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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6284
Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 19
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

60 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.12 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.24, 13.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.24. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵשׁ אֹכְלָה הוּא אֵל קַנָּא׃ 13.14. יָצְאוּ אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי־בְלִיַּעַל מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וַיַּדִּיחוּ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי עִירָם לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה וְנַעַבְדָה אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתֶּם׃ 4.24. For the LORD thy God is a devouring fire, a jealous God." 13.14. ’Certain base fellows are gone out from the midst of thee, and have drawn away the inhabitants of their city, saying: Let us go and serve other gods, which ye have not known’;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.22, 7.11, 11.2, 12.35-12.36, 14.19, 20.5, 22.20, 34.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.22. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 7.11. וַיִּקְרָא גַּם־פַּרְעֹה לַחֲכָמִים וְלַמְכַשְּׁפִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ גַם־הֵם חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶם כֵּן׃ 11.2. דַּבֶּר־נָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וְיִשְׁאֲלוּ אִישׁ מֵאֵת רֵעֵהוּ וְאִשָּׁה מֵאֵת רְעוּתָהּ כְּלֵי־כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי זָהָב׃ 12.35. וּבְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עָשׂוּ כִּדְבַר מֹשֶׁה וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם כְּלֵי־כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי זָהָב וּשְׂמָלֹת׃ 12.36. וַיהוָה נָתַן אֶת־חֵן הָעָם בְּעֵינֵי מִצְרַיִם וַיַּשְׁאִלוּם וַיְנַצְּלוּ אֶת־מִצְרָיִם׃ 14.19. וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 34.14. כִּי לֹא תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לְאֵל אַחֵר כִּי יְהוָה קַנָּא שְׁמוֹ אֵל קַנָּא הוּא׃ 4.22. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born." 7.11. Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did in like manner with their secret arts." 11.2. Speak now in the ears of the people, and let them ask every man of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold.’" 12.35. And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment." 12.36. And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. And they despoiled the Egyptians." 14.19. And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;" 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 22.20. And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt." 34.14. For thou shalt bow down to no other god; for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.27, 2, 3, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 5, 6, 6.3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.31-12.9, 12, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.7, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.16, 12.17, 12.18, 12.19, 12.20, 13, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 14, 14.2, 14.4, 14.8, 15, 15.5, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 16, 16.2, 17, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 17.4, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 17.8, 17.9, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14, 17.15, 17.16, 17.17, 17.18, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 18, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 18.8, 18.9, 18.10, 18.11, 18.12, 18.13, 18.14, 18.15, 18.16, 18.18, 18.20, 18.22, 18.23, 18.24, 18.25, 18.26, 18.27, 18.28, 18.29, 18.30, 18.31, 18.32, 18.33, 19.1, 19.5, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 19.15, 19.16, 19.17, 19.18, 19.19, 19.20, 19.21, 19.22, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 20, 20.12, 21, 21.2, 21.6, 21.12, 22, 23, 24, 24.2, 25, 25.5, 25.6, 25.12, 25.23, 26, 26.5, 27, 27.27, 28, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 41.45, 41.50, 46.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 9.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.7. הָאֹמֵר לַחֶרֶס וְלֹא יִזְרָח וּבְעַד כּוֹכָבִים יַחְתֹּם׃ 9.7. Who commandeth the sun, and it riseth not; And sealeth up the stars."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 89.8, 105.6-105.7, 146.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

89.8. אֵל נַעֲרָץ בְּסוֹד־קְדֹשִׁים רַבָּה וְנוֹרָא עַל־כָּל־סְבִיבָיו׃ 105.6. זֶרַע אַבְרָהָם עַבְדּוֹ בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב בְּחִירָיו׃ 89.8. A God dreaded in the great council of the holy ones, And feared of all them that are about Him?" 105.6. O ye seed of Abraham His servant, Ye children of Jacob, His chosen ones." 146.10. The LORD will reign for ever, Thy God, O Zion, unto all generations. Hallelujah."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 22.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.21. וַיֵּצֵא הָרוּחַ וַיַּעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אֲפַתֶּנּוּ וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו בַּמָּה׃ 22.21. And there came forth the spirit, and stood before the LORD, and said: I will entice him."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.2, 6.6-6.7, 14.4-14.21, 19.18, 61.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.2. שְׂרָפִים עֹמְדִים מִמַּעַל לוֹ שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם לְאֶחָד בִּשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה פָנָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה רַגְלָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְעוֹפֵף׃ 6.6. וַיָּעָף אֵלַי אֶחָד מִן־הַשְּׂרָפִים וּבְיָדוֹ רִצְפָּה בְּמֶלְקַחַיִם לָקַח מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 6.7. וַיַּגַּע עַל־פִּי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה נָגַע זֶה עַל־שְׂפָתֶיךָ וְסָר עֲוֺנֶךָ וְחַטָּאתְךָ תְּכֻפָּר׃ 14.4. וְנָשָׂאתָ הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּה עַל־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְאָמָרְתָּ אֵיךְ שָׁבַת נֹגֵשׂ שָׁבְתָה מַדְהֵבָה׃ 14.5. שָׁבַר יְהוָה מַטֵּה רְשָׁעִים שֵׁבֶט מֹשְׁלִים׃ 14.6. מַכֶּה עַמִּים בְּעֶבְרָה מַכַּת בִּלְתִּי סָרָה רֹדֶה בָאַף גּוֹיִם מֻרְדָּף בְּלִי חָשָׂךְ׃ 14.7. נָחָה שָׁקְטָה כָּל־הָאָרֶץ פָּצְחוּ רִנָּה׃ 14.8. גַּם־בְּרוֹשִׁים שָׂמְחוּ לְךָ אַרְזֵי לְבָנוֹן מֵאָז שָׁכַבְתָּ לֹא־יַעֲלֶה הַכֹּרֵת עָלֵינוּ׃ 14.9. שְׁאוֹל מִתַּחַת רָגְזָה לְךָ לִקְרַאת בּוֹאֶךָ עוֹרֵר לְךָ רְפָאִים כָּל־עַתּוּדֵי אָרֶץ הֵקִים מִכִּסְאוֹתָם כֹּל מַלְכֵי גוֹיִם׃ 14.11. הוּרַד שְׁאוֹל גְּאוֹנֶךָ הֶמְיַת נְבָלֶיךָ תַּחְתֶּיךָ יֻצַּע רִמָּה וּמְכַסֶּיךָ תּוֹלֵעָה׃ 14.12. אֵיךְ נָפַלְתָּ מִשָּׁמַיִם הֵילֵל בֶּן־שָׁחַר נִגְדַּעְתָּ לָאָרֶץ חוֹלֵשׁ עַל־גּוֹיִם׃ 14.13. וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃ 14.14. אֶעֱלֶה עַל־בָּמֳתֵי עָב אֶדַּמֶּה לְעֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.15. אַךְ אֶל־שְׁאוֹל תּוּרָד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי־בוֹר׃ 14.16. רֹאֶיךָ אֵלֶיךָ יַשְׁגִּיחוּ אֵלֶיךָ יִתְבּוֹנָנוּ הֲזֶה הָאִישׁ מַרְגִּיז הָאָרֶץ מַרְעִישׁ מַמְלָכוֹת׃ 14.17. שָׂם תֵּבֵל כַּמִּדְבָּר וְעָרָיו הָרָס אֲסִירָיו לֹא־פָתַח בָּיְתָה׃ 14.18. כָּל־מַלְכֵי גוֹיִם כֻּלָּם שָׁכְבוּ בְכָבוֹד אִישׁ בְּבֵיתוֹ׃ 14.19. וְאַתָּה הָשְׁלַכְתָּ מִקִּבְרְךָ כְּנֵצֶר נִתְעָב לְבוּשׁ הֲרֻגִים מְטֹעֲנֵי חָרֶב יוֹרְדֵי אֶל־אַבְנֵי־בוֹר כְּפֶגֶר מוּבָס׃ 14.21. הָכִינוּ לְבָנָיו מַטְבֵּחַ בַּעֲוֺן אֲבוֹתָם בַּל־יָקֻמוּ וְיָרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וּמָלְאוּ פְנֵי־תֵבֵל עָרִים׃ 19.18. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיוּ חָמֵשׁ עָרִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מְדַבְּרוֹת שְׂפַת כְּנַעַן וְנִשְׁבָּעוֹת לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת עִיר הַהֶרֶס יֵאָמֵר לְאֶחָת׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 6.2. Above Him stood the seraphim; each one had six wings: with twain he covered his face and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly." 6.6. Then flew unto me one of the seraphim, with a glowing stone in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar;" 6.7. and he touched my mouth with it, and said: Lo, this hath touched thy lips; And thine iniquity is taken away, And thy sin expiated." 14.4. that thou shalt take up this parable against the king of Babylon, and say: How hath the oppressor ceased! The exactress of gold ceased!" 14.5. The LORD hath broken the staff of the wicked, the sceptre of the rulers," 14.6. That smote the peoples in wrath with an incessant stroke, that ruled the nations in anger, with a persecution that none restrained." 14.7. The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet; they break forth into singing." 14.8. Yea, the cypresses rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon: ‘Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.’" 14.9. The nether-world from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming; the shades are stirred up for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; all the kings of the nations are raised up from their thrones." 14.10. All they do answer And say unto thee: ‘Art thou also become weak as we? Art thou become like unto us?" 14.11. Thy pomp is brought down to the nether-world, And the noise of thy psalteries; the maggot is spread under thee, And the worms cover thee.’" 14.12. How art thou fallen from heaven, O day-star, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, That didst cast lots over the nations!" 14.13. And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north;" 14.14. I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High.’" 14.15. Yet thou shalt be brought down to the nether-world, To the uttermost parts of the pit." 14.16. They that saw thee do narrowly look upon thee, They gaze earnestly at thee: ‘Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, That did shake kingdoms;" 14.17. That made the world as a wilderness, And destroyed the cities thereof; That opened not the house of his prisoners?’" 14.18. All the kings of the nations, all of them, sleep in glory, every one in his own house." 14.19. But thou art cast forth away from thy grave Like an abhorred offshoot, In the raiment of the slain, that are thrust through with the sword, That go down to the pavement of the pit, As a carcass trodden under foot." 14.20. Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, Thou hast slain thy people; the seed of evil-doers shall not be named for ever." 14.21. Prepare ye slaughter for his children For the iniquity of their fathers; That they rise not up, and possess the earth, And fill the face of the world with cities." 19.18. In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the LORD of hosts; one shall be called The city of destruction." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;"
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 23.18, 43.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.18. כִּי מִי עָמַד בְּסוֹד יְהוָה וְיֵרֶא וְיִשְׁמַע אֶת־דְּבָרוֹ מִי־הִקְשִׁיב דברי [דְּבָרוֹ] וַיִּשְׁמָע׃ 43.13. וְשִׁבַּר אֶת־מַצְּבוֹת בֵּית שֶׁמֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְאֶת־בָּתֵּי אֱלֹהֵי־מִצְרַיִם יִשְׂרֹף בָּאֵשׁ׃ 23.18. For who hath stood in the council of the LORD, That he should perceive and hear His word? Who hath attended to His word, and heard it?" 43.13. He shall also break the pillars of Beth-shemesh, that is in the land of Egypt; and the houses of the gods of Egypt shall he burn with fire.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 13.20, 14.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.18. וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּטֶרֶם יָבֹא הַחַרְסָה מַה־מָּתוֹק מִדְּבַשׁ וּמֶה עַז מֵאֲרִי וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לוּלֵא חֲרַשְׁתֶּם בְּעֶגְלָתִי לֹא מְצָאתֶם חִידָתִי׃ 13.20. For it came to pass, when the flame went up toward heaven from off the altar, that the angel of the Lord ascended in the flame of the altar. And Manoaĥ and his wife looked on it, and fell on their faces to the ground." 14.18. And the men of the city said to him on the seventh day before the sun went down, What is sweeter than honey? and what is stronger than a lion? And he said to them, If you had not ploughed with my heifer, you would not have found out my riddle."
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 30.17 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

30.17. בַּחוּרֵי אָוֶן וּפִי־בֶסֶת בַּחֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ וְהֵנָּה בַּשְּׁבִי תֵלַכְנָה׃ 30.17. The young men of Aven and of Pi-beseth shall fall by the sword; And these cities shall go into captivity."
12. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 3.1-3.7 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תִּקְרְאוּ אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ אֶל־תַּחַת גֶּפֶן וְאֶל־תַּחַת תְּאֵנָה׃ 3.1. וַיַּרְאֵנִי אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וְהַשָּׂטָן עֹמֵד עַל־יְמִינוֹ לְשִׂטְנוֹ׃ 3.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן יִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַשָּׂטָן וְיִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַבֹּחֵר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם הֲלוֹא זֶה אוּד מֻצָּל מֵאֵשׁ׃ 3.3. וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ הָיָה לָבֻשׁ בְּגָדִים צוֹאִים וְעֹמֵד לִפְנֵי הַמַּלְאָךְ׃ 3.4. וַיַּעַן וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעֹמְדִים לְפָנָיו לֵאמֹר הָסִירוּ הַבְּגָדִים הַצֹּאִים מֵעָלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו רְאֵה הֶעֱבַרְתִּי מֵעָלֶיךָ עֲוֺנֶךָ וְהַלְבֵּשׁ אֹתְךָ מַחֲלָצוֹת׃ 3.5. וָאֹמַר יָשִׂימוּ צָנִיף טָהוֹר עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיָּשִׂימוּ הַצָּנִיף הַטָּהוֹר עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיַּלְבִּשֻׁהוּ בְּגָדִים וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה עֹמֵד׃ 3.6. וַיָּעַד מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה בִּיהוֹשֻׁעַ לֵאמֹר׃ 3.7. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אִם־בִּדְרָכַי תֵּלֵךְ וְאִם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי תִשְׁמֹר וְגַם־אַתָּה תָּדִין אֶת־בֵּיתִי וְגַם תִּשְׁמֹר אֶת־חֲצֵרָי וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ מַהְלְכִים בֵּין הָעֹמְדִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 3.1. And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him." 3.2. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘The LORD rebuke thee, O Satan, yea, the LORD that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee; is not this man a brand plucked out of the fire?’" 3.3. Now Joshua was clothed with filthy garments, and stood before the angel." 3.4. And he answered and spoke unto those that stood before him, saying: ‘Take the filthy garments from off him.’ And unto him he said: ‘Behold, I cause thine iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe thee with robes.’" 3.5. And I said: ‘Let them set a fair mitre upon his head.’ So they set a fair mitre upon his head, and clothed him with garments; and the angel of the LORD stood by." 3.6. And the angel of the LORD forewarned Joshua, saying:" 3.7. ’Thus saith the LORD of hosts: If thou wilt walk in My ways, and if thou wilt keep My charge, and wilt also judge My house, and wilt also keep My courts, then I will give thee free access among these that stand by."
15. Herodotus, Histories, 4.39 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.39. This is the first peninsula. But the second, beginning with Persia, stretches to the Red Sea, and is Persian land; and next, the neighboring land of Assyria; and after Assyria, Arabia; this peninsula ends (not truly but only by common consent) at the Arabian Gulf, to which Darius brought a canal from the Nile. ,Now from the Persian country to Phoenicia there is a wide and vast tract of land; and from Phoenicia this peninsula runs beside our sea by way of the Syrian Palestine and Egypt, which is at the end of it; in this peninsula there are just three nations.
16. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.12 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land.
17. Anon., 1 Enoch, 49.3, 50.3, 51.1, 83.1-83.3 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

49.3. And in him dwells the spirit of wisdom, And the spirit which gives insight, And the spirit of understanding and of might, And the spirit of those who have fallen asleep in righteousness. 50.3. They shall have no honour through the name of the Lord of Spirits, Yet through His name shall they be saved, And the Lord of Spirits will have compassion on them, For His compassion is great. 51.1. And in those days shall the earth also give back that which has been entrusted to it, And Sheol also shall give back that which it has received, And hell shall give back that which it owes. 83.1. And now, my son Methuselah, I will show thee all my visions which I have seen, recounting 83.1. destruction. After that I arose and prayed and implored and besought, and wrote down my prayer for the generations of the world, and I will show everything to thee, my son Methuselah. And when I had gone forth below and seen the heaven, and the sun rising in the east, and the moon setting in the west, and a few stars, and the whole earth, and everything as He had known it in the beginning, then I blessed the Lord of judgement and extolled Him because He had made the sun to go forth from the windows of the east, and he ascended and rose on the face of the heaven, and set out and kept traversing the path shown unto him. 83.2. them before thee. Two visions I saw before I took a wife, and the one was quite unlike the other: the first when I was learning to write: the second before I took thy mother, (when) I saw a terrible 83.3. vision. And regarding them I prayed to the Lord. I had laid me down in the house of my grandfather Mahalalel, (when) I saw in a vision how the heaven collapsed and was borne off and fell to 47. And in those days shall have ascended the prayer of the righteous, And the blood of the righteous from the earth before the Lord of Spirits.,In those days the holy ones who dwell above in the heavens Shall unite with one voice And supplicate and pray [and praise, And give thanks and bless the name of the Lord of Spirits On behalf of the blood of the righteous which has been shed, And that the prayer of the righteous may not be in vain before the Lord of Spirits, That judgement may be done unto them, And that they may not have to suffer for ever.,In those days I saw the Head of Days when He seated himself upon the throne of His glory, And the books of the living were opened before Him: And all His host which is in heaven above and His counselors stood before Him,,And the hearts of the holy were filled with joy; Because the number of the righteous had been offered, And the prayer of the righteous had been heard, And the blood of the righteous been required before the Lord of Spirits.
18. Anon., Jubilees, 1.27-1.28, 2.18, 2.30, 16.1-16.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.27. O Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and cause them to sin against Thee. 1.28. Let Thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an upright spirit 2.18. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. 2.30. And He said unto us: "Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day 16.1. And on the new moon of the fourth month we appeared unto Abraham, at the oak of Mamre, and we talked with him 16.2. and we announced to him that a son would be given to him by Sarah his wife. 16.3. And Sarah laughed, for she heard that we had spoken these words with Abraham 16.4. and we admonished her, and she became afraid, and denied that she had laughed on account of the words.
19. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q270, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.24-3.25, 8.15-8.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 2.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 2.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 34, 31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. But all this multitude of external senses and organs being destitute of reason is compared to a sheep, but since it is composed of many parts, it of necessity stands in need of a governor by the unvarying law of nature. Whenever therefore a man who is ignorant how to govern, and at the same time wealthy, rises up and appoints himself governor, he becomes the cause of innumerable evils to the flocks
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 109 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

109. This is what the wise Abraham supplicates for, when that which in word indeed is the land of Sodom, but in real fact is the soul made barren of all good things and blinded as to its reason, is about to be burnt up, in order that if the memorial of justice, namely the Tenth part be found in it, it may obtain a short of amnesty. Therefore he begins his supplication with a prayer for pardon, connected with the number fifty, and terminates with the number ten, the lowest number for whose deliverance he can dare to entreat. XX.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 222 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

222. But even then, nevertheless, the insatiable desire which exists within them continues to rage as though it were still under the influence of hunger. "For their wine is of the vine of Sodom," as Moses says, "and their tenderils are from Gomorrah; their grapes are grapes of gall, and their branches are bitter branches. The rage of dragons is their wine, and the incurable fury of Serpents." The interpretation of the name Sodom is "barrenness and blindness." But Moses here compares those who are the slaves of greediness for wine and general gluttony, and of other most disgraceful pleasures to a vine, and to the different products of the vine;
26. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 122, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

121. Those, then, who have no desire for either discovery or investigation have shamefully debased their reason by ignorance and indifference, and though they had it in their power to see acutely, they have become blind. Thus he says that "Lot's wife turning backwards became a pillar of Salt;" not here inventing a fable, but pointing out the proper nature of the event.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 2, 79, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. of other lawgivers, some have set forth what they considered to be just and reasonable, in a naked and unadorned manner, while others, investing their ideas with an abundance of amplification, have sought to bewilder the people, by burying the truth under a heap of fabulous inventions.
28. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.192 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.192. You see here what great effects are produced by the drunkenness of folly: bitterness, an evil disposition, exceeding gall, excessive anger, implacability, a biting and treacherous disposition. The lawgiver most emphatically asserts the branch of the vine of folly to be in Sodom; and the name Sodom, being interpreted, means "blindness," or "barrenness;" since folly is a thing which is blind, and also barren of all good things; though, nevertheless, some people have been so greatly influenced by it as to measure, and weigh, and count everything with reference to themselves alone.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.172-3.173 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.172. But when men are abusing one another or fighting, for women to venture to run out under pretence of assisting or defending them, is a blameable action and one of no slight shamelessness, since even, in the times of war and of military expeditions, and of dangers to their whole native land, the law does not choose that they should be enrolled as its defenders; looking at what is becoming, which it thinks desirable to preserve unchangeable at all times and in all places, thinking that this very thing is of itself better than victory, or then freedom, or than any kind of success and prosperity. 3.173. Moreover, if any woman, hearing that her husband is being assaulted, being out of her affection for him carried away by love for her husband, should yield to the feelings which overpower her and rush forth to aid him, still let her not be so audacious as to behave like a man, outrunning the nature of a woman; {16}{#de 25:11.} but even while aiding him let her continue a woman. For it would be a very terrible thing if a woman, being desirous to deliver her husband from an insult, should expose herself to insult, by exhibiting human life as full of shamelessness and liable to great reproaches for her incurable boldness;
30. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.213 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 2.43, 4.23, 4.31, 4.51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Vergil, Georgics, 4.490-4.491 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4.490. She worships, and the sister-nymphs who guard 4.491. The hundred forests and the hundred streams;
33. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.15-1.23, 1.203, 1.240 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. And now I exhort all those that peruse these books, to apply their minds to God; and to examine the mind of our legislator, whether he hath not understood his nature in a manner worthy of him; and hath not ever ascribed to him such operations as become his power, and hath not preserved his writings from those indecent fables which others have framed 1.15. Heber begat Phaleg in his hundred and thirty-fourth year; he himself being begotten by Sala when he was a hundred and thirty years old, whom Arphaxad had for his son at the hundred and thirty-fifth year of his age. Arphaxad was the son of Shem, and born twelve years after the deluge. 1.16. although, by the great distance of time when he lived, he might have securely forged such lies; for he lived two thousand years ago; at which vast distance of ages the poets themselves have not been so hardy as to fix even the generations of their gods, much less the actions of their men, or their own laws. 1.16. but, after a long time, he got him up, and removed from that country also, with his people, and went into the land then called the land of Canaan, but now the land of Judea, and this when his posterity were become a multitude; as to which posterity of his, we relate their history in another work. Now the name of Abram is even still famous in the country of Damascus; and there is shown a village named from him, The Habitation of Abram.” 1.17. As I proceed, therefore, I shall accurately describe what is contained in our records, in the order of time that belongs to them; for I have already promised so to do throughout this undertaking; and this without adding any thing to what is therein contained, or taking away any thing therefrom. 1.17. and he took himself what the other left, which were the lower grounds at the foot of the mountains; and he himself dwelt in Hebron, which is a city seven years more ancient than Tanis of Egypt. But Lot possessed the land of the plain, and the river Jordan, not far from the city of Sodom, which was then a fine city, but is now destroyed, by the will and wrath of God, the cause of which I shall show in its proper place hereafter. 1.18. 4. But because almost all our constitution depends on the wisdom of Moses, our legislator, I cannot avoid saying somewhat concerning him beforehand, though I shall do it briefly; I mean, because otherwise those that read my book may wonder how it comes to pass, that my discourse, which promises an account of laws and historical facts, contains so much of philosophy. 1.18. where Melchisedec, king of the city Salem, received him. That name signifies, the righteous king: and such he was, without dispute, insomuch that, on this account, he was made the priest of God: however, they afterward called Salem Jerusalem. 1.19. The reader is therefore to know, that Moses deemed it exceeding necessary, that he who would conduct his own life well, and give laws to others, in the first place should consider the divine nature; and, upon the contemplation of God’s operations, should thereby imitate the best of all patterns, so far as it is possible for human nature to do, and to endeavor to follow after it: 1.19. He also told her, that if she disobeyed God, and went on still in her way, she should perish; but if she would return back, she should become the mother of a son who should reign over that country. These admonitions she obeyed, and returned to her master and mistress, and obtained forgiveness. A little while afterwards, she bare Ismael; which may be interpreted Heard of God, because God had heard his mother’s prayer. 1.21. Now when Moses was desirous to teach this lesson to his countrymen, he did not begin the establishment of his laws after the same manner that other legislators did; I mean, upon contracts and other rights between one man and another, but by raising their minds upwards to regard God, and his creation of the world; and by persuading them, that we men are the most excellent of the creatures of God upon earth. Now when once he had brought them to submit to religion, he easily persuaded them to submit in all other things: 1.21. He also entreated him to be at peace with him, and to make God propitious to him; and that if he thought fit to continue with him, he should have what he wanted in abundance; but that if he designed to go away, he should be honorably conducted, and have whatsoever supply he wanted when he came thither. 1.22. for as to other legislators, they followed fables, and by their discourses transferred the most reproachful of human vices unto the gods, and so afforded wicked men the most plausible excuses for their crimes; 1.22. 4. When the lad was grown up, he married a wife, by birth an Egyptian, from whence the mother was herself derived originally. of this wife were born to Ismael twelve sons; Nabaioth, Kedar, Abdeel, Mabsam, Idumas, Masmaos, Masaos, Chodad, Theman, Jetur, Naphesus, Cadmas. 1.23. but as for our legislator, when he had once demonstrated that God was possessed of perfect virtue, he supposed that men also ought to strive after the participation of it; and on those who did not so think, and so believe, he inflicted the severest punishments. 1.23. Accordingly thou, my son, wilt now die, not in any common way of going out of the world, but sent to God, the Father of all men, beforehand, by thy own father, in the nature of a sacrifice. I suppose he thinks thee worthy to get clear of this world neither by disease, neither by war, nor by any other severe way, by which death usually comes upon men 1.203. God then cast a thunderbolt upon the city, and set it on fire, with its inhabitants; and laid waste the country with the like burning, as I formerly said when I wrote the Jewish War. But Lot’s wife continually turning back to view the city as she went from it, and being too nicely inquisitive what would become of it, although God had forbidden her so to do, was changed into a pillar of salt; for I have seen it, and it remains at this day.
34. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.483-4.484 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.483. The country of Sodom borders upon it. It was of old a most happy land, both for the fruits it bore and the riches of its cities, although it be now all burnt up. 4.484. It is related how, for the impiety of its inhabitants, it was burnt by lightning; in consequence of which there are still the remainders of that Divine fire, and the traces [or shadows] of the five cities are still to be seen, as well as the ashes growing in their fruits; which fruits have a color as if they were fit to be eaten, but if you pluck them with your hands, they dissolve into smoke and ashes.
35. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.236-2.256 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.236. 34. Yet do the Lysimachi and the Molones, and some other writers (unskilful sophists as they are, and the deceivers of young men) reproach us as the vilest of all mankind. 2.237. Now I have no mind to make an inquiry into the laws of other nations; for the custom of our country is to keep our own laws, but not to bring accusations against the laws of others. And indeed, our legislator hath expressly forbidden us to laugh at and revile those that are esteemed gods by other people, on account of the very name of God ascribed to them. 2.238. But since our antagonists think to run us down upon the comparison of their religion and ours, it is not possible to keep silence here, especially while what I shall say to confute these men will not be now first said, but hath been already said by many, and these of the highest reputation also; 2.239. for who is there among those that have been admired among the Greeks for wisdom, who hath not greatly blamed both the most famous poets and most celebrated legislators, for spreading such notions originally among the body of the people concerning the gods? 2.241. and for those to whom they have allotted heaven, they have set over them one, who in title is their father, but in his actions a tyrant and a lord; whence it came to pass that his wife, and brother, and daughter (which daughter he brought forth from his own head), made a conspiracy against him to seize upon him and confine him, as he had himself seized upon and confined his own father before. /p 2.242. 35. And justly have the wisest men thought these notions deserved severe rebukes; they also laugh at them for determining that we ought to believe some of the gods to be beardless and young, and others of them to be old, and to have beards accordingly; that some are set to trades; that one god is a smith, and another goddess is a weaver; that one god is a warrior, and fights with men; 2.243. that some of them are harpers, or delight in archery; and besides, that mutual seditions arise among them, and that they quarrel about men, and this so far that they not only lay hands upon one another, but that they are wounded by men, and lament, and take on for such their afflictions; 2.244. but what is the grossest of all in point of lasciviousness, are those unbounded lusts ascribed to almost all of them, and their amours; which how can it be other than a most absurd supposal, especially when it reaches to the male gods, and to the female goddesses also? 2.245. Moreover, the chief of all their gods, and their first father himself, overlooks those goddesses whom he hath deluded and begotten with child, and suffers them to be kept in prison, or drowned in the sea. He is also so bound up by fate, that he cannot save his own offspring, nor can he bear their deaths without shedding of tears.— 2.246. These are fine things indeed! as are the rest that follow. Adulteries truly are so impudently looked on in heaven by the gods, that some of them have confessed they envied those that were found in the very act; and why should they not do so, when the eldest of them, who is their king also, hath not been able to restrain himself in the violence of his lust, from lying with his wife, so long as they might get into their bed-chamber? 2.247. Now, some of the gods are servants to men, and will sometimes be builders for a reward, and sometimes will be shepherds; while others of them, like malefactors, are bound in a prison of brass; and what sober person is there who would not be provoked at such stories, and rebuke those that forged them, and condemn the great silliness of those that admit them for true! 2.248. Nay, others there are that have advanced a certain timorousness and fear, as also madness and fraud, and any other of the vilest passions, into the nature and form of gods, and have persuaded whole cities to offer sacrifices to the better sort of them; 2.249. on which account they have been absolutely forced to esteem some gods as the givers of good things, and to call others of them averters of evil. They also endeavor to move them, as they would the vilest of men, by gifts and presents, as looking for nothing else than to receive some great mischief from them, unless they pay them such wages. /p 2.251. but omitted it as a thing of very little consequence, and gave leave both to the poets to introduce what gods they pleased, and those subject to all sorts of passions, and to the orators to procure political decrees from the people for the admission of such foreign gods as they thought proper. 2.252. The painters also, and statuaries of Greece, had herein great power, as each of them could contrive a shape [proper for a god]; the one to be formed out of clay, and the other by making a bare picture of such a one; but those workmen that were principally admired, had the use of ivory and of gold as the constant materials for their new statues; 2.253. [whereby it comes to pass that some temples are quite deserted, while others are in great esteem, and adorned with all the rites of all kinds of purification]. Besides this, the first gods, who have long flourished in the honors done them, are now grown old [while those that flourished after them are come in their room as a second rank, that I may speak the most honorably of them that I can]: 2.254. nay, certain other gods there are who are newly introduced, and newly worshipped [as we, by way of digression have said already, and yet have left their places of worship desolate]; and for their temples, some of them are already left desolate, and others are built anew, according to the pleasure of men; whereas they ought to have preserved their opinion about God, and that worship which is due to him, always and immutably the same. /p 2.255. 37. But now, this Apollonius Molo was one of these foolish and proud men. However, nothing that I have said was unknown to those that were real philosophers among the Greeks, nor were they unacquainted with those frigid pretenses of allegories [which had been alleged for such things]: on which account they justly despised them, but have still agreed with us as to the true and becoming notions of God; 2.256. whence it was that Plato would not have political settlements admit of any one of the other poets, and dismisses even Homer himself, with a garland on his head, and with ointment poured upon him, and this because he should not destroy the right notions of God with his fables.
36. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 3.13-3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. each man's work will be revealed. For the Day will declare it,because it is revealed in fire; and the fire itself will test what sortof work each man's work is. 3.14. If any man's work remains which hebuilt on it, he will receive a reward. 3.15. If any man's work isburned, he will suffer loss, but he himself will be saved, but asthrough fire.
37. New Testament, Acts, 8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. New Testament, Apocalypse, 5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

39. New Testament, Galatians, 3.6-3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.6. Even as Abraham "believed God, and it wascounted to him for righteousness. 3.7. Know therefore that those whoare of faith, the same are sons of Abraham. 3.8. The Scripture,foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached thegospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, "In you all the nations will beblessed. 3.9. So then, those who are of faith are blessed with thefaithful Abraham. 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem. 3.11. Now that no man is justified by the law before God isevident, for, "The righteous will live by faith. 3.12. The law is notof faith, but, "The man who does them will live by them. 3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree 3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith. 3.15. Brothers, I speak like men. Though it is only aman's covet, yet when it has been confirmed, no one makes it void,or adds to it. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.17. Now I say this. A covetconfirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundredand thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of noeffect. 3.18. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more ofpromise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.20. Now amediator is not between one, but God is one.
40. New Testament, Romans, 5.19, 6.13, 9.1-9.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous. 6.13. Neither present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. 9.1. I tell the truth in Christ. I am not lying, my conscience testifying with me in the Holy Spirit 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart. 9.3. For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises; 9.5. of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. 9.6. But it is not as though the word of God has come to nothing. For they are not all Israel, that are of Israel. 9.7. Neither, because they are Abraham's seed, are they all children. But, "In Isaac will your seed be called. 9.8. That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. 9.9. For this is a word of promise, "At the appointed time I will come, and Sarah will have a son. 9.10. Not only so, but Rebecca also conceived by one, by our father Isaac. 9.11. For being not yet born, neither having done anything good or bad, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him who calls 9.12. it was said to her, "The elder will serve the younger. 9.13. Even as it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.
41. New Testament, John, 17.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.25. Righteous Father, the world hasn't known you, but I knew you; and these knew that you sent me.
42. New Testament, Luke, 17.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.19. Then he said to him, "Get up, and go your way. Your faith has healed you.
43. New Testament, Matthew, 3.9, 3.17, 5.45, 18.22, 25.31-25.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.9. Don't think to yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father,' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones. 3.17. Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 18.22. Jesus said to him, "I don't tell you until seven times, but, until seventy times seven. 25.31. But when the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. 25.32. Before him all the nations will be gathered, and he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 25.33. He will set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. 25.34. Then the King will tell those on his right hand, 'Come, blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; 25.35. for I was hungry, and you gave me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me drink; I was a stranger, and you took me in; 25.36. naked, and you clothed me; I was sick, and you visited me; I was in prison, and you came to me.' 25.37. Then the righteous will answer him, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry, and feed you; or thirsty, and give you a drink? 25.38. When did we see you as a stranger, and take you in; or naked, and clothe you? 25.39. When did we see you sick, or in prison, and come to you?' 25.40. The King will answer them, 'Most assuredly I tell you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me.' 25.41. Then he will say also to those on the left hand, 'Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels; 25.42. for I was hungry, and you didn't give me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me no drink; 25.43. I was a stranger, and you didn't take me in; naked, and you didn't clothe me; sick, and in prison, and you didn't visit me.' 25.44. Then they will also answer, saying, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and didn't help you?' 25.45. Then he will answer them, saying, 'Most assuredly I tell you, inasmuch as you didn't do it to one of the least of these, you didn't do it to me.' 25.46. These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.
44. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.22.2, 1.29, 1.31, 1.31.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

45. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 56 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

56. God who appeared to Moses is distinguished from God the Father Justin: Moses, then, the blessed and faithful servant of God, declares that He who appeared to Abraham under the oak in Mamre is God, sent with the two angels in His company to judge Sodom by Another who remains ever in the supercelestial places, invisible to all men, holding personal intercourse with none, whom we believe to be Maker and Father of all things; for he speaks thus: 'God appeared to him under the oak in Mamre, as he sat at his tent-door at noontide. And lifting up his eyes, he saw, and behold, three men stood before him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the door of his tent; and he bowed himself toward the ground, and said . . .' Genesis 18:1-2 'Abraham went up early in the morning to the place where he stood before the Lord: and he looked toward Sodom and Gomorrha, and toward the adjacent country, and beheld, and, lo, a flame went up from the earth, like the smoke of a furnace.' And when I had made an end of quoting these words, I asked them if they had understood them. And they said they had understood them, but that the passages adduced brought forward no proof that there is any other God or Lord, or that the Holy Spirit says so, besides the Maker of all things. Justin: I shall attempt to persuade you, since you have understood the Scriptures, [of the truth] of what I say, that there is, and that there is said to be, another God and Lord subject to the Maker of all things; who is also called an Angel, because He announces to men whatsoever the Maker of all things— above whom there is no other God — wishes to announce to them. I quoted once more the previous passage. Justin: Do you think that God appeared to Abraham under the oak in Mamre, as the Scripture asserts? Trypho: Assuredly. Justin: Was He one of those three whom Abraham saw, and whom the Holy Spirit of prophecy describes as men? Trypho: No; but God appeared to him, before the vision of the three. Then those three whom the Scripture calls men, were angels; two of them sent to destroy Sodom, and one to announce the joyful tidings to Sarah, that she would bear a son; for which cause he was sent, and having accomplished his errand, went away. Justin: How then does the one of the three, who was in the tent, and who said, 'I shall return to you hereafter, and Sarah shall have a son,' Genesis 18:10 appear to have returned when Sarah had begotten a son, and to be there declared, by the prophetic word, God? But that you may clearly discern what I say, listen to the words expressly employed by Moses; they are these: 'And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian bond-woman, whom she bore to Abraham, sporting with Isaac her son, and said to Abraham, Cast out this bond-woman and her son; for the son of this bond-woman shall not share the inheritance of my son Isaac. And the matter seemed very grievous in Abraham's sight, because of his son. But God said to Abraham, Let it not be grievous in your sight because of the son, and because of the bond-woman. In all that Sarah has said to you, hearken to her voice; for in Isaac shall your seed be called.' Genesis 21:9-12 Have you perceived, then, that He who said under the oak that He would return, since He knew it would be necessary to advise Abraham to do what Sarah wished him, came back as it is written; and is God, as the words declare, when they so speak: 'God said to Abraham, Let it not be grievous in your sight because of the son, and because of the bond-woman?' Trypho: Certainly; but you have not proved from this that there is another God besides Him who appeared to Abraham, and who also appeared to the other patriarchs and prophets. You have proved, however, that we were wrong in believing that the three who were in the tent with Abraham were all angels. Justin: If I could not have proved to you from the Scriptures that one of those three is God, and is called Angel, because, as I already said, He brings messages to those to whom God the Maker of all things wishes [messages to be brought], then in regard to Him who appeared to Abraham on earth in human form in like manner as the two angels who came with Him, and who was God even before the creation of the world, it were reasonable for you to entertain the same belief as is entertained by the whole of your nation. Trypho: Assuredly, for up to this moment this has been our belief. Justin: Reverting to the Scriptures, I shall endeavour to persuade you, that He who is said to have appeared to Abraham, and to Jacob, and to Moses, and who is called God, is distinct from Him who made all things — numerically, I mean, not [distinct] in will. For I affirm that He has never at any time done anything which He who made the world— above whom there is no other God — has not wished Him both to do and to engage Himself with. Trypho: Prove now that this is the case, that we also may agree with you. For we do not understand you to affirm that He has done or said anything contrary to the will of the Maker of all things. Justin: The Scripture just quoted by me will make this plain to you. It is thus: 'The sun was risen on the earth, and Lot entered into Segor (Zoar); and the Lord rained on Sodom sulphur and fire from the Lord out of heaven, and overthrew these cities and all the neighbourhood.' Genesis 19:23 The fourth of those who had remained with Trypho: It must therefore necessarily be said that one of the two angels who went to Sodom, and is named by Moses in the Scripture Lord, is different from Him who also is God and appeared to Abraham. Justin: It is not on this ground solely that it must be admitted absolutely that some other one is called Lord by the Holy Spirit besides Him who is considered Maker of all things; not solely [for what is said] by Moses, but also [for what is said] by David. For there is written by him: 'The Lord says to my Lord, Sit on My right hand, until I make Your enemies Your footstool,' as I have already quoted. And again, in other words: 'Your throne, O God, is for ever and ever. A sceptre of equity is the sceptre of Your kingdom: You have loved righteousness and hated iniquity: therefore God, even Your God, has anointed You with the oil of gladness above Your fellows.' If, therefore, you assert that the Holy Spirit calls some other one God and Lord, besides the Father of all things and His Christ, answer me; for I undertake to prove to you from Scriptures themselves, that He whom the Scripture calls Lord is not one of the two angels that went to Sodom, but He who was with them, and is called God, that appeared to Abraham. Trypho: Prove this; for, as you see, the day advances, and we are not prepared for such perilous replies; since never yet have we heard any man investigating, or searching into, or proving these matters; nor would we have tolerated your conversation, had you not referred everything to the Scriptures: for you are very zealous in adducing proofs from them; and you are of opinion that there is no God above the Maker of all things. Justin: You are aware, then, that the Scripture says, 'And the Lord said to Abraham, Why did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I truly conceive? For I am old. Is anything impossible with God? At the time appointed shall I return to you according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son.' Genesis 18:13-14 And after a little interval: 'And the men rose up from thence, and looked towards Sodom and Gomorrha; and Abraham went with them, to bring them on the way. And the Lord said, I will not conceal from Abraham, my servant, what I do.' Genesis 18:16-17 And again, after a little, it thus says: 'The Lord said, The cry of Sodom and Gomorrha is great, and their sins are very grievous. I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according to their cry which has come unto me; and if not, that I may know. And the men turned away thence, and went to Sodom. But Abraham was standing before the Lord; and Abraham drew near, and said, Will You destroy the righteous with the wicked?' Genesis 18:20-23 And so on, for I do not think fit to write over again the same words, having written them all before, but shall of necessity give those by which I established the proof to Trypho and his companions. Then I proceeded to what follows, in which these words are recorded: Justin: 'And the Lord went His way as soon as He had left communing with Abraham; and [Abraham] went to his place. And there came two angels to Sodom at even. And Lot sat in the gate of Sodom;' Genesis 18:33, Genesis 19:1 and what follows until, 'But the men put forth their hands, and pulled Lot into the house to them, and shut to the door of the house;' Genesis 19:10 and what follows till, And the angels laid hold on his hand, and on the hand of his wife, and on the hands of his daughters, the Lord being merciful to him. And it came to pass, when they had brought them forth abroad, that they said, Save, save your life. Look not behind you, nor stay in all the neighbourhood; escape to the mountain, lest you be taken along with [them]. And Lot said to them, I beseech [You], O Lord, since Your servant has found grace in Your sight, and You have magnified Your righteousness, which You show towards me in saving my life; but I cannot escape to the mountain, lest evil overtake me, and I die. Behold, this city is near to flee unto, and it is small: there I shall be safe, since it is small; and any soul shall live. And He said to him, Behold, I have accepted you also in this matter, so as not to destroy the city for which you have spoken. Make haste to save yourself there; for I shall not do anything till you have come there. Therefore he called the name of the city Segor (Zoar). The sun was risen upon the earth; and Lot entered into Segor (Zoar). And the Lord rained on Sodom and Gomorrha sulphur and fire from the Lord out of heaven; and He overthrew these cities, and all the neighbourhood. Genesis 19:16-25 Justin: (After another pause.) And now have you not perceived, my friends, that one of the three, who is both God and Lord, and ministers to Him who is in the heavens, is Lord of the two angels? For when [the angels] proceeded to Sodom, He remained behind, and communed with Abraham in the words recorded by Moses; and when He departed after the conversation, Abraham went back to his place. And when he came [to Sodom], the two angels no longer conversed with Lot, but Himself, as the Scripture makes evident; and He is the Lord who received commission from the Lord who [remains] in the heavens, i.e., the Maker of all things, to inflict upon Sodom and Gomorrha the [judgments] which the Scripture describes in these terms: 'The Lord rained down upon Sodom and Gomorrha sulphur and fire from the Lord out of heaven.'
46. Tertullian, On The Flesh of Christ, 6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6. But certain disciples of the heretic of Pontus, compelled to be wiser than their teacher, concede to Christ real flesh, without effect, however, on their denial of His nativity. He might have had, they say, a flesh which was not at all born. So we have found our way out of a frying-pan, as the proverb runs, into the fire, - from Marcion to Apelles. This man having first fallen from the principles of Marcion into (intercourse with) a woman, in the flesh, and afterwards shipwrecked himself, in the spirit, on the virgin Philumene, proceeded from that time to preach that the body of Christ was of solid flesh, but without having been born. To this angel, indeed, of Philumene, the apostle will reply in tones like those in which he even then predicted him, saying, Although an angel from heaven preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed. Galatians 1:8 To the arguments, however, which have been indicated just above, we have now to show our resistance. They allow that Christ really had a body. Whence was the material of it, if not from the same sort of thing as that in which He appeared? Whence came His body, if His body were not flesh? Whence came His flesh, if it were not born? Inasmuch as that which is born must undergo this nativity in order to become flesh. He borrowed, they say, His flesh from the stars, and from the substances of the higher world. And they assert it for a certain principle, that a body without nativity is nothing to be astonished at, because it has been submitted to angels to appear even among ourselves in the flesh without the intervention of the womb. We admit, of course, that such facts have been related. But then, how comes it to pass that a faith which holds to a different rule borrows materials for its own arguments from the faith which it impugns? What has it to do with Moses, who has rejected the God of Moses? Since the God is a different one, everything belonging to him must be different also. But let the heretics always use the Scriptures of that God whose world they also enjoy. The fact will certainly recoil on them as a witness to judge them, that they maintain their own blasphemies from examples derived from Him. But it is an easy task for the truth to prevail without raising any such demurrer against them. When, therefore, they set forth the flesh of Christ after the pattern of the angels, declaring it to be not born, and yet flesh for all that, I should wish them to compare the causes, both in Christ's case and that of the angels, wherefore they came in the flesh. Never did any angel descend for the purpose of being crucified, of tasting death, and of rising again from the dead. Now, since there never was such a reason for angels becoming embodied, you have the cause why they assumed flesh without undergoing birth. They had not come to die, therefore they also (came not) to be born. Christ, however, having been sent to die, had necessarily to be also born, that He might be capable of death; for nothing is in the habit of dying but that which is born. Between nativity and mortality there is a mutual contrast. The law which makes us die is the cause of our being born. Now, since Christ died owing to the condition which undergoes death, but that undergoes death which is also born, the consequence was - nay, it was an antecedent necessity - that He must have been born also, by reason of the condition which undergoes birth; because He had to die in obedience to that very condition which, because it begins with birth, ends in death. It was not fitting for Him not to be born under the pretence that it was fitting for Him to die. But the Lord Himself at that very time appeared to Abraham among those angels without being born, and yet in the flesh without doubt, in virtue of the before-mentioned diversity of cause. You, however, cannot admit this, since you do not receive that Christ, who was even then rehearsing how to converse with, and liberate, and judge the human race, in the habit of a flesh which as yet was not born, because it did not yet mean to die until both its nativity and mortality were previously (by prophecy) announced. Let them, then, prove to us that those angels derived their flesh from the stars. If they do not prove it because it is not written, neither will the flesh of Christ get its origin therefrom, for which they borrowed the precedent of the angels. It is plain that the angels bore a flesh which was not naturally their own; their nature being of a spiritual substance, although in some sense peculiar to themselves, corporeal; and yet they could be transfigured into human shape, and for the time be able to appear and have intercourse with men. Since, therefore, it has not been told us whence they obtained their flesh, it remains for us not to doubt in our minds that a property of angelic power is this, to assume to themselves bodily shape out of no material substance. How much more, you say, is it (within their competence to take a body) out of some material substance? That is true enough. But there is no evidence of this, because Scripture says nothing. Then, again, how should they who are able to form themselves into that which by nature they are not, be unable to do this out of no material substance? If they become that which they are not, why cannot they so become out of that which is not? But that which has not existence when it comes into existence, is made out of nothing. This is why it is unnecessary either to inquire or to demonstrate what has subsequently become of their bodies. What came out of nothing, came to nothing. They, who were able to convert themselves into flesh have it in their power to convert nothing itself into flesh. It is a greater thing to change a nature than to make matter. But even if it were necessary to suppose that angels derived their flesh from some material substance, it is surely more credible that it was from some earthly matter than from any kind of celestial substances, since it was composed of so palpably terrene a quality that it fed on earthly ailments. Suppose that even now a celestial flesh had fed on earthly aliments, although it was not itself earthly, in the same way that earthly flesh actually fed on celestial aliments, although it had nothing of the celestial nature (for we read of manna having been food for the people: Man, says the Psalmist, did eat angels' bread, ) yet this does not once infringe the separate condition of the Lord's flesh, because of His different destination. For One who was to be truly a man, even unto death, it was necessary that He should be clothed with that flesh to which death belongs. Now that flesh to which death belongs is preceded by birth.
47. Tertullian, Prescription Against Heretics, 30, 29 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

48. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. מעטרה ולמעלה אסור,אמר רב המקשה עצמו לדעת יהא בנדוי ולימא אסור דקמגרי יצה"ר אנפשיה ורבי אמי אמר נקרא עבריין שכך אומנתו של יצר הרע היום אומר לו עשה כך ולמחר אומר לו עשה כך ולמחר אומר לו לך עבוד עבודת כוכבים והולך ועובד,איכא דאמרי אמר רבי אמי כל המביא עצמו לידי הרהור אין מכניסין אותו במחיצתו של הקב"ה כתיב הכא (בראשית לח, י) וירע בעיני ה' וכתיב התם (תהלים ה, ה) כי לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך רע,ואמר ר' אלעזר מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו א, טו) ידיכם דמים מלאו אלו המנאפים ביד תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל (שמות כ, יג) לא תנאף לא תהא בך ניאוף בין ביד בין ברגל,ת"ר הגרים והמשחקין בתינוקות מעכבין את המשיח בשלמא גרים כדר' חלבו דא"ר חלבו קשין גרים לישראל כספחת אלא משחקין בתנוקות מאי היא,אילימא משכב זכור בני סקילה נינהו אלא דרך אברים בני מבול נינהו,אלא דנסיבי קטנות דלאו בנות אולודי נינהו דא"ר יוסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו כל הנשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי,באנשים תקצץ איבעיא להו דינא תנן או לטותא תנן דינא תנן כי הא דרב הונא קץ ידא או לטותא תנן,ת"ש דתניא רבי טרפון אומר יד לאמה תקצץ ידו על טבורו אמרו לו ישב לו קוץ בכריסו לא יטלנו א"ל לא אמר להן מוטב תבקע כריסו ואל ירד לבאר שחת,אי אמרת בשלמא דינא תנן היינו דאמרי והלא כריסו נבקעת אלא אי אמרת לטותא תנן מאי כריסו נבקעת אלא מאי דינא תנן לא סגי דלאו על טבורו,אלא ה"ק רבי טרפון כל המכניס ידו למטה מטבורו תקצץ אמרו לו לרבי טרפון ישב לו קוץ בכריסו לא יטלנו אמר להן לא והלא כריסו נבקעת אמר להן מוטב תבקע כריסו ואל ירד לבאר שחת, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big החרשת והשוטה והסומא ושנטרפה דעתה אם יש להן פקחות מתקנות אותן והן אוכלות בתרומה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big חרשת איהי תבדוק לנפשה דתניא אמר רבי חרשת היתה בשכונתינו לא דיה שבודקת לעצמה אלא שחברותיה רואות ומראות לה,התם במדברת ואינה שומעת הכא בשאינה מדברת ואינה שומעת כדתנן חרש שדברו חכמים בכל מקום אינו שומע ואינו מדבר,הסומא איהי תבדוק לנפשה ותיחזי לחבירתה א"ר יוסי ברבי חנינא סומא אינה משנה,ושנטרפה דעתה היינו שוטה שנטרפה דעתה מחמת חולי,תנו רבנן כהן שוטה מטבילין אותו ומאכילין אותו תרומה לערב ומשמרין אותו שלא יישן ישן טמא לא ישן טהור,רבי אליעזר ברבי צדוק אומר עושין לו כיס של עור אמרו לו כל שכן שמביא לידי חימום אמר להן לדבריכם שוטה אין לו תקנה,אמרו לו לדברינו ישן טמא לא ישן טהור לדבריך שמא יראה טפה כחרדל ותבלע בכיס,תנא משום רבי אלעזר אמרו עושין לו כיס של מתכת,אמר אביי ושל נחשת כדתניא רבי יהודה אומר רואין אותן גבעולין של אזוב כאילו הן של נחשת,אמר רב פפא שמע מינה מכנסים אסורים והכתיב (שמות כח, מב) ועשה להם מכנסי בד לכסות בשר ערוה,ההוא כדתניא מכנסי כהנים למה הן דומין כמין פמלניא של פרשים למעלה עד מתנים למטה עד ירכים ויש להם שנצים ואין להם לא בית הנקב ולא בית הערוה,אמר אביי 13b. bFrom the corona and above,toward the body, it is bprohibited. /b,§ bRav says: One who intentionally causes himself an erection shall be ostracized.The Gemara suggests: bAnd letRav bsaysimply that it is bprohibited.The Gemara explains that it is proper to ostracize such a man, bas he arouses the evil inclination upon himself. And Rabbi Ami says: He is calleda habitual btransgressor, as this is the craft of the evil inclination. Today he says toa person: bDo thissin, bandwhen the individual obeys his inclination, bon the following daythe evil inclination bsays to him: Do thatsin, band on the following day he says to him: Goand bworship idols, and he goes and worshipsidols., bSome saythat bRabbi Ami says:With regard to banyone who brings himself intoa state of barousal,they bdo not bring him within the boundary of the Holy One, Blessed be He.The proof is that bit is written here,with regard to O, son of Judah: b“And the thing that he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord,and He slew him also” (Genesis 38:10), band it is written there: “For You are not a God who has pleasure in wickedness; evil shall not sojourn with You.The boasters shall not stand in Your sight…But as for me, in the abundance of Your kindness will I come into Your house; I will bow down toward Your holy Temple in fear of You” (Psalms 5:5–8). This demonstrates that whoever does evil, like O, shall not sojourn with God., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says,with regard to the severity of this transgression: bWhatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“And when you spread forth your hands, I will hide My eyes from you; even when you make many prayers, I will not hear; byour hands are full of blood”(Isaiah 1:15)? bThese arethose men bwho commit adultery with the hand,by masturbating. Likewise, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught:When it is stated in the Ten Commandments: b“You shall not commit adultery”(Exodus 20:13), this means that bthere shall not be adultery among you, whetheryou masturbate bby handor bwhether withone’s bfoot. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bConverts and those who play with children delaythe coming of bthe Messiah.The Gemara asks: bGrantedwith regard to bconverts,this is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rabbi Ḥelbo, as Rabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts are as harmful to the Jewish people as a leprous scabon the skin, as they are not proficient in the performance of the mitzvot and born Jews learn from them. bButwith regard to the category of bthose who play with children,to bwhat is itreferring?, bIf we saythat this is referring to bhomosexuality,such men bare liable tobe executed by bstoning,and their behavior is criticized not simply because they delay the Messiah. bRather,one might suggest that this is referring to those who emit semen bby way ofother blimbs,i.e., without engaging in intercourse; if so, bthey areconsidered as though they are bringing a flood, and are therefore bliable tobe punished themselves with ba flood. /b, bRather,the ibaraitameans bthat they marry minor girls who are notyet bcapable of bearing children,consequently emitting semen for naught. bAs Rabbi Yosei said: TheMessiah, bson of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished,i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies do so. bAs it is stated: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made”(Isaiah 57:16). The verse is interpreted as follows: The spirit, i.e., the souls about which it has been decreed by Me that they are to be born, if they are not born, they enwrap the Messiah and prevent him from coming.,§ The mishna teaches that with regard to any hand that is diligent to examine bodily emissions, bamong men,such a hand bshould be severed. A dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bDo we learnthis statement as a practical ihalakha /i,i.e., that the court should actually sever his hand, bor do we learnit as a mere bcurse,but not as an actual instruction to punish him in that manner? The Gemara elaborates: bDo we learnit as a practical ihalakhalike thatprohibition against striking another, in which the same expression is used: With regard to anyone who raises his hand upon another, his hand should be severed, and bRav Hunaindeed acted accordingly and bsevered the handof an offender? bOrperhaps bdo we learnit as a mere bcurse? /b,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhear, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Tarfon says:If one’s bhandgoes btohis bpenis, his hand should be severed upon his navel.The Rabbis bsaid to him:If so, in a case where ba thorn was stuck inone’s bbelly, should he not remove it?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them:Indeed, he should bnotremove it, and if he does so his hand should be severed. The Rabbis replied: bButif his hand is severed while it is upon his navel, bwon’t his belly be split open?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them: It is preferable that the belly ofone who acts in this manner bshould be split open, and he should not descend into the pit of destruction. /b,The Gemara analyzes this discussion: bGranted, if you saythat bwe learnthe statement in the mishna as a practical ihalakha /i, this isthe meaning of that bwhichthe Rabbis bsaid: Butif his hand is severed upon his navel, bwon’t his belly be split open? But if you saythat bwe learnthe statement in the mishna as a mere bcurse, whatis the meaning of the phrase: Won’t bhis belly be split open?The Gemara responds: bRather, whatexplanation is the alternative? That bwe learnthe mishna as stating a practical ihalakha /i?That would not explain the exchange between the Rabbis to Rabbi Tarfon, because is it bnot sufficient thatthe hand be severed bnot upon his navel?In other words, even if the hand must actually be severed, it is not clear why it should be severed while it is upon his navel., bRather, thisis what bRabbi Tarfon is saying:With regard to banyone who inserts his hand below his navel,his hand bshould be severed.The Rabbis bsaid to Rabbi Tarfon:If ba thorn was stuck inone’s bbelly, should he not remove it?Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them:He should bnot.They responded: bBut won’t his belly be split opendue to the thorn? Rabbi Tarfon bsaid to them: It is preferable that his belly be split open, and he should not descend into the pit of destruction. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong In the case of a woman bwho is deaf [ ihaḥereshet /i], or an imbecile, or blind, or who went insane,and is therefore unable to examine herself reliably, bifsuch women bhave competentfriends, those friends bprepare themby examining them and immersing them in a ritual bath. bAndon that basis the incompetent women bmay partake of iteruma /iafter the sun sets., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna states that competent women must assist ba deaf woman.The Gemara asks: bLet her examine herself; as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: There was a deaf woman in our neighborhoodwho was so proficient in these matters that bnot only did she examine herself, butwhen bher friends would seestains similar to blood bandwere unsure whether or not the stains were ritually impure, they would bshow herthe stains.,The Gemara answers: bThere,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is referring btoa woman who bcan speak but cannot hear.It is possible for such a woman to be an expert in examining blood. But bhere,the mishna is dealing bwitha woman bwho can neither speak nor hear,and she is therefore considered incompetent and incapable of examining herself. bAs we learnedin a mishna ( iTerumot1:2): The bdeaf personof bwhom the Sages spoke everywhereis one bwho can neither hear nor speak,i.e., a deaf-mute.,§ The mishna further teaches that competent women must assist ba blindwoman. The Gemara similarly asks: bLet her examine herself and showthe cloth bto her friend. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:The correct version of the bmishnadoes bnotmention ba blindwoman.,§ The mishna also states that competent women must assist ba woman who went insane.The Gemara asks: With regard to her ability to examine herself, bisn’t thisthe same as ban imbecile,who is already mentioned in the mishna? The Gemara answers: Here, the mishna is referring to a woman bwho went insane due to illness,which is a different category than that of an imbecile.,The Gemara further discusses ihalakhotpertaining to an imbecile. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to ban imbecile priestwho was ritually impure, competent men deal with his purification: bThey immerse him, andthen benable him to partake of iterumain the evening,like any other priest who was impure. bAndthose taking care of him must bwatch over himto ensure bthat he does not sleepbefore he partakes of iteruma /i, in case he experiences a seminal emission, which would render him impure. If bhe slept,he is once again bimpure,and may not partake of iteruma /i; if he bdid not sleephe is bpure. /b, bRabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, saysthat there is another method of allowing an imbecile priest to partake of iteruma /i: bOne prepares for him a leather pouch,which is wrapped around his penis, and before giving him iterumato partake of one checks this pouch to see if he has emitted semen. The other Sages bsaid to him:It is improper to do this, as ball the more sohe will be prevented from partaking of iteruma /i; this pouch bwarms himand increases the likelihood of a seminal emission. Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Tzadok, bsaid to them: According to your statement, an imbecilepriest bhas no remedythat will enable him to partake of iteruma /i., bThey said to him: According to our statementthere is a way he can partake of iteruma /i, as stated above: If bhe slept,he is bimpure;if he bdid not sleephe is bpure.But baccording to your statement,that one wraps a pouch around his penis, this is not a reliable method, as bperhaps he will see,i.e., experience the emission of, ba dropof semen as small bas a mustardseed, band it will be absorbed in the pouchand will not be noticed, which would mean that he is eating iterumain a state of ritual impurity.,The Gemara continues to discuss the methods by which an imbecile priest can partake of iteruma /i. It was btaughtin a ibaraitathat the Sages bsaid in the name of Rabbi Elazar: One prepares for him a metal pouch,which is placed on his penis and does not warm it.,In explanation of this statement, bAbaye says: Andwhen this itannaspeaks of metal, he means that the pouch should be made bof copper,which does not absorb liquid, and therefore any drop of semen would be visible. This is bas it is taughtin a mishna ( iPara12:5), with regard to the amount of water of purification that must be sprinkled on an individual who is impure due to impurity imparted by a corpse, that bRabbi Yehuda says: One considers those hyssop stems,with which the waters of purification are sprinkled, bas though they aremade bof copper,which does not absorb any of the water., bRav Pappa says:One can blearn fromthe statement of the Rabbis that a pouch wrapped around one’s penis can warm it enough to cause a seminal emission, that btrousers are prohibitedto be worn, as they too warm the penis, by being placed so they are tight against it. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the priestly garments: b“And you shall make them linen trousers to cover the flesh of their nakedness,from the loins even to the thighs they shall reach” (Exodus 28:42)?,The Gemara explains: bThatgarment, the trousers worn by priests, was different, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe trousers of priests, to what are they comparable?They are bsimilar to riding trousers [ ipamalanya /i] of horsemen,and this is what they look like: bAbove,they reach bup tothe bloins; below,they go bdown tothe bthighs, and they have straps, and they have no opening,neither bat the back nor at the front. /b, bAbaye says: /b
49. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

70b. אין שואלין בשלום אשה על ידי בעלה אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל אין שואלין בשלום אשה כלל שלחה ליה דביתהו שרי ליה תגריה דלא נישוויך כשאר עם הארץ,א"ל מאי שיאטיה דמר הכא אמר ליה טסקא דהזמנותא שדר מר אבתראי אמר ליה השתא שותא דמר לא גמירנא טסקא דהזמנותא משדרנא למר אפיק דיסקא דהזמנותא מבי חדיה ואחזי ליה אמר ליה הא גברא והא דסקא אמר ליה הואיל ואתא מר להכא לישתעי מיליה כי היכי דלא לימרו מחנפי רבנן אהדדי,אמר ליה מאי טעמא שמתיה מר לההוא גברא ציער שליחא דרבנן ונגדיה מר דרב מנגיד על מאן דמצער שלוחא דרבנן דעדיף מיניה עבדי ליה,מאי טעמא אכריז מר עליה דעבדא הוא אמר ליה דרגיל דקרי אינשי עבדי ותני כל הפוסל פסול ואינו מדבר בשבחא לעולם ואמר שמואל במומו פוסל אימר דאמר שמואל למיחש ליה לאכרוזי עליה מי אמר,אדהכי והכי (אתא ההוא בר דיניה מנהרדעי) א"ל ההוא בר דיניה לרב יהודה לדידי קרית לי עבדא דאתינא מבית חשמונאי מלכא אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל כל דאמר מדבית חשמונאי קאתינא עבדא הוא,א"ל לא סבר לה מר להא דא"ר אבא אמר רב הונא אמר רב כל ת"ח שמורה הלכה ובא אם קודם מעשה אמרה שומעין לו ואם לאו אין שומעין לו אמר ליה הא איכא רב מתנה דקאי כוותי,רב מתנה לא חזייה לנהרדעא תליסר שני ההוא יומא אתא אמר ליה דכיר מר מאי אמר שמואל כי קאי חדא כרעא אגודא וחדא כרעא במברא א"ל הכי אמר שמואל כל דאמר מדבית חשמונאי מלכא קאתינא עבדא הוא דלא אישתיור מינייהו אלא ההיא רביתא דסלקא לאיגרא ורמיא קלא ואמרה כל דאמר מבית חשמונאי אנא עבדא הוא,נפלה מאיגרא ומיתה אכרוז עליה דעבדא הוא,ההוא יומא אקרען כמה כתובתא בנהרדעא כי קא נפיק נפקי אבתריה למירגמיה אמר להו אי שתיקו שתיקו ואי לא מגלינא עלייכו הא דאמר שמואל תרתי זרעייתא איכא בנהרדעא חדא מיקריא דבי יונה וחדא מיקריא דבי עורבתי וסימניך טמא טמא טהור טהור שדיוה לההוא ריגמא מידייהו וקם אטמא בנהר מלכא,מכריז רב יהודה בפומבדיתא אדא ויונתן עבדי יהודה בר פפא ממזירא בטי בר טוביה ברמות רוחא לא שקיל גיטא דחירותא מכריז רבא במחוזא בלאי דנאי טלאי מלאי זגאי כולם לפסול אמר רב יהודה גובאי גבעונאי דורנוניתא דראי נתינאי אמר רב יוסף האי בי כובי דפומבדיתא כולם דעבדי,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ארבע מאות עבדים ואמרי לה ארבעת אלפים עבדים היו לו לפשחור בן אימר וכולם נטמעו בכהונה וכל כהן שיש בו עזות פנים אינו אלא מהם אמר אביי כולהו יתבן בשורא דבנהרדעא ופליגא דרבי אלעזר דאמר ר' אלעזר אם ראית כהן בעזות מצח אל תהרהר אחריו שנא' (הושע ד, ד) ועמך כמריבי כהן,אמר רבי אבין בר רב אדא אמר רב כל הנושא אשה שאינה הוגנת לו כשהקב"ה משרה שכינתו מעיד על כל השבטים ואין מעיד עליו שנאמר (תהלים קכב, ד) שבטי יה עדות לישראל אימתי הוי עדות לישראל בזמן שהשבטים שבטי יה,אמר ר' חמא ברבי חנינא כשהקב"ה משרה שכינתו אין משרה אלא על משפחות מיוחסות שבישראל שנא' (ירמיהו לא, א) בעת ההיא נאם ה' אהיה לאלהים לכל משפחות ישראל לכל ישראל לא נאמר אלא לכל משפחות,[והמה] יהיו לי לעם אמר רבה בר רב הונא זו מעלה יתירה יש בין ישראל לגרים דאילו בישראל כתיב בהו (יחזקאל לז, כז) והייתי להם לאלהים [והמה] יהיו לי לעם ואילו בגרים כתיב (ירמיהו ל, כא) מי הוא זה ערב את לבו לגשת אלי נאם ה' והייתם לי לעם ואנכי אהיה לכם לאלהים,אמר רבי חלבו קשים גרים לישראל כספחת שנאמר (ישעיהו יד, א) ונלוה הגר עליהם ונספחו על בית יעקב כתיב הכא ונספחו וכתיב התם (ויקרא יד, נו) לשאת ולספחת,אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כשהקדוש ברוך הוא 70b. bOne may not send greetings to a womaneven with a messenger, as this may cause the messenger and the woman to relate to each other inappropriately. Rav Naḥman countered by suggesting that he send his greetings bwith her husband,which would remove all concerns. Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel says: One may not send greetings to a woman at all.Yalta, bhis wife,who overheard that Rav Yehuda was getting the better of the exchange, bsenta message bto him: Release himand conclude your business with him, bso that he not equate you with another ignoramus. /b,Desiring to release Rav Yehuda, Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat bthe Master is here?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: The Master sent me a summons.Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Nowthat bI have noteven blearned the Master’sform of bspeech,as you have demonstrated your superiority to me by reproving me even over such matters, bcould Ihave bsent a summons to the Master?Rav Yehuda bremoved the summons from his bosom and showed it to him.While doing so, Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: Here is the man and here is the document.Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Since the Master has come here, let him present his statement, in order thatpeople bshould not say: The Sages flatter one anotherand do not judge each other according to the letter of the law.,Rav Naḥman commenced the deliberation, and bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat bthe Master excommunicated that man?Rav Yehuda replied: bHe caused discomfort to an agentof one bof the Sages,and therefore he deserved the punishment of one who causes discomfort to a Torah scholar. Rav Naḥman challenged this answer: If so, blet the Master flog him, as Rav would flog one who causes discomfort to an agent of the Sages.Rav Yehuda responded: bIpunished bhim more severely than that.Rabbi Yehuda held that excommunication is a more severe punishment than flogging.,Rav Naḥman further inquired: bWhat is the reasonthat bthe Master proclaimed about him that he is a slave?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him:Because he bis in the habit of calling people slaves, andit bis taught: Anyone who disqualifiesothers by stating that their lineage is flawed, that is a sign that he himself bisof bflawedlineage. Another indication of his lineage being flawed is that bhe never speaks in praiseof others. bAnd Shmuel said: He disqualifies with hisown bflaw.Rav Naḥman retorted: You can bsay that Shmuel saidthis ihalakhaonly btothe degree that one should bsuspect himof being of flawed lineage. But bdid heactually bsaythis btothe extent that one could bproclaim about himthat he is of flawed lineage?,The Gemara continues the story: bMeanwhile, that litigant arrived from Neharde’a. That litigant said to Rav Yehuda: You call me a slave? I, who come from the house of the Hasmonean kings?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel says: Anyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave.As will be explained, only slaves remained of their descendants.,Rav Naḥman, who heard this exchange, bsaid toRav Yehuda: bDoes the Master not hold in accordance with this ihalakha bthat Rabbi Abba saysthat bRav Huna saysthat bRav says:With regard to bany Torah scholar who proceeds to teacha ruling of ihalakha /iwith regard to a particular issue, bif he said it before an actionthat concerns himself occurred, btheyshould blisten to him,and his ruling is accepted. bBut if not,if he quoted the ihalakhaonly after he was involved in an incident related to the ihalakhahe is quoting, bthey do not listen to him,due to his personal involvement? Your testimony with regard to what Shmuel ruled should be ignored, as you stated it only after the incident. Rav Yehuda bsaid toRav Naḥman: bThere is Rav Mattana, who stands by myreport, since he has also heard this ruling of Shmuel.,The Gemara continues: bRav Mattana had not seenthe city of bNeharde’afor bthirteen years. Thatvery bday he arrived.Rav Yehuda bsaid to him:Does bthe Master remember what Shmuel said when he was standingwith bone foot on the bank and one foot on the ferry?Rav Mattana bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel saidat that time: bAnyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave, as none remained of them except for that young girl who ascended to the roof and raised her voice and said:From now on, banyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave.Other than this girl, the only members of the family who remained were descendants of Herod, and he was an Edomite slave.,The girl then bfell from the roof and died,leaving only slaves from the Hasmoneans. With the confirmation of the report of the statement of Shmuel, btheyalso bpublicizedin Neharde’a babout him,i.e., that man who claimed to come from the Hasmonean kings, bthat he was a slave. /b,The Gemara relates: On bthat day, several marriage contracts were torn up in Neharde’a,as many had their marriages annulled after having discovered that they had married slaves. bWhenRav Yehuda bwas leavingNeharde’a, bthey pursued him,seeking bto stone him,as because of him it was publicized that their lineage was flawed. Rav Yehuda bsaid to them: If you are silent,remain bsilent. And ifyou will bnotremain silent, bI will reveal about you thisstatement bthat Shmuel said: There are twolines of boffspring in Neharde’a. One is called the dove’s house, and one is called the raven’s house. And your mnemonicwith regard to lineage is: The bimpurebird, the raven, is bimpure,meaning flawed, and the bpureone, the dove, is bpure,meaning unflawed. Upon hearing this, bthey threwall bthosestones that they were intending bto stone himwith bfrom their hands,as they did not want him to reveal who had a flawed lineage. bAndas a result of all of the stones thrown into the river, ba dam arose in the Malka River. /b,§ The Gemara continues the discussion of those with a flawed lineage: bRav Yehuda proclaimed in Pumbedita: Adda and Yonatan,known residents of that town, are bslaves; Yehuda bar Pappais a imamzer /i; Bati bar Tuviyya, in his arrogance, did not accept a bill of manumissionand is still a slave. bRava proclaimed inhis city of bMeḥoza: Balla’ai, Danna’ai, Talla’ai, Malla’ai, Zagga’ai: Allthese families bareof bflawedlineage. bRav Yehudalikewise bsays: Gova’ai,the inhabitants of a place called Gova, are in fact bGibeonites,and their name has been corrupted. Similarly, those people known as bDorenunitaare from bthe village of Gibeonites,and they may not marry Jews with unflawed lineage. bRav Yosef says:With regard to bthisplace called bBei Kuvei of Pumbedita,its residents bare alldescendants bof slaves. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says: Four hundred slaves, and some say four thousand slaves, were owned by Pashḥur ben Immer,a priest in the time of Jeremiah, banddue to their greatness bthey were assimilated into the priesthoodand became known as priests. bAnd any priest who hasthe trait of binsolence is only from them. Abaye said: They all sit in the rowsof honor bthat are inthe city of bNeharde’a.The Gemara comments: And this statement bdisagrees withthe statement bof Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar says: If you see an insolent priest, do not speculate about himthat he may be of flawed lineage, bsince it is stated: “For your people are as those who strive with a priest”(Hosea 4:4), which indicates that priests had a reputation for being cantankerous.,§ The Gemara discusses an idea raised earlier. bRabbi Avin bar Rav Adda saysthat bRav says:Concerning banyone who marries a woman who is not suited for himto marry, bwhen the Holy One, Blessed be He, rests His Divine Presenceupon the Jewish people, bHe testifies with regard to all the tribesthat they are His people, bbut He does not testify with regard to hewho married improperly, bas it is stated: “The tribes of the Lord, as a testimony to Israel”(Psalms 122:4). bWhen is it a testimony to Israel? When the tribes are the tribes of the Lord,but not when their lineage is flawed., bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, rests His Divine Presence, He rests it only upon families ofunflawed lineage bamong Israel, as it is stated: “At that time, says the Lord, will I be the God of all the families of Israel”(Jeremiah 30:25). bof all Israel, is not stated, but “of all the families,”which includes only those of unflawed lineage, the renowned families of Israel.,The verse from Jeremiah ends with the words b“And they shall be my people.” Rabba bar Rav Huna says: This is a higher standardthat differentiates bbetweenthose born as bJews and converts, as with regard tothose born as bJews it is written about them: “And I will be their God, and they shall be My people”(Ezekiel 37:27), bwhereas with regard to converts it is written: “For who is he that has pledged his heart to approach unto Me? says the Lord. And you shall be My people, and I will be your God”(Jeremiah 30:21–22). This teaches that converts are not drawn close to God, as indicated by the words “And I will be your God,” until they first draw themselves near to God, as indicated by the subsequent phrase “And you shall be my people.”, bRabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts areas bdifficult for the Jewish people as a scab.The proof is bthat it is stated: “And the convert shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave [ ivenispeḥu /i] to the house of Jacob”(Isaiah 14:1). bIt is written here “ ivenispeḥu /i,” and it is written there,among the types of leprosy: b“And for a sore and for a scab [ isappaḥat /i]”(Leviticus 14:56). The use of a term with a similar root indicates that converts are like a scab for the Jewish people., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b
50. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13b. ושימש תלמידי חכמים הרבה מפני מה מת בחצי ימיו ולא היה אדם מחזירה דבר פעם אחת נתארחתי אצלה והיתה מסיחה כל אותו מאורע ואמרתי לה בתי בימי נדותך מה הוא אצלך אמרה לי חס ושלום אפי' באצבע קטנה לא נגע [בי] בימי לבוניך מהו אצלך אכל עמי ושתה עמי וישן עמי בקירוב בשר ולא עלתה דעתו על דבר אחר ואמרתי לה ברוך המקום שהרגו שלא נשא פנים לתורה שהרי אמרה תורה (ויקרא יח, יט) ואל אשה בנדת טומאתה לא תקרב כי אתא רב דימי אמר מטה חדא הואי במערבא אמרי אמר רב יצחק בר יוסף סינר מפסיק בינו לבינה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו מן ההלכות שאמרו בעליית חנניה בן חזקיה בן גרון שעלו לבקרו נמנו ורבו ב"ש על ב"ה וי"ח דברים גזרו בו ביום:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ל אביי לרב יוסף אלו תנן או ואלו תנן ואלו תנן הני דאמרן או אלו תנן דבעינן למימר קמן תא שמע אין פולין לאור הנר ואין קורין לאור הנר ואלו מן ההלכות שאמרו בעליית חנניה בן חזקיה בן גרון ש"מ ואלו תנן ש"מ:,ת"ר מי כתב מגילת תענית אמרו חנניה בן חזקיה וסיעתו שהיו מחבבין את הצרות,אמר רשב"ג אף אנו מחבבין את הצרות אבל מה נעשה שאם באנו לכתוב אין אנו מספיקין,ד"א אין שוטה נפגע,ד"א אין בשר המת מרגיש באיזמל איני והאמר רב יצחק קשה רימה למת כמחט בבשר החי שנא' (איוב יד, כב) אך בשרו עליו יכאב ונפשו עליו תאבל אימא אין בשר המת שבחי מרגיש באיזמל,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ברם זכור אותו האיש לטוב וחנניה בן חזקיה שמו שאלמלא הוא נגנז ספר יחזקאל שהיו דבריו סותרין דברי תורה מה עשה העלו לו ג' מאות גרבי שמן וישב בעלייה ודרשן:,ושמנה עשר דבר גזרו: מאי נינהו שמנה עשר דבר דתנן אלו פוסלין את התרומה האוכל אוכל ראשון והאוכל אוכל שני והשותה משקין טמאין והבא ראשו ורובו במים שאובין וטהור שנפלו על ראשו ורובו שלשה לוגין מים שאובין והספר והידים והטבול יום והאוכלים והכלים שנטמאו במשקין,מאן תנא האוכל אוכל ראשון והאוכל אוכל שני מפסל פסלי טמויי 13b. band served Torah scholars extensively, why did he die at half his days?Where is the length of days promised him in the verse? bNo one would respond to herastonishment bat all.Eliyahu said: bOne time I was a guest in herhouse, band she was relating that entire eventwith regard to the death of her husband. bAnd I said to her: My daughter, during the period of your menstruation, howdid bheact btoward you? She said to me: Heaven forbid, he did not touch me even withhis blittle finger.And I asked her: bIn the days of your whitegarments, after the menstrual flow ended, and you were just counting clean days, bhow did he act toward youthen? She said to me: bHe ate with me, and drank with me, and slept with me with bodily contact and,however, bit did not enter his mind about something else,i.e., conjugal relations. bAnd I said to her: Blessed is the Omnipresent who killed himfor this sin, basyour husband bdid not show respect to the Torah. The Torah said: “And to a woman in the separation of her impurity you should not approach”(Leviticus 18:19), even mere affectionate contact is prohibited. The Gemara relates that bwhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said:That student did not actually sleep with her with bodily contact; rather, bit wasin bone bedthat they slept without contact. bIn the West,in Eretz Yisrael, bthey saythat bRav Yitzḥak bar Yosef said:When they would sleep together in one bed, she wore ba belt [ isinar /i]from the waist down that bwould separate between him and her.Nevertheless, since the matter is prohibited, that student was punished., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnd these are among the ihalakhotthatthe Sages, bwho went up to visit him, said in the upper story of Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya ben Garon.The precise nature of these ihalakhotwill be explained in the Gemara. These ihalakhotare considered one unit because they share a distinctive element. Since many Sages were there, among them most of the generation’s Torah scholars in Eretz Yisrael, they engaged in discussion of various ihalakhotof the Torah. It turned out that when the people expressing opinions bwere counted,the students of bBeit Shammai outnumberedthe students of bBeit Hillel, and they issued decreeswith regard to beighteen matters on that dayin accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the language that introduces our mishna, bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: Did we learnin our mishna: bThese areamong the ihalakhot /i, bor did we learnin our mishna: bAnd these areamong the ihalakhot /i? The difference is significant. bDid we learn: And these,and if so, the reference would be to bthose that we saidearlier, i.e., that those ihalakhotare included in the decrees? bOr did we learn: These,and if so the reference would be to bthose that we seek to mention below? Comeand bheara solution to this dilemma from the fact that these matters were taught together in a ibaraita /i: bOne may not shakegarments to rid them of lice bby the light of the lamp and one may not read by the light of the lamp; and these are among the ihalakhotthatthe Sages bsaid in the attic of Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya ben Garon. Conclude from thisthat bwe learned: And thesein the mishna, and the reference is to the decrees mentioned earlier., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to iMegillat Ta’anit /i, which is a list of days of redemption that were established as celebrations for generations: bWho wrote iMegillat Ta’anit /i?This scroll was written by bḤaya ben Ḥizkiyaben Garon band his faction, who held dearthe memory of bthe troublesthat befell Israel and their salvation from them., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: We also hold dearthe memory of bthe troublesfrom which Israel was saved, bbut what can we do? If we came to writeall the days of that kind, bwe would not manage todo so, as the troubles that Israel experienced in every generation and era are numerous, and on each day there is an event worthy of commemoration., bAlternatively:Why do we not record the days of salvation from troubles? Just as ba crazy person is not hurt,as he is not aware of the troubles that befall him, so too, we cannot appreciate the magnitude of the calamities that befall us., bAlternatively: The flesh of a dead person does not feel the scalpel[iizemel/b] cutting into him, and we, too, are in such a difficult situation that we no longer feel the pains and troubles. With regard to the last analogy, the Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Rav Yitzḥak say: Thegnawing of bmaggots is as excruciating to the dead asthe stab of ba needle is to the flesh of the living,as bit is statedwith regard to the dead: b“But his flesh shall hurt him, and his soul mourns over him”(Job 14:22)? Rather, bsayand explain the matter: bThe dead fleshin parts of the body bof the living personthat are insensitive to pain bdoes not feel the scalpelthat cuts him., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Truly, that man is remembered for the good, and his name is Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya, as if not for him, the book of Ezekiel would have been suppressed because its contents,in many details, bcontradict matters of Torah.The Sages sought to suppress the book and exclude it from the canon. bWhat did he,Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya, bdo? They brought him three hundred jugs of oil,for light and food, bupto his upper story, band he satisolated bin the upper storyand did not move from there until bhe homiletically interpretedall of those verses in the book of Ezekiel that seemed contradictory, and resolved the contradictions.,We learned in the mishna that when the Sages went up to the upper story of the house of Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya ben Garon, they were counted band issued eighteen decreesin accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai. The Gemara asks: bWhat are those eighteen matters?The Gemara answers: bAs we learnedin a mishna, a list of the decrees that the Sages issued with regard to items whose level of impurity is such that if they come into contact with iterumathey disqualify it. By means of that contact, the iterumaitself becomes impure, but it does not transmit impurity to other items. bThese disqualify iteruma /i: One who eats foodwith bfirstdegree ritual impurity status acquired as a result of contact with a primary source of ritual impurity, e.g., a creeping animal; band one who eats foodwith bseconddegree ritual impurity status acquired as a result of contact with an item with first degree ritual impurity status; band one who drinks impure liquidsof any degree of impurity; band one whose head and most of hisbody bcome into drawn waterafter he immersed himself in a ritual bath to purify himself; band a ritually pure person that three ilog /iof bdrawn water fell on his head and most of hisbody; band a Torah scroll; and the handsof any person who did not purify himself for the purpose of handling iteruma /i; bandone bwho immersed himself during the day,i.e., one who was impure and immersed himself, and until evening he is not considered completely pure; band foods and vessels that became impure bycoming into contact with impure bliquids.Contact with any of these disqualifies the iteruma /i. The Gemara seeks to clarify these matters.,The Gemara asks first: bWho is the itanna /iwho holds that bone who eats foodwith bfirstdegree ritual impurity status, band one who eats foodwith bseconddegree ritual impurity status, bdisqualifythe iteruma,but
51. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

109b. ואמר רבי אבהו אתיא רדיפה רדיפה כתיב הכא (תהלים לד, טו) בקש שלום ורדפהו וכתיב התם (משלי כא, כא) רודף צדקה וחסד ימצא חיים צדקה וכבוד: בהפרת נדרים כרבי נתן דתניא רבי נתן אומר הנודר כאילו בנה במה והמקיימו כאילו הקריב עליה קרבן,ויתרחק משלשה דברים מן המיאונין דלמא גדלה ומיחרטא בה מן הפקדונות בבר מתא דבייתיה כי בייתיה דמי מן הערבון בערבי שלציון,דא"ר יצחק מאי דכתיב (משלי יא, טו) רע ירוע כי ערב זר רעה אחר רעה תבא למקבלי גרים ולערבי שלציון ולתוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה מקבלי גרים כר' חלבו דאמר ר' חלבו קשים גרים לישראל כספחת בעור,ערבי שלציון דעבדי שלוף דוץ תוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה דתניא רבי יוסי אומר כל האומר אין לו תורה אין לו תורה פשיטא אלא כל האומר אין לו אלא תורה אין לו אלא תורה,הא נמי פשיטא אלא דאפילו תורה אין לו מאי טעמא אמר רב פפא אמר קרא (דברים ה, א) ולמדתם ועשיתם כל שישנו בעשיה ישנו בלמידה כל שאינו בעשיה אינו בלמידה,ואיבעית אימא לעולם כדאמריתו מעיקרא כל האומר אין לו אלא תורה אין לו אלא תורה לא צריכא דקא מגמר לאחריני ואזלי ועבדי מהו דתימא אית ליה אגרא לדידיה קמ"ל,ואיבעית אימא תוקע עצמו לדבר הלכה בדיינא דאתי דינא לקמיה וגמר הלכה ומדמי מילתא למילתא ואית ליה רבה ולא אזיל משאיל,דאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן לעולם יראה דיין עצמו כאילו חרב מונחת לו בין יריכותיו וגיהנם פתוחה לו מתחתיו שנאמר (שיר השירים ג, ז) הנה מטתו שלשלמה ששים גבורים סביב לה מגבורי ישראל וגו' מפחד בלילות מפחד של גיהנם שדומה ללילה:,ר"ג אומר אם מיאנה וכו': בעא מיניה רבי אלעזר מרב מאי טעמא דר"ג משום דקסבר קידושי קטנה מיתלא תלו וכי גדלה גדלי בהדה אע"ג דלא בעל,או דלמא משום דקסבר המקדש אחות יבמה נפטרה יבמה והלכה לה אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא,אמר ליה היינו טעמא דר"ג משום דקסבר המקדש אחות יבמה נפטרה יבמה והלכה לה אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא,אמר רב ששת אמינא כי ניים ושכיב רב אמר להא שמעתא דתניא המקדש את הקטנה קידושיה תלויין מאי תלויין לאו כי גדלה גדלי בהדה ואע"ג דלא בעל,אמר ליה רבין בריה דרב נחמן הא מילתא דקטנה מיתלא תליא וקיימא אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא דאמרה הוא עדיף מינאי ואנא עדיפנא מיניה,וסבר רב אי בעל אין אי לא בעל לא והא איתמר קטנה שלא מיאנה והגדילה ועמדה ונשאת רב אמר אינה צריכה גט משני ושמואל אמר צריכה גט משני 109b. bAnd Rabbi Abbahu said: It is derivedby verbal analogy from the terms bpursuitand bpursuit. It is written here: “Seek peace and pursue it”(Psalms 34:15) band it is written there: “He who pursues righteousness and mercy finds life, prosperity, and honor”(Proverbs 21:21), indicating that pursuing peace is a mitzva, just as pursuing righteousness and mercy is. As bfor the nullification of vows, this is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Natan, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Natan says:With regard to bone who vows, it is as if he builta personal baltarwhen it is prohibited to build an altar outside the Temple. bAnd one who fulfills thatvow, bit is as if he sacrificed an offering on thispersonal altar, thereby doubling his sin. Therefore, it is preferable that he ask a halakhic authority to dissolve the vow., bAnd one should distance himself from three things: From refusals,as bperhaps she will grow up and regrether decision, and it will turn out that she refused a husband who was suitable for her. bFrom depositsentrusted to him bby an inhabitant of the same city, ashe will treat the bailee’s bhome as his home.The owner might enter the bailee’s house and take the deposit without the latter’s knowledge, and subsequently falsely sue him for its return. bFrom serving as a guarantor: This is referring to Sheltziyyon guarantees,in which the lender is entitled to demand payment from the guarantor even before the borrower defaults on the loan., bAs Rabbi Yitzḥak said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “He who serves as a guarantor for a stranger shall suffer evil;but he who hates those who shake hands is secure” (Proverbs 11:15)? This means: bEvil after evil will befall those who accept converts, and Sheltziyyon guarantors, and one who confounds himself in matters of ihalakha /i.The Gemara clarifies. Evil will befall bthose who accept converts: This is in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ḥelbo. As Rabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts are difficult for the Jewish people like a leprous sore on the skin. /b,Evil shall befall bSheltziyyon guarantors because they practice: Pull out, thrust in.That is, they pull out the borrower and thrust the guarantor in his place as the one responsible for the loan. Evil befalls bone who confounds himself in matters of ihalakha /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Anyone who says he has no Torah, has no Torah.The Gemara asks: Is this not bobvious? Rather, anyone who says he has nothing otherthan bTorah, has nothing otherthan bTorah. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’tthis balso obvious?One does not receive more reward than he deserves. bRather,it means that bhe does not even have Torah. What is the reason? Rav Pappa said: The verse states: That you may learn them and perform them,which is an abridged version of the verse “Hear, O Israel, the statutes and the ordices that I speak in your ears this day, that you may learn them, and take care to perform them” (Deuteronomy 5:1). The verse teaches that banyone who is engaged in performingmitzvot bis engaged inTorah bstudy, while anyone not engaged in performingmitzvot bis not engaged inTorah bstudy;the Torah study of one who wishes only to immerse himself in his studies without fulfilling the mitzvot is not considered to be fulfilling even the mitzva of Torah study., bAnd if you wish, say: Actually, it is as you initially said: Anyone who says he has nothing otherthan bTorah has nothing otherthan bTorah. Rather,this statement bis necessarywith regard to one who bteaches others and they go and performthe mitzvot. bLest you say that there is reward for him in it,Rabbi Yosei bteaches usthat since that person engaged in Torah study without the intention of observing the mitzvot himself, he does not receive a reward for the mitzvot that he taught others and which they performed., bAnd if you wish, saythat bone who confounds himself in matters of ihalakha /iis referring bto a judge who had a case come before him, and he learnedthe tradition about ba rulingin a similar case, band he likens one matter to the otherin order to reach a conclusion; band he has a teachernearby bbut he does not go and askhim. This is inappropriate, as judges must be very careful not to err in judgment., bAs Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: A judge should always view himself as if a sword were placed between his thighs,so that if he leans right or left he will be injured, band as if Gehenna was open beneath him, as it is stated: “Behold, it is the bed of Solomon; sixty mighty men are around it, of the mighty men of Israel.They all handle the sword, and are expert in war; every man has his sword upon his thigh, bbecause of dread in the night”(Song of Songs 3:7–8), i.e., bbecause of the dread of Gehenna, which is similar to the night.Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani understands the mighty men of Israel in this verse to refer to the judges who sit in judgment around the bed of Solomon, i.e., in the Temple.,§ It was taught in the mishna that bRabban Gamliel says: Ifthe minor brefusesof her own accord, her refusal is valid. And if not, she should wait until she reaches majority, whereupon her marriage is valid by Torah law, and the widowed adult sister shall be exempt from levirate marriage due to her status as the sister of a wife. bRabbi Elazar raised a dilemma to Rav: What is Rabban Gamliel’s reasoning?Is it bbecause he holds that the betrothal of a minor girl is in suspension and when she reaches majority, the betrothal reaches majority,i.e., is fully realized, bwith her?Accordingly, the betrothal would then be realized beven if he did not engage in intercoursewith her after she reached majority., bOr perhaps, is it because he holds thatwhen a iyavam bbetroths the sister of his iyevama /i,causing the iyevamato be forbidden to him, bthe iyevamais exempt and is releasedeven though her levirate bond came first? bIf he engaged in sexual intercourse withhis betrothed after she reached majority, then byes,the iyevamais exempt as a forbidden relative, because only then does Rabban Gamliel consider the betrothal to be fully realized, but bif he did not engage in intercourse with hisbetrothed, then the iyevamais bnot exemptfrom levirate marriage., bRav said to him: This is Rabban Gamliel’s reasoning: Because he holds thatin the case of bone who betroths the sister of his iyevama /i, the iyevamais exempt and is released,then bif he engaged in sexual intercoursewith the sister after she reached majority then byes,the iyevamais exempt from levirate marriage, but bif he did not engage in intercoursewith the sister after she reached majority, the iyevamais bnotexempt., bRav Sheshet said: I say that Rav said this ihalakhawhen he was dozing and lying down,as it is difficult. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of bone who betroths a minor girl, her betrothal is in suspension. Whatdoes it mean that it is bin suspension? Is it not that when she reaches majority, the betrothal reaches majority with herand is fully realized beven if he did not have intercourse with herafter she reached majority?, bRavin, son of Rav Naḥman, said toRav Sheshet: bThis matter,that the betrothal bof a minor girl remains in suspension,should be understood differently. It means that her betrothal is provisional as long as she is still a minor: bIf he has sexual intercoursewith her after she reaches majority, byes,her betrothal is realized; bif he does not engage in intercoursewith her after she reaches majority, her betrothal is bnotrealized. bFor she saysto herself: bHe has an advantage over mein that he can divorce me, band I have an advantage over him,as I can refuse him. Since the marriage of a minor depends upon her ongoing consent, as she can refuse him at any time, it remains provisional until it is consummated when she is an adult.,The Gemara asks: bBut does Ravtruly bthink thatonly bif he has intercourse with herafter she becomes an adult, then byes, herbetrothal is realized, bbut if he did not engage in intercourse with her,then bno,it is not realized? bWasn’t it statedthat with regard to ba minor who had not refusedher husband band reached majority, andthen bwent and marriedanother, bRav said: She does not require a bill of divorce from the secondman, as she is fully married to the first and consequently her second marriage is invalid? bAnd Shmuel said: She does require a bill of divorce from the secondman, as it is uncertain whether her second marriage is valid.
52. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 8.10.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

53. Nag Hammadi, The Apocalypse of Adam, 66.25, 66.26, 66.27, 69.2-71.8, 72.15, 72.16, 72.17, 74.8, 74.9, 74.10, 74.11, 74.12, 74.13, 74.14, 74.15, 74.16, 76.8, 76.9, 76.10, 76.11, 76.12, 76.13, 76.14, 76.15, 85.2, 85.3, 85.4, 85.5, 85.6, 85.7, 85.8, 85.9, 85.10, 85.11, 85.12, 85.13, 85.14, 85.15, 85.16, 85.17, 85.19, 85.20, 85.21, 85.22, 85.23, 85.24, 85.25, 85.26, 85.27, 85.28, 85.29 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

54. Origen, Against Celsus, 6.24-6.38 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.24. After the instance borrowed from the Mithraic mysteries, Celsus declares that he who would investigate the Christian mysteries, along with the aforesaid Persian, will, on comparing the two together, and on unveiling the rites of the Christians, see in this way the difference between them. Now, wherever he was able to give the names of the various sects, he was nothing loth to quote those with which he thought himself acquainted; but when he ought most of all to have done this, if they were really known to him, and to have informed us which was the sect that makes use of the diagram he has drawn, he has not done so. It seems to me, however, that it is from some statements of a very insignificant sect called Ophites, which he has misunderstood, that, in my opinion, he has partly borrowed what he says about the diagram. Now, as we have always been animated by a love of learning, we have fallen in with this diagram, and we have found in it the representations of men who, as Paul says, creep into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with sins, led away with various lusts; ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. The diagram was, however, so destitute of all credibility, that neither these easily deceived women, nor the most rustic class of men, nor those who were ready to be led away by any plausible pretender whatever, ever gave their assent to the diagram. Nor, indeed, have we ever met any individual, although we have visited many parts of the earth, and have sought out all those who anywhere made profession of knowledge, that placed any faith in this diagram. 6.25. In this diagram were described ten circles, distinct from each other, but united by one circle, which was said to be the soul of all things, and was called Leviathan. This Leviathan, the Jewish Scriptures say, whatever they mean by the expression, was created by God for a plaything; for we find in the Psalms: In wisdom have You made all things: the earth is full of Your creatures; so is this great and wide sea. There go the ships; small animals with great; there is this dragon, which You have formed to play therein. Instead of the word dragon, the term leviathan is in the Hebrew. This impious diagram, then, said of this leviathan, which is so clearly depreciated by the Psalmist, that it was the soul which had travelled through all things! We observed, also, in the diagram, the being named Behemoth, placed as it were under the lowest circle. The inventor of this accursed diagram had inscribed this leviathan at its circumference and centre, thus placing its name in two separate places. Moreover, Celsus says that the diagram was divided by a thick black line, and this line he asserted was called Gehenna, which is Tartarus. Now as we found that Gehenna was mentioned in the Gospel as a place of punishment, we searched to see whether it is mentioned anywhere in the ancient Scriptures, and especially because the Jews too use the word. And we ascertained that where the valley of the son of Ennom was named in Scripture in the Hebrew, instead of valley, with fundamentally the same meaning, it was termed both the valley of Ennom and also Geenna. And continuing our researches, we find that what was termed Geenna, or the valley of Ennom, was included in the lot of the tribe of Benjamin, in which Jerusalem also was situated. And seeking to ascertain what might be the inference from the heavenly Jerusalem belonging to the lot of Benjamin and the valley of Ennom, we find a certain confirmation of what is said regarding the place of punishment, intended for the purification of such souls as are to be purified by torments, agreeably to the saying: The Lord comes like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap: and He shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver and of gold. 6.26. It is in the precincts of Jerusalem, then, that punishments will be inflicted upon those who undergo the process of purification, who have received into the substance of their soul the elements of wickedness, which in a certain place is figuratively termed lead, and on that account iniquity is represented in Zechariah as sitting upon a talent of lead. But the remarks which might be made on this topic are neither to be made to all, nor to be uttered on the present occasion; for it is not unattended with danger to commit to writing the explanation of such subjects, seeing the multitude need no further instruction than that which relates to the punishment of sinners; while to ascend beyond this is not expedient, for the sake of those who are with difficulty restrained, even by fear of eternal punishment, from plunging into any degree of wickedness, and into the flood of evils which result from sin. The doctrine of Geenna, then, is unknown both to the diagram and to Celsus: for had it been otherwise, the framers of the former would not have boasted of their pictures of animals and diagrams, as if the truth were represented by these; nor would Celsus, in his treatise against the Christians, have introduced among the charges directed against them statements which they never uttered instead of what was spoken by some who perhaps are no longer in existence, but have altogether disappeared, or been reduced to a very few individuals, and these easily counted. And as it does not beseem those who profess the doctrines of Plato to offer a defense of Epicurus and his impious opinions, so neither is it for us to defend the diagram, or to refute the accusations brought against it by Celsus. We may therefore allow his charges on these points to pass as superfluous and useless, for we would censure more severely than Celsus any who should be carried away by such opinions. 6.27. After the matter of the diagram, he brings forward certain monstrous statements, in the form of question and answer, regarding what is called by ecclesiastical writers the seal, statements which did not arise from imperfect information; such as that he who impresses the seal is called father, and he who is sealed is called young man and son; and who answers, I have been anointed with white ointment from the tree of life,- things which we never heard to have occurred even among the heretics. In the next place, he determines even the number mentioned by those who deliver over the seal, as that of seven angels, who attach themselves to both sides of the soul of the dying body; the one party being named angels of light, the others 'archontics;' and he asserts that the ruler of those named 'archontics' is termed the 'accursed' god. Then, laying hold of the expression, he assails, not without reason, those who venture to use such language; and on that account we entertain a similar feeling of indignation with those who censure such individuals, if indeed there exist any who call the God of the Jews- who sends rain and thunder, and who is the Creator of this world, and the God of Moses, and of the cosmogony which he records - an accursed divinity. Celsus, however, appears to have had in view in employing these expressions, not a rational object, but one of a most irrational kind, arising out of his hatred towards us, which is so unlike a philosopher. For his aim was, that those who are unacquainted with our customs should, on perusing his treatise, at once assail us as if we called the noble Creator of this world an accursed divinity. He appears to me, indeed, to have acted like those Jews who, when Christianity began to be first preached, scattered abroad false reports of the Gospel, such as that Christians offered up an infant in sacrifice, and partook of its flesh; and again, that the professors of Christianity, wishing to do the 'works of darkness,' used to extinguish the lights (in their meetings), and each one to have sexual intercourse with any woman whom he chanced to meet. These calumnies have long exercised, although unreasonably, an influence over the minds of very many, leading those who are aliens to the Gospel to believe that Christians are men of such a character; and even at the present day they mislead some, and prevent them from entering even into the simple intercourse of conversation with those who are Christians. 6.28. With some such object as this in view does Celsus seem to have been actuated, when he alleged that Christians term the Creator an accursed divinity; in order that he who believes these charges of his against us, should, if possible, arise and exterminate the Christians as the most impious of mankind. Confusing, moreover, things that are distinct, he states also the reason why the God of the Mosaic cosmogony is termed accursed, asserting that such is his character, and worthy of execration in the opinion of those who so regard him, inasmuch as he pronounced a curse upon the serpent, who introduced the first human beings to the knowledge of good and evil. Now he ought to have known that those who have espoused the cause of the serpent, because he gave good advice to the first human beings, and who go far beyond the Titans and Giants of fable, and are on this account called Ophites, are so far from being Christians, that they bring accusations against Jesus to as great a degree as Celsus himself; and they do not admit any one into their assembly until he has uttered maledictions against Jesus. See, then, how irrational is the procedure of Celsus, who, in his discourse against the Christians, represents as such those who will not even listen to the name of Jesus, or omit even that He was a wise man, or a person of virtuous character! What, then, could evince greater folly or madness, not only on the part of those who wish to derive their name from the serpent as the author of good, but also on the part of Celsus, who thinks that the accusations with which the Ophites are charged, are chargeable also against the Christians! Long ago, indeed, that Greek philosopher who preferred a state of poverty, and who exhibited the pattern of a happy life, showing that he was not excluded from happiness although he was possessed of nothing, termed himself a Cynic; while these impious wretches, as not being human beings, whose enemy the serpent is, but as being serpents, pride themselves upon being called Ophites from the serpent, which is an animal most hostile to and greatly dreaded by man, and boast of one Euphrates as the introducer of these unhallowed opinions. 6.29. In the next place, as if it were the Christians whom he was calumniating, he continues his accusations against those who termed the God of Moses and of his law an accursed divinity; and imagining that it is the Christians who so speak, he expresses himself thus: What could be more foolish or insane than such senseless wisdom? For what blunder has the Jewish lawgiver committed? And why do you accept, by means, as you say, of a certain allegorical and typical method of interpretation, the cosmogony which he gives, and the law of the Jews, while it is with unwillingness, O most impious man, that you give praise to the Creator of the world, who promised to give them all things; who promised to multiply their race to the ends of the earth, and to raise them up from the dead with the same flesh and blood, and who gave inspiration to their prophets; and, again, you slander Him! When you feel the force of such considerations, indeed, you acknowledge that you worship the same God; but when your teacher Jesus and the Jewish Moses give contradictory decisions, you seek another God, instead of Him, and the Father! Now, by such statements, this illustrious philosopher Celsus distinctly slanders the Christians, asserting that, when the Jews press them hard, they acknowledge the same God as they do; but that when Jesus legislates differently from Moses, they seek another god instead of Him. Now, whether we are conversing with the Jews, or are alone with ourselves, we know of only one and the same God, whom the Jews also worshipped of old time, and still profess to worship as God, and we are guilty of no impiety towards Him. We do not assert, however, that God will raise men from the dead with the same flesh and blood, as has been shown in the preceding pages; for we do not maintain that the natural body, which is sown in corruption, and in dishonour, and in weakness, will rise again such as it was sown. On such subjects, however, we have spoken at adequate length in the foregoing pages. 6.30. He next returns to the subject of the Seven ruling Demons, whose names are not found among Christians, but who, I think, are accepted by the Ophites. We found, indeed, that in the diagram, which on their account we procured a sight of, the same order was laid down as that which Celsus has given. Celsus says that the goat was shaped like a lion, not mentioning the name given him by those who are truly the most impious of individuals; whereas we discovered that He who is honoured in holy Scripture as the angel of the Creator is called by this accursed diagram Michael the Lion-like. Again, Celsus says that the second in order is a bull; whereas the diagram which we possessed made him to be Suriel, the bull-like. Further, Celsus termed the third an amphibious sort of animal, and one that hissed frightfully; while the diagram described the third as Raphael, the serpent-like. Moreover, Celsus asserted that the fourth had the form of an eagle; the diagram representing him as Gabriel, the eagle-like. Again, the fifth, according to Celsus, had the countece of a bear; and this, according to the diagram, was Thauthabaoth, the bear-like. Celsus continues his account, that the sixth was described as having the face of a dog; and him the diagram called Erataoth. The seventh, he adds, had the countece of an ass, and was named Thaphabaoth or Onoel; whereas we discovered that in the diagram he is called Onoel, or Thartharaoth, being somewhat asinine in appearance. We have thought it proper to be exact in stating these matters, that we might not appear to be ignorant of those things which Celsus professed to know, but that we Christians, knowing them better than he, may demonstrate that these are not the words of Christians, but of those who are altogether alienated from salvation, and who neither acknowledge Jesus as Saviour, nor God, nor Teacher, nor Son of God. 6.31. Moreover, if any one would wish to become acquainted with the artifices of those sorcerers, through which they desire to lead men away by their teaching (as if they possessed the knowledge of certain secret rites), but are not at all successful in so doing, let him listen to the instruction which they receive after passing through what is termed the fence of wickedness, - gates which are subjected to the world of ruling spirits. (The following, then, is the manner in which they proceed): I salute the one-formed king, the bond of blindness, complete oblivion, the first power, preserved by the spirit of providence and by wisdom, from whom I am sent forth pure, being already part of the light of the son and of the father: grace be with me; yea, O father, let it be with me. They say also that the beginnings of the Ogdoad are derived from this. In the next place, they are taught to say as follows, while passing through what they call Ialdabaoth: You, O first and seventh, who art born to command with confidence, you, O Ialdabaoth, who art the rational ruler of a pure mind, and a perfect work to son and father, bearing the symbol of life in the character of a type, and opening to the world the gate which you closed against your kingdom, I pass again in freedom through your realm. Let grace be with me; yea, O father, let it be with me. They say, moreover, that the star Ph non is in sympathy with the lion-like ruler. They next imagine that he who has passed through Ialdabaoth and arrived at Iao ought thus to speak: You, O second Iao, who shines by night, who art the ruler of the secret mysteries of son and father, first prince of death, and portion of the innocent, bearing now my own beard as symbol, I am ready to pass through your realm, having strengthened him who is born of you by the living word. Grace be with me; father, let it be with me. They next come to Sabaoth, to whom they think the following should be addressed: O governor of the fifth realm, powerful Sabaoth, defender of the law of your creatures, who are liberated by your grace through the help of a more powerful Pentad, admit me, seeing the faultless symbol of their art, preserved by the stamp of an image, a body liberated by a Pentad. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. And after Sabaoth they come to Astaph us, to whom they believe the following prayer should be offered: O Astaph us, ruler of the third gate, overseer of the first principle of water, look upon me as one of your initiated, admit me who am purified with the spirit of a virgin, you who sees the essence of the world. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. After him comes Alo us, who is to be thus addressed: O Alo us, governor of the second gate, let me pass, seeing I bring to you the symbol of your mother, a grace which is hidden by the powers of the realms. Let grace be with me, O father, let it be with me. And last of all they name Hor us, and think that the following prayer ought to be offered to him: You who fearlessly leaped over the rampart of fire, O Hor us, who obtained the government of the first gate, let me pass, seeing you behold the symbol of your own power, sculptured on the figure of the tree of life, and formed after this image, in the likeness of innocence. Let grace be with me, O father, let grace be with me. 6.32. The supposed great learning of Celsus, which is composed, however, rather of curious trifles and silly talk than anything else, has made us touch upon these topics, from a wish to show to every one who peruses his treatise and our reply, that we have no lack of information on those subjects, from which he takes occasion to calumniate the Christians, who neither are acquainted with, nor concern themselves about, such matters. For we, too, desired both to learn and set forth these things, in order that sorcerers might not, under pretext of knowing more than we, delude those who are easily carried away by the glitter of names. And I could have given many more illustrations to show that we are acquainted with the opinions of these deluders, and that we disown them, as being alien to ours, and impious, and not in harmony with the doctrines of true Christians, of which we are ready to make confession even to the death. It must be noticed, too, that those who have drawn up this array of fictions, have, from neither understanding magic, nor discriminating the meaning of holy Scripture, thrown everything into confusion; seeing that they have borrowed from magic the names of Ialdabaoth, and Astaph us, and Hor us, and from the Hebrew Scriptures him who is termed in Hebrew Iao or Jah, and Sabaoth, and Adon us, and Elo us. Now the names taken from the Scriptures are names of one and the same God; which, not being understood by the enemies of God, as even themselves acknowledge, led to their imagining that Iao was a different God, and Sabaoth another, and Adon us, whom the Scriptures term Adonai, a third besides, and that Elo us, whom the prophets name in Hebrew Eloi, was also different 6.33. Celsus next relates other fables, to the effect that certain persons return to the shapes of the archontics, so that some are called lions, others bulls, others dragons, or eagles, or bears, or dogs. We found also in the diagram which we possessed, and which Celsus called the square pattern, the statements made by these unhappy beings concerning the gates of Paradise. The flaming sword was depicted as the diameter of a flaming circle, and as if mounting guard over the tree of knowledge and of life. Celsus, however, either would not or could not repeat the harangues which, according to the fables of these impious individuals, are represented as spoken at each of the gates by those who pass through them; but this we have done in order to show to Celsus and those who read his treatise, that we know the depth of these unhallowed mysteries, and that they are far removed from the worship which Christians offer up to God. 6.34. After finishing the foregoing, and those analogous matters which we ourselves have added, Celsus continues as follows: They continue to heap together one thing after another - discourses of prophets, and circles upon circles, and effluents from an earthly church, and from circumcision; and a power flowing from one Prunicos, a virgin and a living soul; and a heaven slain in order to live, and an earth slaughtered by the sword, and many put to death that they may live, and death ceasing in the world, when the sin of the world is dead; and, again, a narrow way, and gates that open spontaneously. And in all their writings (is mention made) of the tree of life, and a resurrection of the flesh by means of the 'tree,' because, I imagine, their teacher was nailed to a cross, and was a carpenter by craft; so that if he had chanced to have been cast from a precipice, or thrust into a pit, or suffocated by hanging, or had been a leather-cutter, or stone-cutter, or worker in iron, there would have been (invented) a precipice of life beyond the heavens, or a pit of resurrection, or a cord of immortality, or a blessed stone, or an iron of love, or a sacred leather! Now what old woman would not be ashamed to utter such things in a whisper, even when making stories to lull an infant to sleep? In using such language as this, Celsus appears to me to confuse together matters which he has imperfectly heard. For it seems likely that, even supposing that he had heard a few words traceable to some existing heresy, he did not clearly understand the meaning intended to be conveyed; but heaping the words together, he wished to show before those who knew nothing either of our opinions or of those of the heretics, that he was acquainted with all the doctrines of the Christians. And this is evident also from the foregoing words. 6.35. It is our practice, indeed, to make use of the words of the prophets, who demonstrate that Jesus is the Christ predicted by them, and who show from the prophetic writings the events in the Gospels regarding Jesus have been fulfilled. But when Celsus speaks of circles upon circles, (he perhaps borrowed the expression) from the aforementioned heresy, which includes in one circle (which they call the soul of all things, and Leviathan) the seven circles of archontic demons, or perhaps it arises from misunderstanding the preacher, when he says: The wind goes in a circle of circles, and returns again upon its circles. The expression, too, effluents of an earthly church and of circumcision, was probably taken from the fact that the church on earth was called by some an effluent from a heavenly church and a better world; and that the circumcision described in the law was a symbol of the circumcision performed there, in a certain place set apart for purification. The adherents of Valentinus, moreover, in keeping with their system of error, give the name of Prunicos to a certain kind of wisdom, of which they would have the woman afflicted with the twelve years' issue of blood to be the symbol; so that Celsus, who confuses together all sorts of opinions - Greek, Barbarian, and Heretical - having heard of her, asserted that it was a power flowing forth from one Prunicos, a virgin. The living soul, again, is perhaps mysteriously referred by some of the followers of Valentinus to the being whom they term the psychic creator of the world; or perhaps, in contradistinction to a dead soul, the living soul is termed by some, not inelegantly, the soul of him who is saved. I know nothing, however, of a heaven which is said to be slain, or of an earth slaughtered by the sword, or of many persons slain in order that they might live; for it is not unlikely that these were coined by Celsus out of his own brain. 6.36. We would say, moreover, that death ceases in the world when the sin of the world dies, referring the saying to the mystical words of the apostle, which run as follows: When He shall have put all enemies under His feet, then the last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. And also: When this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. The strait descent, again, may perhaps be referred by those who hold the doctrine of transmigration of souls to that view of things. And it is not incredible that the gates which are said to open spontaneously are referred obscurely by some to the words, Open to me the gates of righteousness, that I may go into them, and praise the Lord; this gate of the Lord, into it the righteous shall enter; and again, to what is said in the ninth psalm, You that lifts me up from the gates of death, that I may show forth all Your praise in the gates of the daughter of Zion. The Scripture further gives the name of gates of death to those sins which lead to destruction, as it terms, on the contrary, good actions the gates of Zion. So also the gates of righteousness, which is an equivalent expression to the gates of virtue, and these are ready to be opened to him who follows after virtuous pursuits. The subject of the tree of life will be more appropriately explained when we interpret the statements in the book of Genesis regarding the paradise planted by God. Celsus, moreover, has often mocked at the subject of a resurrection, - a doctrine which he did not comprehend; and on the present occasion, not satisfied with what he has formerly said, he adds, And there is said to be a resurrection of the flesh by means of the tree; not understanding, I think, the symbolic expression, that through the tree came death, and through the tree comes life, because death was in Adam, and life in Christ. He next scoffs at the tree, assailing it on two grounds, and saying, For this reason is the tree introduced, either because our teacher was nailed to a cross, or because he was a carpenter by trade; not observing that the tree of life is mentioned in the Mosaic writings, and being blind also to this, that in none of the Gospels current in the Churches is Jesus Himself ever described as being a carpenter. 6.37. Celsus, moreover, thinks that we have invented this tree of life to give an allegorical meaning to the cross; and in consequence of his error upon this point, he adds: If he had happened to be cast down a precipice, or shoved into a pit, or suffocated by hanging, there would have been invented a precipice of life far beyond the heavens, or a pit of resurrection, or a cord of immortality. And again: If the 'tree of life' were an invention, because he - Jesus - (is reported) to have been a carpenter, it would follow that if he had been a leather-cutter, something would have been said about holy leather; or had he been a stone-cutter, about a blessed stone; or if a worker in iron, about an iron of love. Now, who does not see at once the paltry nature of his charge, in thus calumniating men whom he professed to convert on the ground of their being deceived? And after these remarks, he goes on to speak in a way quite in harmony with the tone of those who have invented the fictions of lion-like, and ass-headed, and serpent-like ruling angels, and other similar absurdities, but which does not affect those who belong to the Church. of a truth, even a drunken old woman would be ashamed to chaunt or whisper to an infant, in order to lull him to sleep, any such fables as those have done who invented the beings with asses' heads, and the harangues, so to speak, which are delivered at each of the gates. But Celsus is not acquainted with the doctrines of the members of the Church, which very few have been able to comprehend, even of those who have devoted all their lives, in conformity with the command of Jesus, to the searching of the Scriptures, and have laboured to investigate the meaning of the sacred books, to a greater degree than Greek philosophers in their efforts to attain a so-called wisdom. 6.38. Our noble (friend), moreover, not satisfied with the objections which he has drawn from the diagram, desires, in order to strengthen his accusations against us, who have nothing in common with it, to introduce certain other charges, which he adduces from the same (heretics), but yet as if they were from a different source. His words are: And that is not the least of their marvels, for there are between the upper circles - those that are above the heavens - certain inscriptions of which they give the interpretation, and among others two words especially, 'a greater and a less,' which they refer to Father and Son. Now, in the diagram referred to, we found the greater and the lesser circle, upon the diameter of which was inscribed Father and Son; and between the greater circle (in which the lesser was contained) and another composed of two circles - the outer one of which was yellow, and the inner blue - a barrier inscribed in the shape of a hatchet. And above it, a short circle, close to the greater of the two former, having the inscription Love; and lower down, one touching the same circle, with the word Life. And on the second circle, which was intertwined with and included two other circles, another figure, like a rhomboid, (entitled) The foresight of wisdom. And within their point of common section was The nature of wisdom. And above their point of common section was a circle, on which was inscribed Knowledge; and lower down another, on which was the inscription, Understanding. We have introduced these matters into our reply to Celsus, to show to our readers that we know better than he, and not by mere report, those things, even although we also disapprove of them. Moreover, if those who pride themselves upon such matters profess also a kind of magic and sorcery - which, in their opinion, is the summit of wisdom - we, on the other hand, make no affirmation about it, seeing we never have discovered anything of the kind. Let Celsus, however, who has been already often convicted of false witness and irrational accusations, see whether he is not guilty of falsehood in these also, or whether he has not extracted and introduced into his treatise, statements taken from the writings of those who are foreigners and strangers to our Christian faith.
55. Augustine, De Diversis Quaestionibus Ad Simplicianum, 1.2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

56. Epiphanius, Panarion, 39-40, 26 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

57. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.37

7.37. Then the Most High will say to the nations that have been raised from the dead, `Look now, and understand whom you have denied, whom you have not served, whose commandments you have despised!
58. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 19

59. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 32

60. Pseudo-Tertullian, Adversus Omnes Haereses, 2.7-2.9



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 346
abraham,as a law Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 25
abraham,as universal exemplar Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44
abraham,hospitality of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
abraham,humanity of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 350, 373, 383
abraham,pharaoh contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
abraham,praise of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44
abraham,symbolism of sarah and hagar O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
abraham Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 94; Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 101, 104; DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 373; O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206; Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 220; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 60, 61, 112; Thiessen (2011), Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity, 39, 40
accusations (against creator or creation) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 42, 248
adam Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 346; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
allegorical interpretation,reality and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 25
allegorical interpretation,universal significance of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 25
allegorical interpretation Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 25
allegory Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 104, 157
allowance,permission (of god or providence) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 42
androgyny Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
andromeda Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 104
angel/s,of presence Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 61, 63
angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 60, 61, 63, 112
angel Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52; DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 373; Thiessen (2011), Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity, 40
angels,sarah recognizing Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
angels Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 198; Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 333
angels of the [divine presence,in tobit Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 200
anger (of god) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35
animals Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 220
anthropomorphic,anthropomorphisms Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 248
antichrist O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
antithesis Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 346
apelles Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 373
apocalypses Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 220
apologetics Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 346
appearances Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 333
aquila (translator) Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 46
arabia (roman province) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 248
archetypes Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 25
archons (of matter) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35
aristobulus (philosopher) Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 104
arrogance Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 281, 350
aseneth Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 333
assyrian kingdom O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
autogenes Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
babylon,symbolism of O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
baptism Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 61
barbelo Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
barbeloite,modern definitions Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
beneficent power,philos selection of passages from Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44
beneficent power,the bible Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44, 51
beth shemesh (egypt) Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 46
bible,texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 46
biography (bios),de abrahamo as Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 25
biography (bios),philo adapting Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 25
birth and renewal Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 223
blood of christ jesus Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 112
body,converts Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 223
body of sin,flesh (of man) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 42
burial of death,tobit Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 200
chaldean DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43
children,significance of bearing Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 383
chodollogomor,tribute given to Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 350
chodollogomor Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 350
christ,see also jesus Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62, 196
christ,symbolized in jewish bible O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
christ Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 60, 61, 112
christian/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 63, 112
church/es,order Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 60
circumcision,eighth–day Thiessen (2011), Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity, 39, 40
circumcision Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 223
claudius Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 297
cloud Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
common concepts,natural concepts Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 42
concubinage Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 383
converts are as hard for israel as a scab (phrase) Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 223
creation,created or originated things Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35
creator,manichaean creators of man Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35, 206
creator Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 248
creator archons,archons Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 196
creator archons,yhwh ( Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 196
daveithe Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
de abrahamo,genre of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 25
de abrahamo,inconsistencies in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 383
de abrahamo,interconnections within Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 51
de abrahamo,structure of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 32
death,tobit Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 200
death (natural,physical) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 42
death as benefaction Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 42
demon / daimon DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43
descent,of angels Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
diaspora,eastern Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 200
diaspora Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 104
diatribe,on the sodomite cities Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278
dispute between abraham and lot Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 32
divine/god,,connection to human realm Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73, 74
divine/god,,demotion Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 74
divine/god,,messengers Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73, 74
divine/god,,retinue Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73, 74
edith Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 101
egypt,sojourn in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 32
egypt / egyptian / aegyptium DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43
el Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 74
eleleth Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
ennoia Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62, 196
epictetus Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 297
eschatological oracles/eschaton Bacchi (2022), Uncovering Jewish Creativity in Book III of the Sibylline Oracles: Gender, Intertextuality, and Politics, 109
esther,book of Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 200
ethical interpretation,as part of a literal interpretation Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
ethiopic Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 60
etymologies,of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373
etymologies of hebrew names O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
eulogies for women Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373
eurydice Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 101
eusebius Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 297
eve Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
evil Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52; DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43
exegesis,in alexandria Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44
exegesis,traditional vs. original Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44
exegesis Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 198
false claim Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 196
fire,rain of Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
fiscus iudaicus,five cities of the plain (genesis) Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 46
five,the number,and the destruction of the sodomite cities Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 51
flesh Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 223
flood Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
food,eating and drinking Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 200
foreknowledge (prògnvsiw),anticipate Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35
gabriel Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 112
gaius caligula Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 297
galen Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 297
genealogical anxiety,centrality of the body and Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 223
genealogical anxiety,iranian context and Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 223
genesis,book of Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 200
gluttony Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278, 281
gnosis,gnostics,gnosticism Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 248
gnostic,gnosticism Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
gnostics,gnosticism Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
god,as judge Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 281
god Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
godhead; see also attributes,hierarchy Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73, 74
gomorrah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 281; Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 101; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
grace,divine O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
greed Bacchi (2022), Uncovering Jewish Creativity in Book III of the Sibylline Oracles: Gender, Intertextuality, and Politics, 110
hades Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 101
hagar,sarahs offer of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 383
hagar Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373
ham Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 196
harmonization,babylonian Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 223
harmozel Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
heliopolis Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 46
heracles Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 104
heresy,heretics,heretical Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 206, 248
history O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
homily Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 60, 61
homosexual behavior,as contrary to nature Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278
homosexual behavior,as the sin of sodom Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278, 281
homosexual behavior,platonic objections to Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278
homosexual behavior,punishment of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278
homosexual behavior,reproduction and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278
homosexuals,christian intolerance of O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
hospitality,piety and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251, 350
hospitality Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
humanity of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 350, 373, 383
ignorance (êgnoia) (of creator),ignorant (creator) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 206
immortality in relation to sin,original immortality of adam Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35, 206
isaac O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
isaiah,book of,isaiah,book of Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 46
isaiah Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73
israel,repentance of Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73
jacob O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 206; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 61
japheth Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 196
jealousy,envy,envious Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 42
jealousy,jealous,begrudge,grudge Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35, 206
jealousy Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 248
jerome Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 297; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 46
jerusalem,of seth Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62, 196
jesus christ Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 61, 63
jesus in manichaeism Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 248
jews,gods promises to O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204
joppa/japho/jaffa Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 104
judgement,final O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
judith,book of Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 200
julius gaius alexander Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 297
king,as mythical being Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 74
king,narrative Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73
king Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 74
kingly power,chronology of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 350
kingly power,literal interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 350
kingly power,the kings,victory over Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 350
knowledge,tree of Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
knowledge Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62, 196
laughter,of sarah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
law,isaac represents O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 206
law of nature,procreation as Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278
law of nature,sodomites abandoning Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278
laws,unwritten Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 25
laws,virtue underlying Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 25
life,rational Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
life,spark,spirit of Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
light,four lights of autogenes Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
light Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 94
literal interpretation,ethical interpretation as part of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
lot Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 101
lots wife Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 101, 104, 157
love,wifely Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373, 383
lucius Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 220
magic / magia DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43
maker Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 346
manoaḥ Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 74
manuscript/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 61
marcionism,marcionites Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 248
marriage,companionate Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373
mary,st. Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 61
matter (hyle) Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 346, 373
matter (ïlh) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35
mediator DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43
metamorphosis in greek myths Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 220
michael Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 112
miracles DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43
monolatry DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43
moses Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 157; DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62, 196; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 61
mother barbelo Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
myth,greek (pagan) Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 104
myth,jewish Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 104, 157
myth,manichaean Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35, 248
mythmaking,and narrative Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73
natural and meteorological phenomena,cloud Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 74
noah Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 32; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
omissions Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 383
ontological categories Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 220
ophites,the diagram Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
oroiael Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
orpheus Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 101
orthodox,orthodoxy Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 206
pagans,paganism Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 206
paradise Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62, 196
passions Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 42
patriarchs Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73
paul O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 206
pentapolis Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 281
peshitta Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 46
peter Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 220
pharaoh,abraham contrasted with Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
pharaoh,as inhospitable Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
pharisees Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 297
philo,influences on Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 44
philo of alexandria Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 297
philodemus Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 297
piety of abraham,hospitality and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
piety of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 32, 44
platonic,platonism,middle Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
platonic,platonism,neo Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
plotinus Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 297
prayer,supplication,tobit Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 200
prayer Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 94
priest,high priest Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73
priestly writer Thiessen (2011), Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity, 39
principles (érxæ) (first) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35, 206
proofs Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373
prophecy Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73
prophet(ess)/prophecy/prophetic Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 198
protest exegesis Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 248
providence Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 42
qumran,fragments of tobit ix Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 200
recognition Seim and Okland (2009), Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity, 333
reproduction,as law of nature Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278
reproduction,god promoting Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278
reproduction,sodomites disdain for and failure in Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 278
rewards of abraham,lineage as Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
roma aeterna,as second babylon O'Daly (2020), Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn), 204, 205, 206
sack / invasion of rome DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43
sacrifice DeMarco, (2021), Augustine and Porphyry: A Commentary on De ciuitate Dei 10, 43
sacrifice of isaac,sarahs death and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373
saklas Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 196
salvation/soteriology Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 196
sapahat Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 223
saphon Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 74
sarah,constant presence of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373
sarah,death of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373
sarah,etymology of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373
sarah,hagar offered by Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 383
sarah,laughter of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
sarah,omissions in story of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 383
sarah,shame of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 251
sarah,virtues of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373, 383
sarah,wifely love of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 373
sarah Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 74
sarah (sarai,wife of abraham) viii Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021), Representations of Angelic Beings in Early Jewish and in Christian Traditions, 61
savior,seth Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62
scriptures,bible Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 42
seed Thiessen (2011), Contesting Conversion: Genealogy, Circumcision, and Identity in Ancient Judaism and Christianity, 40
segor (tsoʿar) Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 281
septuagint (lxx) Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 46
seraphim Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 73
serpents,as angel of goodness Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35, 206
serpents Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 35, 206, 248
seth,books of (except nh treatises and paraphrase of seth) Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 196
seth,character Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
seth,seed/race of Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52
seth,seed of Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 196
sethians,sethianism Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 62, 196
sethians Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 52