for his ignorance, bwill ultimately be exalted. And if he muzzles [ izamam /i] himselfdue to embarrassment, he will end up with his bhand overhis bmouth,unable to answer.,The Gemara returns to the homilies offered by the Sages in the vineyard of Yavne. bRabbi Neḥemya beganto speak bin honor of the hosts and taught: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “And Saul said unto the Kenites: Go, depart, get you down from among the Amalekites lest I destroy you with them, for you showed kindness to all the Children of Israel when they came up out of Egypt”(I Samuel 15:6)? bIsn’t this an ia fortioriinference: Just as Jethro,the forbearer of the Kenite tribe, who bonly befriended Moses for his own honor,is treated bin this wayand rewarded that his merit would protect his descendants; ball the more soshould bone who hosts a Torah scholar in his home, providing him with food and drink and availing him of his possessions,be rewarded with that protection., bRabbi Yosei beganto speak bin honor of the hosts, and taught:It is said: b“You shall not abhor an Edomite, for he is your brother; you shall not abhor an Egyptian, because you were a stranger in his land”(Deuteronomy 23:8). bIsn’t this an ia fortioriinference: Just as the Egyptians, who only befriended Israel,even when they hosted them, bfor their own benefit,as Pharaoh said to Joseph, bas it is stated: “And if you know any able men among them, then make them rulers over my cattle”(Genesis 47:6), are treated bthis way, all the more soshould bone who hosts a Torah scholar in his home, providing him with food and drink and availing him of his possessionswithout concern for personal gain, be treated this way., bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, beganto speak bin honor of the hosts, and taught:It is stated: b“The Lord has blessed the house of Oved-edom…because of the ark of God”(II Samuel 6:12). bIsn’t this an ia fortioriinference: Just as in reward for honoring the ark, which neither ate nor drank, but before whichOved-edom simply bswept and sprinkledwater to settle the dust, he was treated bthis wayand merited a blessing, ball the more soshould bone who hosts a Torah scholar in his home, providing him with food and drink and availing him of his possessionswithout concern for his personal gain, be rewarded with such a blessing.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthat bblessing with whichOved-edom bwas blessed? Rav Yehuda bar Zevida said: This is Ḥamot and her eight daughters-in-law, each of whom bore six in a single womb, /b
66. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

54b. כל זמן שאדם ממשמש בה מוצא בה תאנים אף דברי תורה כל זמן שאדם הוגה בהן מוצא בהן טעם,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני מאי דכתיב (משלי ה, יט) אילת אהבים ויעלת חן וגו' למה נמשלו דברי תורה לאילת לומר לך מה אילה רחמה צר וחביבה על בועלה כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה אף דברי תורה חביבין על לומדיהן כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה,ויעלת חן שמעלת חן על לומדיה דדיה ירווך בכל עת למה נמשלו דברי תורה כדד מה דד זה כל זמן שהתינוק ממשמש בו מוצא בו חלב אף דברי תורה כל זמן שאדם הוגה בהן מוצא בהן טעם,באהבתה תשגה תמיד כגון רבי (אליעזר) בן פדת אמרו עליו על רבי (אליעזר) שהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה בשוק התחתון של ציפורי וסדינו מוטל בשוק העליון של ציפורי (תניא) א"ר יצחק בן אלעזר פעם אחת בא אדם ליטלו ומצא בו שרף,תנא דבי רב ענן מאי דכתיב (שופטים ה, י) רוכבי אתונות צחורות יושבי על מדין [והולכי על דרך שיחו] רוכבי אתונות אלו תלמידי חכמים שמהלכין מעיר לעיר וממדינה למדינה ללמוד (בו) תורה צחורות שעושין אותה כצהרים יושבי על מדין שדנין דין אמת לאמיתו והולכי אלו בעלי מקרא על דרך אלו בעלי משנה שיחו אלו בעלי תלמוד שכל שיחתן דברי תורה,אמר רב שיזבי משום רבי אלעזר בן עזריה מאי דכתיב (משלי יב, כז) לא יחרוך רמיה צידו לא יחיה ולא יאריך ימים צייד הרמאי,רב ששת אמר צייד הרמאי יחרוך,כי אתא רב דימי אמר משל לצייד שצד צפרים אם ראשון ראשון משבר כנפיו משתמר ואם לאו אין משתמר,אמר (רבה) אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא מאי דכתיב (משלי יג, יא) הון מהבל ימעט וקובץ על יד ירבה אם עושה אדם תורתו חבילות חבילות מתמעט ואם לאו קובץ על יד ירבה,אמר (רבה) ידעי רבנן להא מלתא ועברי עלה אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אנא עבדתה ואיקיים בידאי:,ת"ר כיצד סדר משנה משה למד מפי הגבורה נכנס אהרן ושנה לו משה פירקו נסתלק אהרן וישב לשמאל משה נכנסו בניו ושנה להן משה פירקן נסתלקו בניו אלעזר ישב לימין משה ואיתמר לשמאל אהרן רבי יהודה אומר לעולם אהרן לימין משה חוזר נכנסו זקנים ושנה להן משה פירקן נסתלקו זקנים נכנסו כל העם ושנה להן משה פירקן נמצאו ביד אהרן ארבעה ביד בניו שלשה וביד הזקנים שנים וביד כל העם אחד,נסתלק משה ושנה להן אהרן פירקו נסתלק אהרן שנו להן בניו פירקן נסתלקו בניו שנו להן זקנים פירקן נמצא ביד הכל ארבעה,מכאן א"ר אליעזר חייב אדם לשנות לתלמידו ארבעה פעמים וקל וחומר ומה אהרן שלמד מפי משה ומשה מפי הגבורה כך הדיוט מפי הדיוט על אחת כמה וכמה,ר"ע אומר מניין שחייב אדם לשנות לתלמידו עד שילמדנו שנאמר (דברים לא, יט) ולמדה את בני ישראל ומניין עד שתהא סדורה בפיהם שנאמר שימה בפיהם,ומניין שחייב להראות לו פנים שנאמר (שמות כא, א) ואלה המשפטים אשר תשים לפניהם,וליגמרו כולהו ממשה כדי לחלוק כבוד לאהרן ובניו וכבוד לזקנים,וניעול אהרן וניגמר ממשה וליעיילו בניו וליגמרו מאהרן וליעיילו זקנים ולילפו מבניו וליזלו וליגמרינהו לכולהו ישראל כיון דמשה מפי הגבורה גמר מסתייעא מלתיה,אמר מר רבי יהודה אומר לעולם אהרן לימין משה חוזר כמאן אזלא הא דתניא שלשה שהיו מהלכין בדרך הרב באמצע וגדול בימינו וקטן בשמאלו לימא רבי יהודה היא ולא רבנן,אפילו תימא רבנן משום טירחא דאהרן,רבי פרידא הוה ליה ההוא תלמידא דהוה תני ליה ארבע מאה זימני וגמר יומא חד בעיוה למלתא דמצוה תנא ליה ולא גמר,א"ל האידנא מאי שנא א"ל מדההיא שעתא דא"ל למר איכא מילתא דמצוה אסחאי לדעתאי וכל שעתא אמינא השתא קאי מר השתא קאי מר א"ל הב דעתיך ואתני ליך הדר תנא ליה ד' מאה זימני [אחריני],נפקא בת קלא וא"ל ניחא ליך דליספו לך ד' מאה שני או דתיזכו את ודרך לעלמא דאתי אמר דניזכו אנא ודריי לעלמא דאתי אמר להן הקב"ה תנו לו זו וזו,אמר רב חסדא אין תורה נקנית אלא בסימנין שנאמר שימה בפיהם אל תקרי שימה אלא סימנה,שמעה רב תחליפא ממערבא אזל אמרה קמיה דר' אבהו אמר אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה (ירמיהו לא, כא) הציבי לך ציונים שימי לך וגו' עשו ציונים לתורה ומאי משמע דהאי ציון לישנא דסימנא הוא דכתיב (יחזקאל לט, טו) וראה עצם אדם ובנה אצלו ציון,ר' אליעזר אמר מהכא (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את ומודע לבינה תקרא עשה מודעים לתורה רבא אמר עשה מועדים לתורה 54b. bwhenever a person searches itfor figs to eat, bhe finds figs in it,as the figs on a tree do not ripen all at once, so that one can always find a recently ripened fig, bsotoo, with bmatters of Torah. Whenever a person meditates upon them, he finds in themnew bmeaning. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “A loving hind and a graceful roe,let her breasts satisfy you at all times, and be you ravished always with her love” (Proverbs 5:19)? bWhy were matters of Torah compared to a hind? To tell youthat bjust aswith ba hind, its womb is narrow and it is cherished by its mate each and every hour like the first hour, sotoo, bmatters of Torah are cherished by those who study them each and every hour like the first hour. /b, b“And a graceful roe”is expounded as follows: bThatthe Torah bbestows grace upon those who study it. “Let her breasts satisfy you at all times”; why were matters of Torah compared to a breast? Just aswith ba breast, whenever a baby searches itfor milk to suckle, bhe finds milk in it, sotoo, with bmatters of Torah. Whenever a person meditates upon them, he findsnew bmeaning in them. /b, b“And be you ravished always with her love”;your love for Torah should always distract you from worldly matters, bas wasthe case with bRabbi Elazar ben Pedat. They said of him, of Rabbi Elazar, that he would sit and engage in Torahstudy bin the lower marketplace of Tzippori, and his cloak was lying in the upper marketplace of Tzippori.His mind was so focused on Torah study that he would act in this unusual manner. In this regard, the Gemara relates that bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Elazar said: One time a person came to takethis cloak for himself band found a serpent on itguarding it.,In further praise of the Torah and those who study it, a Sage bof the school of Rav A taught: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “You that ride on white donkeys, you that sit on rich cloths, and you that walk by the way, tell of it”(Judges 5:10)? b“You that ride on white donkeys”; these are Torah scholars, who travel from city to city and from province to province to study Torah. “White [ itzeḥorot /i]”are those bwho make itclear bas noon[itzahorayim/b], i.e., who make the Torah comprehensible. b“You that sit on couches [ imidin /i]”refers to those bwho judge [ idanin /i] an absolutely true judgment. “And you that walk”; these are the masters of Bible,who are the least important of the scholars. b“By the way”; these are themore important bmasters of Mishna. “Tell of it”; these are the masters of Talmud,the most important of all, bas all their conversation isabout bmatters of Torah. /b,The Gemara continues with this topic: bRav Sheizvi said in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “The slothful man [ iremiyya /i] will not roast [ iyaḥarokh /i] his catch”(Proverbs 12:27)? bThe deceitful [ irammai /i] hunter will not live [ iyiḥyeh /i] a long life [ iya’arikh /i].A deceitful hunter continues to hunt more and more animals without holding on to the animals he has already caught. Similarly, someone who continues to study new material without reviewing what he has already learned will not be successful., bRav Sheshet said:Will ba deceitful hunterhave something to broast?One who acts in this way is a fool, but it is hard to describe him as deceitful., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said: This is comparable to a hunter who is hunting birds; if he breaksthe bwingsof the birds bone by oneas he captures them so that they will be unable to fly off again, his prey bwill be secured, and if not,they bwill not be secured.According to this explanation, the word irammaiis interpreted as cunning rather than deceitful. A cunning hunter secures his prey; similarly, a cunning student reviews each lesson and thereby retains that which he learns.,Similarly, bRabba said that Rav Seḥora said that Rav Huna said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Wealth gotten through vanity[ihevel/b] bshall be diminished; but he that gathers little by little shall increase”(Proverbs 13:11)? bIf a person turns his Torah into bundles[iḥavilot /i,derived from the word ihevelby replacing the ihehwith a iḥet /i], studying large amounts at the same time, his Torah bwill diminish. And if not,i.e., if he learns little by little and reviews what he has learned, bhe that gathers little by little shall increase. /b, bRabba said: The Sages know this, butnevertheless btransgress it,i.e., they fail to heed this advice. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: I did this,learning little by little and regularly reviewing what I had learned, bandmy learning bhasindeed bendured. /b,The Gemara continues to discuss methods of Torah study. bThe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: bWhat was the order of teachingthe Oral Law? How was the Oral Law first taught? bMoses learneddirectly bfrom the mouth of the Almighty. Aaron enteredand sat before him, band Moses taught him his lessonas he had learned it from God. bAaron movedaside band sat to the left of Moses.Aaron’s bsons entered, and Moses taught them their lessonwhile Aaron listened. Aaron’s bsons movedaside; bElazar sat to the right of Moses and Itamarsat bto the left of Aaron. Rabbi Yehudadisagreed with the first itannawith regard to the seating arrangements and bsaid: Actually, Aaron would return tosit to bthe right of Moses. The elders entered and Moses taught them their lesson. The elders movedaside, and bthe entire nation entered and Moses taught them their lesson. Therefore, Aaron hadheard the lesson bfour times, his sonsheard it bthreetimes, bthe eldersheard it btwice, and the entire nationheard it bonce. /b, bMosesthen bdepartedto his tent, band Aaron taughtthe others bhis lessonas he had learned it from Moses. bAaronthen bdepartedand bhis sons taughtthe others btheir lesson. His sonsthen bdepartedand bthe elders taughtthe rest of the people btheir lesson. Hence everyone,Aaron, his sons, the elders and all the people, heard the lesson taught by God bfour times. /b, bFrom here Rabbi Eliezer said: A person is obligated to teach his studenthis lesson bfour times. Andit follows by way of ban ia fortioriinference: If Aaron, who learned from Moseshimself, band Moseshad received the Torah directly bfrom the mouth of the Almighty,needed bthisregimen; ban ordinarystudent learning bfrom the mouth of an ordinaryteacher, bhow much more somust he review his studies four times., bRabbi Akiva says: From wheredo we derive bthat a person is obligated to teach his student until he learnsthe material and understands it? bAs it is stated:“Now therefore write this song for you, band teach it to the children of Israel;put it in their mouths, that this song may be a witness for me against the children of Israel” (Deuteronomy 31:19). This verse indicates that one must teach Torah to others. bAnd from wheredo we derive that one must teach his students buntilthe material bis organized in their mouths? As it is stated: “Put it in their mouths,”so that they should be capable of teaching it to others., bAnd from wheredo we derive bthata teacher bmust showhis students bthe reasonsfor the teachings? bAs it is stated: “Now these are the judgments which you shall set before them”(Exodus 21:1), which indicates that the lesson must be set out in logical fashion for the students.,With regard to the manner in which the Oral Law was taught, the Gemara asks: bThey should all have studied from Moseshimself four times. The Gemara answers: The teaching was divided in this manner bin order to give honor to Aaron and his sons, andalso to give bhonor to the elders. /b,The Gemara asks why a different method was not adopted, one which would have involved less trouble for Moses: bAaron should have entered and studied from Moses; his sons shouldthen bhave entered and studied from Aaron; the elders shouldthen bhave entered and studied fromAaron’s bsons; andthen bthey should have goneout band taught all of the Jewish people.The Gemara answers: bSince Moses had studieddirectly bfrom the mouth of the Almighty, it would bemore beffectivefor everyone to hear the Torah at least once from Moses himself., bThe Master saidin the ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: Actually, Aaron would return tosit to bthe right of Moses,i.e., no matter how many people were present Aaron always sat to Moses’ right. The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bwas it taughtin a ibaraitadealing with the rules of etiquette: If bthreepeople bwere walking along the way, the teachershould walk bin the middle and the greaterof the two students should be bto his right and the lesserone should be bto his left? Shall we saythat bit isthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda and notthat of bthe Sages?According to the Sages, the greater of the two students should be positioned to the left of the teacher so that the student’s right side faces his teacher.,The Gemara answers: You can beven saythat this ibaraitawas taught in accordance with the opinion of bthe Sages,and the reason they said that Aaron remained to Moses’ left even after the others entered is bdue to the trouble to Aaronif he would have to stand up and sit down again.,Having discussed the importance of reviewing one’s Torah study, the Gemara relates that bRabbi Perida had a certain student whom he wouldhave to bteach four hundred times, andonly then would he blearnthe material, as he was incapable of understanding it otherwise. bOne day they requestedRabbi Perida’s presence bfor a mitzva matterafter the lesson. Rabbi Perida btaughthis student four hundred times as usual, bbutthis time the student bdid notsuccessfully blearnthe material.,Rabbi Perida bsaid to him: What is different nowthat you are unable to grasp the lesson? bHe said to him: From the time that they said to the Masterthat bthere is a mitzva matterfor which he is needed, bmy mind was distractedfrom the lesson band every moment I said: Now the Master will get up, now the Master will get upto go and perform the mitzva and he will not complete the lesson. Rabbi Perida bsaid to him: Pay attentionthis time band I will teach you,and know that I will not leave until you have fully mastered the lesson. bHe taught him again an additional four hundred times. /b,Due to the merit of Rabbi Perida’s great devotion to his students, ba Divine Voice emerged and said to him:Is it bpreferable to you that four hundred years be addedto your life, bor that you andthe rest of byour generationwill bmerit the World-to-Come? He said:I prefer bthat I and my generation merit the World-to-Come. The Holy One, Blessed be He, saidto the angels: bGive him both;he shall live a very long life and he and the rest of his generation will merit the World-to-Come.,The Gemara continues its discussion with regard to methods of Torah study: bRav Ḥisda said: The Torah can be acquired only withmnemonic bsignsthat aid the memory, bas it is stated: “Put it in their mouths.” Do not readthe phrase as: bPut it [ isimah /i], butrather as: bIts sign [ isimanah /i],thus indicating that mnemonic signs aid in memorizing the material., bRav Taḥalifa of the West,i.e., from Eretz Yisrael, bheard thisstatement and bwentand bsaid it before Rabbi Abbahu,who bsaid: You learn thisidea bfrom there; we learn it from here,as the verse states: b“Set up signposts [ itziyyunim /i] for yourself; establish youmarkers” (Jeremiah 31:20), which is understood to mean: bEstablishmnemonic bsigns for the Torah. And from wheremay it be inferred bthat thisterm itziyyundenotes a sign? As it is writtenin a different verse: “And when they that pass through shall pass through the land, band any sees a human bone, he shall set up a sign[itziyyun/b] bby it”(Ezekiel 39:15), i.e., a sign that there is a source of ritual impurity at that spot., bRabbi Eliezer saidthat we learn this same idea bfrom here: “Say to wisdom, you are my sister, and call understanding, your kinswoman [ imoda /i]”(Proverbs 7:4), which means: bEstablish signs [ imoda’im /i]that convey knowledge of bthe Torah. Rava saidwith regard to this verse: bSet appointed times [ imo’adim /i] for Torahstudy.
67. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

12a. השתא דנפקא ליה מלמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ למה לי,כדר' אלעזר דאמר רבי אלעזר אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ וכיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידיו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפך,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר ותשת עלי כפך,אי הכי קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חד שיעורא הוא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב עשרה דברים נבראו ביום ראשון ואלו הן שמים וארץ תהו ובהו אור וחשך רוח ומים מדת יום ומדת לילה,שמים וארץ דכתיב (בראשית א, א) בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ תהו ובהו דכתיב (בראשית א, ב) והארץ היתה תהו ובהו אור וחשך חשך דכתיב (בראשית א, ב) וחשך על פני תהום אור דכתיב (בראשית א, ג) ויאמר אלהים יהי אור רוח ומים דכתיב (בראשית א, ב) ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים מדת יום ומדת לילה דכתיב (בראשית א, ה) ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד,תנא תהו קו ירוק שמקיף את כל העולם כולו שממנו יצא חשך שנאמר (תהלים יח, יב) ישת חשך סתרו סביבותיו בהו אלו אבנים המפולמות המשוקעות בתהום שמהן יוצאין מים שנאמר (ישעיהו לד, יא) ונטה עליה קו תהו ואבני בהו,ואור ביום ראשון איברי והכתיב ויתן אותם אלהים ברקיע השמים וכתיב ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום רביעי,כדר' אלעזר דא"ר אלעזר אור שברא הקב"ה ביום ראשון אדם צופה בו מסוף העולם ועד סופו כיון שנסתכל הקב"ה בדור המבול ובדור הפלגה וראה שמעשיהם מקולקלים עמד וגנזו מהן שנאמר (איוב לח, טו) וימנע מרשעים אורם,ולמי גנזו לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר וירא אלהים את האור כי טוב ואין טוב אלא צדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו ג, י) אמרו צדיק כי טוב,כיון שראה אור שגנזו לצדיקים שמח שנאמר (משלי יג, ט) אור צדיקים ישמח,כתנאי אור שברא הקב"ה ביום ראשון אדם צופה ומביט בו מסוף העולם ועד סופו דברי רבי יעקב וחכ"א הן הן מאורות שנבראו ביום ראשון ולא נתלו עד יום רביעי,אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביא אמר רב בעשרה דברים נברא העולם בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת ובכח ובגערה ובגבורה בצדק ובמשפט בחסד וברחמים,בחכמה ובתבונה דכתיב (משלי ג, יט) ה' בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה בדעת דכתיב (משלי ג, כ) בדעתו תהומות נבקעו בכח וגבורה דכתיב (תהלים סה, ז) מכין הרים בכחו נאזר בגבורה בגערה דכתיב (איוב כו, יא) עמודי שמים ירופפו ויתמהו מגערתו בצדק ומשפט דכתיב (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך בחסד ורחמים דכתיב (תהלים כה, ו) זכר רחמיך ה' וחסדיך כי מעולם המה,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שברא הקב"ה את העולם היה מרחיב והולך כשתי פקעיות של שתי עד שגער בו הקב"ה והעמידו שנאמר עמודי שמים ירופפו ויתמהו מגערתו והיינו דאמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (בראשית לה, יא) אני אל שדי אני הוא שאמרתי לעולם די אמר ר"ל בשעה שברא הקב"ה את הים היה מרחיב והולך עד שגער בו הקב"ה ויבשו שנאמר (נחום א, ד) גוער בים ויבשהו וכל הנהרות החריב,ת"ר ב"ש אומרים שמים נבראו תחלה ואח"כ נבראת הארץ שנאמר בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ וב"ה אומרים ארץ נבראת תחלה ואח"כ שמים שנאמר (בראשית ב, ד) ביום עשות ה' אלהים ארץ ושמים,אמר להם ב"ה לב"ש לדבריכם אדם בונה עלייה ואח"כ בונה בית שנאמר (עמוס ט, ו) הבונה בשמים מעלותיו ואגודתו על ארץ יסדה אמר להם ב"ש לב"ה לדבריכם אדם עושה שרפרף ואח"כ עושה כסא שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, א) כה אמר ה' השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי וחכ"א זה וזה כאחת נבראו שנאמר (ישעיהו מח, יג) אף ידי יסדה ארץ וימיני טפחה שמים קורא אני אליהם יעמדו יחדו,ואידך מאי יחדו דלא משתלפי מהדדי קשו קראי אהדדי אמר ר"ל כשנבראו ברא שמים ואח"כ ברא הארץ וכשנטה נטה הארץ ואחר כך נטה שמים,מאי שמים א"ר יוסי בר חנינא ששם מים במתניתא תנא אש ומים מלמד שהביאן הקב"ה וטרפן זה בזה ועשה מהן רקיע,שאל רבי ישמעאל את ר"ע כשהיו מהלכין בדרך א"ל אתה ששימשת את נחום איש גם זו כ"ב שנה שהיה דורש כל אתין שבתורה את השמים ואת הארץ מה היה דורש בהן א"ל אילו נאמר שמים וארץ הייתי אומר שמים שמו של הקב"ה עכשיו שנאמר את השמים ואת הארץ שמים שמים ממש ארץ ארץ ממש 12a. The Gemara poses a question: bNow that it is derived fromthe phrase b“from one end of the heavens to the other,” why do Ineed the phrase b“since the day that God created man upon the earth”? /b,The Gemara answers that this phrase teaches us something else, baccording to Rabbi Elazar.As bRabbi Elazar said:The height of bAdam the first manreached bfrom the ground to the skies, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth,and from one end of the heavens” (Deuteronomy 4:32). bWhen he sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand upon him and diminished him, as it is stated: “You fashioned me behind and before, and laid Your hand upon me”(Psalms 139:5)., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Thesize of bAdam the first man was from one end of the world to the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from one end of the heavens to the other,”which indicates that he spanned the entire length of the world. bOnce he sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand upon him and diminished him, as it states: “And laid Your hand upon me.” /b,The Gemara asks: bIf so, thetwo parts of the bverse contradict each other,since one indicates that his height reached the heavens while the other says it reached the end of the earth. The Gemara answers: Both bthis and that are one,the same, bmeasure. /b,§ The Gemara continues to discuss Creation: bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Ten things were created on the first dayof Creation, band they areas follows: bHeaven and earth; itohuand ivohu /i,i.e., unformed and void; blight and darkness; wind and water; the length of day and the length of night. /b,All of these are derived from the Torah: bHeaven and earth, as it is written: “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth”(Genesis 1:1). iTohuand ivohu /i, as it is written: “And the earth was unformed and void [ itohu vavohu /i]”(Genesis 1:2). bLight and darkness; darkness, as it is written: “And darkness was upon the face of the deep”(Genesis 1:2); blight, as it is written: “And God said: Let there be light”(Genesis 1:3). bWind and water, as it is written: “And the wind of God hovered over the face of the waters”(Genesis 1:2). bThe length of day and the length of night, as it is written: “And there was evening, and there was morning, one day”(Genesis 1:5)., bIt was taughtin the iTosefta /i: iTohu /iis ba green line that encompasses the entire world, and from which darkness emerges, as it is stated: “He made darkness His hiding place round about Him”(Psalms 18:12), indicating that a line of darkness surrounds the world. iVohu /i; these are damp stones submerged in the depths, from which water emerges, as it is stated: “And He shall stretch over it the line of itohuand stones of ivohu /i”(Isaiah 34:11), which demonstrates that itohuis a line and that ivohuis referring to stones.,The Gemara poses a question: bAndwas blight created on the first day? But isn’t it written: “And God set them in the firmament of the heaven”(Genesis 1:17), band it isalso bwritten: “And there was evening, and there was morning, a fourth day”(Genesis 1:19), indicating that light was created on the fourth day.,The Gemara answers: This should be understood bin accordance with Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar said:The blight that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created on the first daywas not that of the sun but a different kind of light, bthrough which man could observe from one end of the world to the other. But when the Holy One, Blessed be He, looked upon the generation of the Flood and the generation of the Dispersion and saw that their ways were corruptand that they might misuse this light for evil, bHe arose and concealed it from them, as it is stated: “And from the wicked their light is withheld”(Job 38:15)., bAnd for whom did He conceal it? For the righteous people in the future, as it is stated: “And God saw the light, that it was good”(Genesis 1:4), band “good” is referring to noneother than the brighteous, as it is stated: “Sayof bthe righteous that it shall be goodfor them, for they shall eat the fruit of their actions” (Isaiah 3:10)., bWhen the light saw that it had been concealed for the righteous, it rejoiced, as it is stated: “The light for the righteous shall rejoice”(Proverbs 13:9).,The Gemara comments: This is blikea dispute between itanna’im /i:The blight that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created onthe bfirst daywas so profound that bman could observe through it from one end of the world to the other;this is  bthe statement of Rabbi Ya’akov. And the Rabbis say:This light bis the very same as the lights created on the first day, but they were not suspendedin their designated places in the firmament buntil the fourth day. /b,§ bRav Zutra bar Tuvya saidthat bRav said: The world was created through ten attributes: Through wisdom, through understanding, through knowledge, through strength, through rebuke, through might, through righteousness, through justice, through kindness, and through mercy. /b,Scriptural proof is provided for this statement as follows: It was created bthrough wisdom and through understanding, as it is written: “The Lord founded earth with wisdom, and established the heavens with understanding”(Proverbs 3:19); bthrough knowledge, as it is written: “With His knowledge the depths were broken up”(Proverbs 3:20); bthrough strength and through might, as it is written: “Who by Your strength sets fast the mountains, who is girded about with might”(Psalms 65:7); bthrough rebuke, as it is written: “The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at His rebuke”(Job 26:11); bthrough righteousness and justice, as it is written: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne”(Psalms 89:15); bthrough kindness and mercy, as it is written: “Remember Your mercies, O Lord, and Your kindnesses, for they are from times of old”(Psalms 25:6)., bAnd Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said,with regard to the same matter: bWhen the Holy One, Blessed be He, created the world, it continued to expand like two balls of a warp,whose cord lengthens as they unravel, buntil the Holy One, Blessed be He, rebuked it and made it stand still, as it is stated: “The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at His rebuke”(Job 26:11). bAnd this isthe same as that which bReish Lakish said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “I am the Almighty God[iEl Shaddai/b]” (Genesis 17:1)? It means: bI am He Who said to the world “enough [dai],”instructing it to stop expanding. Similarly, bReish Lakish said: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, created the sea, it continued to expand until the Holy One, Blessed be He, rebuked it and made it dry, as it is stated: “He rebukes the sea and makes it dry, and desiccates all the rivers”(Nahum 1:4).,§ Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel dispute the order of Creation, as bthe Sages taught: Beit Shammai say: The heavens were created first and afterward the earth was created, as it is stated: “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth”(Genesis 1:1), which indicates that heaven came first. bAnd Beit Hillel say:The bearth was created first, and heaven after it, as it is stated: “On the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven”(Genesis 2:4)., bBeit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: According to your words,does ba person build a second floor and buildthe first floor of bthe house afterward? As it is stated: “It is He Who builds His upper chambers in the heaven, and has founded His vault upon the earth”(Amos 9:6), indicating that the upper floor, heaven, was built above the earth. bBeit Shammai said to Beit Hillel: According to your words,does ba person make a stoolfor his feet, band make a seat afterward? As it is stated: “So said the Lord: The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1). bBut the Rabbis say:Both bthis and that were created as one, for it is stated: “Indeed, My hand has laid the foundation of the earth, and My right hand has spread out the heavens; when I call to them, they stand up together”(Isaiah 48:13), implying that they were created as one.,The Gemara asks: bAnd the others,Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, bwhat,in their opinion, bisthe meaning of b“together”?The Gemara responds: It means bthat they do not separate from each other.In other words, the term “together” is referring not to the moment of their creation but to the manner of their positioning. The Gemara comments: In any case, bthe verses contradict each other,as heaven is sometimes mentioned first, while on other occasions earth is listed beforehand. bReish Lakish said: When they were created, Hefirst bcreatedthe bheavens and afterward created the earth, but when He spread themout and fixed them in their places, bHe spreadout bthe earth and afterward He spreadout bthe heavens. /b,Incidental to the above, the Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning and source of the word b“heaven” [ ishamayim /i]? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said:It is an acronym, ishesham mayim /i,meaning: That water is there. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i: iShamayimmeans iesh umayim /i,fire and water, which bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, brought themboth band combined them together, and madethe bfirmament from them. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yishmael asked Rabbi Akivaa question bwhen they were walking along the way. He said to him: You who served Naḥum of Gam Zu for twenty-two years, who would expoundand learn that beveryappearance of the word ietin the Torahis meant to teach something, bwhat would he expound fromthe phrase: b“The heaven and the earth”[iet hashamayim ve’et ha’aretz/b] (Genesis 1:1)? bHe said to him:These words should be expounded as follows: bHad it stated:In the beginning God created ihashamayim veha’aretz /i, i.e., the heaven and the earth, without the word iet /i, bI would have said: iShamayimis the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He,and the same goes for iaretz /i, and the verse would sound as if it meant that God, whose name is iShamayimand iAretz /i, created the world. bSince it states “ iet hashamayim ve’et ha’aretz /i,”it is clear that these are created objects and that ishamayim /imeans the bactual heavenand iaretz /iis the bactual earth.It is for this reason that the word ietis necessary.
68. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. כל היכא דליכא אלא חמש סלעים הוא קודם לבנו מאי טעמא מצוה דגופיה עדיפא כי פליגי היכא דאיכא חמש משועבדים וחמש בני חורין,ר' יהודה סבר מלוה דכתיב בתורה ככתובה בשטר דמיא בהני חמש פריק לבריה ואזיל כהן וטריף ליה לחמש משועבדים לדידיה,ורבנן סברי מלוה דכתיב באורייתא לאו ככתובה בשטר דמיא והילכך מצוה דגופיה עדיף,ת"ר לפדות את בנו ולעלות לרגל פודה את בנו ואחר כך עולה לרגל ר' יהודה אומר עולה לרגל ואח"כ פודה את בנו שזו מצוה עוברת וזו מצוה שאינה עוברת,בשלמא לר' יהודה כדקאמר טעמא אלא רבנן מאי טעמייהו דאמר קרא (שמות לד, כ) כל בכור בניך תפדה והדר לא יראו פני ריקם,ת"ר מנין שאם היו לו חמשה בנים מחמש נשים שחייב לפדות כולן ת"ל כל בכור בניך תפדה פשיטא בפטר רחם תלא רחמנא,מהו דתימא נילף בכור בכור מנחלה מה להלן ראשית אונו אף כאן ראשית אונו קמ"ל:,ללמדו תורה: מנלן דכתיב (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם והיכא דלא אגמריה אבוה מיחייב איהו למיגמר נפשיה דכתיב ולמדתם,איהי מנלן דלא מיחייבא דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שמצווה ללמוד מצווה ללמד וכל שאינו מצווה ללמוד אינו מצווה ללמד,ואיהי מנלן דלא מיחייבה למילף נפשה דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שאחרים מצווין ללמדו מצווה ללמד את עצמו וכל שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדו אין מצווה ללמד את עצמו ומנין שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדה דאמר קרא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בנותיכם,ת"ר הוא ללמוד ובנו ללמוד הוא קודם לבנו ר' יהודה אומר אם בנו זריז וממולח ותלמודו מתקיים בידו בנו קודמו כי הא דרב יעקב בריה דרב אחא בר יעקב שדריה אבוה לקמיה דאביי כי אתא חזייה דלא הוה מיחדדין שמעתיה א"ל אנא עדיפא מינך תוב את דאיזיל אנא,שמע אביי דקא הוה אתי הוה ההוא מזיק בי רבנן דאביי דכי הוו עיילי בתרין אפי' ביממא הוו מיתזקי אמר להו לא ליתיב ליה אינש אושפיזא אפשר דמתרחיש ניסא,על בת בההוא בי רבנן אידמי ליה כתנינא דשבעה רישוותיה כל כריעה דכרע נתר חד רישיה אמר להו למחר אי לא איתרחיש ניסא סכינתין,ת"ר ללמוד תורה ולישא אשה ילמוד תורה ואח"כ ישא אשה ואם א"א לו בלא אשה ישא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה נושא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה,ר' יוחנן אמר ריחיים בצוארו ויעסוק בתורה ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו:,משתבח ליה רב חסדא לרב הונא בדרב המנונא דאדם גדול הוא א"ל כשיבא לידך הביאהו לידי כי אתא חזייה דלא פריס סודרא א"ל מאי טעמא לא פריסת סודרא א"ל דלא נסיבנא אהדרינהו לאפיה מיניה א"ל חזי דלא חזית להו לאפי עד דנסבת,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר בן עשרים שנה ולא נשא אשה כל ימיו בעבירה בעבירה סלקא דעתך אלא אימא כל ימיו בהרהור עבירה,אמר רבא וכן תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל עד כ' שנה יושב הקב"ה ומצפה לאדם מתי ישא אשה כיון שהגיע כ' ולא נשא אומר תיפח עצמותיו,אמר רב חסדא האי דעדיפנא מחבראי דנסיבנא בשיתסר ואי הוה נסיבנא בארביסר 29b. that banywhere that there are only five isela /iavailable, i.e., enough to redeem only one man, and one is obligated to redeem both himself and his son, bhe,the father, btakes precedence over his son. What is the reason?It is that bhis own mitzva is preferableto one that he performs on behalf of others. bWhen they disagreeis in a case bwhere there island worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty that has been sold, i.e., he sold this land to other people but it can be reclaimed by his prior creditor, band five iselawhich is entirely bunsoldproperty.,And the reasoning behind the dispute is as follows: bRabbi Yehuda maintainsthat ba loan that is written in the Torah,i.e., any ficial obligation that applies by Torah law, is bconsidered as though it is written in a document,and therefore it can be collected from liened property, like any loan recorded in a document. This means that the liened property worth five iselais available for one’s own redemption, but not for that of his son, as the sale of the property occurred before the birth of his firstborn. Consequently, bwith these five iselaupon which there is no lien bhe redeems his son, andthe bpriest goes and repossessesthe land worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty bfor hisown redemption. In this manner one can fulfill both mitzvot., bAnd the Rabbis maintain: A loan that is written in the Torah is not considered as though it is written in a document,since buyers will not be aware of this obligation, so that they should be aware that the land may be repossessed. bAnd thereforethere is no advantage for this man to redeem his son with the five iselaupon which there is no lien, and bhis own mitzva is preferable,which means he redeems himself with the free land. With the liened property that is left he cannot redeem his son, as the land was sold before the birth of his firstborn., bThe Sages taught:If one has money bto redeem his son and to ascend toJerusalem on bthe pilgrimage Festival, he redeems his son and then ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: He ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival and then redeems his son.His reasoning is bthat thistrip to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival is ba mitzvawhose time soon bpasses, and this,the redemption of the firstborn son, is ba mitzvawhose time does bnotsoon bpass,as it can be fulfilled later.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bas he statedin bhis reasoning,i.e., Rabbi Yehuda provided the rationale for his opinion. bBut what is the reasoning of the Rabbis,who say that he should first redeem his son? The Gemara answers that the reason is bthat the verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), bandit bthenstates, in the same verse: b“And none shall appear before me empty,”referring to the pilgrimage Festival in Jerusalem. The order of the verse indicates that one should redeem his firstborn son before traveling to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival., bThe Sages taught: From whereis it derived bthat if one had fivefirstborn bsons, from fivedifferent bwomen, he is obligated to redeem them all? The verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), and the emphasis of “all” includes any of one’s firstborn sons. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tit bobviousthis is the case? After all, bthe Merciful One madethis mitzva bdependent upon the opening of the womb,as it states: “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, whoever opens the womb” (Exodus 13:2). Since each of these sons is the firstborn of his mother, it is clear that the father is required to redeem each of them.,The Gemara answers that this ruling is necessary blest you saythat bwe should derivea verbal analogy between b“firstborn”stated here and b“firstborn” fromthe verses dealing with binheritance: Just as there,the verse describes a firstborn who receives a double portion of the inheritance as: b“The first fruit of his strength”(Deuteronomy 21:17), i.e., he is the firstborn son to his father, and not the first child born to his mother; bso too here,with regard to the redemption of the firstborn son, it is referring to the bfirst fruit of his strength,which would mean that the father need redeem only his oldest child. Therefore, this ibaraita bteaches usthat this is not the case. Rather, every firstborn son to his mother must be redeemed.,§ The ibaraitateaches that a father is obligated bto teachhis son bTorah.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this requirement? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach them [ ivelimadtem /i] to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19). bAndin a case bwhere his father did not teach him he is obligated to teach himself, as it is written,i.e., the verse can be read with a different vocalization: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i]. /b, bFrom where do wederive bthata woman bis not obligatedto teach her son Torah? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i].This indicates that bwhoever is commanded to studyTorah bis commanded to teach, and whoever is not commanded to study is not commanded to teach.Since a woman is not obligated to learn Torah, she is likewise not obligated to teach it.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat she is not obligated to teach herself?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i],which indicates that bwhoever others are commanded to teach is commanded to teach himself, and whoever others are not commanded to teach is not commanded to teach himself. And from whereis it derived bthat others are not commanded to teacha woman? bAs the verse states: “And you shall teach them to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), which emphasizes: bYour sons and not your daughters. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bonewishes bto studyTorah himself band his sonalso wants bto study, he takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: If his son is diligent and sharp, and his study will endure, his son takes precedence over him.This is blike thatanecdote bwhichis told about bRav Ya’akov, son of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, whose father sent him to Abayeto study Torah. bWhenthe son bcamehome, his father bsaw that his studies were not sharp,as he was insufficiently bright. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bsaid tohis son: bI am preferable to you,and it is better that I go and study. Therefore, byou sitand handle the affairs of the house bso that I can goand study., bAbaye heardthat Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bwas coming. There was a certain demon in the study hall of Abaye,which was so powerful bthat when twopeople would benter they would be harmed, even during the day.Abaye bsaid tothe people of the town: bDo not giveRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov blodging [ iushpiza /i]so that he will be forced to spend the night in the study hall. Since Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov is a righteous man, bperhaps a miracle will occuron his behalf and he will kill the demon.,Rav Aḥa found no place to spend the night, and bhe entered and spent the night in that study hallof bthe Sages.The demon bappeared to him like a serpentwith bseven heads.Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov began to pray, and with bevery bowthat bhe bowed oneof the demon’s bheads fell off,until it eventually died. The bnext dayRav Aḥa bsaid tothe townspeople: bIf a miracle had not occurred, you would have placed me in danger. /b, bThe Sages taught:If one has to decide whether bto study Torah or to marry a woman,which should he do first? bHe should study Torah and afterward marry a woman. And if it is impossible for himto be bwithout a wife, he should marry a woman and then study Torah. Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis that one should bmarry a woman and afterward study Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says:How can one do this? With ba millstonehanging bfrom his neck,i.e., with the responsibility of providing for his family weighing upon him, can bhe engage in Torahstudy? The Gemara comments: bAndthe iamora’im bdo not disagree; this is for us and that is for them.In other words, one statement applies to the residents of Babylonia, whereas the other is referring to those living in Eretz Yisrael.,§ With regard to marriage, the Gemara relates: bRav Ḥisda would praise Rav Hamnuna to Rav Hunaby saying bthat he is a great man.Rav Huna bsaid to him: When he comes to you, send him to me. WhenRav Hamnuna bcamebefore him, Rav Huna bsaw that he did not coverhis head with ba cloth,as Torah scholars did. Rav Huna bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat byou do not coveryour head bwith a cloth?Rav Hamnuna bsaid to him:The reason is bthat I am not married,and it was not customary for unmarried men to cover their heads with a cloth. Rav Huna bturned his face away from himin rebuke, and bhe said to him: Seeto it bthat you do not see my face until you marry. /b,The Gemara notes: bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as he says:If one is btwenty years old and has notyet bmarried a woman, all of his dayswill be bina state of bsinconcerning sexual matters. The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he will be bina state of bsinall of his days? bRather, saythat this means the following: bAll of his dayswill be bina state of bthoughts of sin,i.e., sexual thoughts. One who does not marry in his youth will become accustomed to thoughts of sexual matters, and the habit will remain with him the rest of his life., bRava said, and similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Untilone reaches the age of btwenty years the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and waits for a man,saying: bWhen will he marry a woman? Once he reachesthe age of btwenty and has not married, He says: Let his bones swell,i.e., he is cursed and God is no longer concerned about him., bRav Ḥisda said:The fact bthat I am superior to my colleaguesis bbecause I marriedat the age of bsixteen, and if I would have married atthe age of bfourteen, /b
69. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61b. ויש לו בנים לא ישא אילונית שהיא זונה האמורה בתורה דאזונה כהנים הוא דמפקדי וישראל לא מפקדי משום הכי קתני כהן,אמר רב הונא מאי טעמא דר' יהודה דכתיב (הושע ד, י) אכלו ולא ישבעו הזנו ולא יפרוצו כל ביאה שאין בה פירצה אינה אלא בעילת זנות,תניא רבי אליעזר אומר כהן לא ישא את הקטנה אמר ליה רב חסדא לרבה פוק עיין בה דלאורתא בעי לה רב הונא מינך נפק עיין בה רבי אליעזר סבר לה כרבי מאיר וסבר לה כרבי יהודה,סבר לה כרבי מאיר דחייש למיעוטא וסבר לה כרבי יהודה דאמר אילונית זונה הויא,וכרבי מאיר מי סבר לה והתניא קטן וקטנה לא חולצין ולא מיבמין דברי רבי מאיר אמרו לו לרבי מאיר יפה אמרת שאין חולצין (דברים כה, ז) איש כתיב בפרשה ומקשינן אשה לאיש אלא מאי טעמא אין מיבמין,[א"ל] קטן שמא ימצא סריס קטנה שמא תמצא אילונית ונמצאו פוגעין בערוה ותניא קטנה מתייבמת ואינה חולצת דברי רבי אליעזר,וכרבי יהודה מי סבר לה והתניא זונה זונה כשמה דברי רבי אליעזר רבי עקיבא אומר זונה זו מופקרת רבי מתיא בן חרש אומר אפי' הלך בעלה להשקותה ובא עליה בדרך עשאה זונה,רבי יהודה אומר זונה זו אילונית וחכמים אומרים אין זונה אלא גיורת ומשוחררת ושנבעלה בעילת זנות ר' אליעזר אומר פנוי הבא על הפנויה שלא לשם אישות עשאה זונה,אלא אמר רב אדא בר אהבה הכא בכ"ג עסקינן לאימת קני לה לכי גדלה בעולה היא,אמר רבא מכלי לב אי דקדשה אבוה מההיא שעתא הוא דקני לה ואי דקדשה נפשה הא רבי אליעזר היא ולא רבנן,אלא אמר רבא לעולם בכהן הדיוט וחיישינן שמא תתפתה עליו א"ה ישראל נמי פתויי קטנה אונס הוא ואונס בישראל מישרא שרי,רב פפא אמר בכ"ג והאי תנא הוא דתניא (ויקרא כא, ג) בתולה יכול קטנה ת"ל אשה אי אשה יכול בוגרת ת"ל בתולה הא כיצד יצתה מכלל קטנות ולכלל בגרות לא באתה,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר האי תנא הוא דתניא בתולה אין בתולה אלא נערה וכן הוא אומר (בראשית כד, טז) והנערה טובת מראה מאד בתולה,ר' אלעזר אומר פנוי הבא על הפנויה שלא לשם אישות עשאה זונה אמר רב עמרם אין הלכה כרבי אלעזר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big לא יבטל אדם מפריה ורביה אלא א"כ יש לו בנים ב"ש אומרים שני זכרים וב"ה אומרים זכר ונקבה שנאמר (בראשית ה, ב) זכר ונקבה בראם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big הא יש לו בנים מפריה ורביה בטיל מאשה לא בטיל מסייעא ליה לרב נחמן אמר שמואל דאמר אע"פ שיש לו לאדם כמה בנים אסור לעמוד בלא אשה שנאמר (בראשית ב, יח) לא טוב היות האדם לבדו,ואיכא דאמרי הא יש לו בנים בטיל מפריה ורביה ובטיל נמי מאשה נימא תיהוי תיובתא דרב נחמן אמר שמואל לא אין לו בנים נושא אשה בת בנים יש לו בנים נושא אשה דלאו בת בנים נפקא מינה למכור ספר תורה בשביל בנים:,בית שמאי אומרים שני זכרים: מאי טעמייהו דבית שמאי ילפינן ממשה דכתיב (דברי הימים א כג, טו) בני משה גרשום ואליעזר ובית הלל ילפינן מברייתו של עולם ובית שמאי לילפי מברייתו של עולם אין דנין אפשר 61b. band he has children, he may not marry a sexually underdeveloped woman, as she is the izona /iabout whom it is bstated in the Torahthat a priest may not marry her. bIt is priests who were commandednot to marry ba izona /i, but Israelites were not commandedthis. It is bdue to thatreason that bhe taughtthe first clause of the mishna about ba priest,even though that ihalakhaapplies equally to Israelites., bRav Huna said: What is the reasonfor the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda? As it is written: “And they shall eat, and not have enough, they shall commit harlotry, and shall not increase”(Hosea 4:10). He expounds the verse as follows: bAny intercourse that does nothave the possibility to bincreasethe population because the woman is incapable of having children, bis nothing otherthan blicentious sexual intercourse. /b,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says: A priest may not marry a minor. Rav Ḥisda said to Rabba: Goand binvestigatethis ihalakha /i, bas in the evening Rav Hunawill bask youthe reason for Rabbi Eliezer’s ruling. bHe wentand binvestigated it,and arrived at the following conclusion: bRabbi Eliezer holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir, and healso bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda. /b,Rabba explains: bHe holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir, whosays that bone must be concerned for the minority.Rabbi Meir does not allow one to assume that an unknown case is similar to the majority of cases. Consequently, one must take into account the possibility that a minor will turn out to be sexually underdeveloped, although this will not be true of most individuals. bAndhe also bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, who saidthat ba sexually underdeveloped woman is a izona /iand therefore forbidden to a priest.,The Gemara challenges Rabba’s explanation: bAnd doesRabbi Eliezer bhold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Meir? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA boy minor and a girl minor may not perform iḥalitzaor levirate marriage;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir.The Rabbis bsaid to Rabbi Meir: You spoke wellwhen you said bthat they may not perform iḥalitza /i,as the term b“man” is written in the passageof iḥalitza(Deuteronomy 25:7–10), which limits the ihalakhato an adult male, band we compare a woman to a manand therefore limit iḥalitzato an adult woman. bHowever, what is the reasonthat bthey may not perform levirate marriage? /b,Rabbi Meir bsaid to them: A boy minormay not perform levirate marriage blest he be foundto be ba eunuch,i.e., one who is incapable of fathering children for his late brother. Similarly, ba girl minormay not perform levirate marriage blest she be foundto be bsexually underdevelopedwhen she grows up. In either case, the mitzva of levirate marriage does not apply, band they turn outto have bencountered a forbidden relative. And it was taughtin a different ibaraita /i: bA girl minor enters into levirate marriage but does not perform iḥalitza /i;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Eliezer.This proves that Rabbi Eliezer disagrees with Rabbi Meir and is not concerned that a girl may turn out to be sexually underdeveloped.,The Gemara continues to challenge Rabba’s explanation of Rabbi Eliezer’s ruling. bAnd doesRabbi Eliezer bhold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda? Wasn’t it is taught ina ibaraita /i: The izona /iforbidden to a priest is as bthe name izona /iimplies, i.e., a married woman who committed adultery; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Akiva says: A izonaisa woman, even an unmarried woman, bwhois bavailableto all, i.e., she has intercourse with whoever is interested. bRabbi Matya ben Ḥarash says: Evenif bher husband went to make her drinkthe bitter waters after she disregarded his warning not to seclude herself with a certain man, and bhe had intercourse with her on the way, he hasthereby bcaused herto become ba izona /ibecause she was forbidden to him at the time, despite the fact that she is his wife., bRabbi Yehuda says: A izonais a sexually underdeveloped woman. And the Rabbis say:The term izona /iapplies bonly to a female convert, a freedmaidservant, band one who engaged in licentious sexual intercourse. Rabbi Elazar says:Even in the case of ban unmarried man who had intercourse with an unmarried woman not for the purpose of marriage, he hasthereby bcaused herto become ba izona /i.This ibaraitaproves that Rabbi Eliezer does not agree with Rabbi Yehuda., bRather, Rav Adda bar Ahava saidthat Rabbi Eliezer’s ruling that a priest may not marry a minor must be explained differently: bHere we are dealing with a High Priest,and the problem is as follows: bWhen can he acquire heras his wife? Only bwhen she is grown up.However, if they had started living together as husband and wife when she was a minor, then when she is grown up and the marriage can legally take effect, bshe isalready ba non-virgin,and a High Priest is commanded to marry a virgin., bRava said:This explanation is bwithout reason. If her father betrothed herto her husband, her husband bacquired her from that time,as betrothal that a father carries out on his daughter’s behalf when she is a minor is effective by Torah law. bAnd ifthe minor bbetrothed herself,is bthis Rabbi Eliezer’sopinion band notthat of bthe Rabbis?The Rabbis would certainly agree that a High Priest may not marry a minor under these circumstances., bRather, Rava said: Actually,Rabbi Eliezer’s ruling includes ba common priest,and the reason he cannot marry a minor is that bwe are concerned lest she be seducedby another man, due to her tender age and naïveté, while married bto him.The Gemara asks: bIf so,the same concern should apply to ban Israelite also.The Gemara answers: bThe seduction of a minor isconsidered brape, and a rapevictim remains bpermittedto her husband bina case where she is married to ban Israelite,but not if she is married to a priest., bRav Pappa said:Rabbi Eliezer’s ruling applies specifically bto a High Priest, and it isthe opinion of bthis itanna /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat when the verse states: b“A virginof his own people shall he take for a wife [ iisha /i]” (Leviticus 21:14), one bmighthave thought a High Priest may marry ba minor; the versetherefore bstatesthat he must marry ba woman [ iisha /i],i.e., an adult. bIfhe must marry a bwoman,one bmighthave thought it means ba grown woman. The versetherefore bstatesthat he must marry ba virgin,which excludes a grown woman, who is considered only a partial virgin because her hymen is not fully intact. bHow so?He must marry a woman who bhas left the class of minority butwho bhas notyet breached the class of grown womanhood,i.e., he must marry a maiden., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It isthe opinion of bthis itanna /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The High Priest must marry ba virgin, andthe term bvirginrefers bonlyto ba maiden. Anda verse bsimilarly states: “And the maiden was very fair to look upon, a virgin,and no man had known her” (Genesis 24:16).,The ibaraitacited above mentioned that bRabbi Elazar says:In the case of ban unmarried man who had intercourse with an unmarried woman not for the purpose of marriage, he has caused herto become ba izona /i. Rav Amram said: The ihalakhais not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Elazar. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bA man may not neglectthe mitzva to bbe fruitful and multiply unless healready bhas children. Beit Shammai say:One fulfills this mitzva with btwo males, and Beit Hillel say: A male and a female, as it is stated: “Male and female He created them”(Genesis 5:2)., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara infers from the mishna’s wording that if bhealready bhas children he may neglectthe mitzva to bbe fruitful and multiply,but bhe may not neglectthe mitzva to have ba wife.This bsupportswhat bRav Naḥman saidin the name of bShmuel, who said: Evenif ba man has several children, it is prohibited to remain without a wife, as it is stated: “It is not good that the man should be alone”(Genesis 2:18)., bAnd some saya different version of the inference from the mishna: If bhealready bhas children, he may neglectthe mitzva to bbe fruitful and multiply andhe bmay also neglectthe mitzva to have ba wife. Shall we saythis bis a conclusive refutation ofwhat bRav Naḥman saidthat bShmuelsaid? The Gemara responds: bNo,it means that bif he does not have children he must marry a womancapable bofbearing bchildren,whereas if bhe has children he may marry a woman who is notcapable bofbearing bchildren. A practical differencebetween a man who has children and one who does not is whether he is permitted bto sell a Torah scroll in order tomarry a woman capable of having bchildren.This is permitted only for one who does not yet have children.,§ The mishna states that bBeit Shammai saythat one fulfills the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply when he has btwo males.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reason of Beit Shammai?The Gemara answers: bWe learnthis bfrom Moses as it is written: “The sons of Moses, Gershom and Eliezer”(I Chronicles 23:15). Since Moses did not have any other children, two sons must be sufficient to fulfill the mitzva. bAndthe reason of bBeit Hillelis that bwe learn from the creation of the world,as mankind was created male and female. The Gemara asks: bAnd Beit Shammai, let them learn from the creation of the worldas well. The Gemara answers that Beit Shammai could say to you: bWe do not derivea case where it is bpossible /b
70. Nag Hammadi, Allogenes, 59.13-59.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

71. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 117.28-118.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

72. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of The Egyptians, 59.4, 59.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

73. Nag Hammadi, The Hypostasis of The Archons, 87.23-87.26, 87.29-87.33, 88.3-88.6, 88.10-88.24, 89.4-89.17, 93.2, 93.4, 93.8-93.9, 93.13-93.22 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

74. Nag Hammadi, Trimorphic Protennoia, 40.22-40.25 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

75. Epiphanius, Panarion, 26 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

76. Anon., Apocalypse of Moses, 37

77. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 101-104, 11, 98-100

100. But in order that we might gain complete information, we ascended to the summit of the neighbouring citadel and looked around us. It is situated in a very lofty spot, and is fortified with many towers, which have been built up to the very top of immense stones, with the object, as we were informed, of


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abigail Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 396
abraham, trust of Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81
abraham Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173; Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
accusations (against creator or creation) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 249
adam, deathbed of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
adam, faculty of discernment Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
adam, gods handiwork, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
adam, name, spelling of Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
adam/adam, as seal Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
adam/adam, new or second Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
adam/adam, the first Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
adam Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 106; Eilberg-Schwartz, The Human Will in Judaism: The Mishnah's Philosophy of Intention (1986) 104, 107; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 315; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165, 166, 169, 170, 183
adam and eve Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81, 82
adamas Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 183
allegorical commentary Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
allegory Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
allogenes, character Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
allotment, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 481, 485, 489
allotment, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 481, 485
aloe Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
androgyny Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 169
angel Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
angels Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
anger, god (lord), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
anger, paradise, in Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 489
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 481, 489
anger Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
animal, bull Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 315
animal, ox Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 315
anthropology Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
apologetics Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 355
arabic poetry Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 360
aramaic, square script Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
aramaic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
archon Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165, 166, 169, 170, 183
archons, archontic Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
aristotelian tradition Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
arriano, and platonism Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
authority Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
baer, richard Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
baier, annette Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 82
baraitot, and tannaic midrashim Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 255, 256, 257, 258
baraitot, literary character/editorial practices Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 255, 256, 257, 258
baraitot, reworked in bavli Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 255, 256, 257, 258
baraitot Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 255, 256, 257, 258
barbeloite, modern definitions Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 183
beast, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 489
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 489
blasphemy, heresy as Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
blessing Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 326, 331
body, head Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 315
body Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
cain, seven sins, judgement Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
cain Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173
calamus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
care, of god or christ for creation Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 81, 82
carnales vs. spiritales Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
cassian, julius Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
character Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
children, adam and eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485, 489
children, children (grandchildren), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485, 489
children Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 489
christ, see also jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
christ Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173
christian/christianity Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 481, 784
christology, adam/image- Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 183
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 446
cinnamon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
citadel Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 364
clement of alexandria, reduction of diverse heresies to common errors Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
collection, restorative Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 118
corinth, corinthians Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
creation, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 324
creation, animals, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 326, 489
creation, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 324
creation, metaphysics Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
creation, priestly account of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
creation Neuwirth, Sinai and Marx,The Qurʾān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʾānic Milieu (2010)" 360; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
creator Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 249
creator archons, archons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 169, 170, 183
creator archons, yhwh ( Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
creator archons Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165
creatura spiritalis Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
culture, greco- roman Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
culture, sasanian Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
darkness Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 315
david Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 396
de genesi ad litteram, and platonism Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
de genesi ad litteram, structure Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 93
death, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
death Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 315; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
deception Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 326, 489
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
demetrius of phalerum Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
descent, of the spirit/breath into adam Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 183
devil, entering into the allotment of adam Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 481
divine/god, anthropos Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 242
divine/god, assembly Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 242
divine/god, retinue Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 242
divine/god, roar Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 242
divinizing, solid Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
dust Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 324
earth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
ekphrasis Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
eleazar, high priest Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
eleleth Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
emotion (pathos) Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 106
encratites Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165, 166, 169, 170, 183
ethics of care Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 82
eusebius of emesa, paradise narrative Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
eusebius of emesa, questions formulations Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
eve, nightmare of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 326
eve Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112; Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 106; Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 315; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 166, 169, 170, 183; Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 33
evil Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
eye Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
fables, fabulate, fabulation Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 249
faith/belief Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173
false claim Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165, 169, 183
father and maker Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 355
fear of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
fig Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
flesh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
forgiveness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
formation, intellectual Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
frankincense, tree of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
fruit, forbidden (illicit) Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 326, 485
garden of eden Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 481
geography, and marriage vs. torah study Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
gnosis, gnostics, gnosticism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 249
gnosis Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
gnostic, gnosticism Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
god, anger of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, compassion of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, creator, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
god, father of the whole creation, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
god, holy one, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
god, image of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
god, jael, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
god Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
godhead; see also attributes, hierarchy Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 242
godhead; see also attributes, logoi/gradations Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 242
greco-roman culture Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
greed, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
greek-jewish (graeco-jewish), philosophy Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 446
greek Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
heart Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
hebrew Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
hebrew language Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 396
hellenistic judaism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
help Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
herbage Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 324
historical-critical methods, diachronic development of texts Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 255
horses, given as charity Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 118
huna, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
ialdabaoth Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165, 169, 183
ignorance (êgnoia) (of creator), ignorant (creator) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 249
image Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165, 166, 169, 170, 183
image of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 331
incense Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
instructor Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 169
intertexts Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 256
intertextuality, as creating meaning Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 255
intertextuality, intra-bavli, as tool of analysis Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 255, 256, 257, 258
invisible spirit Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
isaac Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173; Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
islamic period Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
ithaca Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 396
jealousy, jealous, begrudge, grudge Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 249
jew/jewish, literature/ authors' "151.0_310.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
judah Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 396
judaism, wisdom Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
judaism Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
judgment (divine) Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173
law, biblical Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 355
law, biblical and creation Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 355
law, the, and gospel Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
law, the, in clement Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
libertinism/license Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
life, spirit/breath of Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 166
light, adam of light Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
light Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 315; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 169
likeness Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
literal sense Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
logos Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 242; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163; Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66; Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
man Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 68, 99
man (anthropos) barbelo, first/immortal man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170, 183
man (anthropos) barbelo, man and son of man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 183
man (anthropos) barbelo, second man/son of man Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 183
manual of instruction Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
marriage, heretical contempt for Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
marriage Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 232; Boulluec, The Notion of Heresy in Greek Literature in the Second and Third Centuries (2022) 356
mercy of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
moses Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310; Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 355; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
myrrh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
myth, fragmentary Fishbane, Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking (2003) 242
mētis (gr. cunning intelligence) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 396
nahman, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
nakedness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 326
natural law Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 142
naḥman, rav Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 315
newman j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 232
noah, sons Pomeroy, Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis (2021) 94
noah Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173
norea Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
nous (spirit) Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
odysseus Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 396
oil, healing Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
oil, medical Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
oil, mercy, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
oil Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 784
ophites, the diagram Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
ordination Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 232
pagans, paganism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 249
paideia, greek Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
paleo-hebrew Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
paradise, traveling (journey or foray) to/from Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
paradise, vicinity of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
paradise, walls of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
parallels (inner-rabbinic), literary/cultural vs. historical approaches to Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 255
passion Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
passion (narrative) Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173
paul, apostle, food Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
paul, apostle, formation Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
paul Lieu, Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century (2015) 355; Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165, 166, 170, 183
paul (saul) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 446
penelope (gr. pēnelopē) Zawanowska and Wilk, The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King (2022) 396
perfection Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
persia, sasanian Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
philo Dunderberg, Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus (2008) 106; Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
philo judaeus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
philo of alexandria Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
platonism Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
pleroma Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
plotinus Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
pomegranates Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
poor, conjunctural Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 118
poor, wellborn Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 118
prayer Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
prayers, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 326
priests (kohanim), wealthy Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
proselyte/proselytism Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
psychic adam/eve/body Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165, 166, 169, 170
question and answer, format Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
questions and answers Niehoff, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (2011) 163
quppa, and restorative charity Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 118
quppa, for conjunctural poor Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 118
regions, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
regions Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193, 481, 485
righteous/ness Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173
risk, relation to divine-human trust Morgan, The New Testament and the Theology of Trust: 'This Rich Trust' (2022) 82
sabbath Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 315
sacrifice Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 315
saffron Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
salvation/soteriology Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165, 166, 169, 170, 183
salvation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 44
sarah (of scripture) Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
sasanian culture Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
satan Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 489
savior, norea Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
seeds, food (sustece), for Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
segal, eliezer Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 118
septuagint Sly, Philo's Perception of Women (1990) 99
serpent Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 481
serpents Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 249
seth, character Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
seth, person Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 170
sethians, sethianism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165, 166, 169, 170, 183
sethians Corrigan and Rasimus, Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World (2013) 112
sex/sexual Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
shame Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 485
shimon b. gamaliel, rabban, plot against Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
shmuel, and marriage Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 192
simon bar kochba Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 213
sin Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310
sinner Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 326
slaves, as charity Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 118
sodom' Grypeou and Spurling, The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity (2009) 173
solid food Penniman, Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity (2017) 66
son of god Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 33
sophia, see also prunicus, wisdom, zoe Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 166, 169
soul, creatura spiritalis Yates and Dupont, The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part II: Consolidation of the Canon to the Arab Conquest (ca. 393 to 650 CE). (2023) 111
soul, individual Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 165, 166, 169
spices, chief Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
spices, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
spices Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
spikenard Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 193
spirit, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 784
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 310